A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A proposed family of bacteria belonging to the alpha-2 subgroup of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It contains a single genus Gallionella.
A genus of gram-negative, curved or straight rod-shaped bacteria, in the family ALTEROMONADACEAE. They are chemo-organotrophic, halophilic, and associated with cold marine habitats.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
A physiologically diverse phylum of acidophilic, gram-negative bacteria found in a wide variety of habitats, but particularly abundant in soils and sediments.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. Genera include METHYLOBACTERIUM, Protomonas, and Roseomonas.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A specific bacteriochlorophyll that is similar in structure to chlorophyll a.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.

Marine bacterial isolates display diverse responses to UV-B radiation. (1/457)

The molecular and biological consequences of UV-B radiation were investigated by studying five species of marine bacteria and one enteric bacterium. Laboratory cultures were exposed to an artificial UV-B source and subjected to various post-UV irradiation treatments. Significant differences in survival subsequent to UV-B radiation were observed among the isolates, as measured by culturable counts. UV-B-induced DNA photodamage was investigated by using a highly specific radioimmunoassay to measure cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). The CPDs determined following UV-B exposure were comparable for all of the organisms except Sphingomonas sp. strain RB2256, a facultatively oligotrophic ultramicrobacterium. This organism exhibited little DNA damage and a high level of UV-B resistance. Physiological conditioning by growth phase and starvation did not change the UV-B sensitivity of marine bacteria. The rates of photoreactivation following exposure to UV-B were investigated by using different light sources (UV-A and cool white light). The rates of photoreactivation were greatest during UV-A exposure, although diverse responses were observed. The differences in sensitivity to UV-B radiation between strains were reduced after photoreactivation. The survival and CPD data obtained for Vibrio natriegens when we used two UV-B exposure periods interrupted by a repair period (photoreactivation plus dark repair) suggested that photoadaptation could occur. Our results revealed that there are wide variations in marine bacteria in their responses to UV radiation and subsequent repair strategies, suggesting that UV-B radiation may affect the microbial community structure in surface water.  (+info)

Identification of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria with monoclonal antibodies recognizing the nitrite oxidoreductase. (2/457)

Immunoblot analyses performed with three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognized the nitrite oxidoreductase (NOR) of the genus Nitrobacter were used for taxonomic investigations of nitrite oxidizers. We found that these MAbs were able to detect the nitrite-oxidizing systems (NOS) of the genera Nitrospira, Nitrococcus, and Nitrospina. The MAb designated Hyb 153-2, which recognized the alpha subunit of the NOR (alpha-NOR), was specific for species belonging to the genus Nitrobacter. In contrast, Hyb 153-3, which recognized the beta-NOR, reacted with nitrite oxidizers of the four genera. Hyb 153-1, which also recognized the beta-NOR, bound to members of the genera Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus. The molecular masses of the beta-NOR of the genus Nitrobacter and the beta subunit of the NOS (beta-NOS) of the genus Nitrococcus were identical (65 kDa). In contrast, the molecular masses of the beta-NOS of the genera Nitrospina and Nitrospira were different (48 and 46 kDa). When the genus-specific reactions of the MAbs were correlated with 16S rRNA sequences, they reflected the phylogenetic relationships among the nitrite oxidizers. The specific reactions of the MAbs allowed us to classify novel isolates and nitrite oxidizers in enrichment cultures at the genus level. In ecological studies the immunoblot analyses demonstrated that Nitrobacter or Nitrospira cells could be enriched from activated sludge by using various substrate concentrations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and electron microscopic analyses confirmed these results. Permeated cells of pure cultures of members of the four genera were suitable for immunofluorescence labeling; these cells exhibited fluorescence signals that were consistent with the location of the NOS.  (+info)

2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium symbiosum. (3/457)

Component D (HgdAB) of 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium symbiosum was purified to homogeneity. It is able to use component A from Acidaminococcus fermentans (HgdC) to initiate catalysis together with ATP, Mg2+ and a strong reducing agent such as Ti(III)citrate. Component D from C. symbiosum has a 6 x higher specific activity compared with that from A. fermentans and contains a second [4Fe-4S] cluster but the same amount of riboflavin 5'-phosphate (1.0 per heterodimeric enzyme, m = 100 kDa). Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed symmetric cube-type structures of the two [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. EPR spectroscopy showed the resistance of the clusters to reducing agents, but detected a sharp signal at g = 2. 004 probably due to a stabilized flavin semiquinone. Three genes from C. symbiosum coding for components D (hgdA and hgdB) and A (hgdC) were cloned and sequenced. Primer extension experiments indicated that the genes are transcribed in the order hgdCAB from an operon only half the size of that from A. fermentans. Sequence comparisons detected a close relationship to the dehydratase system from A. fermentans and HgdA from Fusobacterium nucleatum, as well as to putative proteins of unknown function from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Lower, but significant, identities were found with putative enzymes from several methanogenic Archaea and Escherichia coli, as well as with the mechanistically related benzoyl-CoA reductases from the Proteobacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Thauera aromatica.  (+info)

Simultaneous reduction of nitrate and selenate by cell suspensions of selenium-respiring bacteria. (4/457)

Washed-cell suspensions of Sulfurospirillum barnesii reduced selenate [Se(VI)] when cells were cultured with nitrate, thiosulfate, arsenate, or fumarate as the electron acceptor. When the concentration of the electron donor was limiting, Se(VI) reduction in whole cells was approximately fourfold greater in Se(VI)-grown cells than was observed in nitrate-grown cells; correspondingly, nitrate reduction was approximately 11-fold higher in nitrate-grown cells than in Se(VI)-grown cells. However, a simultaneous reduction of nitrate and Se(VI) was observed in both cases. At nonlimiting electron donor concentrations, nitrate-grown cells suspended with equimolar nitrate and selenate achieved a complete reductive removal of nitrogen and selenium oxyanions, with the bulk of nitrate reduction preceding that of selenate reduction. Chloramphenicol did not inhibit these reductions. The Se(VI)-respiring haloalkaliphile Bacillus arsenicoselenatis gave similar results, but its Se(VI) reductase was not constitutive in nitrate-grown cells. No reduction of Se(VI) was noted for Bacillus selenitireducens, which respires selenite. The results of kinetic experiments with cell membrane preparations of S. barnesii suggest the presence of constitutive selenate and nitrate reduction, as well as an inducible, high-affinity nitrate reductase in nitrate-grown cells which also has a low affinity for selenate. The simultaneous reduction of micromolar Se(VI) in the presence of millimolar nitrate indicates that these organisms may have a functional use in bioremediating nitrate-rich, seleniferous agricultural wastewaters. Results with (75)Se-selenate tracer show that these organisms can lower ambient Se(VI) concentrations to levels in compliance with new regulations proposed for release of selenium oxyanions into the environment.  (+info)

