Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.
A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A syndecan found at high levels in the developing LIMB BUDS. It may play a role in the regulation of MUSCULOSKELETAL DEVELOPMENT by modulating the effects of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Unsaturated azacyclopropane compounds that are three-membered heterocycles of a nitrogen and two carbon atoms.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (1/6271)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (2/6271)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

Proteoglycan involvement in polyamine uptake. (3/6271)

We have evaluated the possible role of proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by human lung fibroblasts. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans behaved as competitive inhibitors of spermine uptake, the most efficient being heparan sulphate (Ki=0.16+/-0.04 microM). Treatment of fibroblasts with either heparan sulphate lyase, p-nitrophenyl-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside or chlorate reduced spermine uptake considerably, whereas chondroitin sulphate lyase had a limited effect. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis with alpha-difluoromethylornithine resulted in an increase of cell-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycans exhibiting higher affinity for spermine. The data indicate a specific role for heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by fibroblasts. Spermine uptake by pgsD-677, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell defective in heparan sulphate biosynthesis, was only moderately reduced (20%) compared with wild-type cells. Treatment of mutant cells with the above-mentioned xyloside resulted in a greater reduction of endogenous proteoglycan production as well as a higher inhibition of spermine uptake than in wild-type cells. Moreover, treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase resulted in a selective inhibition of uptake in mutant cells, indicating a role for chondroitin/dermatan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by these cells. Fibroblasts, made growth-dependent on exogenous spermine by alpha-difluoromethylornithine treatment, were growth-inhibited by heparan sulphate or beta-D-xyloside, which might have future therapeutical implications.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (4/6271)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (5/6271)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (6/6271)

Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes.  (+info)

Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (7/6271)

Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage.  (+info)

Syndecan-1 expression has prognostic significance in head and neck carcinoma. (8/6271)

The syndecans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans that regulate cell behaviour by binding extracellular matrix molecules such as growth factors. The syndecan family has four members, of which syndecan-1 is the most studied and best characterized. We have studied the prognostic significance of syndecan-1 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken from 175 patients with primary SCC, followed up from 2 to 15 years after surgery, were studied for expression of syndecan-1 by immunohistochemistry. A low number (< or =50%, the median value) of syndecan-1-positive tumour cells was associated with low histological grade of differentiation (P<0.0001), a large primary tumour size (T1-2 vs. T3-4, P = 0.02), positive nodal status (NO vs. N1-3, P = 0.0006), and high clinical stage (stage I or II vs. III or IV, P<0.0001). Low syndecan-1 expression was also associated with unfavourable overall survival in a univariate analysis (P = 0.001). In a multivariate survival analysis, the clinical stage and syndecan-1 expression were the only independent prognostic factors. We conclude that syndecan-1 is a novel prognostic factor in SCC of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy.  (+info)

article{a0664c60-953a-406f-b55b-d0e2f468bd84, abstract = {,p,We determined the concentration of proteoglycan fragments in knee joint fluid collected from knee-ligament injured patients more than 6 months after the trauma and from patients with acute pyrophosphate arthritis and arthrosis or with arthrosis only. Injured patients with normal or only mildly altered cartilage at arthroscopy and with normal radiographs, had twice the average concentration of healthy volunteers. Other injured patients with advanced, radiographic signs of arthrosis, had synovial fluid proteoglycan fragment concentrations within the range of healthy volunteers. Patients with pyrophosphate arthritis had the highest concentrations, substantially increased compared with both arthrosis patients, with or without knee injury and healthy volunteers. Likewise, there was an inverse relation between the degree of arthrosis and the concentration of proteoglycan fragments in the joint fluid in patients with pyrophosphate arthritis ...
The proteoglycan superfamily now contains more than 30 full-time molecules that fulfill a variety of biological functions. Proteoglycans act as tissue organizers, influence cell growth and the maturation of specialized tissues, play a role as biological filters and modulate growth-factor activities, regulate collagen fibrillogenesis and skin tensile strength, affect tumor cell growth and invasion, and influence corneal transparency and neurite outgrowth. Additional roles, derived from studies of mutant animals, indicate that certain proteoglycans are essential to life whereas others might be redundant. The review focuses on the most recent genetic and molecular biological studies of the matrix proteoglycans, broadly defined as proteoglycans secreted into the pericellular matrix. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular organization of the protein core, the utilization of protein modules, the gene structure and transcriptional control, and the functional roles of the various proteoglycans. ...
Purified proteoglycan subunits from human articular, bovine articular and nasal cartilages, and a rat chondrosarcoma were phosphorylated in vitro by beef heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the presence of gamma 32P-ATP. In these experiments, a maximum of 1.7 moles of 32P were incorporated per mole of proteoglycan from human cartilage. Phosphorylation was dependent on the presence of cAMP. Analysis by autoradiography revealed that serine residues in the core protein of the proteoglycan were the sites of phosphorylation. Treatment of proteoglycan subunits with chondroitinase ABC and alkaline phosphatase prior to reaction with cAMP-dependent protein kinase increased the incorporation of 32P by 12-30% when compared with untreated proteoglycans. These data indicate that proteoglycans in cartilage can be phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
The anti-angiogenic effects of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined by the mouse dorsal air sac assay. PSK suppressed the mouse hepatoma MH134-induced angiogenesis when assessed by morphological and biochemical examinations. This finding suggested that the anti-metastatic effect of PSK is attributed to the suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis.[...]
The protein-bound polysaccharide PSK was tested for the ability to activate human natural killer (NK) cells. When blood lymphocytes and purified CD3-CD16 ?
The tumor microenvironment may play a crucial role in tumor progression metastasis and invasion. immunohistochemistry and review. The increased loss of appearance of E-cadherin was even more prominent in the intrusive front side of tumor compared to the surface area where PF299804 α-even muscles actin-positive carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are gathered. The signaling substances from the Wnt and TGF-β1-Smad pathway had been expressed more often in the tumor cells and/or CAFs from the intrusive margin than those from the tumor surface area. The expressions of related transcription elements such as for example SNAIL and ZEB1 had been elevated in the tumor cells and CAFs. The procedure of EMT may be activated in the tumor margin of CRC beneath the control of CAFs. Related signaling transcription and molecules points may be induced by paracrine ramifications of the encompassing CAFs. [36] reported that huge aggregates of CRC cells (much bigger than tumor buds) induced matrix degradation ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a polypeptide growth factor that affects the accumulation of extracellular matrix by many cell types. We have examined the ability of mouse mammary epithelial (NMuMG) cells to respond to TGF-beta and assessed the effect of the growth factor on the expression of their cell surface heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan. NMuMG cells respond maximally to 3 ng/ml TGF-beta and the response is consistent with occupancy of the type III receptor. However, cells that are polarized, as shown by sequestration of the cell surface PG at their basolateral surfaces, must have the growth factor supplied to that site for maximal response. Immunological quantification of proteoglycan core protein on treated cells suggests that the cells have an unchanging number of this proteoglycan at their cell surface. Nonetheless, metabolic labeling with radiosulfate shows a approximately 2.5-fold increase in 35SO4-glycosaminoglycans in this proteoglycan fraction, ...
Background In this paper we modify our previously developed conjoint tumor-normal cell super model tiffany livingston to make a differentiation between tumor cells that are attentive to chemotherapy and the ones that may present level of resistance. starting period. Conclusion The outcomes provide us using a deeper knowledge of the feasible evolution of regular drug-responsive and drug-resistant tumor cells through the cancers progression which might contribute to enhancing the healing strategies. are respectively the full total variety of tumor cells at period are previously described. In each formula the second conditions represent the relationship between tumor and regular cells. Right here and also have the systems of 1/period. ABT-869 For consistency and also have systems of cells Also. is the vital size from the tumor so that as how big is tumor exceeds the vital size the standard cells growth price decreases. Body?1(a) illustrates enough time evolution of regular and tumor cells within a ...
article{5ef78189-ec01-47e8-9d1b-6801154bb647, abstract = {Fibromodulin belongs to the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan family, interacts with collagen type I, and controls collagen fibrillogenesis and assembly. Here, we show that a major fibromodulin-binding site for collagen type I is located in leucine-rich repeat 11 in the C terminus of the leucine-rich repeat domain. We identified Glu-353 and Lys-355 in repeat 11 as essential for binding, and the synthetic peptide RLDGNEIKR, including Glu-353 and Lys-355, inhibits the binding of fibromodulin to collagen in vitro. Fibromodulin and lumican compete for the same binding region on collagen, and fibromodulin can inhibit the binding of lumican to collagen type I. However, the peptide RLDGNEIKR does not inhibit the binding of lumican to collagen, suggesting separate but closely situated fibromodulin- and lumican-binding sites in collagen. The collagen-binding Glu-353 and Lys-355 residues in fibromodulin are exposed on the exterior of the ...
Define Proteoglycans. Proteoglycans synonyms, Proteoglycans pronunciation, Proteoglycans translation, English dictionary definition of Proteoglycans. n. Any of various glycoproteins that have glycosaminoglycan chains attached by covalent bonds to the protein, usually found in the extracellular matrix of...
Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of CCN3-mediated promotion of sulfated proteoglycan synthesis in rat chondrocytes from developing joint heads. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effect of TGF-\beta1 on Cell Proliferation and Proteoglycan Production in Human Melanoma Depends on the Degree of Cell Differentiation. AU - Heredia, A.. AU - Villena, J.. AU - Romarís, M.. AU - Molist, A.. AU - Bassols, A.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 0. SP - 1. EP - 1. IS - 0. ER - ...
Objective: Examine effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on proteoglycan and collagen network and biomechanical properties of the newly formed cartilage matrix. Methods: Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured in alginate beads for 3 weeks with or without FGF2, TGFβ2 or IGF1 in the presence of 10% FCS. Proteoglycan content, collagen content, hydroxylysylpyridinoline cross-links and overall matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the culture medium were measured. Alginate disks cultured for 5 weeks were used to evaluate the effect of growth factors on mechanical properties of the construct by determining the equilibrium aggregate modulus and secant modulus. Results: IGF1 increased collagen and proteoglycan deposition. FGF2 mainly decreased collagen deposition and TGFβ2 proteoglycan deposition. A decrease in cross-links was observed in matrix produced by chondrocytes cultured in the presence of TGFβ2. ...
