The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
NAD bound to proteins in the Protein Data Bank NAD Animation (Flash Required) β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, ... Bellamacina CR (1 September 1996). "The nicotinamide dinucleotide binding motif: a comparison of nucleotide binding proteins". ... "A conserved NAD binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging". Science. 355 (6331): 1312-1317. ... They also show that one of the causes of age-related decline in DNA repair may be increased binding of the protein DBC1 ( ...
Binding with proteins. Some drugs such as sucralfate binds to proteins, especially if they have a high bioavailability. For ... In these cases the drug that arrives first binds with the plasma protein, leaving the other drug dissolved in the plasma, which ... Therefore, drugs that are tightly bound to proteins are not available for renal excretion, as long as they are not metabolized ... Antagonists, if they bind directly to the receptor's main locus but their effect is opposite to that of the main drug. These ...
... also known as folate-binding protein). This receptor is responsible for binding to folic acid and its derivatives, which ... September 1987). "Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid ... Campbell IG, Jones TA, Foulkes WD, Trowsdale J (October 1991). "Folate-binding protein is a marker for ovarian cancer". Cancer ... Sadasivan E, Rothenberg SP (April 1989). "The complete amino acid sequence of a human folate binding protein from KB cells ...
Even though protein with DNA binding domains are more abundant than protein with RNA binding domains, a recent study by Cheadle ... "RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Response to Abiotic Stresses". RNA Binding Proteins. CRC Press. 2012-08-10. pp. 137-148. doi: ... analyses of protein-protein and protein-RNA interaction profiles have revealed ubiquitous interactions with RNA and protein ... Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to a long poly(A) tail and mediates the interaction between EIF4E and EIF4G which ...
Hartwig JH (1995). "Actin-binding proteins. 1: Spectrin super family". Protein Prof. 2 (7): 703-800. PMID 7584474. Gimona M, ... is a family of actin binding domains found in both cytoskeletal proteins and signal transduction proteins. The domain is about ... However, in calponins there is evidence that the CH domain is not involved in its actin binding activity. Most proteins have ... Calponin-type A comprehensive review of proteins containing this type of actin-binding domains is given in. The CH domain is ...
This protein has a 68% and 79% sequence homology with the FOLR1 and FOLR3 proteins, respectively. The FOLR2 protein was ... Sadasivan E, Cedeno MM, Rothenberg SP (1994). "Characterization of the gene encoding a folate-binding protein expressed in ... "Entrez Gene: FOLR2 folate receptor 2 (fetal)". Henderson GB (1990). "Folate-binding proteins". Annu. Rev. Nutr. 10: 319-35. doi ... Ratnam M, Marquardt H, Duhring JL, Freisheim JH (1990). "Homologous membrane folate binding proteins in human placenta: cloning ...
Kandori, Hideki (2006). "Retinal Binding Proteins". In Dugave, Christophe (ed.). Cis-trans Isomerization in Biochemistry. Wiley ... "Structural Aspects of Metal Liganding to Functional Groups in Proteins". In Christian B. Anfinsen (ed.). Advances in Protein ... These proteins can specifically catalyze a single reaction, so that reactions can be controlled very precisely. The reaction ... p. 7. ISBN 978-0-12-034242-6. Guo, Liang-Hong; Allen, H.; Hill, O. (1991). "Direct Electrochemistry of Proteins and Enzymes". ...
"Advances in molecular engineering of carbohydrate-binding modules". Proteins. 85 (9): 1602-1617. doi:10.1002/prot.25327. PMID ... CAZy was established in 1999 in order to provide online and constantly updated access to the protein sequence-based family ... and Carbohydrate-Binding Module section page. "About". Retrieved 3 September 2014. "AFMB UMR 7257 - UMR7257 : CNRS - ... and non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules. The CAZy database also includes a classification of Auxiliary Activity redox ...
β-thymosin repeat proteins resemble the monomeric forms in being able to bind to actin, but sequence differences in one example ... Beta thymosins are a family of proteins which have in common a sequence of about 40 amino acids similar to the small protein ... Free β-thymosins lack a stable fold in solution) Pekka Lappalainen (2007). Actin-Monomer-Binding Proteins. Boston, MA: Landes ... allow binding to ends of actin filaments, an activity which differs from monomer sequestration. These proteins became of ...
Takai Y, Sasaki T, Matozaki T (January 2001). "Small GTP-binding proteins". Physiological Reviews. 81 (1): 153-208. doi:10.1152 ... which govern the intracellular trafficking of proteins in coat protein (COP)-coated vesicles. Mutations in the SAR1B gene are ... SAR1 gene homolog B (S. cerevisiae), also known as SAR1B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SAR1B gene. SAR1B ... Schekman R, Orci L (March 1996). "Coat proteins and vesicle budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-33. doi:10.1126/science. ...
They are also called small or monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins, small or monomeric GTP-binding proteins ... G protein signaling is terminated by hydrolysis of bound GTP to bound GDP. This can occur through the intrinsic GTPase activity ... For heterotrimeric G proteins and many small GTP-binding proteins, GEF activity is stimulated by cell surface receptors in ... GTP-bound protein to the inactive, GDP-bound state. Most "GTPases" have functional GTPase activity, allowing them to remain ...
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRABP1 gene. CRABP1 is assumed to play ... It is structurally similar to the cellular retinol-binding proteins, but binds only retinoic acid. CRABP1 is constitutively ... "Structure-function relationships of cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins. Quantitative analysis of the ligand binding ... "Entrez Gene: CRABP1 cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1". Redrawn from Lee K (April 2017). "Retinol for all". The Regime. ...
Sequential binding of actin monomers to plasma gelsolin and its inhibition by vitamin D-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res ... Nonmuscle actin-binding proteins. Ann Rev Cell Biol. 1985;1:353-402. 59. Stossel TP. Oil-droplet method for measuring ... Ligand-sensitive binding of the high-affinity IgG receptor (FcgR1) to actin-binding protein. Cell. 1991; 67:275-282. 114. ... Localization of the domain actin-binding protein that binds to glycoprotein Ib and actin in human platelets. J Biol Chem. 1988 ...
"Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a functionally classified library composed of ... protein binding. • lipid binding. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase binding. • phosphatidylethanolamine binding. • serine- ... bovine phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein and rat 23-kDa protein associated with the opioid-binding protein". Brain Res. ... Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PEBP1 gene.[5][6] ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... SCAP, in turn, can bind reversibly with another ER-resident membrane protein, INSIG. In the presence of sterols, which bind to ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ...
TNF binding proteins[edit]. A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating ... protein synthesis inhibitors.. Methotrexate[edit]. Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and ... It binds to FKBP1A like tacrolimus, however the complex does not inhibit calcineurin but another protein, mTOR. Therefore, ... It binds to the immunophilin FKBP1A, followed by the binding of the complex to calcineurin and the inhibition of its ...
... , like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... Protein binding[edit]. *imipenem: 13-21%. *cilastatin, 40%. Metabolism[edit]. Imipenem is metabolized in the kidney by ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ...
A potentially much larger percentage of proteins could be made druggable if protein-protein interactions could be disrupted by ... Hence these types of binding sites on proteins are generally thought to be undruggable but there has been some progress (by ... A protein is predicted to be "druggable" if it is a member of a protein family for which other members of the family are known ... An J, Totrov M, Abagyan R (2004). "Comprehensive identification of "druggable" protein ligand binding sites". Genome Inform. 15 ...
"NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold domains". SCOP: Structural Classification of Proteins. "Nucleotide-binding domain". SCOP: ... Rossmann and Rossmannoid fold proteins are extremely common. They make up 20% of proteins with known structures in the Protein ... The Rossmann fold is a tertiary fold found in proteins that bind nucleotides, such as enzyme cofactors FAD, NAD+, and NADP+. ... They can function as metabolic enzymes, DNA/RNA binding, and regulatory proteins in addition to the traditional role. The ...
RNA binding protein domains in other proteins that are similar to the RNA binding domain of protein K are called K-homology or ... It is distinct among other hnRNP proteins in its binding preference; it binds tenaciously to poly(C). This protein is also ... Both proteins bind to single-stranded DNA as well as to RNA and can stimulate the activity of RNA polymerase II, the protein ... "Identity of the RNA-binding protein K of hnRNP particles with protein H16, a sequence-specific single strand DNA-binding ...