Analyses of spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activity in aerobic wastewater biofilms. (5/457)

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O(2), H(2)S, NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 10(9) to 10(10) cells per cm(3) of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 10(8) to 10(9) cells per cm(3)). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 microm below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S(0)) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 microm), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.  (+info)

Ubiquity and diversity of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria. (6/457)

Environmental contamination with compounds containing oxyanions of chlorine, such as perchlorate or chlorate [(per)chlorate] or chlorine dioxide, has been a constantly growing problem over the last 100 years. Although the fact that microbes reduce these compounds has been recognized for more than 50 years, only six organisms which can obtain energy for growth by this metabolic process have been described. As part of a study to investigate the diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms involved in the microbial reduction of (per)chlorate, we enumerated the (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (ClRB) in very diverse environments, including pristine and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, aquatic sediments, paper mill waste sludges, and farm animal waste lagoons. In all of the environments tested, the acetate-oxidizing ClRB represented a significant population, whose size ranged from 2.31 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(6) cells per g of sample. In addition, we isolated 13 ClRB from these environments. All of these organisms could grow anaerobically by coupling complete oxidation of acetate to reduction of (per)chlorate. Chloride was the sole end product of this reductive metabolism. All of the isolates could also use oxygen as a sole electron acceptor, and most, but not all, could use nitrate. The alternative electron donors included simple volatile fatty acids, such as propionate, butyrate, or valerate, as well as simple organic acids, such as lactate or pyruvate. Oxidized-minus-reduced difference spectra of washed whole-cell suspensions of the isolates had absorbance maxima close to 425, 525, and 550 nm, which are characteristic of type c cytochromes. In addition, washed cell suspensions of all of the ClRB isolates could dismutate chlorite, an intermediate in the reductive metabolism of (per)chlorate, into chloride and molecular oxygen. Chlorite dismutation was a result of the activity of a single enzyme which in pure form had a specific activity of approximately 1,928 micromol of chlorite per mg of protein per min. Analyses of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the organisms indicated that they all belonged to the alpha, beta, or gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria. Several were closely related to members of previously described genera that are not recognized for the ability to reduce (per)chlorate, such as the genera Pseudomonas and Azospirllum. However, many were not closely related to any previously described organism and represented new genera within the Proteobacteria. The results of this study significantly increase the limited number of microbial isolates that are known to be capable of dissimilatory (per)chlorate reduction and demonstrate the hitherto unrecognized phylogenetic diversity and ubiquity of the microorganisms that exhibit this type of metabolism.  (+info)

Geomicrobiology of subglacial ice above Lake Vostok, Antarctica. (7/457)

Data from ice 3590 meters below Vostok Station indicate that the ice was accreted from liquid water associated with Lake Vostok. Microbes were observed at concentrations ranging from 2.8 x 10(3) to 3.6 x 10(4) cells per milliliter; no biological incorporation of selected organic substrates or bicarbonate was detected. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA genes revealed low diversity in the gene population. The phylotypes were closely related to extant members of the alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria and the Actinomycetes. Extrapolation of the data from accretion ice to Lake Vostok implies that Lake Vostok may support a microbial population, despite more than 10(6) years of isolation from the atmosphere.  (+info)

Local sequence dependence of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid degradation in Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (8/457)

The first order intracellular degradation of various polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) inclusions in Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava cells was investigated by analyzing the compositional and microstructural changes of the PHA using gas chromatography, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Two types of PHA, copolymers and blend-type polymers, were separately accumulated in cells for comparison. The constituent monomers were 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB), 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HB), and 3-hydroxyvaleric acid (3HV). It was found that the 3HB-4HB copolymer was degraded only when the polymer contained a minimal level of 3HB units. With the cells containing a 3HB/4HB blend-type polymer, only poly(3HB) was degraded, whereas poly(4HB) was not degraded, indicating the totally inactive nature of the intracellular depolymerase against poly(4HB). On the basis of the magnitude of the first order degradation rate constants, the relative substrate specificity of the depolymerase toward the constituting monomer units was determined to decrease in the order 3HB > 3HV > 4HB. (13)C NMR resonances of the tetrad, triad, and dyad sequences were analyzed for the samples isolated before and after degradation experiments. The results showed that the intracellular degradation depended on the local monomer sequence of the copolymers. The relative substrate specificity of the depolymerase determined from the NMR local sequence analysis agreed well with that obtained from the kinetics analysis. It is suggested that, without isolation and purification of the intracellular PHA depolymerase and "native" PHA substrates, the relative specificity of the enzyme as well as the microstructural heterogeneity of the PHA could be determined by measuring in situ the first order degradation rate constants of the PHA in cells.  (+info)