Versican is present throughout advanced lesions of atherosclerosis as well. A large CSPG has been isolated from atherosclerotic lesions of large hydrodynamic size with a core protein ranging in size from 160 to 245 and containing a mixture of chondroitin 6-sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate chains with chondroitin 6-sulfate predominating.20,35-38 Versican is prominent at the edges of the necrotic core in more advanced lesions of atherosclerosis and in close proximity to deposited lipoproteins,25,29,30 suggesting a role in the retention of lipoproteins in the vessel wall. The response to retention hypothesis of atherosclerosis,39 based on pioneering work performed in the 1970s and 1980s40-44 invokes a critical role in atherogenesis for the retention of lipoproteins by ECM proteoglycans. A number of studies have shown that versican as well as other proteoglycans such as biglycan are associated with lipoprotein deposits in human atherosclerotic lesions25,27,29,31 and in lipid induced lesions in ...
human EPYC protein: member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family; predominantly expressed in cartilage; RefSeq NM_004950
Proteoglycans Proteoglycans are molecules composed of a polypeptide and one or several sulfated glycosaminoglycans attached by chemical bindings. They are found in every animal tissue. Almost every cell may synthesize proteoglycans, and then they are released, incorporated in the plasma membrane or stored in internals vesicles. They are essential molecules of the pericellular space. Proteoglycans are assembled inside the cell. The polypeptide is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where some monosaccharides are also added. However, the elongation of the glycosaminoglycan chains, as well as the addition of sulfate groups, occurs in the trans domain of the Golgi complex. Most of the proteoglycans are exocytosed to the extracellular space, but some of them will be part of the plasma membrane, where they are inserted among the fatty acid chains of lipids thanks to a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids of the polypeptide Different proteoglycans show different amino acid sequence and polypeptide ...
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NG2/CSPG4 transmembrane proteoglycan (PG) is a multivalent cell surface macromolecule whose impact on tumour growth and dissemination has been extensively documented in a variety of tumours and animal models. The PG is abundantly expressed in numerous soft-tissue sarcoma subtypes where it tightly links to disease progression and evolvement of metastases.
Principal Investigator:TANAKA Yoshiya, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:内科学一般
Ramasamy, S.; Lipke, D.W.; Boissonneault, G.A.; Guo, H.; Hennig, B., 1996: Oxidized lipid-mediated alterations in proteoglycan metabolism in cultured pulmonary endothelial cells
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On the left, is my histology book, on the right theres qoura (the internet). My histology textbook says that unlike glycoproteins, proteoglycans have attached GAGs which often comprise a greater mass than the polypeptide core. What I found on qoura is The carbohydrate content of proteoglycans (10-15%) is far less than glycoproteins is (50-60%) I tried googling the question but couldnt find the answer so which of these is correct ?. ...
Spock occasionally called Uhura Miss Uhura. As for why Spock was called Mister Spock, Amanda stated in Journey to Babel and Spock also stated in...
Description: The library was prepared from 5 ug of poly A+ RNA by oligo-dT priming (5- ACTAGTGCGGCCGCCTAGGCCTCGAGTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTV-3) and Stratascript reverse transcriptase. After ligation of EcoRI adapters (5-AATTCGGCACGAGG-3) followed by kinasing adapters and by XhoI digestion, the cDNA was size selected by chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B columns and fractions containing cDNAs larger than 1000 bp were ligated into EcoRI/XhoI-digested pCS107. Average insert size 1745 bp. Reference for library construction: Current Genomics 4, 635-644. Library constructed by Michelle Tabb and Bruce Blumberg (Dept of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine). ...
Definition: Proteoglycans are a class of glycoproteins that are heavily glycosylated. They consist of a core protein with one or more covalently (...)
In Japan the standard adjuvant treatment after resection of gastric cancer is intravenous mitomycin plus oral fluorouracil. We have assessed the efficacy of protein-bound polysaccharide…. ...
Introduction Proteoglycans, often recognized for their role in connective tissue, are proteins which have carbohydrates covalently bound to their structure which are important for their function. They are found in extracellular matrix side of cell membranes and are significant in intercellular communication.. Structure and Function. ...
KUMIKO Matcha Intense Recovery is an anti-aging concentrate containing proteoglycans and Matcha Tea extracts presented in vials. KUMIKO Concentrate is a unique solution that defends against the multiple signs of aging and damage. With an advanced combination of antioxidants and moisturizers, KUMIKO Concentrate works ag
Proteinuria in diabetes is related to changes in proteoglycans in kidneys of persons with diabetes and we study this in biopsies, blood samples and isolated monocytes from such patients. Our focus is on structural changes of proteoglycans, changes in the matrix composition of the glomeruli and in enzymes important for biossyntheis and turnover of extracellular matrix. Parallel studies are performed in a mouse model of diabetes.. ...
Spock is a powerful and expressive testing language built on top of Groovy. This talk will be a live-coding demonstration where I will take a small Java application with a set of JUnit tests and refactor the tests into Spock specifications. Ill show the features of Spock; its concise syntax,.... groovy testing spock grails ...
LEONARD Nimoy, who achieved worldwide fame playing the pointy-eared half-Vulcan Mr Spock in the cult science fiction series Star Trek, has died. He was 83.
Glycoaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides) bound to protein chains in covalent complexes; occur in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue
Can degrade fibronectin, laminin, gelatins of type I, III, IV, and V; collagens III, IV, X, and IX, and cartilage proteoglycans. Activates procollagenase.. ...
Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes
But Spock doesnt beat paper, paper beats Spock. No, not just because Spock rhymes with rock, but that is one reason, which means Picks paper is still in the lead, but I come back in with my ...
hi everyone, new here and just have a queery re KAV and these 20 virus files it detected. i recently installed KAV personal pro, and i ran a full...
Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) diminishes inflammation along with mediators of cartilage destruction. However, NSAIDs may exert adverse direct effects on cartilage, particularly if treatment is prolonged. We therefore compared the direct effects of indomethacin, naproxen, aceclofenac and celecoxib on matrix turnover in human OA cartilage tissue. Human clinically defined OA cartilage from five different donors was exposed for 7 days in culture to indomethacin, naproxen, aceclofenac and celecoxib - agents chosen based on their cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity. As a control, SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) was used. Changes in cartilage proteoglycan turnover and prostaglandin E2 production were determined. OA cartilage exhibited characteristic proteoglycan turnover. Indomethacin further inhibited proteoglycan synthesis; no significant effect of indomethacin on proteoglycan release was found, and proteoglycan content tended to decrease. Naproxen
Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis, affecting tumor progress. The four main types of proteoglycans include hyaluronan (HA), which does not occur as a PG but in free form, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), dematan sulfate proteoglycans (DSPG) and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) [BR:00535]. Among these proteoglycans such as HA, acting with CD44, promotes tumor cell growth and migration, whereas other proteoglycans such as syndecans (-1~-4), glypican (-1, -3) and perlecan may interact with growth factors, cytokines, morphogens and enzymes through HS chains [BR: 00536], also leading to tumor growth and invasion. In contrast, some of the small leucine-rich proteolgycans, such as decorin and lumican, can function as tumor repressors, and modulate the signaling pathways by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of hydrostatic pressure on proteoglycan production in articular cartilage in vitro. T2 - a meta-analysis. AU - Hodder, Ella. AU - Guppy, Fergus. AU - Covill, Derek. AU - Bush, Peter. PY - 2020/5/20. Y1 - 2020/5/20. N2 - Objective: In previous research the use of hydrostatic pressure (HP) has been applied to enhance the formation of engineered cartilage, through the up-regulation of proteoglycan synthesis by mechanotransduction. However, the HP stimulation approach has been shown to vary between studies with a wide disparity in results, including anabolic, catabolic and non-responsive outcomes. To this end, a meta-analysis of HP publications using 3D cultured chondrocytes was performed to elucidate the key experiment factors involved in achieving a mechanotransducive response. Design: The effects of different HP regimes on proteoglycan production were investigated based on the following factors: static vs dynamic application, pressure magnitude, and experiment duration. ...
Proteoglycans have been implicated in the invagination and formation of various embryonal cavitied primordia. In this paper the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan is analysed (CSPG) in the lens primordium during lens vesicle formation, and demonstrate that this proteoglycan has a speci®c distribution pattern with regard to invagination and fusion processes in the transformation of placode into lens vesicle. More speci®cally, CSPG was detached in: (1) the apical surface of lens epithelial cells, where early CSPG expression was observed in the whole of the lens placode whilst in the vesicle phase it was restricted to the posterior epithelium; (2) intense CSPG expression in the basal lamina, which remained constant for the entire period under study; (3) CSPG expression in the intercellular spaces of the lens primordium epithelium, which increased during the invagination of the primordium and which at the vesicle stage was more evident in the posterior epithelium; and (4) CSPG ...
