Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.NicaraguaAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Vaccines, Live, Unattenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms without their virulence altered. Examples include smallpox (vaccinia) and adenovirus vaccines.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.UzbekistanDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)United StatesMexicoClinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)PhiladelphiaHaemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)IndiaTuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Mice, Inbred BALB CStreptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
  • The genes encoding the outer capsid spike protein VP4, the inner capsid protein VP6, the outer capsid glycoprotein VP7, and the viral enterotoxin NSP4 of BRV WC3 were sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • The recent identification of the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) as the first viral enterotoxin has attracted considerable attention toward understanding its structure and function. (asm.org)
  • Rotaviruses are nonenveloped, icosahedral, triple-layered particles, the outer layer made of viral spike protein 4 (VP4) and VP7, the intermediate layer consisting of the subgroup antigen VP6, and the inner layer composed of VP2 ( 18 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • The structural protein VP6 of rotavirus, an important pathogen responsible for severe gastroenteritis in children, forms the middle layer in the triple‐layered viral capsid. (embopress.org)
  • Here we present the crystal structure of VP6 determined to 2 Å resolution and describe its interactions with other capsid proteins by fitting the atomic model into electron cryomicroscopic reconstructions of viral particles. (embopress.org)
  • The gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus tends to be more severe than that caused by other viral pathogens. (bmj.com)
  • Rotavirus is highly infectious due to the small infective dose, high viral concentrations in stool, and prolonged viral shedding. (canada.ca)
  • The G12 strain possessed multiple electropherotypes and P-types, but their viral protein 7 sequences were closely related, indicating that reassortment has occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • VP7 is a structural protein of the outer capsid of a rotavirus and is encoded in the seventh, eighth or ninth gene segment of the genome (depending on the viral strain) (Song & Hao 2009). (scielo.org.za)
  • We show that binding of the rotavirus-encoded non-structural protein NSP2 to viral ssRNAs results in the remodeling of RNA, which is conducive to formation of stable inter-segment contacts. (elifesciences.org)
  • The potential use of cell culture techniques in developing viral vaccines, especially for the Influenza virus, has been widely investigated in recent years as a complementary and alternative platform to the current egg-based strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates because they represent viral antigens in the authentic conformation of the virion and are therefore readily recognized by the immune system. (uzh.ch)
  • The total number of bacterial and viral proteins contained in earlier versions of these vaccines was a little more than 3,000. (chicagotribune.com)
  • But the total number of bacterial and viral components in these vaccines is only about 150. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Immune responses elicited against rotavirus middle layer protein VP6 inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo," Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics , vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 2039-2047, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthesis and characterization of different immunogenic viral nanoconstructs from rotavirus VP6 inner capsid protein," International Journal of Nanomedicine , vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 2727-2739, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • They have a characteristic wheel shaped appearance and can be classified by their viral proteins and nucleic acids into groups. (pigprogress.net)
  • To develop a subunit RVB vaccine with maximal effect, we characterized the amino acid sequence variability and predicted antigenicity of RVB viral protein 7 (VP7), a major neutralizing antibody target, from clinically infected pigs in the United States and Canada. (mdpi.com)
  • Although increased levels of systemic type I interferon (IFNalpha and beta) correlate with accelerated resolution of rotavirus disease, multiple rotavirus strains, including rhesus rotavirus (RRV), have been demonstrated to antagonize type I IFN production in a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types through several mechanisms, including degradation of multiple interferon regulatory factors by a viral nonstructural protein. (stanford.edu)
  • Production of IFNalpha by pDCs following RRV exposure required viral dsRNA and surface proteins, but neither viral replication nor activation by trypsin cleavage of VP4. (stanford.edu)
  • However, the effect of rotavirus NSP1 on viral replication is not well defined. (stanford.edu)
  • The rotavirus VP3 protein caps viral mRNAs and helps combat cellular innate antiviral defenses, but little is known about its structure or enzymatic mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • It could also be helpful to inform the design of a peptide vaccine based on the conserved regions and epitopes in the viral proteins. (eur.nl)
  • This one was widely used earlier (back to the 1980s) in the viral-vector field (which encompasses both vaccines and gene therapy) and a great deal is known about its behavior in humans, but the existing immune response has been a problem every step of the way. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some viral infections can be prevented by vaccines, which "teach" the adaptive immune system to recognize specific viruses. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers expect the specific method used in their work, using flagellin or the IL-22 and IL-18 proteins it elicits, might be effective against a range of chronic viral infections of the digestive system such as norovirus and hepatitis C virus. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers at Griffith University's Institute for Glycomics in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Melbourne have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded 'viral tummy bug' or rotavirus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The F protein of parainfluenza virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family, resides in the viral envelope in a metastable state, ready to fuse with the outer membranes of target cells that this virus infects. (asmscience.org)
