Thymine DNA Glycosylase: An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Thymidine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Saskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Armenia: An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... Plant, Cell and Environment. 27 (6): 675-684. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01180.x. In 1891, following Stahls work on plant ... Plants were the main source of such compounds, especially alkaloids and glycosides. It was long been known that opium, a sticky ... Organic chemistry was regarded at that time as the chemistry of substances that plants and animals are composed of. It was a ...
These include the NBS-LRR class of proteins. SAR is important for plants to resist disease, as well as to recover from disease ... International Journal of Plant Pathology 2(1): 43-50 [2] Miller G et al., (2009) The plant NADPH oxidase RBOHD mediates rapid ... The Plant Cell 8: 1809-1819.[4] Exploiting Plants' Protective Proteins. ... SAR is analogous to the innate immune system found in animals, and there is evidence that SAR in plants and innate immunity in ...
ISBN 3-85474-140-5. Ökke Atıcıa & Barbaros Nalbantoğlu (2003). "Antifreeze proteins in higher plants". Phytochemistry. 64 (7): ...
Plant genomes encode for dicer like proteins with similar functions and protein domains as animal and insect dicer. For example ... It is likely dicer is involved in viral immunity as viruses that infect both plant and animal cells contain proteins designed ... Liu Q, Feng Y, Zhu Z (Aug 2009). "Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in plants". Functional & Integrative Genomics. 9 (3): 277-86. doi: ... these stressors may decrease a plants viral resistance. Unlike Arabidopsis, loss of function of DCL proteins causes ...
Thomas, Bruce (2002). Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants. p. 4. ISBN 9781601072542. Archived from the original on 28 ... There are four known genes encoded by the genome, called C, X, P, and S. The core protein is coded for by gene C (HBcAg), and ... The function of the protein coded for by gene X is not fully understood but it is associated with the development of liver ... These particles are not infectious and are composed of the lipid and protein that forms part of the surface of the virion, ...
Toxic Plant Proteins. Springer. pp. 134-. ISBN 9783642121760. Retrieved 1 January 2013. Lewis, Robert Alan (1998). Lewisʼ ... Abrus is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae and the only genus found in the tribe Abreae. It contains, 13- ...
Plant proteins. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2016. *Wikipedia articles ... Aleurone (from Greek aleuron, flour) is a protein found in protein granules of maturing seeds and tubers.[clarification needed] ... Aleurone protein[edit]. Aleurone proteins can have two different morphological features, homogenous and heterogeneous. The ... and storage proteins into the endosperm. Evidence that G-proteins play a role in the gibberellin signaling events has been ...
... as plant to plant and row to row distance. The plants are usually pruned once a year during the monsoon season to a height of ... For other plants called mulberry, see List of plants known as mulberry. For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... but they are most often planted from large cuttings which root readily. The mulberry plants which are allowed to grow tall with ... "Plant Production and Protection. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 20 October 2012.. ...
The planted area is now less than 150 ha (400 acres) annually, planted with two main varieties.[citation needed] Terengganu ... Two varieties are planted in Malaysia - left Terengganu or UMKL-1, right Arab. The varieties produce about 8 t/ha (3.6 short ... The plant is primarily cultivated for the production of bast fibre from the stem. The fibre may be used as a substitute for ... Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Van Ke, Nguyen (2007). Edible Wild Plants of Vietnam: The Bountiful Garden. Thailand: Orchid Press. p. 91. ...
McDougall, John (2002). "Misinformation on Plant Proteins". Circulation. Dallas, Tx: American Heart Association. 106 (20): e148 ... In a technique known as companion planting the three crops are planted close together. Flat-topped mounds of soil are built for ... The Three Sisters planting method is featured on the reverse of the 2009 US Sacagawea dollar. The division of labor among the ... Each mound is about 30 cm (12 in) high and 50 cm (20 in) wide, and several maize seeds are planted close together in the center ...
Fox, Jeffrey L (1 October 2006). "Turning plants into protein factories". Nature Biotechnology. 24 (10): 1191-1193. doi:10.1038 ... is a privately owned plant biotechnology company, founded in August 2002, that operates from its corporate headquarters in ... Official website Profile on NRC-Plant Biotechnology Institute's bulletin. ...