The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population of glial cells in the central nervous system (eNS). NG2 has been used to identify this subgroup of cells as an additional major glial cell population, in addition to, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia. In the adult brain, these cells retain the ability to differentiate into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. NG2 is often re-expressed by brain tumours and has been found to have increased expression levels in the high grade glioma and glioma-derived cell lines. Within the scope of this thesis it has been demonstrated that culture conditions (different media and serum supplementation) influence expression of NG2 and other antigens on glioma cell cultures. Seven cell lines covering a range of histopathological diagnoses have been fully characterised with regard to their antigenic expression profiles. With one cell line in particular, UP AB, the ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor type III is a low abundance cell surface component that binds TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 with high affinity and specificity, and is present in many mammalian and avian cell types. Type III TGF-beta receptors affinity-labeled with 125I-TGF-beta migrate in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels as diffuse species of 250-350 kDa. Here we show that type III receptors deglycosylated by the action of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid yield affinity-labeled receptor cores of 110-130 kDa. This marked decrease in molecular weight is also achieved by combined treatment of type III receptors with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC. Digestion of receptor-linked glycosaminoglycans by treatment of intact cell monolayers with heparitinase and chondroitinase does not prevent TGF-beta binding to the type III receptor core polypeptide and does not release the receptor polypeptide from the membrane. The type III TGF-beta receptor binds tightly to DEAE
Proteoglycans metabolically labelled with [35S]sulphate and [3H]glucosamine or [3H]leucine were isolated from the incubation medium and cell layer of human adult mesangial cells and glomerular visceral epithelial cells using sequential DEAE chromatography purification steps followed by gel-filtration chromatography. The proteoglycan composition of each peak was analysed by treatment with HNO2, chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-50 columns. Heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and dermatan sulphate proteoglycan were detected in both the culture medium and cell layer of mesangial cells. Culture medium of glomerular visceral epithelial cells contained HSPG and a second proteoglycan with the properties of a hybrid molecule containing HS and chondroitin sulphate (CS). The cell layer contained HSPG and CSPG. Detailed analysis of the hybrid molecule revealed that it had an apparent molecular mass of 400 kDa. SDS/PAGE of hybrid molecules, after treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - T-cell recognition of differentially tolerated epitopes of cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan in arthritis. AU - Buzás, Edit I.. AU - Végvári, Anikó. AU - Murad, Yanal M.. AU - Finnegan, Alison. AU - Mikecz, Katalin. AU - Glant, Tibor T.. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan, a major macromolecular component of cartilage, is highly immunogenic; it induces arthritis in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice. The present study maps the T-cell epitope repertoire of cartilage PG by identifying a total of 27 distinct T-cell epitopes. An epitope hierarchy, accounting for the different effector functions of PG-specific T cells, and determinant spreading, has been found. T-cell responses to four epitopes were associated with arthritis induction. Some of the T-cell epitopes were full T-cell activators, whereas a number of subdominant and cryptic epitopes proved to be partial activators in vitro, inducing either cytokine secretion or T-cell proliferation, but not ...
Szántó, Sándor Zoltán and Bárdos, Tamás and Gál, István and Glant, Tibor T. and Mikecz, Katalin (2004) Enhanced neutrophil extravasation and rapid progression of proteoglycan-induced arthritis in TSG-6-knockout mice. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 50 (9). pp. 3012-3022. ISSN 0004-3591 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nitric oxide in proteoglycan turnover by bovine articular cartilage organ cultures. AU - Stefanovic-Racic, M.. AU - Morales, T. I.. AU - Taskiran, D.. AU - McIntyre, L. A.. AU - Evans, C. H.. PY - 1996/2/1. Y1 - 1996/2/1. N2 - Monolayer cultures of articular chondrocytes synthesize large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) following exposure to IL-1. The latter has antianabolic and procatabolic activities on these cells, but little is known about the role, if any, of NO in the integrated metabolic pathways of the chondrocyte. In the present study, the role of endogenously produced NO in both the synthesis and degradation of proteoglycans was investigated for the first time. Bovine articular cartilage slices exposed to 20 U/ml human rIL-1β (hrIL-1β) synthesized large amounts of NO for 1 to 2 days, after which production fell to a steady state level ~20% of the peak value for the remainder of the 14- day incubation. The NO synthase inhibitor, N-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMA, ...
Biglycan is a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) which is found in a variety of extracellular matrix tissues, including bone, cartilage and tendon. In humans, biglycan is encoded by the BGN gene which is located on the X chromosome. The name biglycan was proposed in an article by Fisher, Termine and Young in an article in the Journal of Biological Chemistry in 1989 because the proteoglycan contained two GAG chains; formerly it was known as proteoglycan-I (PG-I). Biglycan consists of a protein core containing leucine-rich repeat regions and two glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains consisting of either chondroitin sulfate (CS) or dermatan sulfate (DS), with DS being more abundant in most connective tissues. The CS/DS chains are attached at amino acids 5 and 10 in human biglycan. The composition of the GAG chains has been reported as varying according to tissue of origin. Non-glycanated forms of biglycan (no GAG chains) increase with age in human articular cartilage. The composition of GAG ...
Proteoglycans consist of a core protein and an associated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate or keratan sulfate, which are attached to a serine residue. The core proteins of cell surface proteoglycans may be transmembrane, e.g., syndecan, or GPI-anchored, e.g., glypican. Many different cell surface and matrix proteoglycan core proteins are expressed in the mammary gland and in mammary cells in culture. The level of expression of these core proteins, the structure of their GAG chains, and their degradation are regulated by many of the effectors that control the development and function of the mammary gland. Regulatory proteins of the mammary gland that bind GAG include many growth factors and morphogens (fibroblast growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, members of the midkine family, wnts), matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, and laminin), enzymes (lipoprotein lipase) and microbial surface proteins. Structural diversity ...
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Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s). The point of attachment is a serine (Ser) residue to which the glycosaminoglycan is joined through a tetrasaccharide bridge (e.g. chondroitin sulfate-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-PROTEIN). The Ser residue is generally in the sequence -Ser-Gly-X-Gly- (where X can be any amino acid residue but proline), although not every protein with this sequence has an attached glycosaminoglycan. The chains are long, linear carbohydrate polymers that are negatively charged under physiological conditions due to the occurrence of sulfate and uronic acid groups. Proteoglycans occur in the connective tissue. Proteoglycans are categorized by their relative size (large and small) and the nature of their glycosaminoglycan chains. Types include: Certain members are considered members of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family (SLRP). These ...
Mast cells (MCs) are characterized by an abundance of lysosome-like secretory granules filled with immunomodulatory compounds including histamine, cytokines, lysosomal hydrolases, MC-restricted proteases, and serglycin proteoglycans. The latter are essential for promoting the storage of other granule compounds and are built up of the serglycin core protein to which highly sulfated and thereby negatively charged glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of heparin or chondroitin sulfate type are attached. In the search for mechanisms operating in regulating MC granule homeostasis, we here investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We show that inhibition of MEK1/2 (a MAPK kinase) leads to increased metachromatic staining of MC granules, indicative of increased proteoglycan content. Indeed, MEK1/2 inhibition caused a profound increase in the expression of the gene coding for the serglycin core protein and of genes coding for various enzymes involved in the biosynthesis/sulfation
Stefanovic-Racic M, Morales TI, Taskiran D, McIntyre LA, Evans CH. The role of nitric oxide in proteoglycan turnover by bovine articular cartilage organ cultures. J Immunol. 1996 Feb 01; 156(3):1213-20 ...
The cornea is the primary refractive element of the eye and is also fundamental to the protection of the visual system. Collagen is the major constituent of the cornea, where it is organised in a lattice that enables corneal transparency. Proteoglycan macromolecules are thought to regulate the diameter and spatial order of collagen fibrils in the cornea, which are both pre-requisites for corneal transparency, although the mechanisms by which they organise fibrils are not fully elucidated. This investigation examined the morphology, morphometry and organisation of proteoglycans three-dimensionally, in both normal and genetically altered mouse corneas, to gain a greater understanding of proteoglycan structure-function relationships. In summary, we found that proteoglycans are primarily responsible for the remarkable collagen organisation in the mouse cornea, which allows for corneal transparency. The self- association of proteoglycans into complexes is likely to result in a robust attachment of ...
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The ability of mononuclear leukocytes to synthesize and secrete proteoglycans was evaluated. Using radiolabeling with H2 35SO4, it is shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their major subpopulations (B cells, T cells, and monocytes), as well as mouse spleen cells, all secreted easily detectable proteoglycan. After 24-h labeling periods, 90% of macromolecular 35S could be detected in culture media. This material was primarily (greater than 95%) chondroitin-4-sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Production and secretion of CSPG could be stimulated more than 200% in PBMC and 300% in T cell populations by high concentrations of concanavalin A and phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate; lipopolysaccharide induced a small (twofold) but reproducible increase in CSPG secretion by adherent mononuclear leukocytes. The CSPG secreted by PBMC was relatively small in size compared to chondrocyte CSPG (130,000 daltons vs. 2-4 million daltons) but possessed similar sizes of glycosaminoglycan chains and ...
Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 is highly expressed on dendritic cells (DC), so the current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on DC activation and the potential of using PSK as a vaccine adjuvant. In vitro experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) demonstrated that PSK induces DC maturation as shown by dose-dependent increase in the expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII, and CD40. PSK also induces the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines by DC, including IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6, at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo experiments using PSK as an adjuvant to OVAp323-339 vaccine showed that PSK as adjuvant leads to enlarged draining lymph nodes with higher number of activated DC. PSK also stimulates proliferation of ...
Radiobiology Laboratory, St. Marys Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco 94118, USA.. Abstract. Polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK), also known as krestin, is a unique protein-bound polysaccharide, which has been used as a chemoimmunotherapy agent in the treatment of cancer in Asia for over 30 years. PSK and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) are both protein-bound polysaccharides which are derived from the CM-101 and COV-1 strains of the fungus Coriolus versicolor by Japanese and Chinese researchers, respectively. Both polysaccharide preparations have documented anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo and in human clinical trials, though PSK has been researched longer and has therefore undergone more thorough laboratory, animal and clinical testing. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential as an adjuvant cancer therapy agent, with positive results seen in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, ...
Proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the major components in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage, and are negatively charged due to the charged groups attached to their backbone (i.e., fixed charge groups). PGs play substantial roles in the mechanical, biotransport and electrical events within the tissue.3,7 More specifically, swelling pressure generated by the interaction between fixed charge groups and ionic interstitial fluid enhances cartilages capacity of load-bearing. In addition, biotransport properties (e.g., hydraulic permeability) and electrical properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) have been shown to be affected by water content (i.e., porosity) and fixed charge density (FCD).2-4 The alteration of proteoglycan content will affect the tissue FCD and water content, which could cause the changes in biomechanical, biotransport and electrical properties of the cartilage. The relationship between the PG content and biomechanical properties has been widely studied,6,8 but the ...
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Hemagglutinin is a glycoprotein. Like it? Glycoconjugates is the general classification for carbohydrates - referred to as glycans - which are covalently linked with other chemical species such as proteins, peptides, lipids and other compounds. Some proteins are so modified with CHOs that they contain more CHOs than amino acids. The glycosaminoglycan chains are bound to the serine residues that are present in the core proteins. a. Gram positive bacteria- These bacterial can be stained with Gram stain. They are found in all connective tissues, extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the surfaces of many cell types.Proteoglycans are remarkable for their diversity (different cores, different numbers of GAGs with various lenghts and compositions). They are involved in human tissue processes as well as immunological functions. Generally, the extracellular proteins that are going to be secreted are glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The influenza virus is a simple yet deadly virus (shown below) . It ...
Apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase, is known to partially reverse the inflammation-mediated cartilage proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes. More recently, it was reported that apocynin prevents cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in monocytes. The present study aimed to investigate whether these in vitro features of apocynin could be confirmed in vivo. In a mouse model of zymosan-induced acute arthritis apocynin was administered orally (0, 3.2, 16 and 80 microg/ml in the drinking water) and the effects on cartilage proteoglycan synthesis were monitored. In a mouse model of zymosan-induced inflammation of the ears apocynin was administered orally (14 mg/kg/day by gavage) and the effects on ear swelling and ex vivo produced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood cells were measured. In this study, ibuprofen was used as a positive control (50 mg/kg/day by gavage) and animals received vehicle as a negative control. Apocynin dose-dependently reversed the inhibition ...
2-4 capsules a day. 5. Dietary Changes - Make your diet rich of food which contain omega 3 fatty acids like salmon, sardines etc. Also walnuts are a good source for the same.. Give yourself about thirty days, and then you can notice the following changes:. ,Improvement in joint mobility. ,Less pain. ,Less squeaking in the joints. ,And, even reduce the need of knew replacement surgery.. 6. Increased Use Of Turmeric - Commonly used in Indian foods, it contains inflammatory properties. Besides, adding in your food, try adding a heaped teaspoon in milk, and drink it daily.. Details:. The body uses Glucosamine Sulfate, a natural compound, to stimulate cells to create one of the main building blocks of joint cartilage - proteoglycans.. Chondroitin sulfate attracts and holds large amounts of water to the cartilage-building proteoglycan molecules. Since cartilage has no blood supply, this fluid is necessary to nourish and lubricate joints.. MSM (methylsulfonylmethane, or dimethyl sulfone) is a ...
Glucosamine stimulates the cartilage cells to produce the needed proteoglycans, large molecules that give cartilage strength and resilience, allowing it to stretch and then resume its normal form as the joints moves. A deficiency of glucosamine will result in low levels of proteoglycans that are inadequate in maintaining healthy joints. Glucosamine is one of the main ingredients of the synovial fluid that lubricates and provides nutrients for the joint structures. This synovial fluid reduces friction in the joints allowing for effortless motion. It not only lubricates the joints but it also acts as a comfortable shock absorber. Furthermore, glucosamine inhibits several enzymes whose job is the break down of old proteoglycan molecules nearing the end of their normal life span. In summary, glucosamine not only stimulates the production of cartilage but it can also improve joint function, increase flexibility, mobility, and help reduce the pain of those suffering from osteoarthritis ...
krestin: protein-bound polysaccharide preparation from Coriolus versicolor(Fr) Quel of Basidiomycetes with antitumor activity; immunopotentiator
Metabolism of proteoglycans in tendon. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 19 (4) , pp. 470-478. 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00938.x ...
GRC Proteoglycans is a Biotechnology, Chemistry, Life Science, Biology and Science Conference, organized in Andover, New Hampshire.
View our 6 Testican 2/SPOCK2 products for your research including Testican 2/SPOCK2 Primary Antibodies, Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays, and Proteins and Enzymes.
Chen, Yunliang, Shi-wen, Xu, van Beek, Jonathan, Kennedy, Laura, McLeod, Marilyn, Renzoni, Elisabetta A., Bou-Gharios, George, Wilcox-Adelman, Sarah, Goetinck, Paul F., Eastwood, Mark, Black, Carol M., Abraham, David J. and Leask, Andrew (2005) Matrix contraction by dermal fibroblasts requires transforming growth Factor-ß /activin-linked kinase 5, heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans, and MEK/ERK: insights into pathological scarring in chronic fibrotic disease. American Journal of Pathology, 167 (6). pp. 1699-1711. ISSN 0002-9440 ...
Chen, Yunliang, Shi-wen, Xu, van Beek, Jonathan, Kennedy, Laura, McLeod, Marilyn, Renzoni, Elisabetta A., Bou-Gharios, George, Wilcox-Adelman, Sarah, Goetinck, Paul F., Eastwood, Mark, Black, Carol M., Abraham, David J. and Leask, Andrew (2005) Matrix contraction by dermal fibroblasts requires transforming growth Factor-ß /activin-linked kinase 5, heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans, and MEK/ERK: insights into pathological scarring in chronic fibrotic disease. American Journal of Pathology, 167 (6). pp. 1699-1711. ISSN 0002-9440 ...
Skin decorin (DCN) is an antiadhesive dermatan sulfate-rich proteoglycan that interacts with thrombospondin-1 (TSP) and inhibits fibroblast adhesion to TSP [Winnemoller et al., 1992]. Molecular mechanisms by which DCN interacts with TSP and inhibits cell adhesion to TSP are unknown. In the present study, we showed that skin DCN and bone DCN (chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycan) were quantitatively identical with respect to their ability to interact with TSP. Using a series of fusion proteins corresponding to the different structural domains of TSP, binding of [125I]DCN to TSP was found to be dependent of the N-terminal domain and, to a lesser extent, of the type 1 repeats and the C-terminal domain of TSP. In addition, heparan sulfate drastically inhibited [125I]DCN binding to solid-phase adsorbed TSP (80% inhibition), suggesting that DCN could bind to the N-terminal domain of TSP through interaction with heparin-binding sequences. To address this question, a series of synthetic peptides, ...
CD138 (syndecan 1) is a transmembrane proteoglycan that can bind a variety of cytokines and modulate their activity, as well as the activity of extracellular matrix components and influence many developmental processes. CD138 is expressed mainly in differentiating keratinocytes and is transiently upregulated in all layers of the epidermis upon tissue injury. It is also highly expressed on plasma cells and can be detected even on fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Up-regulation and down-regulation of CD138 on the cell surface often correlates with the gain of cancerous characteristics. Serum levels of the shedded soluble sCD138 are used as a prognostic factor of cancerogenesis ...
1997, Jankovski et al., 1998 and Kaneko et al., 2010). The adult VZ-SVZ also generates oligodendrocyte precursors labeled by the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and oligodendrocytes, although in much lower numbers than the type A neuroblasts (Hack et al., 2005, Menn et al., 2006 and Komitova et al., … Continue reading →. ...
This study outlined the implementation and evaluation of one associative and two dissociative coping strategies on rowing ergometer performance. Participants were 9 novice varsity rowers who performed a 40-min ergometer workout in 10 separate experimental sessions. At each workout participants were requested to row as far as possible in 40 min. A multiple-baseline design was utilized, which after varying amounts of baseline permitted implementing an associative or dissociative strategy for each participant. These strategies included associative, dissociative-video, and dissociative-music. Results indicated that performance improved under all conditions for all participants but that the greatest gains were found in the associative condition. ...
Spock and Kirk are the only ones left aboard the stripped primary hull. Fine, says Spock. Now, theres equipment here that cant be teleported down. You teleport down, Ill stay here and try to affect a re-entry. Kirk: But no one has tried a re-entry in a detached primary hull. The gyros may not be able to maintain the correct attitude. The hull could melt through. Theres a couple of holes that were never fully repaired after the battle with -- Yes, Captain, but we need certain equipment aboard. You teleport down, Ill stay here and probably get killed. Kirk: Just a minute. Have you ever wondered why your father married your human mother? Spock: He said it seemed logical at the time. Kirk: I worked it out long ago. It couldnt have been sex. Aside from the fact that Vulcans dont think that way, your mother couldnt have been very sexy to a Vulcan. Spock: I suppose not. Kirk: It must have been an experiment in genetics. Spock: Of course, I should have thought of that myself. ...
But that had been three days ago. All that time Erid had kept him hidden from the public. Spock was allowed the complete freedom of Erids house, but every exit was wired with electric nets. And as he had discovered, to try and escape would result in a severely shocking experience. Erid walked in. Good morning, Stargod. That is as inaccurate now as it was three days ago, Erid, said Spock, annoyed. Perhaps, but today is the worship day. Today is the day when all the people go to pray to the Divine God and his lesser Stargods. Today you will be shown to the world. Today, my plan of conquest begins! Erid shouted. Come, it is time. No time for food now. Spock shrugged. It had been quite fortunate that the food was not poisonous, but Spock preferred death rather than be a puppet for a madman. Not to mention indirectly being forced to break the Prime Directive. Erid called for his two henchmen. They quickly bound Spock and put a hood over his head and torso. It is a long journey, but ...
Complete information for SPOCK2 gene (Protein Coding), SPARC/Osteonectin, Cwcv And Kazal Like Domains Proteoglycan 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Glycoanalysis and proteoglycan research reagents from AMSBIO including, carbohydrates, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes for glycobiology.
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Ueta T, Ishihara K, Notomi S, Lee JJ, Maidana DE, Efstathiou NE, Murakami Y, Hasegawa E, Azuma K, Toyono T, Paschalis EI, Aihara M, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. RIP1 kinase mediates angiogenesis by modulating macrophages in experimental neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 11 19; 116(47):23705-23713 ...
Glucosamine is an amino sugar, which is a constituent of cartilage proteoglycans It is derived from marine exoskeletons or produced synthetically
Hostages. Chapter 18. Spock looked down and considered the work he had finished in the shower. Where there had been a drain, there was now a very large hole big enough to put his hand and arm through to his elbow. As far as he could tell, the large and antiquated drain pipe angled into an L then straightened directly out to the Bay. He carefully cleaned the shower floor removing the debris that might cut small bare feet. He had done all he could, now he must wait until just before the vote to take the comm apart, modify it, and send out the signal. He would send the transporter coordinates out through the pipe and into the Bay, hopefully past the shields. Spock had no way of knowing if the plan would work except by its success and their rescue. Once Jim knew the coordinates, he would know their location, and he would lead the Enterprise crew to their rescue. Of that he was certain.. He wondered about the plan Jim had in mind. That there was a plan, he had no doubt. Spock sincerely hoped that his ...
In contrast, proteoglycan aggregates in cartilage, seen on electron microscopy as granulelike structures, were clearly smaller in the mutant mice than in the
It occurs as a proteoglycan (HSPG, i.e. Heparan Sulfate ProteoGlycan) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close ... Jackson DG, Bell JI, Dickinson R, Timans J, Shields J, Whittle N (February 1995). "Proteoglycan forms of the lymphocyte homing ... Sarrazin S, Lamanna WC, Esko JD (July 2011). "Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 3 (7): a004952. ... Iozzo RV (1998). "Matrix proteoglycans: from molecular design to cellular function". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 67: 609-52 ...