  • Once contact is made, the F protein dramatically changes shape, releasing viral RNA into. (asmscience.org)
  • Virtually every child in the world becomes infected with rotaviruses before developing natural immunity. (hhmi.org)
  • Both natural and vaccine-induced immunity occur only after the immune system has "seen" the virus and generates neutralizing antibodies. (hhmi.org)
  • The upside would be that you might have better immunity against some rather benign diseases, like rotavirus, chicken pox, measles and human papillomavirus (HPV). (naturalnews.com)
  • Here is a list of the most dangerous vaccines that the medical community claim offer immunity. (naturalnews.com)
  • To determine the effect of delivery route on induction of VP6-specific protective immunity, BALB/c mice were administered a vaccine containing RV rVP6 intramuscularly, intranasally or a combination of both, and challenged with murine RV. (uta.fi)
  • Measles vaccine 38. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Enders, Weller, and Robbins ( 16 ) showed that many viruses could be grown in cell culture, including polio and measles, and this method was vigorously taken up by vaccine developers. (pnas.org)
  • The oral polio vaccine of Albert Sabin and the measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella vaccines were all made possible through selection of clones by cell-culture passage in vitro ( 17 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Prior to the introduction of measles and mumps vaccines children got measles and mumps and in the great majority of cases these diseases were benign. (educate-yourself.org)
  • The immune correlates of protection from rotavirus are not fully understood. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccines deliver medical intelligence into the body, instructing the immune system about how to recognize and prepare defenses against attempted colonization by enemy invaders, usually a virus or bacterium. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The crucial role of the protein RhoH GTPase in the development and activation of cells critical to the immune system is identified. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • These soldiers of the immune system seek out and attach to rotavirus particles, rendering them unable to infect cells. (hhmi.org)
  • His treatment team was offered the new Hepatitis B vaccine, made from pooled blood (no longer used) and Hepatitis B immune globulin (also made from pooled blood, still used occasionally). (blogspot.com)
  • An infected mom and her newborn need not only the vaccine, but also immune globulin, and possibly an antiviral drug. (blogspot.com)
  • They're concerned that too many vaccines might overwhelm their child's immune system. (chicagotribune.com)
  • A. The schedule is designed so that vaccines are given at the earliest possible age at which a child's immune system will respond well. (chicagotribune.com)
  • A. Experts say that while children receive more vaccines now, the vaccines are more precise than before because of better scientific understanding of how to train the immune system to defend children against diseases. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Rotavirus anti-VP6 secretory immunoglobulin A contributes to protection via intracellular neutralization but not via immune exclusion," Journal of Virology , vol. 80, no. 21, pp. 10692-10699, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • In this work, we obtained BLPs from immunomodulatory (immunobiotics) and non-immunomodulatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum strains and comparatively evaluated their ability to improve the intestinal and systemic immune responses elicited by an attenuated rotavirus vaccine. (medworm.com)
  • Results demonstrated that orally administered BLPs from non-immunomodulatory strains did not induce significant changes in the immune response triggered by rotavirus vaccine in mice. (medworm.com)
  • On the contrary, BLPs derived from immunobiotic lactobacilli were able to improve the levels of anti-rotavirus intestinal IgA and serum IgG, the numbers of CD24+B220+ B and CD4+ T cells in Peyer's patches and spleen as well as the production of IFN-γ by immune cells. (medworm.com)
  • Importantly, the untagged Aβ1-6 chimeric soluble protein could induce the strongest Aβ-specific humoral immune responses without activation of harmful Aβ-specific T cells in mice. (springer.com)
  • This work provides insight into the mechanisms of rotavirus transcription and evasion of host innate immune defenses. (asm.org)
  • In its place goes genetic instructions to make coronavirus proteins, and when your infected cells do that, it will set off an immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • These actions resulted in rapid and complete expulsion of rotavirus, even in hosts with severely compromised immune systems. (eurekalert.org)
  • Flagellin stopped rotavirus by rapidly inducing an immune response that would normally be activated by select bacteria rather than a virus. (medindia.net)
  • Flagellin triggered the innate immune system, which provides an immediate response to pathogens, to produce two proteins: Interleukin-22, which prevented the virus from entering cells, and Interleukin-18, which removed existing rotavirus from infected cells. (medindia.net)
  • The immunogenicity data analyzed so far shows the vaccine induced the expected levels of immune responses. (iavireport.org)
  • A routine 'strep throat' will present between 25 and 50 foreign proteins to the immune system. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • This table cross-references Current Procedural Terminology (CPT™) codes that are related to vaccines, toxoids and immune globulins with their corresponding CVX codes. (cdc.gov)
