Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Visna: Demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in sheep and goats.Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Lentiviruses, Primate: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.Lentiviruses, Bovine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cattle.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Cercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Lentiviruses, Feline: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Unfolded Protein Response: A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)MissouriAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
... of resistance to pathogens and several TRIM proteins are known to be required for the restriction of infection by lentiviruses ... The tripartite motif family (TRIM) is a protein family. Many TRIM proteins are induced by interferons, which are important ... coiled coil region The C-terminus of TRIM proteins contain either: Group 1 proteins: a C-terminal domain selected from the ... TRIM proteins are involved in pathogen-recognition and by regulation of transcriptional pathways in host defence. The ...
Animals showing the above symptoms might die within six months of infection. This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, ... The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most enigmatic of the proteins of the visna virus. Most studies ... Ryan S, Tiley L, McConnell I, Blacklaws B (November 2000). "Infection of Dendritic Cells by the Maedi-Visna Lentivirus". J. ... Larruskain, A.; Jugo, B. M. (2013). "Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction ...
Another primate lentivirus, SIV, also, counteracts tetherin by their removal from the plasma membrane. KSHV protein K5 also ... Tetherin is a human cellular protein which inhibits retrovirus infection by preventing the diffusion of virus particles after ... Sendai virus proteins HN and F direct tethrin to endosomes or proteasome for degradation. CHIKV protein nsP1 interacts with ... BST2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Current research may suggest that equine foamy virus serves as a cofactor in the contraction of equine lentivirus infection. ... The EFV transactivator protein, Tas, binds to one of the promoter regions to promote the expression of specific genes. Unlike ... which is a characteristic unique to lentiviruses. It has also been found that upon persistent infection with EFV, the viral ... One of EFVs two promoters is transactivated by the protein made from tas, therefore, tas is required for replication of the ...
IFITM proteins also are able to inhibit several other enveloped viruses infection that belong to different virus families. ... and lentivirus (Human immunodeficiency virus). However, IFITM proteins did not affect alphaviruses, arenaviruses and murine ... In addition, IFITM3 interacted with the cellular cholesterol regulatory proteins Vesicle-membrane-protein-associated protein A ... human homolog of the mouse protein), IFI17 [interferon-induced protein 17], 9-27 [Interferon-inducible protein 9-27] and Leu13 ...
The envelope proteins SU and TM are glycosylated in at least some lentiviruses (HIV, SIV), if not all of them. Glycosylation ... Lentiviral infection has advantages over other gene-therapy methods including high-efficiency infection of dividing and non- ... Puma lentivirus. Lion lentivirus (FIV-PLe). Colugo lentivirus group. Malayan colugo endogenous lentivirus (ELVgv). Weasel ... Ferret endogenous lentivirus (MELVmpf). Rabbit lentivirus group. Rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK). Ovine/caprine ...
Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. ... Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses ... Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell.[5] Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ...
The initial stages of these infections mimic infection with natural viruses and lead to expression of the genes transferred and ... In these producer cells, the viral proteins expressed by these packaging constructs bind the sequences on the DNA/RNA ( ... in the case of lentivirus/retrovirus vectors) insertion of the DNA to be transferred into the cellular genome. However, since ... If bacteriophages undertake the lytic cycle of infection upon entering a bacterium, the virus will take control of the cell's ...
... pushed the origin of SIV-like lentivirus infections in primates back to at least 14 Ma, the last time there was intermingling ... This intracellular protein recognizes the capsid of various retroviruses and blocks their reproduction. Other proteins such as ... The later stages of SIV infection turn into SAIDS, much as HIV infection turns into AIDS. The ICTVdB code of SIV is 61.0.6.5. ... SIV infection of non-human primates (NHPs) invariably results in persistent infection, but rarely acute disease. Pathogenic ...
... of limited efficacy both because several internal alphaviral proteins are involved in the induction of apoptosis upon infection ... Alphaviral envelope pseudotypes of retroviruses or lentiviruses are able to integrate the genes that they carry into the ... The second encodes three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 that ... The E2 protein is the site of most neutralizing epitopes, while the E1 protein contains more conserved, cross-reactive epitopes ...
In some mammal groups, including higher primates, retroviral envelope proteins have been exapted to produce a protein that is ... Katzourakis, A.; Tristem M; Pybus O.G.; R.J. Gifford (2007). "Discovery and analysis of the first endogenous lentivirus". ... For example, some protect against infection with related viruses. ... In humans this protein is called syncytin, and is encoded by an endogenous retrovirus called (ERVWE1) on chromosome seven. ...
Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. Env proteins play a role ... This is unlike Lentivirus, a genus of Retroviridae, which are able to integrate their RNA into the genome of non-dividing host ... Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... The DNA genome is transcribed into both mRNA, for use as a transcript in protein synthesis, and pre-genomic RNA, for use as the ...
Protein coding genes can be expressed using viral vectors, commonly to study the function of the particular protein. Viral ... which raises concerns for possible applications of lentiviruses in gene therapy. However, studies have shown that lentivirus ... Such a virus can efficiently infect cells but, once the infection has taken place, requires a helper virus to provide the ... To produce a lentivirus, several plasmids are transfected into a so-called packaging cell line, commonly HEK 293. One or more ...
... specific genetic change that alters the CCR5 protein when present in both chromosomes very effectively prevents HIV-1 infection ... Lentiviruses share many morphological and biological characteristics. Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, ... As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like ... Which infections occur depends partly on what organisms are common in the person's environment. These infections may affect ...
... is required to cleave a viral polyprotein precursor into individual mature proteins. The viral RNA and viral proteins assemble ... HIV infection was first described in 1981 in San Francisco and New York City. In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that has two major species, HIV-1 which causes the majority of the epidemic ... HIV-2 carries a slightly lower risk of transmission than HIV-1 and infection tends to progress more slowly to AIDS. In common ...
There are multiple steps involved in the infection and replication of a Lentivirus in a host cell. In the first step the virus ... developed this strain of lentivirus by transinfecting 293T cells with pseudotyped virus with the vesicular stomatitis G protein ... To do this scientists use the Lentivirus' mechanisms of infection to achieve a desired outcome to gene therapy. To understand ... Lentivirus are a family of viruses that are responsible for notable diseases like HIV. The Lentivirus is unique in that it has ...
Like other lentiviruses, HIV-1 encodes a trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat), which is essential for efficient ... It has been suggested that Tat antagonists may be of use in the treatment of HIV infections. Biosantech has developed a novel ... In molecular biology, tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1. Tat is a regulatory protein that ... RNA binding proteins. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating peptide. ...
Because the transgene itself produces a protein either not produced by the cell normally or produces a protein in such a great ... Retinal gene therapy using lentivirus vectors may be a way to treat a wider range of genetic disorders in the retina because of ... Other work by researchers suggests interferon may play an important role in preventing successful infection of the target cell ... Loss of this protein results in an early-onset retinal degeneration in which afflicted patients become blind. Swiss researchers ...
Although meat protein can be substituted with vegetable proteins, vegetable proteins don't provide sufficient amino acids which ... Timely vaccination can reduce the risk and severity of an infection. The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate cats ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, and also not a cancer. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal, ... Most felines with IBD also have several food allergies, including red meat proteins, fish oils, and gluten, which must be ...
Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 have acquired proteins such as Nef which perform a wide array of functions including the ... Since the activation state of the infected cell plays an important role in the success rate of HIV-1 infection, it is important ... Piguet V, Trono D (1999). "The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses". Rev. Med. Virol. 9 (2): 111-20. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099- ... Nef (Negative Regulatory Factor) is a small 27-35 kDa myristoylated protein encoded by primate lentiviruses. These include ...
One of the identifying characteristics of lentiviruses is being able to infect non-dividing cells. BIV, being a lentivirus has ... When looking at prevalence of BIV infection, it was found that BIV is more prevalent in the southern United States and most ... After translation, the viral structural proteins assemble the virus particle at the plasma membrane and form a complex with the ... Thus far, the lentiviruses used have been primate viruses that may possess the potential to cause disease in humans. As a non- ...
The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core (the protein shell of a virus) and the ... Risk factors for infection are being of the male sex, adulthood, and outdoor access. One case study conducted in São Paulo ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects cats worldwide. From 2.5% up to 4.4% of cats worldwide are ... Higher rates of infection in males than females occurs due to biting being more frequently engaged in by males defending their ...
The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and ... The vif protein (p23) prevents the action of APOBEC3G (a cellular protein that deaminates cytidine to uridine in the single- ... HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus,[14] part of the family Retroviridae.[15] Lentiviruses have many morphologies and ... As the sole viral protein on the surface of the virus, the Envelope protein is a major target for HIV vaccine efforts.[26] Over ...
