Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A class of cellular membrane receptors that either have an intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity or are closely coupled to specific guanylate cyclases within the cell.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
It is one of two major kinds of toxins produced by C. difficile , the other being an enterotoxin (Toxin A). Both are very ... Rac proteins controls the activities of membrane ruffling and NADPH-oxidase neutrophil. Cdc42 regulates the F-actin filament ... The encoding gene tcdE, located between tcdB and tcdA, is analogous to holin proteins, thus, it is suggested that tcdE works as ... Furthermore, later studies have shown that a purified form of TcdB is a more lethal enterotoxin in comparison to TcdA, and also ...
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 was the first viral enterotoxin discovered. It induces diarrhea and causes Ca2+- ... Dong Y, Zeng CQ, Ball JM, Estes MK, Morris AP (April 1997). "The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 mobilizes intracellular calcium in ... Hu L, Crawford SE, Hyser JM, Estes MK, Prasad BV (August 2012). "Rotavirus non-structural proteins: structure and function". ...
"Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin utilizes two structurally related membrane proteins as functional receptors in vivo". J. ... The protein encoded by this intron-less gene, a member of the claudin family, is an integral membrane protein and a component ... Claudin 3, also known as CLDN3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN3 gene. It is a member of the claudin ... It is also a low-affinity receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, and shares amino acid sequence similarity with a ...
... penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), as well as various enterotoxins and exoenzymes. S. schleiferi is differentiated from ... S. schleiferi also produce staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC and toxic-shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). Enterotoxins SEA ... Penicillin-binding proteins are critical in the crosslinking reaction required for the synthesis of peptidoglycan and are the ... Additionally, S. schleiferi has been shown to express cell wall-anchored fibronectin-binding proteins which may play a role in ...
For examples, cholera and heat-labile enterotoxin target the α-subunit of Gs of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. As the α- ... The PARPs have many protein targets at the site of DNA damage. KU protein and DNA-PKcs are both double-stranded break repair ... It is also involved in transcriptional regulation through its facilitation of protein-protein interactions. PARP1 uses NAD+ in ... in multi-protein complexes with A and B domains bound by non-covalent interactions; and, third, in multi-protein complexes with ...
... protein A, and exfoliative toxin. Haemolysins, leukotoxins, exfoliative toxins, and enterotoxins are secreted from the bacteria ... Protein A, an immunoglobulin binding protein, has been found on the surface of S. pseudintermedius. Protein A attaches to the ... The previously mentioned protein A as well as clumping factor are surface proteins that allow the bacteria to bind to host ... S. pseudintermedius has been found to produce biofilms, an extracellular matrix of protein, DNA, and polysaccharide, which aids ...
1997). "Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin utilizes two structurally related membrane proteins as functional receptors in vivo ... This gene encodes an integral membrane protein, which belongs to the claudin family. The protein is a component of tight ... Claudin 4, also known as CLDN4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLDN4 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ...
GC-C is a key receptor for heat-stable enterotoxins that are responsible for acute secretory diarrhea. Heat-stable enterotoxins ... Intestinal Protein May Have Role in ADHD, Other Neurological Disorders. ScienceDaily (Aug. 11, 2011) [1] Weiglmeier PR, Rösch P ... Scott RO, Thelin WR, Milgram SL (2002). "A novel PDZ protein regulates the activity of guanylyl cyclase C, the heat-stable ... Selvaraj NG, Prasad R, Goldstein JL, Rao MC (2000). "Evidence for the presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase-II in human ...
SodA protein: destroys toxic free radicals, which are made by the host as a defensive mechanism. SeM: produces enterotoxins. ... 44 of these proteins are cell wall anchored surface proteins, which is a high number for Streptococcus species. This is one of ... similar to a surface M-protein, this protein is anti-phagocytic and anti-opsonization, with impairs with host protection. This ... FNZ protein: binds specifically to fibronectin, which is present on most host cell walls. This allows it to easily bind to and ...
As discussed above, the majority of the Toxin_10 family proteins act as part of binary toxins with partner proteins that may ... Some β-PFTs such as clostridial ε-toxin and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) bind to the cell membrane via specific ... Eukaryote MACPF proteins function in immune defence and are found in proteins such as perforin and complement C9. A family of ... which shows specificity for a conserved family of mitogen-activated protein kinases. The loss of these proteins results in a ...