Different types of proteoglycans exist, depending on the sugar that is linked to the oxygen atom of the residue in the protein ... Proteoglycans are usually found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM), and are important for the strength ... Proteoglycans consist of a protein with one or more sugar side chains, known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), attached to the ... Absence of proteoglycans is associated with heart and respiratory failure, defects in skeletal development and increased tumor ...
Non-proteoglycan polysaccharideEdit. Hyaluronic acidEdit. Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting of ... ProteoglycansEdit. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are carbohydrate polymers and mostly attached to extracellular matrix proteins to ... It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or ECM ... Iozzo RV (1998). "Matrix proteoglycans: from molecular design to cellular function". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 67 (1): 609 ...
Proteoglycan disorders}}. Medicine. (LSD) Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: mucopolysaccharidosis (E76, 277.5). ...
The protein is a transmembrane (type I) heparan sulfate proteoglycan and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. The ... Zhang X, Wu C, Song J, Götte M, Sorokin L (November 2013). "Syndecan-1, a cell surface proteoglycan, negatively regulates ... Piperigkou Z, Mohr B, Karamanos N, Götte M (September 2016). "Shed proteoglycans in tumor stroma". Cell and Tissue Research. ... Zhang L, David G, Esko JD (November 1995). "Repetitive Ser-Gly sequences enhance heparan sulfate assembly in proteoglycans". ...
Kim, CW; Goldberger, OA; Gallo, RL; Bernfield, M (1994). "Members of the syndecan family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ... Klaus Elenius & Markku Jalkanen (1994). "Function of the syndecans - a family of cell surface proteoglycans". Journal of Cell ... 1992). "Biology of syndecans: a family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans". Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8: 365-393. doi: ... David, G. (1 August 1993). "Integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans". FASEB J. 7 (11): 1023-1030. doi:10.1096/fasebj. ...
"Entrez Gene: SPOCK1 sparc/osteonectin, cwcv and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (testican) 1". Périn JP, Alliel PM, Jollès P, ... Kohfeldt E, Maurer P, Vannahme C, Timpl R (1997). "Properties of the extracellular calcium binding module of the proteoglycan ... This gene encodes the protein core of a seminal plasma proteoglycan containing chondroitin- and heparan-sulfate chains. The ... Alliel PM, Perin JP, Jollès P, Bonnet FJ (1993). "Testican, a multidomain testicular proteoglycan resembling modulators of cell ...
... -2 (GPC2) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is important for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite ... Glypicans constitute one of the two major families of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, with the other major family being ... Filmus J, Selleck SB (August 2001). "Glypicans: proteoglycans with a surprise" (PDF). The Journal of Clinical Investigation. ...
Proteoglycans: structure, biology and molecular interactions. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, New York. pp. 27-59.CS1 maint: ... of human mammary myoepithelial-like cells by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor depends on heparan sulfate proteoglycans ...
Halper J (2014). "Proteoglycans and diseases of soft tissues". Progress in Heritable Soft Connective Tissue Diseases. Adv. Exp ... Fibromodulin is a 42kDa protein of a family of small interstitial leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs). It can have up to ... Schaefer L, Gröne HJ, Raslik I, Robenek H, Ugorcakova J, Budny S, Schaefer RM, Kresse H (Oct 2000). "Small proteoglycans of ... Smith MM, Melrose J (2015). "Proteoglycans in normal and healing skin". Adv Wound Care. 4 (3): 152-73. doi:10.1089/wound. ...
HSGAG and CSGAG modified proteoglycans first begin with a consensus Ser-Gly/Ala-X-Gly motif in the core protein. Construction ... Keratan sulfate may modify core proteins through N-linked glycosylation or O-linked glycosylation of the proteoglycan. The ... Additionally, for three other keratan sulfated proteoglycans, lumican, keratocan, and mimecan (OGN), the consensus sequence NX( ... Proteoglycans: structure, biology and molecular interactions. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, New York. pp. 27-59. ISBN 978-0-8247 ...
... embedded in hyaluronan and proteoglycans. Skin proteoglycans are varied and have very specific locations. For example, ... Smith MM, Melrose J (2015). "Proteoglycans in normal and healing skin". Adv. Wound Care. 4 (3): 152-173. doi:10.1089/wound. ... Iozzo, RV (2005). "Basement membrane proteoglycans: From cellar to ceiling". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (8): 646- ...
... is a proteoglycan that is on average 90 - 140 kilodaltons (kDa) in molecular weight. It belongs to the small leucine- ... Krumdieck R, Höök M, Rosenberg LC, Volanakis JE (December 1992). "The proteoglycan decorin binds C1q and inhibits the activity ... Fisher LW, Termine JD, Young MF (March 1989). "Deduced protein sequence of bone small proteoglycan I (biglycan) shows homology ... Yamaguchi Y, Mann DM, Ruoslahti E (July 1990). "Negative regulation of transforming growth factor-beta by the proteoglycan ...
Heparanase Bame KJ (June 2001). "Heparanases: endoglycosidases that degrade heparan sulfate proteoglycans". Glycobiology. 11 (6 ... beta-D-glycosidic bonds of heparan sulfate chains in heparan sulfate proteoglycan Heparanase cleaves the linkage between a ...
These structures contain proteins, proteoglycans, and lipids. Enamel lamellae should not be confused with two similar entities ...
Chondroitin sulfate constitutes the predominant proteoglycan present in cartilage and is distributed on the surfaces of many ... Rosenberg, RD.; Shworak, NW.; Liu, J.; Schwartz, JJ.; Zhang, L. (May 1997). "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the ...
Pawlak AS, Hammond T, Hammond E, Gray SD (January 1996). "Immunocytochemical study of proteoglycans in vocal folds". Ann. Otol ... proteoglycan like fibromodulin, decorin and versican. All these extracellular matrix components together regulate the water ...
... heparan sulfate proteoglycan and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell ... Lories V, De Boeck H, David G, Cassiman JJ, Van den Berghe H (1987). "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans of human lung fibroblasts. ... Brown KJ, Parish CR (1994). "Histidine-rich glycoprotein and platelet factor 4 mask heparan sulfate proteoglycans recognized by ... Mahley RW, Ji ZS (1999). "Remnant lipoprotein metabolism: key pathways involving cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ...
In sponges, it is mediated by proteoglycans. Spicule formation is also important for Suberites. Spicules are structural support ...
Roughley PJ, White RJ, Magny MC, Liu J, Pearce RH, Mort JS (October 1993). "Non-proteoglycan forms of biglycan increase with ... Bidanset DJ, Guidry C, Rosenberg LC, Choi HU, Timpl R, Hook M (March 1992). "Binding of the proteoglycan decorin to collagen ... Pogány G, Hernandez DJ, Vogel KG (August 1994). "The in vitro interaction of proteoglycans with type I collagen is modulated by ... Bowe MA, Mendis DB, Fallon JR (2000). "The small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan biglycan binds to alpha-dystroglycan and is ...
Muir, Helen (1983). "Proteoglycans as organizers of the intercellular matrix". Biochemical Society Transactions. Portland Press ...
LIPG functions as it binds to Proteoglycans. LIPG also has the potential for additional cleavage. The additional cleavage would ...
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for numerous heparin-binding growth factors and cytokines and are ... Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are widely expressed throughout most tissues of nearly all multicellular species. The ... Also, the authors showed in an MEF model system, that Sulf1 and Sulf2 definitively and differentially modify HS proteoglycan ... "Subendothelial heparan sulfate proteoglycans become major L-selectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ligands upon renal ...
1982). "Mouse heparin proteoglycan. Synthesis by mast cell-fibroblast monolayers during lymphocyte-dependent mast cell ...
The core protein mRNA levels of proteoglycans were not affected, thus the decrease in GAG chains was as a result of some other ... Mongiat M, Taylor K, Otto J, Aho S, Uitto J, Whitelock JM, Iozzo RV (March 2000). "The protein core of the proteoglycan ... It seems that there may be some overlap in diseases stemming from loss of heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression and loss of ... García de Yébenes E, Ho A, Damani T, Fillit H, Blum M (August 1999). "Regulation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan ...
... studies of proteoglycans in lipoprotein metabolism in the liver and macrophages; and studies of proteoglycan-associated ... Esko's work has focused on the structure, assembly and function of heparan sulfate proteoglycans for the last 30 years. In the ... He developed a carrier that exploits proteoglycans for delivery of high molecular weight cargo and used it for enzyme ... Work in his laboratory focuses on the structure, biosynthesis, and function of proteoglycans in development and disease using ...
Some examples of chondrocytes include collagen and proteoglycans. The chondrocytes that produce chondrocalcin are typically ...
This gene encodes a protein best known as a hematopoietic cell granule proteoglycan. Proteoglycans stored in the secretory ... Serglycin, also known as hematopoietic proteoglycan core protein or secretory granule proteoglycan core protein, is a protein ... Iozzo RV, Schaefer L (March 2015). "Proteoglycan form and function: A comprehensive nomenclature of proteoglycans". Matrix ... It is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells, and is the only known intracellular proteoglycan. ...
Iozzo RV (1999). "The biology of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans. Functional network of interactive proteins". J. Biol. ... "Interaction of the small interstitial proteoglycans biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin with transforming growth factor beta". ...
The protein is found as a homodimer and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. Syndecan-4 interacts with ... Syndecan-4 is a transmembrane (type I) heparan sulfate proteoglycan that functions as a receptor in intracellular signaling. ... "Entrez Gene: SDC4 syndecan 4". Woods A, Couchman JR (February 1994). "Syndecan 4 heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a selectively ... Chua CC, Rahimi N, Forsten-Williams K, Nugent MA (February 2004). "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans function as receptors for ...
Small proteoglycans Large proteoglycans chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate decorin, 36 kDa. biglycan, 38 kDa versican, 260- ... Proteoglycans are proteins[1] that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one ... Proteoglycans are categorized by their relative size (large and small) and the nature of their glycosaminoglycan chains.[3] ... Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the "filler" substance existing between cells in an ...
proteoglycan binding (reactant),. proteoglycan metabolic process (participant),. proteoglycan biosynthetic process (product),. ... Proteoglycan (de); Proteoglicanos (pt); proteoglycan (en); پروتئین گلیکوزیل شده, پروتئین گلوکزیل‌شده (fa); proteoglycanum (nn ... Media in category "Proteoglycans". The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. ... proteoglycans class of compounds, glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content ...
Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or ... Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or ... The reason for this expanded interest in these molecules is simple: not only are glycoproteins and proteoglycans ubiq- uitous, ... teins and proteoglycans. The objective of this book is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the biochemistry of these ...
Proteoglycans synonyms, Proteoglycans pronunciation, Proteoglycans translation, English dictionary definition of Proteoglycans ... proteoglycan. (redirected from Proteoglycans). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to Proteoglycans: fibronectin pro ... Proteoglycans - definition of Proteoglycans by The Free Dictionary ... proteoglycan. (ˌprəʊtɪəʊˈɡlaɪkæn) n. (Biochemistry) biochem any of various compounds consisting of a protein bonded to a ...
High levels of low-density lipoproteins, parcels of lipids and protein that carry cholesterol, are a leading risk factor for heart disease. Many cholesterol medications lower LDL, some of them by targeting the protein PCSK9. In the January issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, report on an investigation into why experiments on PCSK9 give different results in a test tube and in liver cells.. ...
Proteoglycans are associated with glial scarring. These results suggest that reactive glial extracellular matrix is directly ... The extent to which axons regenerated turned out to correlate with increased levels of proteoglycans within the extracellular ...
... and molecular interactions of proteoglycans, consolidating into a single source ... Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglycans 11. Corneal Proteoglycans 12. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Basement Membranes: Perlecan, ... Signaling Through the Syndecan Proteoglycans 8. Glypicans 9. Serglycin Proteoglycans: The Family of Proteoglycans Stored in the ... This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the structure, biology, and molecular interactions of proteoglycans, ...
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are essential for FGF receptor signaling during Drosophila embryonic development. *Lin X ...
Hyaluronic Acid Sialic Acid Heparan Sulfate Chondroitin Sulfate Sulfate Proteoglycan Abbreviations used in this chapter. Con A ... Hassell, J. R., Kimura, J. H., and Hascall, V. C., 1986, Proteoglycan core protein families, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 55: 539-567. ... Hascall, V. C., and Hascall, G. K., 1982, Proteoglycans, in: Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix (E. D. Hay, ed.), pp. 39-63, ... Kennedy, J. F., 1979, Proteoglycans-Biological and Chemical Aspects in Human Life, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar ...
A deficiency or malfunction of any of the enzymes participating in cartilage proteoglycan metabolism may lead to severe disease ... Cartilage proteoglycans are extracellular macromolecules with complex structure, composed of a core protein onto which a ... Aggrecan, formerly known as "main cartilage proteoglycan" or "large aggregating proteoglycan," consists of a protein core of ... Metabolism of Cartilage Proteoglycans in Health and Disease. Demitrios H. Vynios1. 1Biochemistry, Biochemical Analysis and ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
... Dragana Nikitovic,1 Katerina Kouvidi,1 Kallirroi ... Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/proteoglycan (PG) content and distribution ...
Hyperglycemia reduces proteoglycan levels in tendons.. Burner T1, Gohr C, Mitton-Fitzgerald E, Rosenthal AK. ... We investigated the hypothesis that proteoglycans (PGs), as key regulators of tendon structure and calcification, are altered ...
Purchase Glycoprotein and Proteoglycan Techniques, Volume 16 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444806529, ... Glycoprotein and Proteoglycan Techniques, Volume 16 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... 2. Glycoproteins and proteoglycans. 3. Isolation and fractionation. 4. Physico-chemical characterisation. 5. Analysis of ... broad perspective on the variable and yet ordered structures shown by glycoproteins and proteoglycans, and a thorough chemical ...
The predominant proteoglycan present in cartilage is the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan aggrecan. Following its ... The predominant proteoglycan present in cartilage is the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan aggrecan. Following its ... lumican and epiphycan and the basement membrane proteoglycan, perlecan. The emerging functions of these proteoglycans in ... Cartilage proteoglycans Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2001 Apr;12(2):69-78. doi: 10.1006/scdb.2000.0243. ...
PMID 14501214 Levine JM, Nishiyama A. "The NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan: a multifunctional proteoglycan associated with ... Neural/glial antigen 2, or NG2, is a rat integral membrane proteoglycan found in the plasma membrane of many diverse cell types ... "NG2 proteoglycan is expressed exclusively by mural cells during vascular morphogenesis." Dev. Dyn. (2001 Oct) 222(2):218 - 227 ... "Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: inhibitory components of the glial scar." Prog Brain Res. 2001;132:611-9. PMID 11545024. ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Glypicans: proteoglycans with a surprise Jorge Filmus et al. * Heparan sulfate: growth control with a restricted sequence menu ... Matrix proteoglycans: from molecular design to cellular function. Annu Rev Biochem 1998. 67:609-652. View this article via: ... The elusive functions of proteoglycans: in vivo veritas. J Cell Biol 2000. 148:227-232. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Heparan sulfate proteoglycans * Molecular diversity of heparan sulfate Jeffrey D. Esko et al. ...
Intracellular proteoglycans. Svein Olav KOLSET, Kristian PRYDZ, Gunnar PEJLER. Biochemical Journal Apr 15, 2004, 379 (2) 217- ... Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins with glycosaminoglycan chains, are ubiquitously expressed and have a wide range of functions. ... heparan sulphate proteoglycan; IdoA, iduronic acid; MDCK, Madin-Darby canine kidney; mMCP, mouse mast-cell protease; NDST, N- ...
The structure of this matrix is unusual and uniquely enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, particularly those of the ... From barriers to bridges: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neuropathology Trends Mol Med. 2006 Oct;12(10):488-96. doi: ... The structure of this matrix is unusual and uniquely enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, particularly those of the ...
Bone mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into rabbit intervertebral discs can increase proteoglycans.. Zhang YG1, Guo X, Xu P, ... The amount of mRNA and protein of proteoglycan and collagen Type II in the mesenchymal stem cells group was increased, whereas ... Our data suggest transplanted allogenic bone mesenchymal stem cells can survive and increase proteoglycan amount, supporting ... to determine whether transplanted allogeneic bone mesenchymal stem cells can survive and increase the amount of proteoglycans ...
... dematan sulfate proteoglycans (DSPG) and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) [BR:00535]. Among these proteoglycans such as HA ... Proteoglycans in cancer - Rattus norvegicus (rat) [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , Image ( ... heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), ... Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of ...
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Lubricin/proteoglycan 4 detected in vocal folds of humans and five other mammals. Laryngoscope. 2019 07; 129(7):E229-E237. ... "Proteoglycans" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Proteoglycans" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Proteoglycans" by people in Profiles. ...
Modulation of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Sigma Increases Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Degradation through ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan plays a pivotal role in the repair of spinal cord in. By Max in forum Cure ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion ... A New Role for RPTP in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan. By manouli in forum Cure ...
... Funded in: 2017, 2018, 2019. Back to overview ... called Intracellular Sigma Peptide or ISP that can be administered systemically and interferes with the neuronal proteoglycan ... the production of a family of potently inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules known as the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans ...
Proteoglycan 4. Proteoglycan 4 (Lubricin) (Megakaryocyte-stimulating factor) (Superficial zone proteoglycan) [Cleaved into: ... Proteoglycan 4Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... tr,A0A0R4J207,A0A0R4J207_MOUSE Proteoglycan 4 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Prg4 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Neame, P. J. and Gallagher, J. T. (2005) Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans, in Amyloid Proteins: The Beta ...
The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events ... Pathophysiological Significance of Dermatan Sulfate Proteoglycans Revealed by Human Genetic Disorders Shuji Mizumoto 1,*, ... Mizumoto S, Kosho T, Yamada S, Sugahara K. Pathophysiological Significance of Dermatan Sulfate Proteoglycans Revealed by Human ... The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events ...