... activity against primate lentiviruses and it is sensitive to inactivation by the simian immunodeficiency virus Vif protein, and ... its antiretroviral activity and are associated with increased resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in ... also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3H or APOBEC-related protein 10, is a protein ... The encoded protein is a cytidine deaminase that has antiretroviral activity by generating lethal hypermutations in viral ...
... disease-associated form of the prion protein is commonly referred to as PrPsc because it was first found in scrapie infections ... Examples include the Visna-Maedi virus, in the genus Lentivirus (family Retroviridae), that causes encephalitis and chronic ... The prion protein is known as PrP and is a cell surface glycophosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchored protein. Its normal function in ... Prions are misfolded proteins that are "infectious" because they can induce misfolding in other previously normal proteins, but ...
... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... Langerhans cells - LAS - lentivirus - lesion - leukocytes - leukocytosis - leukopenia - leukoplakia - LFT - LIP - lipid - ... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... ocular - off-label use - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - organelle - ...
For infection, 1 × 105 cells were plated in 6-cm plates, infected with the lentivirus and sorted with flow cytometry to ensure ... The Unfolded Protein Response Induces the Angiogenic Switch in Human Tumor Cells through the PERK/ATF4 Pathway. Yugang Wang, ... Lentivirus infection. GFP-expressing lentiviral constructs expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against PERK, ATF4, and HIF1α ... The unfolded protein response-a stress signaling pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum. J Chem Neuroanat 2004;28:79-92. ...
Lentivirus infection. The lentiviral vector system was provided by D. Trono (University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; ... Yeast Ku protein plays a direct role in telomeric silencing and counteracts inhibition by rif proteins. Curr. Biol. 9:1123-1126 ... LOX cells were infected with lentiviruses expressing siRNA sequences targeting hRif1 mRNA. 3 d after infection, 50 μg of whole ... LOX cells were infected with lentiviruses expressing hairpin siRNAs against hRap1, TRF1, or TRF2. 3 d after infection, cells ...
RNA Virus Infections. Hepatitis. Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Immune System Diseases. Lentivirus Infections. ... Laboratory analysis of Tat Protein [ Time Frame: Single sample analysis ]. The validation that HIV Tat protein is a potent ... HIV Infections. Hepatitis C, Chronic. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Flaviviridae Infections. ... co-infection (HIV/HCV) have a more rapid and progressive course of HCV infection, leading to fatty infiltration of the liver ...
HIV Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Poxviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. MF59 oil emulsion. Adjuvants, Immunologic. Immunologic Factors. ... The Novartis protein subunit vaccine is a Subtype C oligomeric V2 loop deleted glycoprotein 140 (gp140) vaccine (gp140[delta]V2 ... Assessed by clinic staff as being at low risk for HIV infection on the basis of sexual behavior within the 12 months prior to ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... Such strategies target regulatory proteins that are the first to be expressed after infection and are essential for viral ... Control of SHIV-89.6P-infection of cynomolgus monkeys by HIV-1 Tat protein vaccine. Nat Med. 1999 Jun;5(6):643-50. ... Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Preventative Vaccine Trial Based on Recombinant Tat Protein (ISSP-001). This study has been ...
HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted ... Assessed by the clinic staff as being at low risk for HIV infection and committed to maintaining behavior consistent with low ... A Phase 1b Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate HIV-1 Neutralization Antibody Breadth in Response to HIV gp120 Protein Vaccine ... Evaluating HIV-1 Neutralization Antibody Breadth in Response to HIV gp120 Protein Vaccine in HIV-uninfected Adults With ...
... infection in goats. In uninfected goats, we found higher Cp and lower Fbγ mRNA levels in blood leucocytes (BL) than in milk ... of SAA in blood serum and simultaneous reduced concentration of SAA and Cp in milk may be additive indicators of this infection ... The aim of the study was to analyze acute phase protein and cathelicidin gene responses to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) ... Proteins from this group participate in the response to infections with different species of lentiviruses. As one of the ...
Particle conjugation of lentivirus allows facile manipulation in vitro, resulting in the transduction of 48 to 94% of human ... Biotinylation of these proteins and streptavidin paramagnetic particle concentration enhances titer 400- to 2,500-fold (to 10(9 ... We report the purification and concentration of lentiviral vectors using these surface proteins as an efficient gene ... CFU/ml for vesicular stomatitis virus G protein and 5 x 10(8) for amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope). This method also ...