The alternative oxidase is an integral monotopic membrane protein that is tightly bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane ... Berthold DA, Stenmark P (2003). "Membrane-bound diiron carboxylate proteins". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 54: 497-517. doi: ... Proteins homologous to the mitochondrial oxidase and the related plastid terminal oxidase have also been identified in ... Electron transport proteins InterPro entry on alternative oxidases alternative+oxidase at the US National Library of Medicine ...
This gene encodes a DNA-binding protein that has specificity for scaffold or matrix attachment region DNA elements (S/MAR DNA ... Scaffold attachment factors are a subset of nuclear matrix proteins (NMP) with enriched binding to AT-rich S/MAR sequences. The ... Oesterreich S, Lee AV, Sullivan TM, Samuel SK, Davie JR, Fuqua SA (1997). "Novel nuclear matrix protein HET binds to and ... DuPont BR, Garcia DK, Sullivan TM, Naylor SL, Oesterreich S (1998). "Assignment of SAFB encoding Hsp27 ERE-TATA binding protein ...
3) Proteins bind metal ions; since metal-binding sites must have specific bond geometries (e.g., octahedral), it was plausible ... "Protein Denaturation and the Properties of Protein Groups". Advances in Protein Chemistry. 2: 361-386. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233( ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Putnam, F (1953). "Protein Denaturation". The Proteins (H. Neurath and K. Bailey, Eds ... 5) Proteins were assumed to be responsible for the synthesis of all biological molecules, including other proteins. Wrinch ...
Evidence exists that a specific zeaxanthin-binding protein recruits circulating zeaxanthin and lutein for uptake within the ... Li, B; Vachali, P; Bernstein, P. S. (2010). "Human ocular carotenoid-binding proteins". Photochemical & Photobiological ... Zeaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via the action of a single protein, known as a beta-carotene hydroxylase, ... beta-carotene hydroxylase proteins have been studied extensively. Several observational studies have provided preliminary ...
Relevance to membrane-bound proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 175 (1): 75-82. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(84)90446-7. ... Leader, DP; Milner-White EJ (2009). "Motivated Proteins: A web application for studying small three-dimensional protein motifs ... Two websites are available for finding and examining ST staples in proteins: Motivated Proteins and PDBeMotif. Gray, TM; ... The ST staple is a common four- or five-amino acid residue motif in proteins and polypeptides with serine or threonine as the C ...
... latent transforming growth factor β binding protein 4, and microfibril associated protein 4 In this process tropoelastin, the ... Maintenance of crosslinked elastin is carried out by a number of proteins including lysyl oxidase-like 1 protein. Mature ... Robertson IB, Horiguchi M, Zilberberg L, Dabovic B, Hadjiolova K, Rifkin DB (September 2015). "Latent TGF-β-binding proteins". ... January 2016). "Characterization of Microfibrillar-associated Protein 4 (MFAP4) as a Tropoelastin- and Fibrillin-binding ...
There, the M proteins direct most protein-protein interactions required for the assembly of viruses following its binding to ... The homotrimeric S protein is a class I fusion protein which mediates the receptor binding and membrane fusion between the ... But human coronavirus NL63 is peculiar in that its M protein has the binding site for the host cell, and not its S protein. The ... The NTDs recognize and bind sugars on the surface of the host cell. An exception is the MHV NTD that binds to a protein ...
... , also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the S100A1 gene. S100A1 is ... Baudier J, Glasser N, Gerard D (June 1986). "Ions binding to S100 proteins. I. Calcium- and zinc-binding properties of bovine ... Donato R (July 1999). "Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type". Biochimica et ... Garbuglia M, Verzini M, Giambanco I, Spreca A, Donato R (February 1996). "Effects of calcium-binding proteins (S-100a(o), S- ...
Zinc finger Two beta strands with an alpha helix end folded over to bind a zinc ion. Important in DNA binding proteins. Helix- ... PROSITE Database of protein families and domains SCOP Structural classification of Proteins CATH Class Architecture Topology ... Three or four consecutive amino acid residues form a cation-binding feature. Sequence motif Short linear motif Protein tandem ... In a chain-like biological molecule, such as a protein or nucleic acid, a structural motif is a common three-dimensional ...
... protein arginine methyltransferase 9 (PRMT9), and mitochondrial import proteins. The structure of the PP5 protein was the first ... Cortajarena AL, Regan L (May 2006). "Ligand binding by TPR domains". Protein Science. 15 (5): 1193-8. doi:10.1110/ps.062092506 ... The PEX5 protein is a receptor for PTS1 (peroxisomal targeting signal tripeptide which directs proteins into peroxisomes). It ... It is found in tandem arrays of 3-16 motifs, which form scaffolds to mediate protein-protein interactions and often the ...
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ...
Zhou W, Resh MD (1997). "Differential membrane binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein". J. Virol. 70 ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... protein binding. 细胞成分. · nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol ... Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein. Mol. Biol. Cell. December 2002 ...
Protein binding. 60%. Metabolism. Hepatic via CYP3A4. Elimination half-life. 1.8 ± 0.4 hours. ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
"Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a ...
Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary ... A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, with ...
... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ...
protein binding. •extracellular matrix constituent conferring elasticity. •extracellular matrix binding. Componente celular. • ... 2010). «Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin». J. Biol. ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... Once interferon has bound to its receptors on the neighbouring cell, the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and ... This processing appears to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ...
Scan the nascent protein in order to recognize and bind sequons.. *Move these two large substrates into their proper locations ... Yeast OST is composed of eight different membrane-spanning proteins in three subcomplexes (one of them is OST4).[7][8] These ... ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ...
cAMP-zavisna regulatorna aktivnost protein kinaza. Celularna komponenta. • ekstracelularni region. • ekstracelularni prostor. • ... Booth (2002). „The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions.". Biochemistry. 41. PMID 12173928 ... Gamma-interferon transcriptionally regulates an early-response gene containing homology to platelet proteins". Nature. 315: 672 ... Angiolillo (1995). „Human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo". J. Exp. Med. 182: 155 ...
Role of beer lipid-binding proteins in preventing lipid destabilization of foam. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50. vsk, nro 26, s ... Zhu H, Damodaran S. (1994). Heat-induced conformational changes in whey protein isolate and its relation to foaming properties ... Townsend A-A, Nakai S. (1983). Relationships between hydrophobicity and foaming characteristics of food proteins. Journal of ...
Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... 14-3-3 proteins only bind to chloroplast preproteins.[43] It is also bound by the heat shock protein Hsp70 that keeps the ... See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means that many chloroplast proteins that ... These proteins consist of 35-mer repeated amino acids, the sequence of which determines the cis binding site for the edited ...
... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ...
... is binding to the CD20 proteins.. The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, ... Rituximab binding to CD20. The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, ... When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death.[2] Rituximab was approved for medical use in 1997.[6] It is on the World ... Rituximab binds to amino acids 170-173 and 182-185 on CD20, which are physically close to each other as a result of a disulfide ...
Mannan-binding lectin. S. *Serum albumin. *Serum amyloid P component. *Serum total protein ... Pages in category "Blood proteins". The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total. This list may not reflect ... Retrieved from "" ...
protein kinase inhibitor activity. • collagen binding. • extracellular matrix structural constituent conferring compression ... a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Research ... negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of JAK-STAT ... a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12212-21. ...
Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP and its antagonists are present in the extracellular loops and ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... "Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and their antagonists regulate spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ...
Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to plasma proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin, ... thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA transcription and protein ... transthyretin (previously called 'thyroxine-binding prealbumin'), and albumin.[15] Only free hormone is metabolically active.[ ...
This results in a series of unstable intermediates, the last of which binds stronger to a G protein in the membrane, called ... The photoreceptor proteins in the three types of cones differ in their sensitivity to photons of different wavelengths (see ... The membranous photoreceptor protein opsin contains a pigment molecule called retinal. In rod cells, these together are called ... When glutamate binds to an ionotropic receptor, the bipolar cell will depolarize (and therefore will hyperpolarize with light ...
protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Galaxy Lyme, Intervet-Schering-Plough's vaccine, targets proteins OspC and OspA. The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria ... After the bacteria migrate from the midgut to the salivary glands, OspC binds to Salp15, a tick salivary protein that appears ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ...
... in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and decarboxylase proteins or by linker-deleted bifunctional protein". ... The phosphoryl group binding entails juxtaposition between the carboxylate group and a negatively charged Asp residue (namely ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... It is believed that the two separate catalytic sites fused into a single protein to stabilize its monomeric form. The covalent ...
... protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with ... The N2 domain binds to the F pilus during virion infection freeing the N1 domain which then interacts with a TolA protein on ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...
... the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and protein that are required for DNA synthesis. Once the required proteins and ... Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: pRB binding to E2F family transcription factors downregulate ... In these cases where the G1 phase is affected, it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become ... In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. G1 ...
PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... bind the COX site of E-cat. E-cat is regulated by E-allo in a way dependent on what ligand is bound to E-allo. Substrate and ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ...
Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ... The vaccine relies on using a virus-like particle that is made of the norovirus capsid proteins in order to mimic the external ... a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The most variable region of the viral ... "Mutations within the P2 domain of norovirus capsid affect binding to human histo-blood group antigens: evidence for a binding ...
... gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression ... Nfix has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... NFIX+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
2002). "The carboxyl-terminal domain of closely related endotoxin-binding proteins determines the target of protein- ... protein binding. • lipid binding. • receptor binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • lipopeptide binding. Cellular component. ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) ... 1994). "Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein. LPS binding properties and ...
GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of ... between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. ... They are active or ON when it is bound to GTP and inactive or OFF when bound to GDP.[1] Activation and deactivation of ...
The binding of proteins to various substrates in a biological system is a basic but essential process to maintain the function ... One is related to protein folding and binding, and the other is related to the diffusion of a protein in space. During binding ... The capture radius of fly-casting binding could be affected by many factors, including protein binding affinity and limitations ... The mechanisms underlying protein binding have been the focus of theoretical and experimental research for many years. Many ...
Site-Specific Mutagenesis and Protein Engineering Approach to the Molecular Mechanism of Calcium Signal Transduction by ... Calcium Binding Proteins in Non-Muscle Tissues. * Front Matter Pages 91-91 ... Calmodulin and Calmodulin Binding Proteins During Differentiation of Human Intestinal Brush Borders ... the other sessions were devoted to calmodulin-related calcium binding proteins in muscle and non- muscle tissues and to some ...
The protein portion of the complex is less well understood. The experiments presented in two recent papers represent different ... The first paper presents a structure-function study of the Oxytricha telomeric DNA binding proteins and the second paper shows ... The physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes form a specialized nucleoprotein complex composed of DNA and DNA binding proteins. ... In most organisms, the DNA portion of the nucleo-protein complex consists of simple tandem DNA repeats with one strand guanine ...
Na+-dependent proteins Sodium: An alkali metal (Na) with atomic number 11. Sodium ion (Na+) is essential for numerous ... Sodium-binding protein: Any protein or enzyme that requires the binding of a sodium ion to its structural stability or ... Lev B., Roux B., Noskov S.Y. (2013) Sodium-Binding Site Types in Proteins. In: Kretsinger R.H., Uversky V.N., Permyakov E.A. ( ... Several studies regarding the evolution of Na+-binding proteins suggest that its abundance in the water... ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The PEBP (PhosphatidylEthanolamine-Binding Protein) family is a highly conserved group of proteins that have been identified in ... Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (IPR008914) *Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein, eukaryotic (IPR035810). *YbhB/ ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Cholesterol-binding cytolysins (CBCs) are a large family of 50- to 60-kDa single-chain proteins produced by 23 taxonomically ... Membrane cholesterol is thought to be the toxin-binding site at the surface of eukaryotic cells. Toxins molecules bind as ... The deduced primary structure of the proteins shows obvious sequence homology particularly in the C-terminal part and a ...
The main reason doctors order the IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) test is to see if a person is producing a normal amount of ... Blood levels of both these proteins are controlled by human growth hormone (hGH), a hormone thats produced by the pituitary ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is the main carrier of somatomedin C (also called insulin-like growth ...
S. Zhang and M. C. Mehdy, "Binding of a 50-kD protein to a U-rich sequence in an mRNA encoding a proline-rich protein that is ... RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Immunity. Virginia Woloshen,1,2 Shuai Huang,1,2 and Xin Li1,2 ... N. V. Fedoroff, "RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?" Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. ... Z. Q. Fu, M. Guo, B. R. Jeong et al., "A type III effector ADP-ribosylates RNA-binding proteins and quells plant immunity," ...
... employing ten different recombinant plant bZIP proteins demonstrated that nucleotides flanking the ACGT core affected binding ... Plant bZIP proteins exhibit a relaxed DNA-binding specificity for DNA sequence motifs containing an ACGT core. Gel mobility ... Group 1 proteins exhibit a stronger binding affinity for G-box elements, group 2 proteins bind both G-box and C-box motifs with ... Plant bZIP protein DNA binding specificity J Mol Biol. 1993 Apr 20;230(4):1131-44. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1993.1230. ...
... Maegen A. Ackermann and Aikaterini Kontrogianni- ... "Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow: An Intricate Subfamily of Proteins," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2010, ...
Thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural studies of protein-protein interactions have taught us much of how proteins interact ... The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces. D. Reichmann, O. Rahat, S. Albeck, R. Meged, O. Dym, G. ... The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces. D. Reichmann, O. Rahat, S. Albeck, R. Meged, O. Dym, G. ... is the driving force behind tight binding. A protein-protein binding site is not just a conglomerate of proximate residues ...
N3 is a protein fragment from the non-CaM binding region of a known CaM-binding protein (ATP2B1). (B) Full-length proteins, ... Many of the CaM-binding proteins identified belong to protein families such as the DEAD/H box proteins, ribosomal proteins, ... A number of the CaM-binding proteins identified in this work belong to protein families such as the DEAD/H box proteins, ... N1 (similar to cardiac morphogenesis protein) and N2 (MLL3 protein) are two protein fragments that do not bind to CaM in the ...
The metal binding proteins include have amino acid sequences analogous to at least one metal binding protein, and conservative ... Also provided are the associated nucleic acid sequences encoding metal binding proteins. ... Metal binding proteins, associated compositions and methods for their production and use are disclosed. ... This reestablishes the metal binding activity of the metal binding protein and, therefore, the metal binding proteins can be ...
Protein-bound iodine definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... Thyroid hormone consisting of one or more of the iodothyronines bound to one or more of the serum proteins. ...
... Itisam Sarangi via (by itisam.sarangi from ... Previous message: [Protein-analysis] PREDITOP *Next message: [Protein-analysis] Re: Protocol needed from study the protein ... Previous message: [Protein-analysis] PREDITOP *Next message: [Protein-analysis] Re: Protocol needed from study the protein ... Dear all Presently I am trying to purifying a DNA binding protein from E.coli..and trying to remove the contaminating DNA... I ...
The level of protein binding of a drug indicates... ... binding is an interaction in which a drug binds to proteins in ... Newly developed drugs may be tested for their tendency to bind to proteins using a protein binding assay. This can be performed ... thedoctor-I think I remember this article; they actually used protein binding assays to find metal binding proteins in seafood ... Protein binding describes the ability of proteins to form bonds with other substances, and most commonly refers to the bonding ...
Notation: let the symbol TBP represent the TATA binding protein, or TATA box binding protein. ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box ... Theoretical DNA binding proteins[edit , edit source]. DNA melting[edit , edit source]. Main articles: Gene transcriptions/DNA ... The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerases I, II and III, from ...
Compare S100 calcium binding protein A1 Proteins from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... S100 calcium binding protein A1 Proteins. Recombinant proteins for S100 calcium binding protein A1 are available from various ... Your search returned 81 Proteins S100 calcium binding protein A1 Recombinant Proteins across 21 suppliers. ... S-100 protein alpha chain, S-100 protein subunit alpha, S100 alpha, S100 protein, alpha polypeptide. This protein is conserved ...
... which fluoresces green only when bound to a protein. Of these, 20 folded into monomeric proteins when synthesized, and two of ... Designer protein tackles binding For the first time, researchers have designed a protein from scratch that can bind a specific ... A designed protein with a β-barrel structure (backbone shown on left, space-filling shown on right) can bind a specific small ... Yet natural protein binding sites often occur within a three-dimensional structure called a β-barrel-a β-sheet twisted to form ...
... properties important for binding and when used to scan the surface of target proteins can accurately identify candidate binding ... The accurate prediction of protein-peptide binding without prior structural knowledge will ultimately enable better functional ... involves a domain from one protein binding to a linear peptide stretch of another. Many methods identify peptides mediating ... We show that spatial atomic position specific scoring matrices of binding sites for each peptide residue can capture the ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
Regulation of this binding is therefore likely to be an important determinant of promoter activity. Incorporation of the TATA ... BINDING of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene ... Recombinant Proteins * SMARCA1 protein, human * SMARCA2 protein, human * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins * TATA-Box Binding ... Facilitated binding of TATA-binding protein to nucleosomal DNA Nature. 1994 Aug 11;370(6489):481-5. doi: 10.1038/370481a0. ...