  • The inactivity of specific lysosomal enzymes that normally degrade glycosaminoglycans leads to the accumulation of proteoglycans within cells. (
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) structurally diverse carbohydrates of the extracellular matrix and cell surfaces - have emerged as novel biomarkers and molecular players both within tumor cells and their microenvironment, as they integrate signals from growth factors, chemokines and integrins, and cell-cell as well as matrix adhesion. (
  • Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/proteoglycan (PG) content and distribution are markedly altered during tumor pathogenesis and progression. (
  • amsbio supplies a complete range of high purity reagents for proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans research. (
  • Proteoglycans consist of a core protein linked to one or more polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (
  • Glycosaminoglycans (gAGs), the saccharide units in proteoglycans, are polymers of acidic disaccharides containing derivatives of the amino sugars glucosamine or galactosamine. (
  • And , Vitamin C inhibits the biosynthesis of elastin , so that elastin reduces the accumulation of solar elastosis causing (reduced strength and elasticity of the skin) that occurs in the skin photoaging , being more pronounced in the areas more exposed to the sun . - 5% of proteoglycans : Large glycoproteins are formed of a protein core linked to glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronic acid. (
  • PSGs (PSG1) binds to cell surface proteoglycans that have covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically to syndecans 1-4 and glypican-1, to induce endothelial tube formation (Lisboa et al. (
  • The polysaccharides belong to a subclass of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are covalently linked to various core proteins to form CS-proteoglycans (CSPGs), each with differences in the protein structures and/or numbers of CS side chains. (
  • Serglycin proteoglycans are critical for mediating the storage of various granule compounds, including proteases and bioactive amines ( 9 ), and are composed of the serglycin core protein to which glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of either heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) type are attached. (
  • Heparin proteoglycans reduced the chymase-induced secretory response, whereas glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans had less of an effect. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion scar and in perineuronal nets around deafferented neurons. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Following spinal cord injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) upregulate and potently inhibit axon regeneration and functional recovery. (
  • The inhibition is due to the production of a family of potently inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules known as the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). (
  • We have now devised a simple combinatorial method for overcoming CSPGs that employs microinjection of a long acting chondroitinase enzyme that breaks down the scar barrier locally plus a novel peptide called Intracellular Sigma Peptide or ISP that can be administered systemically and interferes with the neuronal proteoglycan receptor more globally. (
  • We found that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were present in the infarct after I-R, but not after chronic ischemia, and that CSPGs caused inhibition of sympathetic axon outgrowth in vitro . (
  • Immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (labelling motoneurones), PNNs using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, was performed to characterise the molecular heterogeneity of PNNs in rat spinal motoneurones (Mns). (
  • Vertebrates produce various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are important structural components of cartilage and other connective tissues. (
  • 275, 40344-40356), we reported that unusually low sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta mediate the IRBC adherence. (
  • Heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs and CSPGs, respectively) regulate numerous cell surface signaling events, with typically opposite effects on cell function. (
  • Here they form large complexes, both to other proteoglycans, to hyaluronan , and to fibrous matrix proteins, such as collagen . (
  • The combination of proteoglycans and collagen form cartilage , a sturdy tissue that is usually heavily hydrated (mostly due to the negatively charged sulfates in the glycosaminoglycan chains of the proteoglycans). (
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Basement Membranes: Perlecan, Agrin, and Collagen XVIII 13. (
  • The amount of mRNA and protein of proteoglycan and collagen Type II in the mesenchymal stem cells group was increased, whereas the amount of collagen Type I did not change. (
  • The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. (
  • Proteoglycans (PG) and collagen are two important structural components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. (
  • This study examines the change in the amounts of proteoglycans and collagen in articular cartilage resulting from in vivo cyclical loading using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging spectroscopy. (
  • Proteoglycans encourage collagen, elastin and protein synthesis, and increasing flexibility and firmness to the skin. (
  • Altered expression of small proteoglycans, collagen, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in developing bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. (
  • The expression of three small proteoglycans (biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin), collagen III and TGF-beta 1 was studied by RNA-transfer blot analysis. (
  • The collagen fibers and proteoglycans in the disc of temporomandibular joint provide resistance to various loadings. (
  • The extracellular matrix glycoprotein opticin is a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan/protein family member that was discovered associated with vitreous humor collagen fibrils. (
  • The present study investigated whether opticin interacts directly with the heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan type XVIII collagen. (
  • Opticin may provide a link between cortical vitreous collagen fibrils and the inner limiting lamina by binding HS proteoglycans and stabilize vitreous gel structure by binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. (
  • 9 Furthermore, opticin colocalized with the heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan type XVIII collagen in the ILM. (
  • We have examined the adherence of the spirochete to different components of the collagen fiber and demonstrated that decorin, a proteoglycan which decorates collagen fibers, can support the attachment of B. burgdorferi. (
  • Collagen alignment and proteoglycan scores.Representative microscopic images of (A) picrosirius red-stained sections (polarised light) and (C) toluidine blue-stained sections (normal light) from each location from a control and transected SDFT mapped to a diagram of the SDFT. (
  • Topographically-mapped box plots of (B) collagen fiber alignment scores and (D) proteoglycan scores of partially transected tendons (dark bars) compared with control SDFT (light bars). (
  • Proteoglycan macromolecules are thought to regulate the diameter and spatial order of collagen fibrils in the cornea, which are both pre-requisites for corneal transparency, although the mechanisms by which they organise fibrils are not fully elucidated. (
  • In summary, we found that proteoglycans are primarily responsible for the remarkable collagen organisation in the mouse cornea, which allows for corneal transparency. (
  • The research suggests that blocking the receptors called heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) may aid in treatment of theses illnesses. (
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have crucial regulatory roles in tumor onset and progression. (
  • The encoded proteins of these genes belong to an EXT family of proteins that have or are closely related to glycosyltransferase activities required for biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). (
  • Recently, several reports suggest that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in morphogen transport and/or signaling (reviewed by Perrimon and Bernfield, 2000 ). (
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are constituents of the extracellular matrix, and through their heparan sulfate chains and protein core, modulate multiple events that occur during the metastatic cascade. (
  • Recent studies in Drosophila have shown that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required for Wingless (Wg/Wnt) signaling. (
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have been attributed various roles in inflammation. (
  • Proteoglycans are proteins [1] that are heavily glycosylated . (
  • Previous studies suggested their movements are blocked when the protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTP sigma), an enzyme found in axons, interacts with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans , a class of sugary proteins that fill the scars. (
  • Homologous proteins in other species include human CSPG4, also known as melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), Mouse AN2, and Sea urchin ECM3. (
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins with glycosaminoglycan chains, are ubiquitously expressed and have a wide range of functions. (
  • Neame, P. J. and Gallagher, J. T. (2005) Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans, in Amyloid Proteins: The Beta Sheet Conformation and Disease (ed J. D. Sipe), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. (
  • Proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan or hyaluronate) make up the third type of component in the extracellualr matrix (ECM), besides the fibrous structural proteins and cell adhesion proteins. (
  • Membrane glycoproteins - Proteoglycans can also be integral membrane proteins and, through their binding to other proteins and fibroblast growth factor, act as modulators of cell growth and differentiation. (
  • There are also detailed techniques for the suppression of specific proteoglycan genes, for the detection of mutant cells and their degradation products, and for studying specific interactions between proteoglycans and extracellular matrix proteins and with growth factors and their receptors. (
  • Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated it's a organic compound composed of a saccharide joined to a peptide and forming the bottom substance of animal tissue (or) any of a category of glycoproteins of high relative molecular mass that are found particularly within the extracellular matrix of animal tissue and even have lubricator and support functions. (
  • 1997 ). Recognition of acceptor proteins by UDP-D-xylose proteoglycan core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase. (
  • Endo-beta-D-galactosidase treatment of the intact proteoglycan generated core proteins of 28 and 38 kd. (
  • 2) The cartilage tissue of the patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis include biglycan fragments obtained due to breakdown of proteoglycans by ADAMTSs. (
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the galactosyltransferase B4GALT7 result in a reduced substitution of the proteoglycans decorin and biglycan with glycosaminoglycan chains, and cause a spondylodysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (
  • Other proteoglycans expressed during chondrogenesis and in cartilage include the cell surface syndecans and glypican, the small leucine-rich proteoglycans decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican and epiphycan and the basement membrane proteoglycan, perlecan. (
  • Versican is one of many proteoglycans identified in vascular tissue or synthesized by vascular cells 3 and together with biglycan, decorin, and perlecan constitute the bulk of the proteoglycans found in the interstitial space. (
  • The small leucine rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs) include decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican. (
  • Decorin and biglycan are closely related abundant extracellular matrix proteoglycans that have been shown to bind to C1q. (
  • The marked alterations of biglycan and decorin during the development of fibrosis suggests that these proteoglycans have a regulating role in this process. (
  • polymorphisms within genes encoding the proteoglycans aggrecan ( ACAN ), biglycan ( BGN ), decorin ( DCN ), fibromodulin ( FMOD ) and lumican ( LUM ) were examined. (
  • According to this, the main proteoglycan in cartilage was termed aggrecan, since it can form aggregates with hyaluronan and link protein. (
  • Using DRG neurons from female Sprague Dawley rats cultured on an aggrecan/laminin spot assay and a combination of biochemical techniques, we provide evidence suggesting that modulation of RPTPσ regulates secretion of proteases that, in turn, relieves CSPG inhibition through its digestion to allow axon migration though proteoglycan barriers. (
  • Examples of large proteoglycans are aggrecan, the major proteoglycan in cartilage, and versican, present in many adult tissues including blood vessels and skin. (
  • The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein " with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s). [2] The point of attachment is a serine (Ser) residue to which the glycosaminoglycan is joined through a tetrasaccharide bridge (e.g. chondroitin sulfate - GlcA - Gal -Gal- Xyl -PROTEIN). (
  • [ citation needed ] Individual functions of proteoglycans can be attributed to either the protein core or the attached GAG chain. (
  • The protein component of proteoglycans is synthesized by ribosomes and translocated into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum . (
  • Proteoglycans are glycoproteins that have a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains such as chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. (
  • The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s). (
  • Chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate occur as proteoglycans in which the polysaccharide chains are covalently linked at their reducing ends to the hydroxyl groups of serine residues in a protein moiety. (
  • Cartilage proteoglycans are extracellular macromolecules with complex structure, composed of a core protein onto which a variable number of glycosaminoglycan chains are attached. (
  • The term heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) refers to a dichotomous structure, a protein coupled to a unique glycosaminoglycan chain characterized by a linear array of alternating disaccharide units. (
  • The field of proteoglycan research is nearly equally split into two factions: those who feel that heparan sulfate is the prima donna, with the protein core being just a carrier, and those who feel that there would be no role for heparan sulfate without the protein core. (
  • Electron microscopy after rotary shadowing and negative staining of the large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan from rat chondrosarcoma, bovine nasal cartilage and pig laryngeal cartilage demonstrated a unique multidomain structure for the protein core. (
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) are comprised of one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains covalently linked to specific residues of a core protein. (