DNA constructs and lentivirus production and infection. Lentiviruses encoding shRNAs targeting Nir2 or Myc-tagged wild-type ... Lentivirus production and infection were conducted essentially as previously described (Kim et al., 2013). Infected MCF10A or ... 2004). The role of the Nir/rdgB protein family in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodeling. Exp. Cell Res. 297, 1-10. ... Lentiviruses encoding Nir2-Myc or shRNA targeting Nir2 were used to infect MCF10A, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. The effect ...
Lentivirus infection. Lentiviruses expressing siRNA against GRP78 as described above or full-length human GRP78 were ... For infection, 104 cells were plated in six-well plates and infected with the lentivirus at titers of 5 × 106 units/mL. ... U251 cells were infected with lentivirus expressing human GRP78 (L-GRP78) or GFP alone (L-GFP). Five days after infection, 200 ... 5 ). Western blot assay verified that infection with L-GRP78 increased the level of GRP78 protein by ∼2-fold. The results ...
... and further provides methods for treating lentivirus infections. ... an agent that inhibits an activity of a lentiviral Vif protein ... US20070134653A1 - Methods for treating lentivirus infections - Google Patents. Methods for treating lentivirus infections ... 102000004169 proteins and genes Human genes 0 claims description 95 * 108090000623 proteins and genes Proteins 0 claims ... 208000004553 Lentivirus Infections Diseases 0 abstract description title 29 * 102100000654 APOBEC3G Human genes 0 abstract ...
Lentivirus infection; nonhuman; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; RNA editing; RNA isolation; RNA structure; RNA ... As inverted Alus are predicted to reside in ,5 of human protein-coding genes, these intramolecular dsRNA structures are ... Although the presence of dsRNA in the cell was previously thought to only occur during viral infection, it is now known that ... translation; Cytoplasm; Gene Expression Regulation; HEK293 Cells; Protein Biosynthesis; RNA, Double-Stranded; RNA, Messenger ...
Lentivirus infection The lentiviral vector system was provided by D. Trono (University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Zufferey ... LOX cells were infected with lentiviruses expressing siRNA sequences targeting hRif1 mRNA. 3 d after infection, 50 μg of whole ... LOX cells were infected with lentiviruses expressing siRNA sequences targeting hRif1 mRNA. 3 d after infection, 50 μg of whole ... LOX cells were infected with lentiviruses expressing hairpin siRNAs against hRap1, TRF1, or TRF2. 3 d after infection, cells ...
Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that primate lentiviruses will infect and replicate in a new species if they are ... Indeed, infection of macaques with these viruses revealed that Vif-mediated counteraction of APOBEC3G function is central to ... Indeed, infection of macaques with these viruses revealed that Vif-mediated counteraction of APOBEC3G function is central to ... Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that primate lentiviruses will infect and replicate in a new species if they are ...
shRNAs, lentivirus production, and infection of BM cells. shRNA sequences against Lrp2 and Itln1 were obtained from the Sigma- ... Neonatal PMN-MDSCs show reduced apoptosis and immunosuppressive activity upon infection with E. coli (25). S100A8/A9 proteins ( ... After 6 hours of infection, medium was changed. Infection was repeated the next day, and then cells were treated with PBS or LF ... LDL receptor-related protein-1 regulates NFκB and microRNA-155 in macrophages to control the inflammatory response. Proc Natl ...
HIV Infections. Weight Loss. Cachexia. Wasting Syndrome. HIV Wasting Syndrome. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. ... This may be because patients are not eating enough protein or are not eating the right kinds of protein. The protein eaten in ... may not be able to make up for the amount of protein lost due to HIV infection. This study gives patients high-quality protein ... Dietary sources of protein are presumably inadequate to meet the high metabolic needs caused by HIV infection. To achieve a ...
Lentivirus production and infection. The HONE1 and SUNE1 cells were infected with a lentiviral expression vector carrying ... 5: Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and nicotine suppressed vacuolar protein sorting 33B (VPS33B) expression through ... Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is an EBV oncogenic protein that disrupts NPC-related signaling12,13. However, the molecular ... Briefly, total protein was extracted and quantified. A total of 3000 μg of protein in 500 μL supernatant was incubated with 10 ...