"Motif analysis unveils the possible co-regulation of chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins". Plant ... Plants also show uniparental mtDNA inheritance. Most plants inherit mtDNA maternally with one noted exception being the redwood ... "Cytogenomic analyses reveal the structural plasticity of the chloroplast genome in higher plants". The Plant Cell Online. 13 (2 ... "Extrachromosomal circular DNA derived from tandemly repeated genomic sequences in plants". The Plant Journal. 53 (6): 1027-1034 ...
Effects on protein synthesis. Plant Physiol. 74, 956-961 *^ Stirling, C.J., Rothblatt, J., Hosobuchi, M., Deshaies, R., and ... to tether cellular proteins to a ubiquitin ligase, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of the tethered protein.[23] ... Protein translocation mutants defective in the insertion of integral membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol. ... Protein translocation: As a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Randy Schekman at the University of ...
... s in plants are separated into five main homologous subfamilies, or groups: Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP) ... Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP) Nodulin-26 like Intrinsic Protein (NIP) Small basic Intrinsic Protein (SIP) X Intrinsic ... Johanson U, Gustavsson S (2002). "A new subfamily of major intrinsic proteins in plants". Mol. Biol. Evol. 19 (4): 456-61. doi: ... Aquaporins also called water channels, are integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that ...
"Significance of Inducible Defense-related Proteins in Infected Plants". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 44 (1): 135-162. doi: ... the P.sativum abscisic acid-responsive proteins ABR17 and ABR18; and the stress-induced protein SAM22 from Glycine max (Soybean ... The allergens in this family include allergens with the following designations: Bet v 1, Dau c 1, and Pru a 1. Other proteins ... The Bet v 1 protein comprises 6 anti-parallel beta-strands and 3 alpha-helices. Four of the strands dominate the global fold, ...
This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. The ligands ... The first PRR identified in plants or animals was the Xa21 protein, conferring resistance to the Gram-negative bacterial ... McHale L, Tan X, Koehl P, Michelmore RW (2006). "Plant NBS-LRR proteins: adaptable guards". Genome Biol. 7 (4): 212. doi: ... Among other proteins the most important are: the MHC Class II transactivator (CIITA), IPAF, BIRC1 etc. Some of these proteins ...
Recent Advances in Plant Virology. Caister Academic Press; 2011. ISBN 978-1-904455-75-2. Plant Viral Vectors for Protein ... Viruses spread in many ways; viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, ... Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by organisms, known as vectors. These are normally insects, but some fungi, ... Plant viruses cannot infect humans and other animals because they can reproduce only in living plant cells. Plants have ...
Mellet, V.; Gaillard, J.; Vantard, M. (2003). "Plant Katanin, a microtubule severing protein". Cell Biology International. 27: ... Katanin is also found to have similar functions in higher plants. The form and structure of a plant cell is determined by the ... Katanin is a microtubule-severing AAA protein. It is named after the Japanese sword, katana. Katanin is a heterodimeric protein ... Therefore, a His-tagged At-p60 was made to describe its functions in plants. The His-At-p60 can sever microtubules in vitro in ...
Schapire AL, Valpuesta V, Botella MA (Sep 2006). "TPR Proteins in Plant Hormone Signaling". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 1 (5): ... The PEX5 protein is a receptor for PTS1 (peroxisomal targeting signal tripeptide which directs proteins into peroxisomes). It ... It is found in tandem arrays of 3-16 motifs, which form scaffolds to mediate protein-protein interactions and often the ... in land plants". BMC Plant Biology. 10: 254. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-254. PMC 3095333 . PMID 21087491. Das AK, Cohen PW, ...
... the targets of bacterial effector avr proteins appear to be proteins involved in plant innate immunity signaling, as homologues ... a protein known as the guardee which is the target of the Avr protein. When it detects interference with the guardee protein, ... The protein products encoded by this class of resistance gene are located within the plant cell cytoplasm. The PRR class of R ... Van Der Biezen, E.; Jones, J. D. G. (1998). "Plant disease-resistance proteins and the gene-for-gene concept". Trends in ...