Ein porenbildendes Toxin (englisch pore-forming toxin, PFT) ist ein Protein, das eine Pore in bestimmten Biomembranen bildet ... Manche β-PFT wie das Clostridium ε-Toxin und das Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) binden an Rezeptoren, vermutlich ... Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the second extracellular loop of claudin-3, a tight junction integral membrane ... Structural/functional similarity between proteins involved in complement- and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. . In: ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene.[5] ... 1klg: Crystal structure of HLA-DR1/TPI(23-37, Thr28--,Ile mutant) complexed with staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 variant 3B2 ( ... MHC class II protein complex. • lysosomal membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane. • ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer ...
"Identification of a protein secretory pathway for the secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin by an enterotoxigenic strain of ... E. coli can harbour both heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. The latter, termed LT, contain one A subunit and five B ...
"Identification of a protein secretory pathway for the secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin by an enterotoxigenic strain of ... Some members of the group appear to have arisen from other Bacillus strains by acquiring a protein coding plasmid and so the ...
... terminal portion of the protein exhibits extensive homology with the carboxy terminus of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins B ... It is 753 base pairs in length and encodes a 29.244 kiloDalton (kDa) protein. The protein contains a putative 30- amino-acid ... These vaccines, which are still in the development phase, expose the person to proteins present on the surface of the group A ... Urinary abnormalities include blood and protein found in the urine, as well as less urine production overall. Poststreptococcal ...
At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA. The role of these proteins play in rotavirus ... NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea and was the first viral enterotoxin discovered. NSP5 is encoded by genome ... This causes the breakdown of VP7 trimers into single protein subunits, leaving the VP2 and VP6 protein coats around the viral ... There are six viral proteins (VPs) that form the virus particle (virion). These structural proteins are called VP1, VP2, VP3, ...
March 2002). "The tight junction-specific protein occludin is a functional target of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase itch". The ... "CaCo-2 cells treated with Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin form multiple large complex species, one of which contains the ... Occludin has been shown to interact with Tight junction protein 2, YES1 and Tight junction protein 1. ENSG00000273814 GRCh38: ... "The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton". The ...
The last protein unit is unique and is known as the A subunit. The A subunit of an AB5 toxin is the portion responsible for ... This family is also known as Ct or Ctx, and includes the heat-labile enterotoxin family, known as LT. Cholera toxin's discovery ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... A complete AB5 toxin complex contains six protein units. Five units are similar or identical in structure and they comprise the ...
... where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex. As the A1 protein moves ... Enterotoxin Ganglioside Ryan KJ; Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 375. ISBN 978-0- ... Goodsell, David (Sep 2005). "Cholera Toxin". RCSB Protein Data Bank. Molecule of the Month (MOTM). Protein Data Bank (PDB). doi ... 1959;183:1533-4. McDowall, Jennifer (Sep 2005). "Cholera toxin". Protein of the Month (POTM). Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe ...
... deoxyribonucleases and enterotoxins. Examples for Streptococcus pyogenes are M protein, lipoteichoic acid, hyaluronic acid ... One example of a bacterial virulence factor acting like a eukaryotic protein is Salmonella protein SopE it acts as a GEF, ... YopT (Yersinia outer protein T) from Yersinia is an example of modification of the host. It modifies the proteolytic cleavage ... One is by acting as a GEF or GAP, and proceeding to look like a normally eukaryotic cellular protein. The other is covalently ...
It is a fusion protein of a human tumor-associated 5T4 antigen monoclonal IgG1 Fab fragment with an enterotoxin ('mafenatox') ... Fusion Protein Technologies for Biopharmaceuticals. pp. 365-381. doi:10.1002/9781118354599.ch24. ISBN 9781118354599. "Drug info ...
June 1995). "The enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile (ToxA) monoglucosylates the Rho proteins". The Journal of Biological ... The toxin is a large 250-kDa protein the active part of which is the NH2-terminal 551 amino acid fragment. Alpha-toxins are ... Just I, Selzer J, Wilm M, von Eichel-Streiber C, Mann M, Aktories K (June 1995). "Glucosylation of Rho proteins by Clostridium ... October 1996). "Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin-catalyzed incorporation of GlcNAc into Rho subfamily proteins". The Journal of ...
Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is ... With a molecular mass of 308 kDa, it is usually described as a potent enterotoxin, but it also has some activity as a cytotoxin ... The protein contains three domains. The amino N-terminal domain contains the active site, responsible for the glucosylating ... Just I, Selzer J, von Eichel-Streiber C, Aktories K (March 1995). "The low molecular mass GTP-binding protein Rho is affected ...
Enterotoxin can be inactivated after heating at 56 °C (133 °F) for 5 minutes, but whether its presence in food causes the ... The proteins exhibit a conformation known as a "beta-barrel" that can insert into cellular membranes due to a hydrophobic ... These enterotoxins are all produced in the small intestine of the host, thus thwarting digestion by host endogenous enzymes. ... 2006). "A new protein superfamily includes two novel 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases Bacillus cereus, AlkC and AlkD". ...
Chemically, it is a fusion protein consisting of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of a monoclonal antibody with the ... superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA/E-120, "estafenatox"). The Fab binds to 5T4, an antigen expressed by various ...
... of a recombinant-attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis strain secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein ...
It has been identified as the viral enterotoxin based on the observation that the protein caused diarrhea when administered ... Immune evasion proteins from Staphylococcus aureus have a significant conservation of protein structures and a range of ... Clostridium tetani produces tetanus toxin (TeNT protein), which leads to a fatal condition known as tetanus in many vertebrates ... and C-terminal cooperation in rotavirus enterotoxin: novel mechanism of modulation of the properties of a multifunctional ...
These proteins can separate heme from hemoglobin, allowing surface proteins of B. anthracis to transport it into the cell. B. ... enterotoxins, and other virulence factors. The enterotoxins and virulence factors are encoded on the chromosome, while the ... It feeds on the heme of blood protein haemoglobin using two secretory siderophore proteins, IsdX1 and IsdX2. Untreated B. ... CD14, an extracellular protein embedded in the host membrane, binds to rhamnose residues of BclA, a glycoprotein of the B. ...
Crystal structures of the enterotoxins reveals that they are compact, ellipsoidal proteins sharing a characteristic two-domain ... Both the protein kinase C pathway and the protein tyrosine kinase pathways are activated, resulting in upregulating production ... Some of the major products are IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), ... Rasooly, R., Do, P. and Hernlem, B. (2011) Auto-presentation of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A by mouse CD4+ T cells. Open ...
It produces aerolysin, a cytotoxic enterotoxin that can cause tissue damage. A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria are all ... T3SS is a specialized protein secretion machinery that exports virulence factors directly to host cells. These factors subvert ... and enterotoxins. However, the pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. The recently proposed type-III secretion system (T3SS) has ... understanding of them The pathogenicity of Aeromonas species was believed to be mediated by a number of extracellular proteins ...
A cholera-like enterotoxin was once thought to be also made, but this appears not to be the case. The organism produces diffuse ... "Molecular signatures (unique proteins and conserved indels) that are specific for the epsilon proteobacteria ( ...
Shiga toxin · Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) · E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin · Cholera toxin · Pertussis ... Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Alpha toxin, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). khác: ... Độc tố (enterotoxin (độc tố đường ruột)/neurotoxin (độc tố thần kinh)/hemotoxin (huyết độc tố)/cardiotoxin (độc tố gây ung thư ... Clumping factor A · Fibronectin binding protein A. Mycotoxin (Độc tố vi nấm). Aflatoxin · Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta- ...
Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Toksin alpha, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). lain: ... Clumping factor A · Fibronectin binding protein A. Mikotoksin. Aflatoksin · Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, gamma- ...
It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] It ... the toxin cleaves SNARE proteins (proteins that mediate vesicle fusion, with their target membrane bound compartments) meaning ...
DR protein (DRA:DRB1*0101 gene products) with bound Staphylococcal enterotoxin ligand (subunit I-C), view is top down showing ... MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15. ... Through a similar process, proteins (both native and foreign, such as the proteins of virus) produced inside most cells are ... proteins in humans. These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans. The HLA gene ...
A vaccine in which the beta subunit of hCG is fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin has been ... Wang, M; JL Shi; GY Cheng; YQ Hu; C Xu (2009). "The antibody against a nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein can result in ... Inoue, N; M Ikawa; A Isotani; M Okabe (2005). "The immunoglobin superfamily protein izumo is required for sperm to fuse with ... Because the antigens used in contraceptive vaccines are protein, not steroids, they are not easily passed from animal to animal ...