A duffy-binding-like domain is also found in proteins of the family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. ... The presence of duffy-binding-like domains defines the family of erythrocyte binding-like proteins (EBL), a family of cell ... The other universal invasion protein is reticulocyte binding protein homologs. Both families are essential for cell invasion, ... Babaeekho, L.; Zakeri, S.; Djadid, N. D. (2009). "Genetic mapping of the duffy binding protein (DBP) ligand domain of ...
Ferritin is a large protein composed of 24 subunits surrounding a core full of iron atoms. It is capable of holding 0-4500 iron ... Iron-binding proteins are carrier proteins and metalloproteins that are important in iron metabolism and the immune response. ... proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Brock JH (1989). "Iron-binding proteins". Acta ... De Sousa M, Breedvelt F, Dynesius-Trentham R, Trentham D, Lum J (1988). "Iron, iron-binding proteins and immune system cells". ...
In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. They are located in the lumen ... Palme K, Hesse T, Campos N, Garbers C, Yanofsky MF, Schell J (February 1992). "Molecular analysis of an auxin binding protein ... 2002). "Crystal structure of auxin-binding protein 1 in complex with auxin". EMBO J. 21 (12): 2877-85. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf291 ... which could represent a signal for translocation of the protein to the ER. The mature protein comprises around 165 residues, ...
Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is treated with ... It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ... Yang X, Khosravi-Far R, Chang HY, Baltimore D (1997). "Daxx, a novel Fas-binding protein that activates JNK and apoptosis". ... Yang X, Khosravi-Far R, Chang HY, Baltimore D (1997). "Daxx, a novel Fas-binding protein that activates JNK and apoptosis". ...
  • So far, the conventional SDS/PAGE gel overlay with recombinant, radiolabeled CaM is still the most commonly used method for the identification and characterization of CaM-binding proteins, although it is time-consuming and the number of CaM-binding proteins it can reveal is limited ( 11 , 15 ). (
  • Recombinant proteins for S100 calcium binding protein A1 are available from various sources. (
  • Your search returned 81 Proteins S100 calcium binding protein A1 Recombinant Proteins across 21 suppliers. (
  • A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. (
  • Recombinant full length protein. (
  • Epitope tagging offers an easy and universal strategy for the identification and purification of proteins derived by recombinant DNA technology. (
  • I don't have the recombinant protein (and I don't intend to produce them) but I have KO mutant cells for these genes/proteins. (
  • At least indirectly, since I don't intend to produce the recombinant proteins. (
  • The capture radius of fly-casting binding could be affected by many factors, including protein binding affinity and limitations of protein folding. (
  • Dissociation constant values (Kd values) of these bZIP proteins for high affinity G-box and C-box elements and reciprocal competition gel mobility shift assays confirmed our classification scheme. (
  • Group 1 proteins exhibit a stronger binding affinity for G-box elements, group 2 proteins bind both G-box and C-box motifs with comparable binding affinity, whereas the group 3 proteins display a stronger binding affinity for C-box oligonucleotides. (
  • Studies using a panel of G-box and C-box oligonucleotides differing in their flanking sequences identified high affinity binding sites. (
  • Protein/DNA binding experiments using scanning mutants of a high affinity G-box element and G-box/C-box hybrid elements demonstrated that bZIP protein binding activity depends upon the affinity of protein dimer subunits for ACGT half-sites. (
  • Information provided by our systematic analysis of plant bZIP DNA binding specificity can be used to identify high affinity binding sites for the plant bZIP proteins studied here. (
  • Assuming that only high affinity bZIP binding sites are likely to function in vivo, identification of these sites will allow us to predict which genes are activated by a particular bZIP protein. (
  • The evolution of protein-protein binding sites is a result of optimization with three boundary conditions: the definition of the complex structure, optimization of the binding affinity for a given task, and the generation of specificity. (
  • The affinity of this interaction is in the nM range, with an association rate constant of ≈3 × 10 5 M -1 ·s -1 and a dissociation rate constant of 3 × 10 -4 s -1 , values which are commonly found for many protein-protein interactions ( 20 ). (
  • Ca 2+ /CaM can bind to many different protein targets with high affinity ( 8 - 11 ). (
  • The present invention relates generally to unique metal binding proteins having high binding affinity for heavy metals. (
  • The amount of binding and the fraction unbound - written as the amount of unbound drug over the total amount - are determined by the compound's affinity for the protein, and their relative concentrations. (
  • For example, if drug A saturated a certain binding protein and then drug B was not able to bind to it, then there would be a higher concentration of unbound B. Alternatively, if drug B has a stronger chemical affinity for the protein, it could displace A, raising its unbound fraction. (
  • domains bind with high affinity (low µM or nM Kd) to specific phosphoinositides such as phosphatidylinositol- 4,5-bisphosphate, PI-3, 4-P2 or PI-3,4,5-P3. (
  • However, the affinity of proteins to peptides and their interactions are not fully explored. (
  • The aim of this study is to automate a platform that can sort thousands of these beads and identify which peptides have affinity to proteins such as host cell proteins. (
  • Oxygen binding is fully cooperative for each of the subunits because as the first oxygen binds to one of the four heme groups, the protein undergoes a drastic conformational change that sharply increases the oxygen affinity of the other three subunits. (
  • Hemoglobin has a binding affinity for carbon monoxide that is 250 times greater than for oxygen. (
  • Choose from our MALTOSE BINDING PROTEIN Peptides and Proteins. (
  • The goal is to use the platform to explore an array of different peptides and proteins. (
  • Ion-specific effects on peptides and proteins are key to biomolecular structure and stability. (
  • Toxins molecules bind as monomers to the membrane surface with subsequent oligomerization into arc-and ring-shaped structures surrounding large pores generated by this process. (
  • The deduced primary structure of the proteins shows obvious sequence homology particularly in the C-terminal part and a characteristic common consensus sequence containing a unique Cys residue (ECTGLAWEWWR) near the C-terminus of the molecules (except pyolysin and intermedilysin). (
  • The structures of the different regulatory RNA molecules are shown left, their preferred protein binding partners on the right. (
  • New findings from Vogel's team have now been published in the journal PNAS: So far, two proteins (Hfg and CsrA) have been known to bind closely to the bacteria's regulatory RNA molecules and influence their activities. (
  • Protein binding describes the ability of proteins to form bonds with other substances, and most commonly refers to the bonding of drugs to these molecules in blood plasma , red blood cells, other components of the blood, and to tissue membranes. (
  • Proteins are very large, and enormously complex, molecules consisting of chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds, and they can take on a variety of complicated shapes. (
  • They can bond with molecules, including other proteins, at particular places known as binding sites, which often consist of indentations into which other molecules, or parts of them, can neatly fit. (
  • In other cases, molecules may bind more strongly. (
  • After a given time interval the bound and unbound portions are separated - for example, by using a very fine filter that will not allow large protein molecules to pass through - and the extent of binding can then be determined. (
  • Being able to design proteins that can bind to specific, chosen targets would open up a world of possibilities, including medicines targeting previously undruggable pathways and chemical sensors that detect specific molecules. (
  • In nature, building such structures is achieved by evolutionary optimized protein molecules and complex biological machinery. (
  • In the lab, Lendel says, the team used the inherent ability of protein molecules to spontaneously form orderly nanometer-sized fibers - or fibrils. (
  • Do membrane proteins cluster without binding between molecules? (
  • All of the molecules in our bodies function in water, but until now, we haven't had a lot of experimental techniques to understand what water is doing or where it is binding to the interior surfaces of proteins. (
  • A team of scientists from Case Western Reserve University used the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a technique that pinpoints the location and motion of water molecules bound to proteins. (
  • Measuring the exchange rate of water ( 16 O) versus heavy water ( 18 O) shows how fast the mass of the peptide changes due to bound water molecules. (
  • Figure 1 compares the three-dimensional structures and ice-binding sites determined for these five AFP molecules (AFPI-III, Tis8, and A20L). (
  • As mRNA molecules emerge from the nucleus, bound nuclear proteins are often replaced with a new set of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). (
  • In this regard, Ras and Rho G proteins are the most investigated molecules in the cardiovascular system. (
  • Members of the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 family have been shown to influence development by (1) acting as bridging molecules between the basal transcriptional machinery and specific DNA-binding transcription factors, (2) physically interacting with terminal members of signaling cascades, (3) acting as transcriptional coactivators of downstream target genes, and (4) playing a key role in chromatin remodeling. (
  • I work with a model organism and based on my results I have some candidates proteins I believe are new Ca2+-binding molecules. (
  • Messenger RNA or mRNA, are RNA molecules that encode a chemical 'blueprint' for the synthesis of a protein. (
  • Using genome-wide biochemical methods to look at the set of all RNA molecules across the transcriptome, the researchers found that LIN28 recognizes and binds to a known hairpin-like structure found on the let-7 family of miRNA, but surprisingly, this same structure is also found on mRNAs, allowing LIN28 to directly regulate thousands of targets. (