DELLA proteins, such as SLR1 in rice or GAI and RGA in Arabidopsis are repressors of plant development. DELLAs inhibit seed ... Targets of DELLA proteins[edit]. Transcription factors[edit]. The first targets of DELLA proteins identified were PHYTOCHROME ... Lechner E, Achard P, Vansiri A, Potuschak T, Genschik P (December 2006). "F-box proteins everywhere". Current Opinion in Plant ... Achard P, Genschik P (2009). "Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins". Journal of Experimental ...
Movement proteins are non-structural proteins encoded by many, if not all, plant viruses to enable their movement from one ... For example, secoviruses infect plants and it has specialized proteins. The effect of secoviruses is important on cultivated ... The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ...
Momordin (protein), unrelated enzymes (proteins) from Momordica and other plants. Matsuda, H.; Li, Y.; Yamahara, J.; Yoshikawa ... These chemical compounds are found in some plants of the Momordica genus, which includes the bitter melon (M. charantia) and ... the balsam apple (M. balsamina), as well as in other Asian herbal medicine plants such as Kochia scoparia and Ampelopsis radix ...
"Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants". Plant Cell. 4: 1425-33. doi:10.2307/3869513. PMC 160229 . ... Some proteins in bacteria and fungi are known to have distant sequence similarity to plant expansins. Strong evidence that at ... This study also noted that proteins related to YOAJ were found in diverse species of plant pathogenic bacteria, but not in ... Expansin refers to a family of closely related nonenzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in ...
... there are no proteins in plants that are similar to human proteins. On the other hand, plants are still sufficiently closely ... Many proteins of interest are too complex to be made by microbial systems or by protein synthesis. These proteins are currently ... "Bioproduction of Therapeutic Proteins in the 21st Century and the Role of Plants and Plant Cells as Production Platforms". ... The proteins and molecules can then be harvested and used to produce pharmaceuticals. Recently, several non-crop plants such as ...
Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor.. *Phytosterols may be found naturally in plants. Similar to ... CETP inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), 1 candidate is in trials. It is expected that these drugs will mainly ...
In Recombinant Proteins from Plants, leading researchers from around the world present the latest molecular and classical ... and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. Recombinant Proteins from Plants provides a ... and characterization of recombinant plant proteins. Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for ... Quantification of Heterologous Protein Levels in Transgenic Plants by ELISA Anne-Marie Bruyns, Myriam De Neve, Geert De Jaeger ...
Auxin and other plant hormones Cell division Polarity and morphogenesis Stress responses ... The Role of Seven-Transmembrane Domain MLO Proteins, Heterotrimeric G-Proteins, and Monomeric RAC/ROPs in Plant Defense ... Integrated G Proteins Signaling in Plants. Editors: Yalovsky, Shaul, Baluska, Frantisek, Jones, Alan (Eds.) ... This volume focuses on structure, function and regulation of plant signaling G proteins and their function in hormonal pathways ...
Prion proteins are infamous for their role in mad cow disease, but they also help yeasts form memories. They have now been ... The proteins may help plants change their activity based on past events, helping them decide when to flower, for instance. ... This is the first time a prion-like protein sequence has been found in plants. "We dont know what its actually doing in the ... Prions - those infamous proteins linked to mad cow disease - may be responsible for memory in plants. ...
Plant virus movement proteins.. Deom CM1, Lapidot M, Beachy RN.. Author information. 1. Department of Plant Pathology, ...
In this article, we look at the best plant-based proteins, including vegetables high in protein, and some ways to use them. We ... also discuss whether plant-based protein powders are a good option. ... People who eat or are considering vegetarian or vegan diets may be concerned about getting enough protein from their food. ... Fifteen best plant-based proteins. The right plant-based foods can be excellent sources of protein and other nutrients, often ...
The classic cartoon hero Popeye was an early champion of plant-based protein demonstrated in his theme song, ... Research has shown that all plants contain protein and at least 14% of the total calories of every plant are protein. Broccoli ... How can you add more plant-based protein to your diet? By simply eating more plants. Beans (27% protein) lentils (36%), ... If you consume 2000 calories per day from plant sources containing 14% protein, the total number of calories from protein ...
Plant-based protein supplements are growing at a faster rate than the overall protein supplement category-so whos the audience ... Having access to a huge global supply is a key factor in putting rice protein at the forefront of the plant-based race, said a ... New report looks at dairy and plant proteins in weight management and healthy ageing 12-May-2020. By Jim Cornall ... Health Warrior CEO talks superfoods, plant protein, and why Americans need more prebiotics 10-Oct-2018. By Adi Menayang ...
Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C), that is characterized by a ... In plants we find that CENP-C proteins have complex duplicated regions, with conserved amino and carboxyl termini that are ... Comparisons of CENP-C proteins in animals, yeast and plants. The CENPC motif and conserved regions found at the termini of CENP ... Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals.. Talbert PB1, Bryson TD, Henikoff S. ...
... Yan Gao,1,2 Songguang Yang,1 Lianyu Yuan,1,2 Yuhai Cui,3 ... J. Ren, L. Wen, X. Gao, C. Jin, Y. Xue, and X. Yao, "DOG 1.0: illustrator of protein domain structures," Cell Research, vol. 19 ... G. B. Legge, M. A. Martinez-Yamout, D. M. Hambly et al., "ZZ domain of CBP: an unusual zinc finger fold in a protein ... A. Jerzmanowski, "SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling and linker histones in plants," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1769, no. 5- ...
Basics Market presents Exploring Plant-Based Proteins - Wednesday, March 6, 2019 , Thursday, September 26, 2019 at Basics ... Concerned about meeting protein needs on a vegan or vegetarian diet? Were dedicating a class to exploring plant-based proteins ... Exploring Plant-Based Proteins at Basics Market - Sandy 5035 NE Sandy Blvd, Portland, OR 97213 ...
Eat protein foods (a quarter of your plate) and choose plant-based proteins more often ... Try incorporating more plant-based proteins into your diet by making some delicious sweet potato falafels. You can add them to ... They are a great way to add more veggies and plant protein sources to your diet! Sweet Potato Falafels. Ingredients ... You are here: About us / News / National / 2019 / March / Plant-based proteins ...
N. V. Fedoroff, "RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?" Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. ... "Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms," Genes and ... RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Immunity. Virginia Woloshen,1,2 Shuai Huang,1,2 and Xin Li1,2 ... Z. Q. Fu, M. Guo, B. R. Jeong et al., "A type III effector ADP-ribosylates RNA-binding proteins and quells plant immunity," ...
A meaty steak and a side of eggs are two extremely good sources of protein, but what about the vegetarians of the world or ... Eight Plant-Based Sources of Protein. Sara SuchyEditor. Sep 27, 2012. ... Tofu has 17 grams of protein in a one-cup serving and is considered a complete protein. However, it is not as high-quality as ... This little gem of a super food offers eight grams of protein per one cup serving (cooked) and is a complete protein. It is ...
Eat protein foods (a quarter of your plate) and choose plant-based proteins more often ... Try incorporating more plant-based proteins into your diet by making some delicious sweet potato falafels. You can add them to ... They are a great way to add more veggies and plant protein sources to your diet! Sweet Potato Falafels. Ingredients ...
Gel mobility shift experiments employing ten different recombinant plant bZIP proteins demonstrated that nucleotides flanking ... Plant bZIP proteins exhibit a relaxed DNA-binding specificity for DNA sequence motifs containing an ACGT core. ... Plant bZIP protein DNA binding specificity J Mol Biol. 1993 Apr 20;230(4):1131-44. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1993.1230. ... All ten plant bZIP proteins examined, except TGA1a, exhibited type A G-box binding activity preferring class I G-box elements. ...
Meanwhile, many companies rely on twin screw extrusion to create texturised plant proteins. Opportunities for innovation in ... Important updates include identifying new protein sources, like fava bean and lupin, and better isolates of existing protein ... finding new methods to extract plant proteins with processes that dont introduce large amounts of salt. Customised ingredients ... will help the development of more plant-based options. Traditional crops for plant-based foods, like soy and wheat, could be ...
When it comes to plant growth and development, one hormone is responsible for it all: auxin. New Washington University in St. ... Cell Biology Environmental Science Plants All Journal News Grant Funded News KEYWORDS. Auxin Plant Biology plant gene ... Sticky Proteins Help Plants Know When - and Where - to Grow. New research uncovers a mechanism that keeps hormone auxin in its ... They are always present in a plant, but ARFs are often impotent because they are bound by Aux/IAA repressor proteins, which ...