Lentivirus Infection.. HEK293T cells were cotransfected with pCMV-VSV-G and pCMV-dr8.2-dvpr and either nontargeting or MLKL- ... TRADD (TNF-R1-associated death domain protein) is the first protein to interact with the receptor through its death domain and ... Here, we describe the identification of MLKL protein belonging to the protein kinase superfamily as the critical RIP3 ... Two independent infections were carried out. At 24 h after the infection, media were replaced with 1.3 μg/mL puromycin. After a ...
c MagT1-shRNA lentivirus inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of MagT1 in BMMSCs. d The protein levels of ALP, DSP, and ... Construction of MagT1 shRNA lentivirus and cell infection. BMMSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors encoding short ... Magnesium transporter protein 1 (MagT1) was identified as a selective Mg2+ transporter protein, which possesses five predicted ... a Immunocytochemistry showed protein expression of MagT1 in BMMSCs. b The protein expression of MagT1 was increased in BMMSCs ...
Cell culture and lentivirus infection. U87 and U251 human glioma cell lines were purchased from the Japanese Cancer Research ... Capping actin protein, gelsolin-like (CapG) was first identified as an actin binding protein of the gelsolin superfamily, which ... The F-actin filament capping protein CapG is a bona fide nucleolar protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 377:699-704. 2008. View ... The nucleo-cytoplasmic actin-binding protein CapG lacks a nuclear export sequence present in structurally related proteins. J ...
For lentivirus infection, the obtained lentivirus was incubated with polybrene (8 μg/mL) before being added into the ASCs. To ... The obtained lentivirus expresses Sema3A and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in pWPI-Sema3A or in control pWPI. ... Lentivirus Packaging and Infection of ASCs. The lentivirus plasmid expressing Sema3A gene was constructed by cloning the Sema3A ... Forty-eight hours after infection, approximately 3 × 105 ASCs either without infection or infected with control pWPI lentivirus ...
Research in the Retrovirus Laboratory focuses on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. In ... The major focus of the lab is the study of a new family of six-transmembrane proteins (6-TM GDEs) that play key roles in ... The mechanisms of the action of these proteins in the CNS are complex and are under investigation. We have also developed a ... We recently discovered that the 6-TM GDEs release GPI-anchored proteins from the cell surface through cleavage of the GPI- ...
Research in the Retrovirus Laboratory focuses on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. In ... The mechanisms of the action of these proteins in the CNS are complex and are under investigation. We have also developed a ... We are also interested in studies of lentivirus replication in macrophages and astrocytes and their role in the development of ... Research projects include studies of viral molecular genetics and host cell genes and proteins involved in the pathogenesis of ...
Lentivirus infection and cell proliferation assays. Details for construction and preparation of lentivirus are included in the ... AR-V9 protein expression is inhibited by RNAi targeted to exon CE3. Previous studies designed to test the functional importance ... Cells were transduced the next day by addition of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, or 32 μL of GFP or AR-V9 lentivirus directly to tissue culture ... Full-length AR is a modular protein encoded by contiguously spliced exons 1-8. Conversely, AR-V9 and AR-V7 are both encoded by ...
Lentiviruses Proteolytic Processing Prototypic Foamy Virus gene gene expression infection protein proteins retroviruses virus ...
  • Automated western blot, real-time PCR, shRNA lentivirus, and flow cytometry were used to detect the function of MagTl and MAPK pathway in odontogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the role of FAM196B in LUAD, we used lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knockdown FAM196B expression in human LUAD cell line A549 and H1299 and assessed it by RT-qPCR and western blot. (jcancer.org)
  • We found that FAM196B expression was significantly up-regulated in LUAD, and lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting FAM196B was used in order to ascertain its function in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in human Lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 and H1299. (jcancer.org)
  • However, the intracellular proteins and signaling pathways that regulate EMT have not been fully identified. (biologists.org)
  • The unfolded protein response (UPR) consists of a set of adaptive pathways that are triggered by disparate perturbations in normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that lead to the production of misfolded proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TRADD (TNF-R1-associated death domain protein) is the first protein to interact with the receptor through its death domain and recruits other effector proteins, such as RIP1 (receptor interacting protein) and TRAF2 (TNFR-associated factor 2) to form the TNF-R1 signaling complex leading to the activation of several pathways, including NF-κB and MAP kinases ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to reveal the role of magnesium transporter protein 1 (MagT1) and MAPK pathways in the odontogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. (springer.com)
  • However, IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1 is observed only in the IFN-producing pathways that use MAVS, STING, or TRIF as the adaptor protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • TRIM proteins are involved in pathogen-recognition and by regulation of transcriptional pathways in host defence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, common cell lines are often defective in crucial signalling pathways relevant to infection and cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Lentivirus purification enables you to remove cellular contaminants that could otherwise adversely affect your transduction experiments. (clontech.com)