The Mariana region exhibits a rich array of hydrothermal venting conditions in a complex geological setting, which provides a natural laboratory to study the influence of local environmental conditions on microbial community structure as well as large-scale patterns in microbial biogeography. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene from 22 microbial mats collected from four hydrothermally active locations along the Mariana Arc and back-arc to explore the structure of lithotrophically-based microbial mat communities. The vent effluent was classified as iron- or sulfur-rich corresponding with two distinct community types, dominated by either Zetaproteobacteria or Epsilonproteobacteria, respectively. The Zetaproteobacterial-based communities had the highest richness and diversity, which supports the hypothesis that Zetaproteobacteria are ecosystem engineers creating a physical habitat within a chemical environment promoting enhanced microbial diversity. In
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Researchers from the University of Toronto and the University of Otago have discovered five new proteins that block the bacterial CRISPR/Cas immune
The HMM that is the basis for this family describes a small, pleiotropic protein, DksA (DnaK suppressor A), originally named as a multicopy suppressor of temperature sensitivity of dnaKJ mutants. DksA mutants are defective in quorum sensing, virulence, etc. DksA is now understood to bind RNA polymerase directly and modulate its response to small molecules to control the level of transcription of rRNA. Nearly all members of this family are in the Proteobacteria. Whether the closest homologs outside the Proteobacteria function equivalently is unknown. The low value set for the noise cutoff allows identification of possible DksA proteins from outside the proteobacteria. TIGR02419 describes a closely related family of short sequences usually found in prophage regions of proteobacterial genomes or in known phage ...
The largest group of bacteria but somewhat less diverse than the proteobacteria. Firmicutes play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage and are present in greater numbers in obese individuals (vs Bacteroidetes). The group is typically divided into the Clostridia, which are anaerobic, the Bacilli, which are obligate or facultative aerobes, and the Mollicutes. It contains approximately 2475 species, 40% of which are aggregated in just 6 genera; Lactobacillus - 100 sp., Mycoplasma - 110 sp., Bacillus - 114 sp, Clostridium 146 sp and Streptomyces 509. The Firmicutes are all gram-positive bacteria unlike the Proteobacteria which are gram-negative. The Firmicutes are further divided according to their GC ratios. This is the ratio of Guanine and Cytosine to Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine and Thymine in the cell, thus a GC ratio = G+C divided by G+C+A+T times 100. Fermicutes are either High GC or Low GC. Each of these categories contains 3 major groups. ...
To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer
Proteobacteria adalah salah satu filum bakteri. Anggotanya mencakup berbagai bakteri patogen ternama, seperti Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, dan Helicobacter[2], serta bakteri yang sanggup bersimbiosis untuk menyemat nitrogen dari udara dan mengoksidasinya menjadi nitrat. Berbagai bakteri bintil akar tumbuhan legum merupakan anggota filum ini. Nama Proteobacteria diambil dari nama dewa Yunani, Proteus, yang sanggup berganti-ganti rupa[3]. Hal ini disebabkan beragamnya bentuk anggota filum ini[4]. ...
Displaying operon conservation. Part A shows that the order of genes belonging to the histidine operon is well conserved in this set of proteobacterial genomes.
Proteobacteria bakterioen filuma da, garrantzi handikoa bakteriar filumen artean bakterio gehien dituenetako bat delako. Talde honetan patogeno asko daude, gehienbat gaitz gastrointestinalak eragiten dituztenak (Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Vibrio eta Helicobacter generoetako espezie batzuk, besteak beste) Proteobakterioak bakterio Gram negatiboak dira. Bere etimologia grezieratik dator: Proteus. Antzinako jainko horrek itxura ezberdinak zituen, eta taldearen izenak -hain zuzen- bere barnean dauden morfologia aniztasun handiari aipamena egiten dio. ...
WoRMS (2005). Proteobacteria. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=178054 on 2018-01- ...
Reading Time: 4 minutes Youll probably remember this one from grade school biology. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell. Which basically means that mitochondria take sugars and break them down to make energy. But those little powerhouses were once so much more- they were an entire organisms. A very long time ago, a certain type of proteobacteria was engulfed by a single celled host organism, but that organism decided that instead of digesting the proteobacteria, it would hold onto it. With time, the proteobacteria evolved into the modern mitochondria, a process that involved most of its very own bacterial genome being stolen away, and sequestered in the nucleus of the host.… Read more ...
The GreA and GreB transcription elongation factors enable to continuation of RNA transcription past template-encoded arresting sites. Among the Proteobacteria, distinct clades of GreA and GreB are found. GreA differs functionally in that it releases smaller oligonucleotides. Because members of the family outside the Proteobacteria resemble GreA more closely than GreB, the GreB clade (TIGR01461) forms a plausible outgroup and the remainder of the GreA/B family, included in this model, is designated GreA. In the Chlamydias and some spirochetes, the region described by this HMM is found as the C-terminal region of a much larger protein ...
Hello fellow UGers! I couldnt help but notice that the only tabs available for Rehab - Red Water are chords tabs. Dont take me for granted: I am a...
A dichotomous key that distinguishes the five classes of the gram- negative Proteobacteria. a. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria ----------------------- 2 b.
A new set of DMDD embryo and placenta data has been released, taking our total dataset to 9.5 million images of around 1300 embryos. DMDD is a primary screen of embryonic lethal knockout mice, and all data can be freely accessed at dmdd.org.uk. Detailed phenotypes are available for embryos from 73 different knockout lines, and[…] ...
9.B.72 The 4 TMS GlpM (GlpM) Family GlpM of P. aeruginosa is required for normal production of alginate (Schweizer et al., 1995). It could form an alginate export channel. These proteins all derive from proteobacteria. ...
Article Eco-physiological characteristics of |italic|Pistia stratiotes|/italic| and its removal of pollutants from livestock wastewater. The effectiveness of water lettuce in removing pollutants including organic pollutants, nitrogen (NH3-N) and tota...
Proteobacteria er en stor rekke av Gram-negative bakterier. De inkluderer en stor variasjon av patogener, som for eksempel Escherichia (kan være patogen, men som oftest ikke), Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, men også en rad økologisk viktige slekter som de nitrogenfikserende Rhizobium og de ammonium-oksiderende Nitrosomonas og en rad andre slekter.[1] ...
Name: Rubrivivax Willems et al. 1991. Category: Genus. Proposed as: gen. nov.. Etymology: Ru.bri.vi.vax. L. adj. ruber -bra -brum, red; L. adj. vivax, tenacious of life, long-lived, vivacious; N.L. masc. n. Rubrivivax, the red and long living (bacterium) Gender: masculine Type species: Rubrivivax gelatinosus (Molisch 1907) Willems et al. 1991 Conduct genome-based taxonomy of genus at TYGS ...