  • ZBP is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of proteins that also includes hnRNP A2 and Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). (
  • In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. (
  • Phage display has been used to isolate CaM-binding sequences from short synthetic peptide libraries, but the selected CaM-binding sequences were poorly correlated with naturally occurring proteins ( 17 ). (
  • The metal binding proteins include have amino acid sequences analogous to at least one metal binding protein, and conservative amino acid substitutions thereof from a brine shrimp (Artemia). (
  • Also provided are the associated nucleic acid sequences encoding metal binding proteins. (
  • But many of these proteins are picky about which sequences they will bind to. (
  • DeepBind can analyze noisy experimental data to determine the DNA and RNA sequences to which a set of proteins will bind. (
  • Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to download protein sequences or forward to NCBI BLAST. (
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (
  • You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, human and rat homologs of the mouse superfamily members. (
  • The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple homologs. (
  • In addition, several RBPs that bind regulatory sequences in the 3'untranslated regions of mRNAs have been identified molecularly. (
  • Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. (
  • In the splicing process, fragments that do not typically code for protein, called introns, are removed from gene transcripts, and the remaining sequences, called exons, are reconnected. (
  • While it lacks the prion-like low-complexity sequences of the other two proteins, it sports a nuclear localization sequence, as FUS does (see image above). (
  • Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene . (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. (
  • [2] As one of the few proteins in the preinitiation complex that binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner, it helps position RNA polymerase II over the transcription start site of the gene. (
  • This protein is encoded by the gene S100A1. (
  • BINDING of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene expression. (
  • We propose that the dynamic remodelling of chromatin structure to allow TBP binding is a key step in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • Hundreds of thousands of proteins in human cells attach themselves to DNA and RNA and regulate gene expression. (
  • Mutations that add or delete protein binding sites can alter gene expression patterns and lead to disease. (
  • When there is no TATA box nucleotide sequence in the gene core promoter region of the DNA next to a gene, say A1BG of the human genome, a TATA binding protein associated factor (TAF) will bind sequence specifically and force the TATA box binding protein to bind non-sequence specifically to the DNA in the core promoter . (
  • In this review, we outline the basic steps of miRNA biogenesis and miRNA mediated gene regulation focusing on the role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). (
  • C/EBP proteins interact with the CCAAT (cytidine-cytidine- adenosine -adenosine- thymidine ) box motif which is present in several gene promoters . (
  • In this review we provide a succinct overview of the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in regulating gene expression. (
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in post-transcriptional control of RNAs, which, along with transcriptional regulation, is a major way to regulate patterns of gene expression during development. (
  • The study found that these binding patterns and the resulting gene activation act like a key to different cancer types , allowing the researchers to understand the biology of cancer at its most basic level. (
  • Once the protein attaches to the site, a new gene is expressed, causing significant biological changes. (
  • The LIN28 protein is linked to growth and development and is important very early in human development," said principal investigator Gene Yeo, PhD, MBA, of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, the Stem Cell Research Program and the Institute for Genomic Medicine at UC San Diego. (
  • This process, known as autoregulation, helps to maintain a so-called "steady-state" system in which a protein positively regulates its own production by binding to a regulatory element of the mRNA for the gene coding it. (
  • The splicing factor proteins themselves, as well as the location where these proteins bind, dictate which pieces of the RNA are included or excluded in the final gene transcript - in much the same way that removing and inserting scenes, or splicing, can alter the plot of a movie. (
  • Plant bZIP proteins exhibit a relaxed DNA-binding specificity for DNA sequence motifs containing an ACGT core. (
  • NO. 1 wherein said isolated nucleic acid sequence encodes an Artemia metallothionein (MT) protein. (
  • NO. 3 wherein said isolated nucleic acid sequence encodes a metal binding region of an Artemia MT protein. (
  • 8. The isolated nucleic acid according to claim 1 wherein said amino acid sequence is an Artemia MT protein. (
  • 14. The modified host cell according to claim 13 wherein said nucleic acid expresses an Artemia MT protein or metal binding amino acid sequence. (
  • The TATA-binding protein ( TBP ) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box . (
  • TBP is involved in DNA melting (double strand separation) by bending the DNA by 80° (the AT-rich sequence to which it binds facilitates easy melting). (
  • Incorporation of the TATA sequence into nucleosomes dramatically reduces transcription initiation, presumably because of stereochemical constraints on binding of general transcription factors. (
  • We show here that binding of TBP to the TATA sequence is severely inhibited by incorporation of this sequence into a nucleosome. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Then, it can look at a new sequence and compute a score saying how likely it is that any of these proteins would bind to it. (
  • Given a sequence with a mutation, the tool can analyze whether binding changes. (
  • The dimerization is requested for the activity of C/EBPs to bind specifically to DNA through a palindromic sequence in the major groove of the DNA. (
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (
  • When a transcription factor finds an available section of chromatin and binds to it, that region of the DNA sequence unzips, allowing transcription to occur. (
  • One finding showed that mutations can occur within the chromatin sequence, thereby creating a new and accessible site where a transcription factor can bind. (
  • The genome of the organism I work with is fully sequenced so I already have the sequence of these proteins. (
  • The primary structure of these proteins contains an N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence of 30-40 amino acids, which could represent a signal for translocation of the protein to the ER. (
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (
  • GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. (
  • Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. (
  • After decades of work, many Ca 2+ /CaM-binding proteins have been identified, including Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinases and phosphatases, proteins involved in second-messenger generation, and proteins that regulate cytoskeletal elements ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Since many proteins regulate splicing, the researchers intend to use their insights from DeepBind to improve the human splicing code. (
  • Although several mRNA-binding proteins that regulate mRNA transport and translation in neurons have been described, identification of the target mRNAs to which they bind has lagged behind. (
  • The method is also well suited to studying aquaporins - proteins embedded in cell membranes that regulate water flow - or ion channels, which transport ions along with water. (
  • RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. (
  • The N- and C-terminal regions are the least conserved, and may be involved in interactions with different protein partners. (
  • A putative RNA-binding protein positively regulates salicylic acid-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis ," Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions , vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1573-1583, 2010. (
  • Protein-protein interactions are essential for life. (
  • The modular architecture of binding sites, which resembles human engineering design, greatly simplifies the design of new protein interactions and provides a feasible view of how these interactions evolved. (
  • Thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural studies of protein-protein interactions have taught us much of how proteins interact rapidly, tightly, and in a specific manner. (
  • However, from the modest degree of success of the aforementioned methods, it is clear that our understanding of protein-protein interactions is still lacking ( 5 ). (
  • A more elaborate approach to study the contributions of amino acids to binding and stability involves the use of double and higher-order mutant cycles, where interactions between amino acids are treated within their native contexts ( 7 , 9 ). (
  • The network of non-covalent interactions within or between proteins was defined based on an atomic distance threshold and the chemical properties of the involved groups. (
  • A key obstacle to studying many Ca 2+ -sensing proteins is the difficulty in identifying the numerous downstream target interactions that respond to Ca 2+ -induced conformational changes. (
  • The interactions of several identified proteins with Ca 2+ /CaM were confirmed by using pull-down assays and coimmunoprecipitation. (
  • Yeast two-hybrid analysis is another method that is widely used to study protein-protein interactions. (
  • Proteome chips have also been used as a high through-put approach to identifying protein-protein interactions. (
  • The methods available so far were subject to certain limits with regard to detecting and generally classifying RNA protein interactions which we have overcome here," Professor Vogel further. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Protein interactions" applicable to this article? (
  • We describe a method for permanently recording protein-DNA interactions in mammalian cells. (
  • But mapping the transcriptional networks that control cell-fate decisions is difficult given the limitations of the tools available to measure protein-DNA interactions. (