The classic cartoon hero Popeye was an early champion of plant-based protein demonstrated in his theme song, ...
Here are some wonderful plant-based sources of protein. ... and a side of eggs are two extremely good sources of protein, ... www.healthcentral.com/slideshow/eight-plant-based-sources-of-protein. Eight Plant-Based Sources of Protein. Sara Suchy , Sept ... Tofu has 17 grams of protein in a one-cup serving and is considered a complete protein. However, it is not as high-quality as ... This little gem of a super food offers eight grams of protein per one cup serving (cooked) and is a complete protein. It is ...
Plant Based Protein Bars Categories Sports Nutrition Sports Bars, Cookies, Brownies Protein Bars Plant Based Protein Bars ... Genuine Health, Plant Based Protein Bars 1 Results (showing 1 - 1) Visit Manufacturers Website » ... Genuine Health, Fermented Vegan Proteins+, Dark Chocolate Almond, 12 Protein Bars, 1.94 oz (55 g) Each. ...
Title: Global Plant Protein Market, Author: Pallavi, Length: 8 pages, Published: 2018-02-22 ... Global Plant Protein Market by Pallavi Global Plant Protein Market - Industry Trends, Opportunities and Forecasts to 2023.This ... Global Plant Protein Market - Industry Trends, Opportunities and Forecasts to 2023.This research study examines the Global ... The report also analyzes key players in the Global Plant Protein Market Less ...
PlantFusion Amino Acid Infused Protein Blend: (Pea Protein Isolate, Artichoke Protein, Organic Sprouted Amaranth Powder and ... 21 g plant protein. Branched chain amino acids 4500 mg. Glutamine 3350 mg. Enzyme blend 100 mg. Non GMO promise. Gluten free. ... Use once daily as a supplemental source of plant protein. Keep tightly closed; store in a cool, dry place away from light, heat ... Four of the worlds most potent plant protein sources, fortified with key amino acids and digestive enzymes to create an ...
... body cant store protein so its important we get enough of the daily-recommended amount.There is a debate as to whether plant ... Did you know the protein makes up about 20% of the human body? They are used for almost every metabolic process. The ... Plant proteins come with less "baggage" in the form of harmful components, than meat. Nutritionists believe plant proteins ... Plant based protein powder is an easy and effective way to add clean proteins to your diet. So lose the baggage and get your ...
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  • type proteasome subunit and a transformer-2-like SR-related protein: early induction of the corresponding genes in tobacco cells treated with cryptogein," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 261-269, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms," Genes and Development , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1484-1493, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Assuming that only high affinity bZIP binding sites are likely to function in vivo, identification of these sites will allow us to predict which genes are activated by a particular bZIP protein. (nih.gov)
  • Using special "designer" PPR genes, for example, one might specifically render certain genome transcripts unusable and test how this affects the plant. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plants respond to this state of hypoxia with the activation of certain genes that help them cope with the stress. (mpg.de)
  • Recent experiments show that under hypoxia a protein that can activate genes, a so-called transcription factor, is released from the cell membrane to accumulate in the nucleus and trigger the expression of stress response genes. (mpg.de)
  • When the oxygen level declines, the protein detaches from the membrane and accumulates in the nucleus where it can fulfill its duties as a transcription factor and activate certain genes. (mpg.de)
  • Although there are a variety of R genes, and a veritable multitude of pathogens, the plant tends to respond with a limited repertoire of physiological responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • This technology has been developed in the last decade and is, overall, the most powerful and advantageous, being based on the transformation of the plastoma (the genes contained in the plastids) of the plant cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • They show that the three proteins studied, the Pseudo-Response Regulators PRR5, PRR7 and PRR9, associate with promoter regions of the genes CCA1 and LHY to repress transcription of these genes at different times (Figure 2). (riken.jp)
  • The knox gene family was the first group of plant genes identified that encodes homeodomain (HD) proteins ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • When different proteins bind with activating or repressing chemical marks, different genes get turned on or silenced, controlling the development of a single cell. (iran-daily.com)
  • More importantly, the biologists show how this protein complex is intricately coordinated through the biological clock with the genes that promote stem elongation in a way that could enable plant breeders to engineer new varieties of crops that grow faster, produce greater yields of food or generate more biomass per acre of land for conversion into biofuels. (eponline.com)