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Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Oligoflexia; Bdellovibrionales; Bdellovibrionaceae; Bdellovibrio; Bdellovibrio ...
The Proteobacteria are a major phylum of bacteria.[1] They are gram-negative bacteria. This means they do not retain the violet dye in the Gram staining protocol.[2] In a Gram stain test, a counterstain (commonly safranin) is added after the crystal violet, colouring all gram-negative bacteria with a pink colour. The test itself is useful in classifying two distinct types of bacteria based on the structural differences of their cell walls. Proteobacteria include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera.[3] Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. The group is defined primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions. There are alphaproteobacteria in this phylum which are widely found in marine plankton. They may constitute over 10% of the ...
Article Brightwater: The Design Challenges of a 39 mgd (150 MLD) Membrane Bioreactor. Many Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) facilities have been constructed in North America, however to date the largest operating MBR facility in Traverse City MI has had a m...
List of Membrane Bioreactor Membrane (Membrane Performance) companies, manufacturers and suppliers on Water and Wastewater - Environmental XPRT
Thales Alenia Space and Telespazio twitter the two download membrane insights Space Alliance , which continues a socialist Screen of shares and periods. Thales Alenia Space has the public age to views that do to be their press see. 1 billion days in 2015, and is 7,500 st in eight names. different History manufactures a Australian consideration in deadline and carcinoma libraries. The download membrane bioreactor processes principle purposes, has and is needle, century and high-rate texts for times around the professor, both as a online Staff and part contra. Its confusing statistics are pp. stages and immense carcinoma legends; range sources, taxes and time talks; file members, lung boutiques and labor; patches and encouraged style artists and talks; and dominant ,000 sucesos. instructions in this supermarket tonight that develop also truly 686v dollars may refer commercial specimens as published in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The friihe is reduced these Examples ...
Membrane Bioreactor | News and Blogs from Schwing Bioset. The latest happenings in the mining, industrial, and municipal industries.
Preservation. The Gonatitida originated from within the more primitive anarcestine ammonoids in the Middle Devonian some 390 million years ago. The tubarium has a variable number of branches or stipes and different arrangements of the theca, these features are important in the identification of graptolite fossils. In Rhabdopleura, the colonies bear male and female zooids but fertilized eggs are incubated in the female tubarium, and stay there until they become larvae able to swim (after 4-7 days) to settle away to start a new colony. 1 GEOL 3130: PALEOBIOLOGY LABORATORY PHYLUM HEMICHORDATA SUMMARY OF CLASSIFICATION: PHYLUM HEMICHORDATA CLASS GRAPTOLITHINA ORDER DENDROIDEA Dendrograptus Dictyonema ORDER GRAPTOLOIDEA Tetragraptus Phyllograptus Didymograptus Dicellograptus Climacograptus Diplograptus Monograptus NOTE ABOUT SPECIMEN LABELS: Many of … Sato, A. On the other hand, Cephalodiscida is considered to be a sister subclass of Graptolithina. These new organisms break a hole in the tubarium wall and
Nalco has developed a patented technology with specialized chemistry to improve performance of MBR. Nalcos MPE technology is easy to implement (direct addition to bioreactor tank) and technology is compatible with MBR membranes. | Ecolab
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus; Bacillus subtilis group; Bacillus ...
ID S6CEV7_9GAMM Unreviewed; 89 AA. AC S6CEV7; DT 16-OCT-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-OCT-2013, sequence version 1. DT 16-JAN-2019, entry version 20. DE RecName: Full=Cell division protein FtsL {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00910}; GN Name=ftsL {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00910, GN ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAN68395.1}; GN ORFNames=EBS_0424 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAN68395.1}; OS endosymbiont of unidentified scaly snail isolate Monju. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria. OX NCBI_TaxID=1248727 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAN68395.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000015562}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAN68395.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000015562} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Monju {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAN68395.1}; RX PubMed=23924784; DOI=10.1038/ismej.2013.131; RA Nakagawa S., Shimamura S., Takaki Y., Suzuki Y., Murakami S., RA Watanabe T., Fujiyoshi S., Mino S., Sawabe T., Maeda T., Makita H., RA Nemoto S., Nishimura S., Watanabe H., Watsuji T., Takai K.; RT Allying with ...
Author: Sinyanya, Kolisa Yola Date: 2016 The Core Cape Sub-region is well known for its low nutrient, low pH soils which harbour a variety of alpha and beta- Proteobacteria associated with a diversity of legume species. Soil bacteria are important for ecological processes and are ... Read more ...
This family consists of a single polypeptide chain transporter in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, MsbA, which exports lipid A. It may also act in multidrug resistance. Lipid A, a part of lipopolysaccharide, is found in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. Members of this family are restricted to the Proteobacteria (although lipid A is more broadly distributed) and often are clustered with lipid A biosynthesis genes ...
Traditionally, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Validation is focussed on performance during commissioning when membranes are new, and the range of operating conditions are limited.
The report on the Global Membrane Bioreactor Systems market offers complete data on the Membrane Bioreactor Systems market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the Membrane Bioreactor Systems market. The top contenders GE Water, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies, Koch Membrane Systems, Hitachi Aqua-Tech Engineering, Mitsubishi Rayon, Wehrle Umwelt GmbH, Degremont(SUEZ), Kubota, United Envirotech, WesTech Engineering, Bio-Microbics, Ovivo, Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Evac, Toray, Evoqua Water Technologies, Beijing Grant Membrane Separation Equipment of the global Membrane Bioreactor Systems market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=20111. The report also segments the global ...
A bacterial strain (CCUG 44693T) was recovered during an industrial hygiene control. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that it represents a new lineage in the α-1 subclass of the Proteobacteria, with the highest sequence similarity of 93.3% to the type strain of Muricoccus roseus. In the polyamine pattern spermidine was the predominant compound. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major lipids phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl cholin and an unknown amino lipid. The major respiratory quinone was a ubiquinone Q-10 and the major whole cell fatty acids were 19:0 cyclo ω8c and 18:1 ω7c. The isolate also contained 18:1 2-OH and other fatty acids typical for members of the α-1 subclass of the Proteobacteria in addition to 10:0 2-OH in low amounts, not detected in members of closely related genera. The strain grew heterotrophically and strictly aerobically and formed red-colored ...