  • Interactions between proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are central to all aspects of maintaining and accessing genetic information. (
  • Several cellular mechanisms that rely on protein-nucleic acid interactions are studied at the Rudolf Virchow Center using a combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical techniques. (
  • Analysis of these pathways will help us understand how intricate interactions between individual proteins or multi-protein complexes and nucleic acids lead to the formation of higher order complexes required to maintain the genomic integrity and carry out genomic programs in the cell. (
  • Tannins, proteins, and divalent cations interactions are important for many processes in the food industry and human and animal nutrition and health. (
  • Even as they analyze the RBM45-containing stress bodies, Bowser's group is working to understand the protein and its interactions at a molecular level. (
  • type proteasome subunit and a transformer-2-like SR-related protein: early induction of the corresponding genes in tobacco cells treated with cryptogein," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 261-269, 1997. (
  • Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms," Genes and Development , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1484-1493, 2007. (
  • Genes bound by SP1 are more likely to be expressed in the HCT116 cell line we used, and SP1-bound CpG islands show a strong preference to be unmethylated. (
  • The research focuses on chromatin, the DNA-protein complex where all genes reside. (
  • Specifically, it evaluates chromatin's relationship to transcription factors - proteins that play a crucial role in managing which genes are activated within cells. (
  • Certain genes are turned on or off based on how transcription factors bind to specific parts of the chromatin. (
  • While they don't encode for proteins, miRNAs are important for regulating protein production in the cell by repressing or "turning off" genes. (
  • The discovery of thousands of precise binding sites for LIN28 within human genes offers a novel look at the role this protein plays in development and disease processes. (
  • We show that protein-protein binding sites have a modular architecture made up of clusters of residues with both strong intracluster connections and weak intercluster connections. (
  • The networks obtained resemble "small world"-like features, which have been used to identify key residues in proteins, as well as the native conformations from nonnative decoys ( 13 - 16 ). (
  • Clusters are often associated with cysteine residues in the protein chain. (
  • It is composed of approximately 700 residues and exists mainly as a tetramer, with the monomer:tetramer ratio being 1:4 at 10 μM protein concentrations. (
  • The mature protein comprises around 165 residues, and contains a number of potential N-glycosylation sites. (
  • The diverse transient signals transduced by Ca 2+ are mediated by intracellular Ca 2+ -binding proteins, also known as Ca 2+ sensors. (
  • domains are structurally well-characterized modules of ~120 amino acids found in a wide variety of signaling proteins involved intracellular trafficking, cellular signaling and cytoskeletal remodeling. (
  • A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. (
  • Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration. (
  • [1] Activation and deactivation of small GTPases can be regarded as occurring in a cycle, between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. (
  • The rate of GTP hydrolysis for small GTPases is generally too slow to create physiologically relevant transient signals, and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (
  • Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevent exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action. (
  • These results reveal, at high resolution, a receptor-interacting interface on β-arrestin, and they indicate a potentially general molecular mechanism for activation of these multifunctional signalling and regulatory proteins. (
  • The idea of Professors Bolis and Gilles to gather together for a 3 days' meeting in the splendid environment of Crans-Montana in Switzerland a limited number of people around the subject of calcium and calcium bind- ing proteins seemed at first particularly attractive, and when they asked me to take charge of the scientific organization of the symposium, I accepted with enthusiasm. (
  • Apart from one whole day focused on the fascinating roles played by calmodulin in cellular activities, the other sessions were devoted to calmodulin-related calcium binding proteins in muscle and non- muscle tissues and to some selected biological systems such as mitochondria, secretory cells or sarcoplasmic reticulum in which calcium also plays a crucial role. (
  • The selection method described herein could be used to identify the binding partners of other calcium sensors on the proteome-wide scale. (
  • Many researchers believed the protein contractions were controlled by calcium, similar to muscle cells. (
  • Coordination to Divalent Cations by Calcium-Binding Proteins. (
  • Meat Protein and Calcium: Do They Interact Synergistically or Antagonistically? (
  • They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. (
  • Based on these data and other biochemical information, researchers speculate that the mutations in the LDL receptor affect the receptor1s ability to bind calcium and therefore its ability to fold into its proper shape. (
  • since you have the wild-type and knock-outs you can compare them on a gel and stain for calcium binding proteins with stains-all. (
  • Regulation of this binding is therefore likely to be an important determinant of promoter activity. (
  • Regulation of protein expression in neurons by controlling not only when, but where, mRNAs are translated is likely to play an important role in neuronal function. (
  • Baritaki S, Katsman A, Chatterjee D, Yeung K, Spandidos D, Bonavida B. Regulation of tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the metastatic suppressor Raf kinase inhibitor protein via Yin Yang 1 inhibition and death receptor 5 up-regulation. (
  • Membrane cholesterol is thought to be the toxin-binding site at the surface of eukaryotic cells. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, synthesis of most proteins is driven by cap-dependent mRNA translation ( Sonenberg and Dever, 2003 ). (
  • The PEBP (PhosphatidylEthanolamine-Binding Protein) family is a highly conserved group of proteins that have been identified in numerous tissues in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, nematodes, plants, drosophila and mammals. (
  • The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the prototype of a novel family of serine protease inhibitors. (
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14 , TLR2 , TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2. (
  • Employing the mRNA display technique, we have scanned the human proteome for CaM-binding proteins and have identified and characterized a large number of both known and previously uncharacterized proteins that interact with CaM in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (
  • Translation is primarily regulated during steps one and two by complexes of proteins that interact with the mRNA. (
  • C/EBPβ can interact with different proteins like CREB , NF-κB and others that lead to a trans-activation potential. (
  • The presence of the proteins may contribute to the ability of lactic acid bacteria to interact with the host. (
  • The most popular approach for studying the energetic contribution of an amino acid to the free energy of binding (or stability) of proteins is to introduce a mutation and then measure the subsequent change in free energy ( 6 ). (
  • This protein is 94 amino acids in length and 10.6 kilodaltons in mass. (
  • Now, researchers report in Nature that they've achieved the task, creating a 110-amino-acid protein, unlike any in nature, that binds a specific molecule, activating it to glow green in cells ( Nature 2018, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0509-0 ). (
  • All proteins are strings of amino acids that must fold into a unique shape to perform their function. (
  • The control of the latter two pathways involves the PEBP protein RKIP, which interacts with MEK and Raf-1 to inhibit the MAP kinase pathway, and with TAK1, NIK, IKKalpha and IKKbeta to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway. (
  • In this pathway, glutamate release is orchestrated by Ca2+-sensor proteins, with N-terminal EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) being particular abundant. (
  • The major components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex are proteins recruited at different stages of the vesicular transport pathway. (
  • Connerty P, Ahadi A, Hutvagner G. RNA Binding Proteins in the miRNA Pathway. (
  • Senescence Marker Protein (SMP30) is a metalloenzyme that shows lactonase activity in the ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis pathway in non-primate mammals such as a mouse. (
  • For this process the RNA is associated with nuclear proteins that aid in splicing and nuclear export [ 1 ]. (
  • We have divided the review into subheadings under which we discuss the effect of alcohol on RNA-binding proteins, RNA-binding proteins in neurological diseases and cancer, and finally the methods employed to identify RBPs and/or ligands of a RBP. (
  • genome encodes many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with diverse functions in development, indicative of extensive layers of post-transcriptional control of RNA metabolism. (
  • Many RBPs have one or more copies of the same RNA binding domain while others have two or more distinct domains. (
  • Even though the mechanisms by which RBPs influence protein expression patterns in their respective tissues are still poorly understood, the association of many RBPs with mutant phenotypes underscores their importance in C. elegans development ( Table 1 ). (
  • The invention SBPs can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-SBP antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and in bioassays methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. (
  • The IFR team found that these mucus-binding proteins also recognise human immunoglobulin proteins (antibodies). (
  • In this review I focus on the mRNA-binding proteins that control mRNA translation in neurons and how they may participate in local, synaptodendritic protein synthesis. (
  • It is now clear that both processes involve mRNA-binding proteins that are primarily bound to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of responsive mRNAs. (