  • Here, we report that the TRAF-interacting protein (TRAIP), a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar E3 ubiquitin ligase important for cellular proliferation, is localized close to mitotic chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • In the CNS, Ras proteins play a role in cellular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and memory formation via both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms ( Ye and Carew, 2010 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The spike protein (S) of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) attaches the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (sciencemag.org)
  • Within an infected cell, virions are formed in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner wherein the components that make up the virus (e.g., the virally encoded envelope, Gag, protease, integrase, reverse transcriptase, and Vpr proteins, together with the RNA genome) assemble in association with a specific cellular membrane from which the viral envelope is derived. (rupress.org)
  • The vector system of claim 1 , wherein the target antigen is a virally encoded protein, or a protein whose expression results in malignant cellular transformation. (sumobrain.com)
  • In general, SRLVs enter the cell through the interaction of their glycosylated envelope protein with a cellular receptor on the cell's plasma membrane facilitating fusion of the viral and cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • SIRT1 was knocked down or overexpressed in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or lentivirus infection, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • Treatment of HIV-infected activated CD4 + T cells with a fluorine-derivatized siRNA that is resistant to RNase A yielded similar inhibition of HIV infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Being a very early viral regulatory protein necessary for viral gene expression, cell-to-cell virus transmission and disease progression, Tat represents a key target protein for the host immune response and an optimal candidate for such a vaccination strategy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Preclinical studies demonstrated that vaccination with a biologically active Tat protein is safe, elicits a broad and specific immune response and induces a long-term protection against infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in natural infection suggest that the presence of an anti-Tat humoral immune response correlates with asymptomatic infection and with a slower disease progression while the presence of CD8+ T cell responses to Tat correlate with early virus control both in humans and monkeys. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Further studies of these macaque models of infection with HIV-1 derivatives could provide valuable insights into the interaction of lentiviruses and the innate immune response and how lentiviruses adapt and cause disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from altering the expression of a multitude of proteins, cytokines also affect immune cell dynamics. (diva-portal.org)
  • It has previously been assumed that cytokines regulate immune cells primarily via alterations of protein expression levels or posttranslational modifications. (diva-portal.org)
  • Innate immune receptors such as RIG-I, cGAS, and Toll-like receptors bind microbial fragments and alert the immune system to an infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • now report a common signaling mechanism used by all three types of innate immune receptor-adaptor protein pairs to activate IRF3 and generate IFNs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lentiviruses differ from most other retroviruses in that they have evolved to infect mature individuals with competent immune systems ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In the second part of the talk, I will describe a viral/immune model for influenza infection within individuals. (utah.edu)
  • The few in vitro studies investigating the impact of malaria on HIV-1 have demonstrated that exposure to soluble malarial antigens can increase HIV-1 infection and reactivation in immune cells. (jove.com)
  • A common denominator of these co-infections is the systemic immune activation resulting in an enhancement of the HIV viral load that ultimately might facilitate the transmission of the virus. (omicsonline.org)
  • The recombinant fusion protein sP1T3 provided a useful tool for studying the effect of dual-blockade of immune checkpoint and its potential in targeted immunotherapy of cancer, which needs further investigation. (ijpsonline.com)
  • An 18-h exposure to U0126 also suppressed the production of IL-10, VEGF, and IL-6 at the protein level, indicating that activated ERKs may be responsible for suppressing local immune responses against melanoma by producing these immunosuppressive factors ( Fig. 1 c ). (rupress.org)
  • The true situation is that lentiviruses are rapidly replicating and spawning dozens of quasi-species until a particularly effective one overruns the ability of the host's immune system to defeat it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and cell mediated immune response and can also be detected by conducting several serological tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The innate immune system, the first line of defense against microbial infection, is evolutionarily conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. (prolekare.cz)
  • Activation of the innate immune system upon pathogen infection results in a definitive anti-microbial response to invading microbes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Vpu is a multifunctional protein that was shown to contribute to viral egress by down-regulating several mediators of the immune system such as CD4, CD1d, NTB-A and the restriction factor BST2. (inserm.fr)