This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ... Fibronectin binding protein A. Mycotoxins. *Aflatoxin. *Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, gamma-amanitin, epsilon- ...
Pathogenic C. difficile strains produce multiple toxins.[17] The most well-characterized are enterotoxin (Clostridium difficile ... The protective effects of serum albumin may be related to the capability of this protein to bind C. difficile toxin A and toxin ... "The low molecular mass GTP-binding protein Rho is affected by toxin A from Clostridium difficile". The Journal of Clinical ... by a mechanism correlated with a decrease in the ADP-ribosylation of the low molecular mass GTP-binding Rho proteins.[18] ...
The drawback of using chlorine in swimming pools is that the chlorine reacts with the proteins in human hair and skin. The ...
... but high-quality protein diet with adequate carbohydrate content. ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin ...
Recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) in a 2011 Cochrane review was found not to decrease mortality and to ... In gram-positive bacteria, these are exotoxins or enterotoxins, which may vary depending on the species of bacteria. These are ... In gram-negative sepsis, free LPS attaches to a circulating LPS-binding protein, and the complex then binds to the CD14 ... Type I, cell surface-active toxins, disrupt cells without entering, and include superantigens and heat-stable enterotoxins. ...
It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] ... Botulinum toxin exerts its effect by cleaving key proteins required for nerve activation. First, the toxin binds specifically ...
Computational resources for prediction of toxic peptides and proteins[edit]. One of the bottlenecks in peptide/protein-based ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... Recently, in silico models for predicting toxicity of peptides and proteins, developed by Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava's group,[ ...
It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ... The heat-labile enterotoxin is inactivated at high temperatures.[1][2]. ... heat-labile enterotoxin binds additional substrates: lipopolysaccharide on the surface of E. coli cells and A-type blood ...
Protein ini dapat memisahkan heme dari hemoglobin, memungkinkan protein permukaan B. anthracis untuk mengangkutnya ke dalam sel ... "Sequence analysis of three Bacillus cereus loci carrying PIcR-regulated genes encoding degradative enzymes and enterotoxin". ... Gen plcR adalah bagian dari operon dua gen dengan papR.[14][15] Gen papR mengkodekan protein kecil yang disekresikan dari sel ... Gen yang mengkode protein ini umumnya terletak pada plasmid yang dapat hilang dari organisme, sehingga tidak dapat dibedakan ...
An antibody against the N-terminus of the birtoxin protein structure has been shown to neutralize the venom of the South ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ...
... s can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin ... the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins, each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), or ...
Crystal structures of the enterotoxins reveals that they are compact, ellipsoidal proteins sharing a characteristic two-domain ... Both the protein kinase C pathway and the protein tyrosine kinase pathways are activated, resulting in upregulating production ... Some of the major products are IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), ... List of Superantigen Proteins from UniProt. *Superantigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ...
E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ...
The tetanus toxin protein has a molecular weight of 150kDa. It is translated from the tetX gene as one protein which is ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ... It also binds to another poorly characterized GPI anchored protein receptor more specific to TeNT.[10][11] Both the ganglioside ... The TetX gene encoding this protein is located on the PE88 plasmid.[8][9] ...
... dan vaksin influenza yang dibuat dari protein rekombinan [78] telah disetujui, dengan vaksin influenza berbasis tanaman diuji ... "Phase I Evaluation of Intranasal Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with Nontoxigenic Escherichia coli Enterotoxin and ... produsen melakukan perbaikan dalam kemurnian virus dengan mengembangkan proses yang lebih baik untuk menghilangkan protein ...
Patton J. T.: Structure and function of the rotavirus RNA-binding proteins. Journal of general virology, 1995, nro 76 (Pt 11), ... Dong Y., ym.: The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 mobilizes intracellular calcium in human intestinal cells by stimulating ... Pesavento, J. B., Crawford, S. E., Estes, M. K., Prasad, B. V.: Rotavirus proteins: structure and assembly. Current topics in ... Poncet D., Aponte C. ja Cohen J.: Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral mRNAs in ...
... terminal portion of the protein exhibits extensive homology with the carboxy terminus of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins B ... protein. The protein contains a putative 30- amino-acid signal peptide; removal of the signal sequence gives a predicted ... These vaccines, which are still in the development phase, expose to the person to proteins present on the surface of the group ... Urinary abnormalities include blood and protein found in the urine as well as less urine production overall.[13] ...