  • Because the three genes-Early Flowering3 (or ELF3), ELF4 and LUX-have biological activities that peak in the early evening, the UCSD biologists wondered if the three genes acted together in a protein complex. (eponline.com)
  • Through a series of experiments in yeast cells, they determined the three genes produced proteins that did interact with one another, but in a specific way. (eponline.com)
  • One main clue pointed them in the right direction: When any one of the three genes controlling this protein complex is disabled, plants end up with grossly elongated stems. (eponline.com)
  • So when we mutate any one of these genes the plants elongate much more. (eponline.com)
  • In another set of experiments, the researchers demonstrated that the evening complex puts the brakes on the activity of two genes in plants-PIF4 and PIF5-that are important in promoting plant growth. (eponline.com)
  • The protein triggered a signaling cascade involved in the plant immune response, activated the expression of genes involved in defense, started callose deposition -- a protective thickening of the cell walls -- and made the plants more resistant to gray mold infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Regulatory proteins can bind to activating or repressing chemical marks to promote or restrict which genes are turned on, which in turn controls what type of tissue a cell may become, or how an organism will change its growth. (newswise.com)
  • Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C), that is characterized by a single 24 amino-acid motif (CENPC motif). (nih.gov)
  • Group 1 proteins exhibit a stronger binding affinity for G-box elements, group 2 proteins bind both G-box and C-box motifs with comparable binding affinity, whereas the group 3 proteins display a stronger binding affinity for C-box oligonucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • Those responses are all results of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs), proteins which bind to DNA in a cell's nucleus to facilitate growth and development in one way, or another. (newswise.com)
  • The change centered on the PB1 domain, on the opposite end of the ARF protein from the DNA binding domain (where the ARF, once in the nucleus of a cell, will bind to DNA during the transcription process). (newswise.com)
  • (A) PRR9, PRR7, and PRR5 proteins bind to LHY promoter from 2-h until 8-h, from 4-h until 14-h, and from 8-h until 16-h after light on (light on is time 0). (riken.jp)
  • Professor of Genetics and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery researcher Xuehua Zhong and her lab found that the protein EBS can bind to two different chemical modifications on histones, proteins that DNA wraps around, either promoting or preventing the transition to flowering in plants. (newswise.com)
  • There have been proteins that can bind multiple modifications at once, but we've never seen one that can bind both repressive and active marks at the same time," adds Ray Scheid , a graduate student in the Zhong lab who contributed to the study. (newswise.com)
  • In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Conference on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union on 22-23 November 2018 in Vienna was co-hosted by the Austrian Minister for Sustainability and Tourism, Ms Elisabeth Köstinger and the European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development, Mr Phil Hogan. (europa.eu)
  • There was "$673m invested in the plant-based food industry alone" during 2018, according to the report. (cips.org)
  • We would like to understand how these proteins are able to modulate host metabolism and identify their host targets," she said. (redorbit.com)
  • The strategy could be suitable for investigating certain functions of the plant energy metabolism in more detail. (eurekalert.org)
  • If the plants are cut off from oxygen supply, as a result of flooding for example, the energy production in the cells comes to a halt and the plants have to adjust their metabolism to the changed conditions. (mpg.de)
  • It also contains natural plant extracts that help boost your metabolism and burn excess body fat naturally to help you build and maintain a lean healthy body. (aminoz.com.au)
  • The use of viral vectors for expression of heterologous proteins in plants is hampered by some limitations including the amount of exogenous genetic information that can be incorporated, difficulties with coexpression of stoichiometric amounts of multiple polypeptides and the risk that infectious clones could escape to environment. (nih.gov)
  • The technology is based on the replacement of the viral RNA polymerase (NIb) cistron of a potyvirus by a cassette for the coexpression of multiple heterologous proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The heterologous proteins are flanked by specific cleavage motifs of a viral protease that mediate their efficient release from the viral polyprotein. (nih.gov)
  • Taco Bell has a "Vegetarian Certified" menu, joining the list of many fast food/chain restaurants that now have plant-based meals, such as Wendy's, Denny's, Subway, Chipotle, White Castle, and Chili's. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Vegetarian, Mediterranean, and other plant-based diets have spiked in popularity, but nutrition experts encourage people to think more broadly about these types of dietary approaches. (ciaprochef.com)