  • In the new experiments, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers have mapped the structure of an antiviral antibody clamped onto a protein called VP7 that stipples the surface of rotavirus. (hhmi.org)
  • The structural map reveals intimate new details about how the antibody interferes with VP7, a protein that helps the virus infect cells. (hhmi.org)
  • Rotavirus vaccine may be administered at any time before, concurrent with, or after administration of any blood product, including antibody-containing blood products. (aappublications.org)
  • However, in fact, vaccine development has been based on rational choices ever since the mid-20th century, when immunology advanced to the point of distinguishing protection mediated by antibody and that mediated by lymphocytes, and when passage in cell culture permitted the selection of attenuated mutants. (pnas.org)
  • The scientist Yoshikazu Yuki in Tokyo, with rice plants that produce a rotavirus antibody. (nytimes.com)
  • Mr. Yuki said his team figured out how to make a cholera vaccine using rice in 2007, and a rotavirus antibody last year. (nytimes.com)
  • Adding a storage protein synthesis inhibitor into the genome, the team produced rice with a high yield of antibody content. (nytimes.com)
  • One percent of the total weight of the rice grain is the rotavirus antibody," Mr. Yuki said. (nytimes.com)
  • Both cholera vaccine and rotavirus antibody versions of the rice have been tested on laboratory mice, Mr. Yuki said. (nytimes.com)
  • Norovirus P particle, a novel platform for vaccine development and antibody production. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The new test, developed by Antje Baeumner, professor of biological and environmental engineering, and research associate Katie Edwards, is a highly sensitive antibody-recognition system similar to a home pregnancy test, yielding a visible line when rotavirus is present in a fecal sample. (phys.org)
  • In the mucous, this antibody is secreted as a dimer, joined at the non-antigen binding end by a protein known as the J chain as shown in Figure 3. (ubc.ca)
  • Instituted more than a decade ago, CASP is a sort of structural biology proving ground, a community experiment/competition in which participants are asked to predict the shape of proteins whose structures have been elucidated but not yet published. (the-scientist.com)
  • The genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA that code for six structural and six nonstructural proteins ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Knowing the detailed architecture of the rotavirus particles and understanding the assembly process can provide a structural basis for the rational design of drugs that interfere specifically with capsid assembly. (embopress.org)
  • The 11 gene segments encode 6 structural proteins and 6 non-structural proteins. (health.gov.au)
  • The virus' ability to infect cells depends on a critical structural change that quickly removes the coat from the interconnected VP7 proteins-an event that unleashes the spike protein. (hhmi.org)
  • Previous biochemical and structural studies of rotavirus replication suggest that selecting 11 distinct RNA segments must involve the RNAs forming complex interactions with proteins and other RNA molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors were constructed to coexpress the rotavirus (RV) structural genes VP2, VP6, and VP7 and were used as platforms to launch the production of RV-like particles (RVLPs) in vector-infected mammalian cells. (uzh.ch)
  • Together, these findings provide insight into a poorly understood area of rotavirus biology and are a springboard for future biochemical and structural studies of VP3. (asm.org)
  • 3.All of the 6 structural proteins VP1-VP4, VP6, VP7 and 4 of 5 non-structural proteins of human rotavirus were expressed in baculovirus expression system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Rotavirus particles function as immunological carriers for the delivery of peptides from infectious agents and endogenous proteins," Molecular Immunology , vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 269-278, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • The presence of rotavirus can be confirmed by the electron microscopical examination of faeces or colon contents for the characteristic particles or by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis to detect the characteristic double-stranded RNA. (pigprogress.net)
  • We have developed a non-live combined RV - norovirus (NoV) vaccine candidate consisting of human RV inner-capsid rVP6 protein and NoV virus-like particles. (uta.fi)
  • Typical vaccines introduce a weakened form of a pathogen or an inactivated partial pathogen, easy targets designed in most cases to spur production of protective blood proteins called antibodies. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Unlike most proteins, antibodies are made not from single genes but from three or four genes working in concert, genes that have the rare distinction of being permitted to mutate rapidly, allowing huge diversity of gene products. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Development and properties of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1996). When mice were infected with rotavirus, NSP4-specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were generated in response to mucosal immunisation and transcytosed from the basal lamina into the mucosal epithelium (Gebert 1997). (scielo.org.za)
  • Further, orally immunised mice produced maternal antibodies against NSP4, generating passive protection in newborn mouse pups against rotavirus challenge (Ward, Rich & Besser 1996). (scielo.org.za)
  • Human rotavirus VP6-specific antibodies mediate intracellular neutralization by binding to a quaternary structure in the transcriptional pore," PLoS ONE , vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e61101, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Vaccines or antibodies for both exist but require refrigerated storage, Mr. Yuki, an assistant professor of mucosal immunology, said in an interview. (nytimes.com)
  • Bioengineering vaccines or antibodies into rice would allow them to be stockpiled easily, without the cost of cold storage, for up to three years at room temperature, he said. (nytimes.com)