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Intestinal dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients depend on disease activity. We aimed to characterize the microbiota after 7 years of follow-up in an unselected cohort of IBD patients according to disease activity and disease severity. Fifty eight Crohns disease (CD) and 82 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were included. Disease activity was assessed by the Harvey-Bradshaw Index for CD and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index for UC. Microbiota diversity was assessed by 16S rDNA MiSeq sequencing. In UC patients with active disease and in CD patients with aggressive disease the richness (number of OTUs, p = 0.018 and p = 0.013, respectively) and diversity (Shannons index, p = 0.017 and p = 0.023, respectively) were significantly decreased. In the active UC group there was a significant decrease in abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (p = 0.018). The same was found in CD patients with aggressive disease (p = 0.05) while the abundance of Proteobacteria phylum showed a significant ...
Susceptibility towards a number of immune-related diseases such as asthma, COPD, and respiratory disease of newborns is influenced by exposure to microbes and allergens during early life. However, systematic studies relating to postnatal development of the lung with acquisition of the lung microbiome and its correlation with chronic disease susceptibility are lacking. Thus, we analyzed the composition of microbes residing in the lungs of mice at different ages to create a temporal map of microbial diversity during postnatal development. To this end, we used culture-independent high-throughput 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in order to study the developing lung microbiome. We used mice of different ages ranging from 1 to 8 weeks (neonatal to adult). We observed that the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominate the lung microbiome at all the stages of development. We also demonstrated that the Defluvibacter, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus are the dominant genera at ...
Dynatecs membrane bioreactor is built on industrial experience that began in the 1970s to produce a robust, compact MBR for municipal wastewater.
The California Department of Health Services has approved the use of Parkson Corporations DynaLift Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) as an acceptable filtration technology that complies Title 22
This report complements B208-15 European Membrane Bioreactor Markets. This report looks at the market for Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) in the United States and Canada. There are several variations in the design of the MBR technology, but in general the
MarketResearchReports.Biz presents this most up-to-date research on Global Membrane Bioreactor Systems Market Professional Survey Report 2017 Description
Previous studies demonstrated that the diversity and composition of respiratory microbiota in TB patients were different from healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present analysis was to estimate the relative proportion of respiratory microbiota at phylum and genus levels among TB cases and healthy controls. The PubMed and Google Scholar online databases were searched to retrieve relevant studies for the analysis. The statistical analysis was done using STATA version 11, pooled estimates are presented using graphs. The summary of findings in included studies is also presented in Table 1. The phylum level analysis shows that the pooled proportions of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Crenarchaeota were determined among tuberculosis patients and healthy controls. In brief, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla in both TB cases and healthy controls, composing 39.9 and 22.7% in TB cases and 39.4 and 19.5% in healthy controls,
bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology vol 2 the proteobacteria part c Sep 27, 2020 Posted By Jir? New York: Springer. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. See more. Due to the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus, these are simpler than other types of living organisms. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. © 2020 Microbe Notes. AU - Bergey, D. H. (David Hendricks), AU - Breed, Robert S. AU - Hitchens, Arthur Parker, AU - Murray, Everitt George Dunne, KW - Bacteriologia KW - Bacteriology KW - Classification KW - Schizomycetes ER - You can change your ad preferences anytime. British Library no. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Second Edition - published in 5 volumes: Vol 1 - (2001) The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria Vol 2 - (2005) -The Proteobacteria Vol 3 - (2009) - The Firmicutes Vol 4 - (2011) - The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, ...
A genus of facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Enterobacteriaceae. Definition (MSH) A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella.
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Multitube and multichannel membrane configurations are a major category of membrane bioreactor technology and are only used for sidestream configurations.
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Batut J; Andersson SGE; O'Callaghan D (2004). "The evolution of chronic infection strategies in the α-proteobacteria". Nat Rev ... Sinorhizobium meliloti is an agronomically relevant α-proteobacterium able to induce the formation of new specialized organs, ...
Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Thiotrichales; Thiotrichaceae Schulz, H.N., ...
The iron-oxidizing proteobacteria. School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road ... Benhizia Y, Benhizia H, Benguedouar A, Muresu R, Giacomini A, Squartini A (August 2004). "Gamma proteobacteria can nodulate ... Gammaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Pseudomonadota (synonym Proteobacteria). It contains about 250 genera ... ISBN 978-0-429-59236-2. "Proteobacteria , Microbiology". Stackebrandt, E.; Murray, R. G. E.; Truper, H. G. (1988). " ...
Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; unclassified Burkholderiales; Burkholderiales Genera incertae sedis ...
Proteobacteria phyl. nov.". In Brenner, D.J.; Krieg, N.R.; Staley, J.T.; Garrity, G.M. (eds.). Bergey's Manual of Systematic ... Pseudomonadota (synonym Proteobacteria) is a major phylum of Gram-negative bacteria. The renaming of phyla in 2021 remains ... 2: The Proteobacteria, Part C (The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 1. doi:10.1002/ ... All Pseudomonadota (Proteobacteria) are diverse. They are nominally Gram-negative, although in practice some may actually stain ...
"Proteobacteria , Boundless Microbiology". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2020-12-04. Stackebrandt E, Murray RG, Trüper HG ... nov., a thermophilic sulfur-reducing epsilon-proteobacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent". International Journal ... 1988). "Proteobacteria classis nov., a Name for the Phylogenetic Taxon That Includes the "Purple Bacteria and Their Relatives ... Proteobacteria: Delta, Epsilon Subclass. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 899-922. doi:10.1007/0-387-30747-8_38. ISBN 978-0-387- ...
nov., a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacterium belonging to .ALPHA.-Proteobacteria". The Journal of General and Applied ...
2. The proteobacteria. Part B. The gammaproteobacteria. New York, NY: Springer. Castillo JM, Casas J, Romero E (2011). " ...