  • This is the basis for the " Meatless Monday " movement, which began as a public health campaign to encourage individuals to consume a vegetarian diet just one day each week for better health by consuming lean, plant-based protein sources (Figure 1). (acefitness.org)
  • Vegetarian protein items are also often less costly. (qsrmagazine.com)
  • Get five high-protein vegetarian breakfast ideas . (canadianliving.com)
  • A common misconception about food sources of protein is that the nutrient can be only found in non-vegetarian foods. (ndtv.com)
  • It has to be known that a vegetarian diet can also provide you with daily recommended intake of protein. (ndtv.com)
  • Losing weight When followed properly, plant-based diets , such as a vegetarian diet , may help you lose weight, according to a review of 12 randomized controlled trials published in January 2016 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine . (everydayhealth.com)
  • Ingredient suppliers need to enhance the extraction process to meet the taste and nutritional requirements of consumers, finding new methods to extract plant proteins with processes that don't introduce large amounts of salt. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Animal feed market is also a growing segment which uses plant protein as an animal feed ingredient to depend on the more sustainable source which uses less energy consumption, land usage and water consumption. (globenewswire.com)
  • Life's Abundance Plant Protein is absolutely delicious and you can feel great about drinking it every day, because each and every ingredient was carefully chosen for its quality and safety. (lifesabundance.com)
  • Having been little more than an afterthought in the history of the limited-service restaurant industry, plant-based proteins today are increasingly becoming an integral ingredient in many menus. (qsrmagazine.com)
  • Having a plant-based ingredient as the protein in a menu item "is appealing to a younger age group," says Michael Stebner, culinary director at Sweetgreen, which has more than 50 units. (qsrmagazine.com)
  • We also continued to build prospective collaborations with customers and ingredient innovators for good tasting, nutritious and sustainable proteins and products. (givaudan.com)
  • According to Innova, protein is expected to maintain its position as a key ingredient in the industry. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Multiple studies have shown that if you are meeting your caloric needs through plant-based nutrition, you will satisfy your body's protein requirements. (wholefoodsmarket.com)
  • NuGo Nutrition is expanding its line of products with NuGo Protein Cookies. (foodprocessing.com)
  • Botan writes, "We believe plant-based nutrition is the sustainable choice for the future--for the future of our food, the planet, and for more than 7 billion inhabitants. (trendhunter.com)
  • Indeed, a recent cross-sectional study led by Glenna Hughes, MS, a consultant and previously a research scientist for DuPont Nutrition and Health who works predominantly in the field of plant protein quality, assessed dietitians' perceptions of plant-based protein quality via an online survey. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Plant-based nutrition has long been studied for its health benefits. (acefitness.org)
  • Many of today's lifestyle medicine doctors, myself included, were greatly influenced by Nathan Pritikin, the nutrition pioneer who started reversing heart disease with a plant -based diet and exercise back in the 70s. (vegsource.com)
  • With all the nutrition information being thrown at us these days, it's easy to agree on one thing: We should all be eating lots of plants. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • To think of it another way, protein should make up between 10 and 35 percent of your daily calorie intake, says Shira Sussi, RDN , the founder of Shira Sussi Nutrition in Brooklyn, New York. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A more balanced consumption of these omega fatty acids can reduce risk for atherosclerosis, certain cancers, and other health problems.BIt is easily digestible and offers an impressive amino acid profile similar to complete animal sources of protein. (opposingviews.com)
  • Biologists there have developed plant proteins capable of screening the air for hints of dangerous substances, including those given off by nearby explosives. (popsci.com)
  • Now Stanford biologists have found a plant protein that appears to play a key role in this type of cell division. (innovations-report.com)
  • But the biochemical mechanisms that control this nightly stem elongation, common to most plants, have been something of a mystery to biologists-until now. (eponline.com)
  • In the journal Nature , biologists at the University of California, San Diego report their discovery of a protein complex they call the "evening complex" that regulates the rhythmic growth of plants during the night. (eponline.com)
  • But new research published Aug. 6 in the journal Nature Genetics by University of Wisconsin-Madison biologists has discovered a previously unknown mechanism for controlling cellular decisions, one which combines an on-and-off switch in a single protein. (newswise.com)
  • Nutritional science has proven once again that Mom was right - approximately 51% of the calories from spinach are protein! (wholefoodsmarket.com)