  • The rotavirus treatment was developed from highly stable antibodies found in South American llamas that are uniquely resistant to heat and acid in the animal's stomach, said Lennart Hammarstrom, a professor of clinical immunology at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, who coauthored a paper with Mr. Yuki's team on the research program. (nytimes.com)
  • Numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials demonstrated that a safe and effective AD vaccine should induce high titers of anti-Aβ antibodies while avoiding the activation of T cells specific to Aβ. (springer.com)
  • This vaccine was tested in monkeys and was shown to induce antibodies similar to those associated with protection from HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Antibodies are large protein molecules capable of binding and neutralizing an invading organism7. (ubc.ca)
  • Ninety dimeric VP1 proteins form the outer layer of the icosahedral virus particle, which can vary in size from ∼27 to 40 nm, depending on the genotype ( Vinje, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, an outer membrane protein, multivalent adhesion molecule (MAM) which includes MCE (from Mammalian cell entry domains) was recently described in V. parahaemolyticus [5, (scielo.cl)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines 30. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Human papillomavirus vaccines 31. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Data Bridge Market Research provides new industry report "Global Human Rotavirus Vaccine Market" accounted to USD 5.5 billion in 2016 growing at a CAGR of 11.4% during the forecast period of 2017 to 2024. (openpr.com)
  • On the basis of end user the global human rotavirus vaccine market is segmented into hospitals, clinics, academic & research lab. (openpr.com)
  • On the basis of geography, global human rotavirus vaccine market report covers data points for 28 countries across multiple geographies such as North America & South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. (openpr.com)
  • The global human rotavirus vaccine market is highly fragmented and is based on new product launches and clinical results of products. (openpr.com)
  • The report includes market shares of human rotavirus vaccine market for global, Europe, North America, Asia Pacific and South America. (openpr.com)
  • For additional information about human rotavirus, refer to the Pathogen Safety Data Sheet . (canada.ca)
  • Typing of human group A rotavirus by molecular and immunological methods has been reported ( 6 , 15 , 18 , 26 , 27 , 40 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the brightest chapters in the history of science is the impact of vaccines on human longevity and health. (pnas.org)
  • This idea played a role in the development of bacillus Calmette-Guérin but is even more obvious in the selection of rhesus and bovine rotavirus strains to aid the creation of human rotavirus vaccines as mentioned below under Reassortment . (pnas.org)
  • Pigs in China are dying by the thousands from circovirus, but no human baby has ever been tested for it nor for the effects of the deadly vaccine that contains it. (naturalnews.com)
  • A disadvantage is that this technique (as far as I can tell) has only once been used in human therapy (the Ebola vaccine, see below - update: edited this section to reflect this ) - a lot of people have been working on it over the years, but things have now accelerated. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human and most animal rotavirus strains do not require the presence of sialic acid on the cell surface for efficient infectivity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the soluble human HLA-DM protein is used in step (b)(ii). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the human MHC class II protein is the a DR, DP or DQ protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transgenic combinations may also include plant-animal-human transgenes, such as when the DNA of human tumor fragments is inserted into tobacco plants in order to develop a vaccine against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (actionbioscience.org)
  • 4 Researchers have similarly developed a flu vaccine using human DNA and tobacco plants. (actionbioscience.org)
  • This discovery is the first step in designing a broad-spectrum drug able to exploit this weakness to combat many types of human and animal rotaviruses. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These results identified important characteristics of RVB VP7 variability and evolution and suggest antigenic residues on RVB VP7 that are negatively selected and highly conserved may be good candidate regions to include in a subunit vaccine design due to their tendency to remain stable. (mdpi.com)
  • Notably, Hilary Koprowski and coworkers developed rabies and oral polio vaccines by passage in chicken embryo or mice ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hill thinks a vaccine candidate should induce three to four times as many T cells to provide some protection against HIV. (iavireport.org)
  • The produre for purification of his-tagged nonstructural proteins was established, and this enabled the precise examination of the function of nonstructural proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) model, we demonstrate that heterologous bovine (UK and NCDV) and porcine (OSU) rotaviruses fail to effectively degrade cellular IRF3, resulting in IRF3 activation and beta IFN (IFN-beta) secretion. (stanford.edu)
  • Rotavirus is a highly infectious, triple-layered icosahedral, non-enveloped virus particle with a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded Ribonucleic acid (RNA) (Petrie, Estes & Graham 1983). (scielo.org.za)
  • An untagged Aβ1-6 chimeric protein vaccine against AD based on norovirus (NoV) P particle was expressed in Escherichia coli and obtained by sequential chromatography. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of protein characteristics showed that the untagged Aβ1-6 chimeric protein expressed in soluble form exhibited the highest particle homogeneity, with highest purity and minimal host cell protein (HCP) and residual DNA content. (springer.com)