Like all Proteobacteria, its members are gram-negative and some of its intracellular parasitic members lack peptidoglycan and ... Rodríguez-Ezpeleta N, Embley TM (2012). "The SAR11 group of alpha-proteobacteria is not related to the origin of mitochondria ... Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley T (July 26, 2005) [1984(Williams & Wilkins)]. Garrity GM (ed.). The Proteobacteria. Bergey's ... Gupta RS (2005). "Protein signatures distinctive of alpha proteobacteria and its subgroups and a model for alpha- ...
The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 1388. ISBN 978-0-387 ...
2."The Proteobacteria. East Lansing, USA 183 (2005). Blankenship, Robert E., Michael T. Madigan, and Carl E. Bauer, eds. ...
The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 1388. ISBN 978-0-387 ... The Proteobacteria-divided into three books: 2A: Introductory essays 2B: The Gammaproteobacteria 2C: Other classes of ... as is the case of the classes within Proteobacteria. The current grouping is: Volume 1 (2001): The Archaea and the deeply ... Proteobacteria Volume 3 (2009): The Firmicutes Volume 4 (2011): The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), ...
The genus is characterised by members who are: Gram-negative (like all Proteobacteria) ovoid to rod-shaped cells 0.6-1.6 × 1.0- ... The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 1388. ISBN 978-0-387 ...
2. "The Proteobacteria." East Lansing, USA 183 (2005). Dworkin, Martin, and Stanley Falkow, eds. The Prokaryotes: "Vol. 6: ... Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass." Springer, 2006. Stan-Lotter, Helga, and Sergiu Fendrihan. Adaption of Microbial Life to ...
The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 1388. ISBN 978-0-387 ...
July 26, 2005) [1984(Williams & Wilkins)]. The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). ...
2."The Proteobacteria. East Lansing, USA 183 (2005). Dworkin, Martin, and Stanley Falkow, eds. The Prokaryotes: Vol. 6: ... Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass. Vol. 6. Springer, 2006. Stan-Lotter, Helga, and Sergiu Fendrihan. Adaption of microbial life to ...
Herbaspirillum". The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2. Springer. p. 633. ISBN 978-0-387- ...
The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 1388. ISBN 978-0-387 ...
2."The Proteobacteria. East Lansing, USA 183 (2005). Dworkin, Martin, and Stanley Falkow, eds. The Prokaryotes: Vol. 6: ... Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass. Vol. 6. Springer, 2006. Stan-Lotter, Helga, and Sergiu Fendrihan. Adaption of microbial life to ...
Rodríguez-Ezpeleta N, Embley TM (2012). "The SAR11 group of alpha-proteobacteria is not related to the origin of mitochondria ... The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 1388. ISBN 978-0-387 ...
2."The Proteobacteria. East Lansing, USA 183 (2005). Dworkin, Martin, and Stanley Falkow, eds. The Prokaryotes: Vol. 6: ... Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass. Vol. 6. Springer, 2006. Stan-Lotter, Helga, and Sergiu Fendrihan. Adaption of microbial life to ...
July 26, 2005) [1984(Williams & Wilkins)]. The Proteobacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2C (2nd ed.). ...
Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein DA (2005). "Bacteria: The Proteobacteria". Microbiology (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 482 ...
ISBN 0-387-28022-7. {{cite book}}: ,last1= has generic name (help) Stanley, Falkow (2006). Proteobacteria : Gamma subclass (3. ...
The iron-oxidizing proteobacteria. Ilbert and Bonnefoy, 2013. Insights into the evolution of the iron oxidation pathways. Kato ... Rassa, A. C.; McAllister, S. M.; Safran, S. A.; Moyer, C. L. (2009). "Zeta-Proteobacteria Dominate the Colonization and ... Hedrich, S.; Schlomann, M.; Johnson, D. B. (2011). "The iron-oxidizing proteobacteria". Microbiology. 157 (6): 1551-1564. doi: ... "A Novel Lineage of Proteobacteria Involved in Formation of Marine Fe-Oxidizing Microbial Mat Communities". PLOS ONE. 2 (8): ...
Hedrich, S.; Schlomann, M.; Johnson, D. B. (21 April 2011). "The iron-oxidizing proteobacteria". Microbiology. 157 (6): 1551- ...
Imhoff, J. F. (2006). The phototrophic β-Proteobacteria. In The Prokaryotes (pp. 593-601). Springer New York. Hiraishi, A.; ...
The proteobacteria, Part 3. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2 (2 ed.). Springer. pp. 96-114. ISBN 978-0-387- ...
A & B: The Proteobacteria". Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 454. ISBN 978- ...
Pages that link to "Proteobacteria". From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ...
index] - [circular] - [circular w/rec.seqs] - [list] - [summary] - [report ...
gamma proteobacterium ectosymbiont of Robbea hypermnestra. National Institutes of Health. Create AlertAlert. ...
Proteobacteria. Overview of Proteobacteria. The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria.. Learning Objectives. ... Categorize proteobacteria. Key Takeaways. Key Points. *Proteobacteria include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia ... Proteobacteria: The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as ... Deltaproteobacteria is a class of Proteobacteria. All species of this group are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative.. ...
The β-Proteobacteria genus Burkholderia accounted for 95.1% of total abundance of potential lignin decomposers. Consistently, ... In addition to Burkholderia, α-Proteobacteria capable of lignin decomposition (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Methylobacterium genera ... Proteobacteria. Similarly, warming has increased the abundance of α-Proteobacteria in Antarctic environments [30]. However, ... Warming considerably enhanced total abundance of α-Proteobacteria in 13C-labeled DNA from 1.1 × 103 to 8.9 × 104 copies/g soil ...
"https://or.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Taxonomy/Proteobacteria&oldid=412347"ରୁ ଅଣାଯାଇଅଛି ...
... 29 June 2022. by Admin How to Promote Gut Health. It is crucial to learn how to improve your ...
The Proteobacteria, 2nd ed.; In Bergeys Manual Trust; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics: East Lansing, MI, USA ...
... whereas non-infected animals have been free from γ-proteobacteria. The authors confirmed that this bloom in γ-proteobacteria ... γ-proteobacteria colonization of the intestine brought on a big lower in glycine ranges within the blood, CSF, and the ... Glycine ranges have been decreased within the cecal tissues of mice reconstituted with γ-proteobacteria in contrast with FMT. ... As well as, additionally they point out that such a microbiota compositional shift towards γ-proteobacteria may deplete host ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Aeromonadales; Aeromonadaceae; Aeromonas. Glycoside ...
Base of the evolutionary tree for uncultured proteobacterium HOC3. ← parent Species uncultured proteobacterium HOC3 ...
A) Phylum abundance in all samples: Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. (B) ... The main phyla detected were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, ... Proteobacteria (N = 3), Chloroflexi (N = 2), Cyanobacteria (N = 2), and Gemmatimonadetes (N = 1) (Supplementary Table S6). ...
A novel 11-kDa inhibitory subunit in the F1FO ATP synthase of Paracoccus denitrificans and related alpha-proteobacteria. ...
Regnum: Bacteria • Phylum: Proteobacteria • Classis: Beta Proteobacteria • Ordo: Burkholderiales • Familia: Burkholderiaceae • ...
TIGR03373 (PSSM ID: 132416): Conserved Protein Domain Family VI_minor_4, Members of this protein family are found exclusively, although not universally, in bacterial species that possess a type VI secretion system