  • Antigenic variation and immune escape are well-recognized strategies of persistence for lentiviruses such as equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and HIV-1. (wsu.edu)
  • This method also uses newly introduced membrane proteins (B7.1 and DeltaLNGFR) directed to lentiviral surfaces, allowing up to 17,000-fold concentrations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • FIV is an enveloped virus and, similar to other lentiviruses, has a virion diameter of 105-125 nm and includes a host cell-acquired membrane with viral glycoproteins protruding as spike-like projections [ 1 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • More recent studies on correctors of the misfolded ∆F508 mutant protein in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have described their positive impact on α-SG missense mutant protein localization in the plasma membrane in primary muscle cells from patients 16 . (nature.com)
  • The large spike protein (S) on the virion surface mediates both cell attachment and membrane fusion ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Applications for these stable cell lines include but not limited to drug screening, gene expression regulations, functional assays, membrane protein antibody FACS screening, antibody immunization boosting, protein localization study by fusion with GFP and living cell imaging, and in vivo tumor xenograft models. (genscript.com)
  • When these proteins assemble to form the capsid, part of the host cell membrane is pinched off to form the envelope of the virion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In HBEC-AGR2 cells, AGR2 co-localized with calnexin (CANX), an ER resident type I integral membrane protein (Figure 4B, top panels) and BiP (GRP78), a soluble HSP70 molecular chaperone located in the lumen of the ER (Figure 4B, middle panels). (nih.gov)
  • Although the presence of dsRNA in the cell was previously thought to only occur during viral infection, it is now known that cells express many endogenous small dsRNAs, such as short interfering RNA (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs), which regulate gene expression. (iu.edu)
  • The mRNA and protein levels of CapG were significantly increased in human glioma, and higher CapG expression was an independent prognostic factor for predicting unfavorable prognosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Expression of AR-V9 protein in CRPC models was evaluated with polyclonal antisera. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pseudo-transduction of target cells can mask the de novo expression that is expected from your transduced lentivirus. (clontech.com)
  • Western blotting determined protein expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • To ensure that your protein of interest is expressed in the cells, we first characterize your protein expression by ELISA or Western Blot 48 hours after the transfection. (genscript.com)
  • Long-term stable expression of a gene of interest (GOI) is usually achieved by transfection or viral transduction of a vector containing the expression cassette of the GOI together with a selection marker (antibiotics or fluorescent proteins). (genscript.com)
  • Overexpression of miR-29c in IPF fibroblasts by lentivirus infection restored potentially pathological fibrotic gene expression to baseline levels, opening up the possibility of this microRNA or this ECM-directed pathway as potential viable therapeutic target for IPF. (sciencemag.org)
  • Catalytically-inactive receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase α over-expression inhibited α4β1-stimulated NB motility and Src activation consistent with α4-regulated Src activity occurring through Src Tyr-529 dephosphorylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expression of target proteins and downstream molecules were analyzed by Western blot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report, we find that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 infection up-regulates the expression of the microRNA mir-233 in C. elegans. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) 3 is an ancient and conserved activity that controls viral infection and the expression of transposable elements and repetitive sequences ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We report the purification and concentration of lentiviral vectors using these surface proteins as an efficient gene transduction strategy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Particle conjugation of lentivirus allows facile manipulation in vitro, resulting in the transduction of 48 to 94% of human acute myeloid leukemia blasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Further, we determined that minimizing direct nucleotide sequence repeats within the TALE moiety permits efficient lentivirus transduction, allowing easy targeting of primary cell types. (jci.org)
  • To cope with this stress, cells trigger a signal transduction system collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, these SRLVs may infect sheep that lack functional TMEM154, and may not be restricted by TMEM154 diplotypes in establishing infections. (usda.gov)
  • GAPDH is reported to bind to a variety of other proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein, mutations in which cause some forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the polyglutamine tracts of Huntingtin, the protein product aberrant forms of which are causative of Huntington's disease. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Rif proteins can also negatively regulate telomere length independent of their recruitment by Rap1p ( Levy and Blackburn, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • This modification may both alter nucleosome - DNA interactions and promote interaction of the modified histones with other proteins which positively regulate transcription. (abcam.com)