  • Spicer AP, Joo A, Bowling RA Jr: A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein genes: the missing links. (
  • Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) levels after one-time treatment to ultrasound and heat was analyzed by Western blotting, and proteoglycan synthesis was evaluated by 35S-sulfate incorporation. (
  • Deletion of the serglycin core protein abrogated the induction of enzymes operative in proteoglycan synthesis, indicating that availability of the serglycin proteoglycan core protein has a regulatory function impacting on the expression of the various serglycin-modifying enzymes. (
  • 1 It is a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan/protein (SLRP) family, characterized by tandem leucine-rich repeats flanked by capping motifs containing disulfide bonds. (
  • Fibroblasts from a patient with progeroidal appearance and symptoms of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have a reduced ability of converting the core protein of this proteoglycan into a mature glycosaminoglycan chain-bearing species. (
  • Wu, R, Couchman, JR: cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs. (
  • The small-size proteoglycans (Kav 0.4, on Sepharose CL-4B) from both normal and atherosclerotic tissue contained primarily a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan with an intact molecular size of 220-330 kd and a 45-kd core protein. (
  • Spirochete binding of soluble 125I-labeled decorin required intact proteoglycan and could not be inhibited by either isolated core protein or glycosaminoglycan chain. (
  • Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: inhibitory components of the glial scar. (
  • Perineuronal Nets in Spinal Motoneurones: Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan around Alpha Motoneurones. (
  • British Library EThOS: The NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan : a possible target for malignant glioma? (
  • The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population of glial cells in the central nervous system (eNS). (
  • Anderson, M. J., and Fambrough, D. M., 1983, Aggregates of acetylcholine receptors are associated with plaques of a basal lamina heparan sulfate proteoglycan on the surface of skeletal muscle fibers, J. Cell Biol . (
  • Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or so years that they have aroused the interest of a very broad cross section of investigators in the biological sciences. (
  • The reason for this expanded interest in these molecules is simple: not only are glycoproteins and proteoglycans ubiq- uitous, but many are molecules with well-defined and important biological functions. (
  • 2. Glycoproteins and proteoglycans. (
  • it gives a good, broad perspective on the variable and yet ordered structures shown by glycoproteins and proteoglycans, and a thorough chemical overview of what can and cannot be done to the intact glycoproteins and their isolated glycopeptides. (
  • Versican: a versatile extracellular matrix proteoglycan in cell biology. (
  • The surface proteoglycan/glycoprotein layer (glycocalyx) on tumor cells has been associated with cellular functions that can potentially enable invasion and metastasis. (
  • Proteoglycan 4 is the lubricating glycoprotein believed to be primarily responsible for this boundary lubrication. (
  • We grouped the remaining molecules, which were felt to have relevant biologic roles, into markers of cellular stress, cytoskeleton molecules, and small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs). (
  • Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglycans 11. (
  • In this report, we have investigated the expression and immunolocalization of perlecan, a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan of basement membranes and pericellular matrices, in human metastatic melanomas. (
  • This MAb specifically precipitates heterogeneous material of high MW, identified as perlecan, a major heparan-sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) within all basement membranes and cell surfaces. (
  • Objectives To explore the immunosuppressive effect and mechanism of action of intraperitoneal (ip) and intra-articular (ia) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection in proteoglycan induced arthritis (PGIA). (
  • Less proteoglycan staining was detected in the growth plate and articular cartilage matrix of transgenic mice. (
  • The proteoglycan versican is one of several extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules that accumulate in lesions of atherosclerosis and restenosis. (
  • Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. (
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are essenti. (
  • PMID 14501214 Levine JM, Nishiyama A. "The NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan: a multifunctional proteoglycan associated with immature cells. (
  • NG2 is a major chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan produced after spinal cord injury and is expressed by macrophages and oligodendrocyte progenitors. (
  • The structure of this matrix is unusual and uniquely enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, particularly those of the lectican family. (
  • 2003). Axonal regeneration through regions of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (
  • Your search returned 79 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA ELISA Kit across 13 suppliers. (
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate renal carcinoma metastasis. (
  • Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) that is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of normal blood vessels and increases dramatically in all forms of vascular disease. (
  • This product was previously labelled as Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2. (
  • bFGF binding is due to a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) immunocytochemically identified in NFTs. (
  • Most of the inhibitory activity was greater than 100 kDa and was sensitive to chondroitinase ABC digestion, which is consistent with the inhibitor being a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (
  • A genetic defect in the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate proteoglycan: galactosyltransferase I deficiency in fibroblasts from a patient with a progeroid syndrome. (
  • A small proteoglycan that contains only a single dermatan sulfate chain is the main proteoglycan synthesized by skin fibroblasts. (
  • Structural requirements for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of human placenta. (
  • Characterization of proteoglycans of human placenta and identification of unique chondroitin sulfate. (
  • A gene on chromosome 7q22.1 that encodes glypican 2, a cell surface proteoglycan with heparan sulfate that may play a role in motility of developing neurons. (
  • Microglial Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Facilitate the Cluster-of-Differentiation 14 (CD14)/Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)-Dependent Inflammatory Response. (
  • There are currently no images for Endorepellin/Perlecan/Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Antibody (NBP2-47695PCP). (
  • It does not cross-react with laminin, fibronectin, or dermatran sulfate proteoglycan. (
  • Demonstration of a keratan sulfate-containing proteoglycan in atherosclerotic aorta. (
  • In addition to the dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, the preparation contained a proteoglycan recognized by monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5-D-4, indicating the presence of sulfated poly-N-acetyllactosamine sequences common to corneal and cartilage keratan sulfate. (
  • Electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel revealed a polydisperse proteoglycan of 60-150 kd that was recognized by MAb 5-D-4. (
  • After endo-beta-D-galactosidase treatment of the proteoglycan from atherosclerotic aorta, diminished MAb 5-D-4 reactivity observed by both Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the material was keratan sulfate. (
  • These studies suggest the presence of one or more keratan sulfate proteoglycans in grossly normal and atherosclerotic arteries. (
  • Immunochemical data suggest that sulfation of the keratan sulfate proteoglycan may be greater in atherosclerotic aorta. (
  • Potential roles of vessel wall heparan sulfate proteoglycans in atherosclerosis. (
  • It is well appreciated that TAT uses heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, and that TAT binding to them initiates macropinocytosis, a type of endocytotic process ( 4 - 7 ). (
  • Further investigations must be performed to provide more information of the biological role of the proteoglycans in the uterus, especially during labor, by the presence of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and the minute presence of versican which indicate that the proteoglycan composition and organization is different to that of the cervix. (
  • Thus far, however, the role of the proteoglycans in determining the viscoelastic properties of the disc has not been investigated. (
  • A deficiency or malfunction of any of the enzymes participating in cartilage proteoglycan metabolism may lead to severe disease state. (
  • The results corroborate and extend previous in vitro studies concerning the effect of TGF-beta 1 on the metabolism of small proteoglycans and show that these macromolecules are regulated differently also in vivo. (
  • poly- isoprenoid synthesis, secretory processes, hormone responses, embryonic development, and immunology have become concerned with glycopro- teins and proteoglycans. (
  • Ultrasound stimulates proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes. (
  • We tested the efficacy of ultrasound to increase proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes. (
  • Proteoglycan synthesis was increased approximately 2-fold after 3-4 daily ultrasound stimulations, and remained at that level until day 5 in responsive cell isolates. (
  • Heat treatment alone did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. (
  • In conclusion, our study confirms that pulsed ultrasound stimulation can induce proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes. (
  • This links regulation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis to the post-Golgi fate of proteoglycans. (
  • 1990 ). Proteoglycan production in Drosophila egg development: effect of beta-D-xyloside on proteoglycan synthesis and larvae motility. (
  • Preincubation of fibroblasts at 41 degrees C leads to a further reduction in the production of mature proteoglycan and affects the capacity for glycosaminoglycan synthesis on p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside more strongly in the mutant than in control cells. (
  • 1,2 A number of reports within the last few years have documented a significant involvement of versican in lesions of atherosclerosis and restenosis and these observations, coupled to those that demonstrate that this ECM proteoglycan regulates many of the events that contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions, highlights the critical importance of versican in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. (
  • Less than 1% consisted of the large proteoglycan versican. (
  • Hacker U, Nybakken K, Perrimon N. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans: the sweet side of development. (
  • A tremendous amount of work is presented during the seventies, regarding isolation, purification, and characterization of proteoglycans from extracellular matrix in healthy and pathologic states, together with studies on their biosynthesis from cell or tissue cultures and cell-free systems. (
  • Ontong P., Chanmee T., Itano N. (2014) Map 4: Biosynthetic Pathways of Proteoglycans. (
  • Removal of proteoglycans, particularly lumican, affects the regulation of both fibril size and spatial order, both required for corneal transparency. (
  • Whether the process actually does anything is a matter of debate among dermatologists, although I do know that snail mucus contains ingredients like hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans , which are already used in cosmetics and are known to promote tissue flexibility and skin healing. (
  • 227 participants with surgically diagnosed ACL ruptures (ACL group) and 234 controls without any history of ACL injury were genotyped for 10 polymorphisms in 5 proteoglycan genes. (
  • Taking into account the functions of these genes, it is reasonable to propose that genetic sequence variability within the genes encoding proteoglycans may potentially modulate the ligament fibril properties. (
  • To investigate the hypothesis tha tproteoglycans modulate chymase-induced effects, we studied the influence of proteoglycans purified from dog mastocytoma cells on chymase-induced secretion from cultured bovine airway gland serous cells. (
  • We sought to determine whether transplanted allogeneic bone mesenchymal stem cells can survive and increase the amount of proteoglycans in intervertebral discs. (
  • The results showed that the corpus uteri contains a substantial amount of proteoglycans, 1.825 mug/mg wet weight. (
  • Decorin is dominating, constituting 63% of the total amount of proteoglycans. (
  • Proteoglycans are categorized by their relative size (large and small) and the nature of their glycosaminoglycan chains. (
  • We propose that glycosaminoglycan chains play a role in targeting of proteoglycans to their proper cellular or extracellular location. (
  • Many of the SLRPs are proteoglycans, but opticin is unique in that instead of possessing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, it is substituted with a cluster of sialylated O-linked oligosaccharides near its amino terminus. (
  • Cyclical in vivo loading increases cartilage proteoglycan content in the rabbit metacarpophalangeal joint. (
  • Serglycin Proteoglycans: The Family of Proteoglycans Stored in the Secretory Granules of Certain Effector Cells of the Immune System 10. (
  • Mast cells (MCs) are characterized by an abundance of lysosome-like secretory granules filled with immunomodulatory compounds including histamine, cytokines, lysosomal hydrolases, MC-restricted proteases, and serglycin proteoglycans. (
  • Proteoglycans were isolated from either grossly normal or atherosclerotic pigeon aortas after extraction with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride and purification by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. (
  • We show that inhibition of MEK1/2 (a MAPK kinase) leads to increased metachromatic staining of MC granules, indicative of increased proteoglycan content. (
  • MEK1/2 inhibition also caused a substantial increase in the expression of granule-localized, proteoglycan-binding proteases. (
  • Despite partial inhibition by exocytosed proteoglycans, the secretagogue activity of chymase remains substantial compared to that of histamine. (
  • This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton‐linked proteoglycans. (
  • In this process, they acquire an abundance of lysosome-like secretory granules, densely packed with numerous preformed bioactive substances, including histamine, cytokines/growth factors, lysosomal hydrolases, proteases [tryptase, chymase, carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3)], and proteoglycans of serglycin type ( 8 ). (
  • Chymase, a potent secretagogue for airway gland serous cells, is stored in secretory granules and released from mast cells together with proteoglycans. (