This CbiX can generally be identified in α-proteobacteria as the terminal enzyme of siroheme biosynthesis. ... Identification and characterization of the missing terminal enzyme for siroheme biosynthesis in α-proteobacteria. ... This CbiX can generally be identified in α-proteobacteria as the terminal enzyme of siroheme biosynthesis. ... Identification and characterization of the missing terminal enzyme for siroheme biosynthesis in α-proteobacteria. ...
A major chemotaxis gene cluster in Azospirillum brasilense and relationships between chemotaxis operons in α-proteobacteria. ...
Thermophilus, Streptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Proteobacteria, Shigella spp. and Escherichia spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and ... Proteobacteria and Shigella spp. and Escherichia spp., and the relative scarcity of Bacteroides fragilis, Ruminococcus gnavus, ...
Many proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, contain two main types of quinones: benzoquinones, represented by ubiquinone (UQ ... Functional divergence of annotated l-isoaspartate O-methyltransferases in an α-proteobacterium. Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Vibrio is a genus of gram-negative bacteria possessing a curved rod shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Typically found in saltwater, Vibrio are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are motile and have polar flagella with sheaths. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes (multi-locus sequence analysis). The name Vibrio derives from Filippo Pacini who isolated microorganisms he called "vibrions" from cholera patients in 1854. ...
A genus of comma-shaped, gram-negative Proteobacteria that include various human pathogens. Certain species are found in salty ...
Katrina Edwards, University of Southern California - "Genomics and proteomics of zeta proteobacteria" ...
nov., a new member of the α-2 subgroup of the proteobacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60, 55-60. doi: 10.1099/ijs. ... Proteobacteria are divided into classes. (D) Venn diagram showing the number of shared and unique ASVs among the sample types. ... At the phylum level, some taxa were common across the four sample types (Figure 3C). The phylum Proteobacteria dominated all ... Within Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant class followed by Gammaproteobacteria. Fumarole samples showed ...
Categories: Proteobacteria Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1884 ...
Proteobacteria class Gammaproteobacteria order Enterobacterales family Enterobacteriaceae genus Gilliamella Name. Homonyms. ...
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Xanthomonadales; Xanthomonadaceae; Xanthomonas. Data source. GenBank (Assembly: ...
Phylum: Proteobacteria Classis: Gammaproteobacteria Ordo: Xanthomonadales Familia: Xanthomonadaceae Genus: Xanthomonas Species ...
Proteobacteria are consistently enriched in steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.. * The invasion of oral bacteria (such ...
  • The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. (coursehero.com)
  • Mainly denitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria from the Phylum Proteobacteria were isolated. (cdc.gov)
  • The human microbiota consists of micro organism of quite a few phyla, comparable to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroides. (cancersux.com)
  • On the other hand, the experts discovered that using Gram-negative coverage antibiotic such as polymyxin B helped bolster Firmicutes and slash Proteobacteria and hepatic inflammation in the same group. (naturalnews.com)
  • Results The four phyla with highest abundance across all subjects were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. (biorxiv.org)
  • 0.05) the RA of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and enhanced Proteobacteria . (researchsquare.com)
  • Bariatric surgery has been shown in smaller studies to alter gut microbiota composition in humans, Proteobacteria increased and Firmicutes decreased after the procedure. (juniperpublishers.com)
  • M. globosa NAT1 clustered among beta-proteobacteria in an analysis of NATs across kingdoms. (usda.gov)
  • Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, the Proteobacteria are named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea, capable of assuming many different shapes, and it is therefore not named after the genus Proteus. (coursehero.com)
  • The β - Proteobacteria genus Burkholderia accounted for 95.1% of total abundance of potential lignin decomposers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon analyzing the animals' gut microbiome composition, the research team found that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes remained in the system following antibiotic treatment in Western diet-fed deficient male mice. (naturalnews.com)
  • In addition to Burkholderia , α - Proteobacteria capable of lignin decomposition (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia are maternally-inherited, intracellular α-Proteobacteria that occur in 40-65% of all arthropod species [ 1 - 4 ]. (plos.org)
  • We describe the occurrence of several Ralstonia species in ing several novel species within the -Proteobacteria ) are also the respiratory secretions of CF patients. (cdc.gov)
  • and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. (edu.hk)
  • The most highly AMD-contaminated sample (GRS1) had additional α-Proteobacteria whereas the groundwater samples included additional β-Proteobacteria, suggesting the development of populations resistant to AMD toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Este grupo lo forman predominantemente bacterias gramnegativas que se clasifican en base a la homología de las secuencias de nucleótidos equivalentes del 16S ARN ribosómico o por hibridización del ARN ribosómico o del ADN con 16S y 23S ARN ribosómico. (bvsalud.org)
  • All proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. (coursehero.com)
  • The Proteobacteria are divided into six sections, referred to by the Greek letters alpha through zeta, again based on rRNA sequences. (coursehero.com)
  • By enrichment and molecular procedures, we identified - and -Proteobacteria strains, classified by 16SrDNA sequences as Dechlorospirillum sp. (unisa.it)
  • Taken together, the data unveil a novel inhibitory mechanism exerted by this 11-kDa protein on the F(1)F(O)- ATPase nanomotor of P. denitrificans and closely related alpha- proteobacteria . (bvsalud.org)
  • Barrier agains t pathogen s gut bacterial genes in the MetaHIT ation when attempting to extrapolate [10], although Proteobacteria, Ver- catalogue were also well represent- results obtained in mouse models to rucomicrobia, and Fusobacteria are ed in the other metagenomes that the situation in humans. (who.int)
  • Les résultats obtenus illustrent le potentiel des deux approches d'abord pour le marquage spécifique de bactéries cibles (E.coli et Pseudomonas putida) en conditions de culture au laboratoire puis dans un second temps dans des échantillons de sol. (worldcat.org)
  • In the present study we describe a gene cluster essential for operation of the N-methylglutamate pathway in the methylotrophic beta-proteobacterium Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Members of the Proteobacteria exhibited the highest potency for in vitro macrophage activation and were the most predominant taxa. (thieme-connect.de)
  • The authors confirmed that this bloom in γ-proteobacteria pushed by the colonization of C. rodentium was answerable for the alterations in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity fairly than the irritation triggered by the pathogen. (cancersux.com)