  • ZBP1 binds to a 54 nucleotide "zipcode" in the 3′-UTR of β-actin mRNA. (
  • Initially described as a protein involved in mRNA transport, it is now apparent that ZBP1 plays a role in both transport and translational repression. (
  • Staufen1 and 2 represent the other conserved family of RNA-binding proteins with demonstrable roles in mRNA transport in neurons. (
  • Once in the cytoplasm, these mRNA-binding proteins and their target mRNAs are packaged into granules for transport out of the cell body ( Hirokawa, 2006 ). (
  • The functions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are primarily mediated and modulated by three families of proteins: the heterotrimeric G proteins, the G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and the arrestins 1 . (
  • Multiple downstream effectors of small G proteins, some of them being protein kinases, have been identified. (
  • C almodulin (CaM) is a small ubiquitously expressed EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that mediates a wide variety of cellular functions in eukaryotes ( 1 - 7 ). (
  • A new tool called DeepBind uses deep learning to analyze how proteins bind to DNA and RNA, allowing it to detect mutations that could disrupt cellular processes and cause disease. (
  • Logically, if protein synthesis were to occur in distinct cellular compartments, mRNAs must be identified shortly after transcription and held in a translationally dormant state during transport to the appropriate compartment. (
  • This method has the potential to trace transcription-factor binding throughout cellular and organismal development in a way that has heretofore not been possible. (
  • C/EBPs proteins are involved in different cellular responses like in the control of cellular proliferation, growth and differentiation, metabolism , immunology and many others. (
  • Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are a conserved family of transmembrane transporters that ensure cellular homeostasis of divalent transition metal cations. (
  • Understanding when and where proteins bind to DNA may be the ticket to identifying cancer at the cellular level, according to researchers at Stanford. (
  • In both cellular locations, it makes a speckled pattern consistent with the large protein/RNA complexes formed by RNA-binding proteins. (
  • The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (
  • In contrast to the situation observed for G-box elements, C-box motifs displayed a very much more stringent flanking nucleotide requirement for binding activity. (
  • Prototypically, the growth factor receptor on activation recruits a Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Sos, via adaptor proteins Shc and Grb2. (
  • Experimentally, this phenomenon is shown on the interaction between TEM1-βlactamase and β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) by using multiple-mutant analysis and x-ray crystallography. (
  • Recently, the yeast two-hybrid system has been used in a high throughput mode to construct comprehensive protein-protein interaction maps for several organisms, including the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 18 ) and the multicellular organisms Drosophila melanogaster ( 19 ) and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( 20 ). (
  • However, in each of the genome-wide protein-protein interaction maps, only a limited number of CaM-binding proteins were reported, and most of the known CaM-binding proteins are missing. (
  • Thus, it is inferred that the self-assembly induced by dimerization is unlikely in situ, and that some interaction between proteins is required for cluster formation. (
  • Arrestins activated by interaction with phosphorylated receptors can also mediate G-protein-independent signalling by serving as adaptors to link receptors to numerous signalling pathways 4 . (
  • They promote the expression of certain proteins through interaction with DNA . (
  • This changes the carbonate's interaction with the protein, changing the conformation and allowing Fe(III) to be transferred. (
  • Effect of divalent cations on bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid interaction and its influence on turbidity and in vitro protein digestibility. (
  • MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein Information Resource SuperFamily ( PIRSF ) site. (
  • The small G proteins in this superfamily are structurally classified into ≥5 families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Sar/Arf, and Ran families. (
  • Like many other Ca 2+ -binding proteins, Ca 2+ -loaded CaM has a distinctly different conformation from the Ca 2+ -free form ( 7 ). (
  • Indeed their excitement was shared by many researchers who, over the next decade, characterized the dendritic presence of the molecular machinery required for protein synthesis. (
  • Researchers from Sweden's KTH Royal Institute of Technology and the German research center, DESY, recently reported they have spun strands of proteins derived from ordinary milk proteins, namely whey powder. (
  • To help filter through the huge number of possible candidates, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology in Dortmund, Germany have developed a new application that matches the chemical space of a given compound to the possibility that it will bind to a protein in question. (
  • Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators at other institutions have identified a link between how proteins bind to our DNA and how cancer develops. (
  • As Chang explained, ATAC-seq is like spray-painting your DNA but only the accessible chromatin gets painted, giving researchers a fast and easy way to identify key protein-binding areas. (
  • A study led by researchers at the UC San Diego Stem Cell Research program and funded by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) looks at an important RNA binding protein called LIN28, which is implicated in pluripotency and reprogramming as well as in cancer and other diseases. (
  • According to the researchers, their study - published in the September 6 online issue of Molecular Cell - will change how scientists view this protein and its impact on human disease. (
  • Studying embryonic stem cells and somatic cells stably expressing LIN28, the researchers defined discrete binding sites of LIN28 in 25 percent of human transcripts. (
  • Panning the cerebrospinal fluid of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, researchers discovered a new pathological marker in RNA-binding motif 45 (RBM45). (
  • Researchers have uncovered a protein that may help beneficial gut bacteria bind to the mucus membrane of the gastrointestinal tract enabling them to more effectively colonise and produce their health promoting effects. (
  • I predicted the presence of Ca2+-binding motifs using this tool ( but I would to prove it biologically. (
  • Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), a class of proteins capable of arresting ice crystal growth, are known to inhibit this phenomenon even at sub milli-molar concentrations. (
  • However, since each extract contains thousands of proteins, that is, lots of bands in the gel, I was wondering if my eye will be sensitive enough to detect the lack of just one band in the lanes with the extracts from the knockouts. (
  • Smac, a mitochondrial protein that promotes cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation by eliminating IAP inhibition," Cell 102:33-42 (2000). (
  • Harding MM (2002) Metal-ligand geometry relevant to proteins and in proteins: sodium and potassium. (
  • Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. (
  • Raf kinase inhibitor protein interacts with NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and TAK1 and inhibits NF-kappaB activation. (
  • AT 1 interacts with multiple heterotrimetric G proteins, including G q/11 , G i , G 12 , and G 13 , and produces second messengers, such as inositol triphosphate, diacylglycerol, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). (
  • That protein synthesis may occur outside the neuronal cell body was first suggested in the early 1980s by the finding that polyribosomes are localized to subsynaptic regions ( Steward and Levy, 1982 ). (
  • Many of the CaM-binding proteins identified belong to protein families such as the DEAD/H box proteins, ribosomal proteins, proteasome 26S subunits, and deubiquitinating enzymes, suggesting the possible involvement of Ca 2+ /CaM in different signaling pathways. (
  • In humans, this protein has a Uniprot ID of P23297 and has an annotated function: 'Probably acts as a Ca(2+) signal transducer. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerases I, II and III, from promoters with or without a TATA box. (
  • This region modulates the DNA binding activity of the C-terminus, and modulation of DNA-binding affects the rate of transcription complex formation and initiation of transcription. (
  • The selection step would be expected to occur at an early time after transcription, so that these messages would be sequestered from the vast protein synthetic machinery located within the cell body. (
  • The ability to chronicle transcription-factor binding events throughout the development of an organism would facilitate mapping of transcriptional networks that control cell-fate decisions. (
  • We endow transcription factors with the ability to deposit a transposon into the genome near to where they bind. (
  • We show that the transcription factor SP1 fused to the piggyBac transposase directs insertion of the piggyBac transposon near SP1 binding sites. (
  • provide a snapshot of transcription factor (TF) binding, but are unable to record transcription-factor binding events. (
  • The transient nature of both these methods makes it difficult, if not impossible, to correlate transcription-factor binding events in progenitor cells to the final fates of their progeny cells during development. (
  • By harvesting the transposon calling cards along with their flanking genomic DNA, a genome-wide map of transcription factor binding can be obtained. (
  • The TATA box is a binding site of either general transcription factors or histones . (
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c-Fos and Jun. (
  • Individual cells within the eye are exposed to many extracellular signals, express multiple surface receptors, and make use of a large complement of cell-subtype-specific DNA-binding transcription factors. (
  • Thus, creating such a precise array of unit eyes reproducibly using multiple diffusible signals is an impressive feat. A key question is: How does an individual cell correctly relay the multiple bits of information received at the cell surface to the appropriate assortment of specific DNA-binding transcription factors and how is this information correctly used during cell fate decisions. (