E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin(英语:Heat-stable enterotoxin)/enterotoxin(英语:Heat-labile enterotoxin) ... Fibronectin binding protein A(英语:Fibronectin binding protein A). 黴菌毒素(英语:Mycotoxin). *黃麴毒素 ...
"Electrostatic binding of proteins to membranes. Theoretical predictions and experimental results with charybdotoxin and ... E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q1CQP3 - Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M12 (strain MGAS9429) 1 * P72587 - ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q47634. Q99Q01. Q7BEN0. Q31SL0. I6E6H6. Q47635. ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q47634. A0A1Q8N5F6. I6D9S0. F3VDD9. E7SX59. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q47634. Q99Q01. Q7BEN0. A0A1Q8N5F6. I6D9S0. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB and the Protein Model Portal ...
Staphylococcal enterotoxins cause the intoxication staphylococcal food poisoning syndrome. The illness is characterized by high ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P0A0L2. P0A0L1. A0A1X9H080. A0A0H5BJZ5. F8V3W6. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P0A0L2. P0A0L1. A0A1X9H080. A0A0H5BJZ5. F8V3W6. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P0A0L2. P0A0L1. A0A1X9H080. A0A0H5BJZ5. F8V3W6. ...
Glucose repression of enterotoxins A, B and C and other extracellular proteins in staphlyococci in batch and continuous culture ... The production of enterotoxins, lipase and total extracellular protein by four strains of Staphylococcus aureus grown in batch ... Chloramphenicol completely inhibited enterotoxin production by non-replicating cells, indicating that synthesis of new protein ... The specific rate of production of enterotoxin B, lipase, deoxyribonuclease, beta-haemolysin and total extracellular protein by ...
Chimeric proteins exhibiting antigenic determinants of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and heat-stable (STa) enterotoxins on ... Hybrid enterotoxin LTA::STa proteins and their protection from degradation by in vivo association with B-subunits of ... Using this technique we also demonstrate that to obtain detectable amounts of these recombinant proteins it is essential to ... The protective effect exerted by the B-subunit might conceivably be extended to other LTA-derived hybrid proteins, thus ...
Rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 binds to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-β3 and fibronectin. J. Virol. 78:10045-10053. ... The level of protein in each fraction in the peak was further monitored by SDS-PAGE (30), and the total amount of protein in ... NSP4 has been identified as the viral enterotoxin based on the observation that the protein caused diarrhea when administered ... The recent identification of the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) as the first viral enterotoxin has attracted considerable ...
Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin cleaves the zonula adherens protein, E-cadherin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:14979-14984. ... Total p38 protein served as an internal control for protein loading. (B) Subconfluent HT29/C1 cells were treated with BFT for 1 ... Protein concentrations were measured using the bicinchoninic protein assay (Pierce). ... Nuclear proteins (5 μg) in a buffer containing 20 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 0.5 μM EDTA, 1 μM dithiothreitol, 125 μg of bovine serum ...
The Escherichia coli eltB gene secreting heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was cloned into an Asd(+) plasmid pJHL65. This ... Attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein as an adjuvant for ... Attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein as an adjuvant for ... The Escherichia coli eltB gene secreting heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was cloned into an Asd(+) plasmid pJHL65. This ...
Browse our Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... anti-Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus antibody, anti-EntA antibody, anti-Enterotoxin A antibody, anti-Enterotoxin type ... Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies. We offer Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies for use in ...
... of Staphylococcus aureus has been found which mediates the simultaneous triple-lysogenic conversion of enterotoxin A, ... Viral Structural Proteins * beta lysin, human * enterotoxin A, Staphylococcal * Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase * hlb protein, ... THe genetic determinants mediating expression of enterotoxin A (entA) and staphylokinase (sak) were cloned from the DNA of the ... staphylokinase and enterotoxin A: molecular mechanism of triple conversion J Gen Microbiol. 1989 Jun;135(6):1679-97. doi: ...
... vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) ... Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the ... ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus ( ... Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, ...