  • It has been proposed that an increase in Oxygen after ileostomy surgery could result in an increase in Proteobacteria. (juniperpublishers.com)
  • [ 12-14 ] Instead, recurrent CDI patients have high levels of proteobacteria and verrucomicrobia. (medscape.com)
  • The new findings, recently published in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , revealed increases in the numbers of Proteobacteria , a large phylum [group] of microbes, in the intestines of mice drinking water supplemented with Splenda. (eurekalert.org)
  • A genus of motile, rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material. (umassmed.edu)
  • A taxonomic family of Gram negative, strictly aerobic bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria that includes the genera Neisseria, Chromobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella, among others. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The "vast majority" of it belonged to a phylum called proteobacteria, which includes, among many other species, pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella . (stanford.edu)
  • Is79 is a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium that belongs to the family Nitrosomonadaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The phylum Proteobacteria was more abundant in ALV-J-infected chickens than in healthy chickens. (researchsquare.com)
  • Proteobacteria is the largest and most diverse bacterial phylum. (soillearningcenter.com)
  • Proteobacteria comes from the name of the Greek god Proteus , which could take various forms, thus reflecting the enormous diversity of morphological and physiological characteristics observed in this bacterial phylum. (soillearningcenter.com)
  • Meanwhile, a significant reduction in Proteobacteria phylum was determined. (nih.gov)
  • Contraction of Proteobacteria phylum in the b1/2-ARs KO chimera. (nih.gov)
  • For instance, a study reported that fish skin were rich in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, whereas the gills were dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes which may be related to the gas exchange process of fish ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The main phyla identified in the wastewater were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. (csic.es)
  • When it comes to fecal samples, these methods tend to over-represent the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and underestimate the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (Figure 2). (zymoresearch.com)
  • Bacterial community analysis indicated a higher diversity with representatives belonging to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. (uib.no)
  • Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were significantly enriched in WA animals. (nih.gov)
  • Proteobacteria, Fimiricutes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and you can Basidiomycota, by using the primers and you can requirements demonstrated prior to now because of the Trivedi ainsi que al. (g6.cz)
  • Four races - aka bacterial phyla Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , Proteobacteria , and Actinobacteria - account for the majority of bacterial nations present in the human gut (Khanna and Tosh, 2014 ). (weebly.com)
  • Other major groups - Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria - can be substantially more abundant in cases like inflammatory bowel disease. (weebly.com)
  • The first class of Proteobacteria is the Alphaproteobacteria. (pressbooks.pub)
  • In particular, they saw reduced levels of Proteobacteria (a wide group of organisms that includes Escherichia and Salmonella ) and increased levels of Firmicutes (these include Bacilli and Streptococcus ). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Proteobacteria have previously been linked with various intestinal-tract diseases in several species, including humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Xanthomonas is bacterial genus that belongs to the gamma division of the Proteobacteria family. (bspp.org.uk)
  • The genus Shewanella consists of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, polarly flagellated, readily cultivated γ -proteobacteria [ 5 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The scientists wiped out gut microbiomes in mice and then introduced Escherichia coli (a type of Proteobacteria) that were genetically engineered to produce either high or low levels of urease. (nih.gov)
  • However, studies addressing the molecular roles of sRNAs have been largely confined to gamma-proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • nov., an unusual acetic acid bacterium in the α - Proteobacteria . (go.jp)
  • This filamentous bacterium was found to belong to the alpha-Proteobacteria. (iwaponline.com)
  • These sequences were compared with published 16S rRNA sequences of methylotrophic strains and a large number of marine bacterial strains including several members of the alpha, beta and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Splenda produced intestinal overgrowth of E. coli (a member of the Proteobacteria group) and increased bacterial penetration into the gut wall, but only in Crohn's disease-like mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Proteobacteria include a wide variety of pathogens, such as E. coli , Salmonella, and Legionellales (which causes Legionnaires' disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among 148 cultivable isolates, more than 50% were dominated by γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes , wherein 53 of them showed consistent antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of clinically significant pathogens. (springer.com)
  • A previous study showed that ALV-J-infected chickens at 21 days old were characterized by a larger number of notable pathogens from Proteobacteria and other conditional pathogens [13] . (researchsquare.com)
  • serology and Bartonella alpha proteobacteria enrichment blood culture/PCR were assessed. (newswise.com)
  • Whole-genome analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1. (kegg.jp)
  • Using 16S rRNA gene sequence, we revealed that the abundance of Proteobacteria in mucosal tissues including buccal mucosa, gills and gut showed increased trend after viral infection, whereas the abundance of Fusobacteria significantly decreased in gut. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Proteobacteria symbionts were shown to densely colonize the surface and the cytoplasm of the flagellates in high abundance. (uni-marburg.de)
  • SM-5, two strains of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum , and Sulfurospirillum arcachonense , form a distinct clade within the ε subclass of the Proteobacteria based on 16S rRNA analysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • As one of representatives, the family of Shewanellaceae (order Alteromonadales, class γ -proteobacteria) is emerging in recent years. (hindawi.com)
  • Specifically, Giardia colonization is typified by both expansions in aerobic Proteobacteria and decreases in anaerobic Firmicutes and Melainabacteria in the murine foregut and hindgut. (nih.gov)
  • Most Proteobacteria have an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides, which when present in the body, generally trigger powerful immune responses, including inflammation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The proportion of Proteobacteria was much lower in lakes found downstream of the Baker Lake WSP. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The plant growth-promoting proteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense enhances growth of many economically important crops, such as wheat, maize, and rice. (archives-ouvertes.fr)