  • Due to high nutritional facts and economic feasibility of plant proteins provides a great opportunity for the utilization in food, beverages and dietary supplements to fulfill the voracious demands of protein in the market. (globenewswire.com)
  • For great-tasting products that also offer an appealing nutritional profile, DSM's Quali® vitamins and DSM Premix Solutions can be added to fill the gaps in the nutritional profile of plant based products, while the Maxavor® RYE LS range can deliver a meaty flavor with reduced sodium to manage salt content. (dsm.com)
  • Improve your food process economy and increase nutritional value in your protein products with enzymes. (novozymes.com)
  • Consumers want healthier and cleaner lifestyles - and they are looking for nutritional, protein-rich alternatives that are produced in a sustainable way. (novozymes.com)
  • A doctor of health and exercise has called into question the environmental superiority of plant-based proteins based on nutritional needs for muscle growth. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The new line of plant-based products will officially launch with Burgers, Ground, Mexican-Seasoned Ground and Italian-Style Meatballs, and foodservice and club packs are also planned for 2020. (newkerala.com)
  • Together with our customers, we want to target new opportunities by designing delicious high protein products, and seek to be partners in creating these products that bring the full experience of traditional tastes to consumers," said Flavio, Global Business Development Manager. (givaudan.com)
  • Eating delicious food is one of the greatest joys in life, and Planterra is delivering protein choices that are OZO good. (newkerala.com)
  • OZO's fermentation process used in developing its recipes makes the delicious plant protein easily digestible for the body. (newkerala.com)
  • Here are some delicious plant-based sources that will help you reach your daily requirement and keep you feeling nourished and satiated. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • See Protein Intake & IGF-1 Production and Higher Quality May Mean Higher Risk for some immediate background, and IGF-1 as One-Stop Cancer Shop for why we'd like to see these levels low in adulthood (though not in childhood-see Cancer-Proofing Mutation ). (nutritionfacts.org)
  • In many cases that I've seen working with clients and patients, they are overdoing protein intake while also underdoing the recommended intakes of the nutrient-rich vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. (everydayhealth.com)
  • As mentioned, the decision-making process that controls the fate of a cell is typically influenced by two different proteins. (iran-daily.com)
  • Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for use as specialist industrial or therapeutic biomolecules, these authoritative scientists also include promising experimental techniques that will become increasingly important in the future-such techniques as those for the efficient transformation of monocots with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, for optimizing the stability of recombinant proteins, and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. (springer.com)
  • Recombinant Proteins from Plants provides a comprehensive and detailed handbook of essential techniques that will benefit both scientists new to the field and established laboratories. (springer.com)
  • Scientists observed that plants with an overexpression of RAP2.12 show an enhanced tolerance to submergence and a better recovery after flooding events. (mpg.de)
  • Scientists of the Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology together with colleagues from Italy and the Netherlands discovered that the so-called N-end rule comes into play. (mpg.de)
  • Until now, scientists assumed the decision to grow flowers was dictated by a pair of proteins. (iran-daily.com)
  • Scientists have previously identified proteins capable of binding with multiple modifications, but never with both repressive and active marks. (iran-daily.com)
  • When scientists disrupted EBS in rockcress, the plants flowered early. (iran-daily.com)
  • Because EBS is similar to proteins found in other organisms, scientists suggests similar epigenetic control mechanisms are likely active among a wide variety of plants and animals. (iran-daily.com)
  • Scientists know how this happens in animals, but the process in plants has been a mystery. (innovations-report.com)
  • We didn't have these techniques and scientists were unable to find how these proteins connect," Mummadisetti said of her first published scientific research paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • BTI scientists conduct investigations into fundamental plant and life sciences research with the goals of increasing food security, improving environmental sustainability in agriculture and making basic discoveries that will enhance human health. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists typically think of these critical decisions about cell fate as being controlled by the balance between one group of regulating proteins that accelerate cells toward one fate and other proteins that keep the brakes on. (newswise.com)
  • Plant scientists have long known that if EBS is absent, plants flower early. (newswise.com)