  • In lung adenocarcinoma cells, ADAR bound to and edited FAK mRNA in a manner that improved its stability, thus increasing the abundance of FAK protein and enhancing the migration of these cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In samples from 802 stage I LUAD patients, increased abundance of ADAR at both the mRNA and protein level correlated with tumor recurrence. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular analyses revealed that ADAR posttranscriptionally increased FAK protein abundance by binding to the FAK transcript and editing a specific intronic site that resulted in the increased stabilization of FAK mRNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • To make a protein, part of a DNA sequence is copied to make a messenger RNA (or mRNA) molecule in a process known as transcription. (elifesciences.org)
  • used fluorescence microscopy to investigate how mRNA molecules are made during the transcription of a human gene that makes a hemoglobin protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • m Reduction of RECK mRNA … The appearance level of RECK is definitely decreased in main leiomyoma cells and cells We assessed the RECK protein appearance in LYO and MYO cells and main cultured cells in the absence of mimics or inhibitors to determine foundation collection evaluations of RECK protein in patient combined samples. (cylch.org)
  • Nonviral producer cell proteins incorporated into retroviral vector surfaces profoundly influence infectivity and in vivo half-life. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although much progress has been made in our understanding of PRR and adaptor protein activation, the mechanism by which the adaptor proteins activate TBK1 and IRF3 remains unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rap1p also interacts with Rif2p in vivo, and mutations of Rap1p disrupting its Rif1p and Rif2p binding, as well as deletions of Rif1p and Rif2p proteins themselves, cause significant telomere lengthening ( Wotton and Shore, 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mutations in the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are the most commonly identified cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2), a dominantly inherited disease characterized by degeneration of peripheral sensory and motor axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the mechanism by which mutations in this ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial fusion protein lead to neuropathy has not yet been elucidated. (jneurosci.org)
  • To determine how MFN2 mutations lead to peripheral neuropathy, we expressed disease-mutated MFN2 proteins in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using lentivirus vectors. (jneurosci.org)
  • HIV-1 latency, which is characterized by transcriptional silence of the integrated proviruses, is the principal impediment to eradication of viral infection. (asm.org)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to fight against viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • BET protein Brd4 activates transcription in neurons and BET inhibitor Jq1 blocks memory in mice. (nih.gov)
  • However, the link between neuronal stimulation and the proteins that directly interact with histone modifications to activate transcription in neurons remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • To overcome this hurdle, a multicomponent complex containing the virally encoded Tat protein and its specific host cofactors must form on the nascent 5′ end of the HIV-1 transcript, which folds into a stem-loop structure called the TAR ( t rans a ctivation r esponse) RNA. (asm.org)
  • CUB domain-containing proteins 1 (CDCP1) is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in come cells and frequently overexpressed and tyrosine-phosphorylated in malignancy. (cylch.org)
  • These proteins share a highly conserved NH 2 -terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a central proline-rich domain, and multiple tyrosine residues that are recognized by SH2 domain-containing proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Characterization of the thiostrepton effect revealed a positive impact on R77C-α-SG and other missense mutant protein localization (R34H, I124T, V247M) in fibroblasts overexpressing these proteins. (nature.com)
  • Thus serological ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), cannot be considered as a reference test [ 7 , 8 ], which necessitates search for additional biomarkers of the infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we have used a mouse model with specific nuclear upregulation of cAMP-CREB-CREB binding protein (CBP) action and enhanced in vivo and in vitro β-cell proliferation ( 9 ) to specifically assess the role of cAMP-CREB-regulated transcription on cell cycle regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies with this bacterial pathogen largely rely on the use of transformed cell lines as infection model. (bmj.com)
  • Transfer of sheared spheroids into 2D culture led to the formation of dense planar cultures of polarised epithelial cells serving as a suitable in vitro model of H. pylori infection. (bmj.com)
  • Illuminating the molecular basis of H. pylori -induced carcinogenesis has been hampered by the absence of suitable in vitro infection models, because available cell lines are derived from neoplastic tissue, which has already undergone transformation. (bmj.com)
  • Depending on your preference, we will use either plasmid-based stable transfection or lentivirus-based infection as your preferred stable transfection method. (genscript.com)
  • On the other hand, the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous transcription factor (CHOP/GADD153) is one of the critical executioners of the proapoptotic arm of the UPR ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • either CycT1 or T2), collectively referred to as P-TEFb, as well as one of each of the three pairs of homologous proteins: ELL1/ELL2, AFF1/AFF4, and ENL/AF9 ( 7 - 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Most infections are asymptomatic, yet 60 to 80% become persistent and lead to severe fibrosis and cirrhosis, hepatic failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma ( 3 ). (asm.org)