  • A potential solution to this paradigm is to have a ubiquitously expressed protein act as a conduit for linking signaling pathways to nuclear transcription factors by interacting with (1) terminal members of the many signaling cascades and (2) the specific combination of transcription factors that are expressed in each different cell type. (
  • Blood levels of both these proteins are controlled by human growth hormone (hGH), a hormone that's produced by the pituitary gland, a pea-sized gland in the brain that works with the endocrine system. (
  • DeepBind's first analyses of human genetic data, described in Nature Biotechnology , has already provided new information about disruptions to protein binding in mutations tied to cancers, haemophilia and familial hypercholesterolemia -- a hereditary condition associated with very high levels of cholesterol. (
  • Our MAD2L1-binding protein Peptides and MAD2L1-binding protein Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Nonetheless, mPEBP-2 is seen to be very similar in structure to other PEBP proteins from human, bovine and plant sources. (
  • Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum albumin , lipoprotein , glycoprotein , and α, β‚ and γ globulins . (
  • Protein folding defects have also been implicated in other human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, a-1-antitrypsin deficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, and Marfan1s syndrome. (
  • 3Our studies provide yet another example of how basic science research, such as studies of protein folding, ultimately help us understand human disease,2 says Dr. Kim. (
  • Also provided are transgenic non-human mammals that express the invention protein. (
  • let the symbol TBP represent the TATA binding protein , or TATA box binding protein . (
  • let the symbol TAF stand for TATA binding protein associated factor . (
  • any factor associating with the TATA binding protein (TBP) is called a TBP associated factor (TAF). (
  • LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4 . (
  • Using a new self-designed method, the Würzburg team has now discovered a long-suspected third protein (ProQ) whose function inside the cell has been unknown until recently. (
  • A combination of histochemical analyses and single-cell RNA-sequencing showed NECAB2 in small- and medium-sized C- and Aδ D-hair low-threshold mechanoreceptors in DRGs, as well as in protein kinase C γ excitatory spinal interneurons. (
  • Al Mulla F, Bitar M, Taqi Z, Rath O, Kolch W. RAF kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) modulates cell cycle kinetics and motility. (
  • Clustering is a basic event for the initiation of immune cell responses, and simulation analyses of clustering of membrane proteins have been performed. (
  • The field of cell movement was abuzz with the revelation that non-muscle cells contained actin and myosin, but no one understood the mechanism regulating those cytoskeleton proteins. (
  • Though initially a controversial discovery, filamin A proved to be the first of hundreds of binding proteins that influence cell movement. (
  • They can more efficiently traverse cell membranes if they are not strongly bound to blood proteins. (
  • Ras mediates its effect on cell proliferation mainly by activation of its effector Raf to initiate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal regulated kinase [ERK]) cascade. (
  • Thus, Ras proteins are critical in stimulating cell growth and division. (
  • The presence of duffy-binding-like domains defines the family of erythrocyte binding-like proteins (EBL), a family of cell invasion proteins universal among Plasmodium. (
  • When the team performed ATAC-seq on the tissue, they noticed that a chromatin mutation created a new protein-binding site that was associated with a strong increase in the activity of a neighboring genethat regulates cell size, motility and shape - all of which are classic factors in cancer growth. (
  • Expression of a murine homologue of the inhibitior of apoptosis protein is related to cell proliferation," Proc. (
  • Indentification of DIABLO, a mammalian protein that promotes apoptosis by binding to an antagonizing IAP proteins," Cell 102:43-53 (2000). (
  • But we now see that LIN28 can, in essence, bypass let-7 and find many, many other binding sites - perhaps with the same adverse effect of uncontrolled cell overgrowth," said Yeo. (
  • proteins to respond to lipid messengers by localizing to membranes and transmitting signals to downstream targets. (
  • domain inhibit lipid binding and result in defects in the sorting of ubiquitinated cargo. (
  • Certain proteins may already be saturated, which would affect the amount of free drug and possibly change the pharmacological effects. (
  • The DNA within a cell's nucleus is tightly wound together with certain proteins into a threadlike structure known as chromatin, and that chromatin is further coiled to form a larger structure called a chromosome. (
  • Corbit KC, Trakul N, Eves EM, Diaz B, Marshall M, Rosner MR. Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein. (
  • domain plays a critical role in its ability to bind PtdIns3p and translocate Vps36 to endosomes. (
  • The chemical properties of the binding site, and the other molecule, are also important: bonding will only take place if it is chemically feasible. (
  • It has four sites that can bind to an oxygen molecule. (
  • Acidic and neutral compounds will tend to bond with albumin, which is basic, while basic substances will primarily bind to the acidic AGP molecule. (
  • A designed protein with a β-barrel structure (backbone shown on left, space-filling shown on right) can bind a specific small molecule (green, right). (
  • An example of this is in hemoglobin, where the porphyrin works together with a histidine side chain and a bound O2 molecule, forming an octahedral complex. (
  • These results have been translated into the development of in silico tools to calculate binding free energies, to weigh the energetic consequence of mutations, and for protein design ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • The structures of the complex ( 17 ) and of the unbound proteins ( 18 , 19 ) have been determined to high resolution. (
  • We can now build an unlimited number of protein structures from scratch and optimize them for the function that we really want," says David Baker of the University of Washington, Seattle, who led the work. (
  • Serre L, Pereira de Jesus K, Zelwer C, Bureaud N, Schoentgen F, Benedetti H. Crystal structures of YBHB and YBCL from Escherichia coli, two bacterial homologues to a Raf kinase inhibitor protein. (
  • Left) Cartoon representation of crystal structures of the binding region of SRRP53608. (
  • Right) Cartoon representation of crystal structures of the binding region of SRRP100-23. (
  • The first paper presents a structure-function study of the Oxytricha telomeric DNA binding proteins and the second paper shows the identification and initial characterization of a telomeric DNA binding activity from Xenopus laevis. (
  • The structure of Antirrhinum centroradialis protein (CEN) suggests a role as a kinase regulator. (
  • G RAM- L ike U biquitin-binding in E AP45) domain structure has a typical PH domain architecture with two curved β sheets forming a barrel-like structure and one long α helix. (
  • The ubiquitous liquid is key to the structure, folding and stability of proteins, but one of the still unanswered questions in the study of the structure and function of proteins and DNA is their exact relationship to their water environment. (
  • Coordinates and structure factors for the b-arrestin-1-V2Rpp- Fab30 complex are deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession code 4JQI . (
  • Iron-sulfur proteins are those with an iron structure that includes sulfur. (
  • The tertiary structure is composed of two lobes, termed N and C lobes, each containing one iron-binding pocket. (
  • Now, together with colleagues at the University of East Anglia, they have described the structure and activity of the binding region of L. reuteri SRRPs in a paper published in PNAS . (
  • Using the Macromolecular Crystallography beamlines (I03 and I04) at Diamond Light Source, they discovered that the structure of these proteins is unique among characterised SRRPs and is surprisingly similar to pectin degrading enzymes. (
  • Now, in a paper published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry IFR scientists have obtained the first crystal structure of a mucus-binding protein from a beneficial bacteria. (
  • For the purposes of the invention, proteins are biologically active substances, preferably enzymes. (
  • However, as yet no process for binding or immobilizing biologically active substances has been found which is substantially free from significant shortcomings. (
  • Retinal proteomic analysis, functional and histopathological studies have revealed alteration in the levels of some proteins and a neurodegeneration state mainly involving ganglion and photoreceptor cells accompanied by reactive gliosis [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (
  • This protein is expressed mainly by the cone and rod photoreceptor cells [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (
  • RNA-binding proteins and their role in RNA metabolism: Genomic DNA is transcribed in the nucleus resulting in generation of hnRNA. (
  • Iron-binding proteins are carrier proteins and metalloproteins that are important in iron metabolism and the immune response. (
  • However, other domains only predict RNA binding and do not specifically indicate in which aspect of RNA metabolism they may participate. (
  • Proteins carry numerous functions that are essential for the sustenance and growth of humans and all forms of life. (
  • 100 small G proteins have been identified in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. (
  • S. van Nocker and R. D. Vierstra, "Two cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana encode putative RNA binding proteins containing glycine-rich domains," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 695-699, 1993. (
  • In molecular biology, Duffy binding proteins are found in plasmodia. (
  • This review focuses on RNA-binding proteins and their role in regulating local protein synthesis in neurons. (
  • In diseased neurons, this protein hangs out in cytoplasmic stress granules, a familiar compartment for scientists interested in ALS. (
  • One of these targets actually encodes for the LIN28 protein itself. (
  • It binds to the retinoids in the interphotoreceptor matrix and facilitates their exchange between the IPM and the cells that carry out the visual cycle [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. (