... cholera-related enterotoxin from an Escherichia coli strain of porcine origin (P-LT) were substituted with correspond … ... Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies were raised to enterotoxins of the cholera family and to chimeric B-subunit proteins in ... Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies were raised to enterotoxins of the cholera family and to chimeric B-subunit proteins in ... which include two different cholera enterotoxins, two H-LTs, P-LT, and four chimeric proteins. Some of these reactions were ...
entC3 contains 801 bp and encodes a precursor protein of 266 a … ... which encodes staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 was cloned from the genome of Staphylococcus aureus FRI-913 and sequenced. The ... Enterotoxin C3 differs from enterotoxin C2 by four amino acids and from enterotoxin C1 by nine residues. The 167 C-terminal ... entC3 contains 801 bp and encodes a precursor protein of 266 amino acids. Glutamic acid was found to be the N-terminus of ...
Shiga-like ribosome inactivating proteins; snake toxins; Staphylococcal enterotoxins; T-2 toxin; and Tetrodotoxin. ... Further examples of binding partners include binding proteins, for example, vitamin B12 binding protein, DNA binding proteins ... 3) nucleic acid-protein complexes that are locations of cellular regulatory events: * *(i) viral nucleic acid-protein complexes ... ii) RNA-protein complexes that modify RNA structure and regulate protein transcription events; or ...
in ADP-ribosylating toxins and G proteins. eds Moss J., Vaughan M. (American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.) pp 127 ... The main virulence determinants of ETEC strains are heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) (2, 40) and ... 1987) Partition of heat-labile enterotoxin genes between human and animal Escherichia coli isolates. Infect. Immun. 55:1329- ... 1978) Antimicrobial resistance and enterotoxin production among isolates of Escherichia coli in the Far East. Lancet 8090:589- ...
1) showed that SET3, i.e., staphylococcal exotoxin-like protein 3, did not exhibit any of the properties of an SAg. They also ... The enterotoxin D plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a second enterotoxin determinant (sej). FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 168: ... The detection of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction. J. ... Detection of seg, seh, and sei genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates and determination of the enterotoxin productivities of S ...
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of at least 15 antigenically distinct enterotoxin proteins (3,4). Clinical symptoms ... Staphylococcal enterotoxins are 23- to 29-kDa polypeptides in the bacterial superantigen protein family that act by cross- ... Staphylococcal enterotoxins are 23- to 29-kDa polypeptides in the bacterial superantigen protein family. Clinical symptoms from ... The pathophysiology of symptoms from staphylococcal enterotoxins, however, is not fully understood. Staphylococcal enterotoxins ...
An integrated gene-to-protein approach for characterizing staphylococcal food poisoning is advocated. ... when staphylococci were simply enumerated and only five enterotoxins were known for qualitative detection. Today, SFPOs can be ... food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases and results from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins) View Full-Text , Download PDF [170 KB, uploaded 10 August 2010] , ...
"The structure of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin b by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism". Protein Sci ... "The structure of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin b by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism". Protein Sci ... The mature STa protein from Escherichia coli, which is the cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and travellers in developing ... For example, STa enterotoxins bind and activate membrane-bound guanylate cyclase, which leads to the intracellular accumulation ...
Additionally, this protein is one of the causative agents of toxic shock syndrome. The function of this protein is to ... In the field of molecular biology, enterotoxin type B, also known as Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), is an enterotoxin ... "eMedicine - CBRNE - Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B". eMedicine. Retrieved 2011-02-06. Nema V, Agrawal R, Kamboj DV, Goel AK, ... Acharya KR, Papageorgiou AC, Tranter HS (1998). "Crystal structure of microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B at ...
Staphylococcal enterotoxins are classified as superantigens that act by linking T-cell receptor with MHC class II molecules, ... Staphylococcal enterotoxins are classified as superantigens that act by linking T-cell receptor with MHC class II molecules, ... 2005). Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus binds specifically to the C5a and formylated peptide receptor. J ... Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), eotaxin and ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′ tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were ...
Structure-Based Rationally Modified Recombinant Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Protein Vaccine, STEBVax. ... A recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B (rSEB) containing 3 distinct mutations in the major histocompatibility complex class ... Immune responses to the vaccination were determined by measurement of anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (anti-SEB) IgG by ... Staphylococcus aureus produces several enterotoxins and superantigens, exposure to which can elicit profound toxic shock. ...
Enterotoxins); 0 (IL10 protein, mouse); 0 (Interleukin-2); 0 (Oligodeoxyribonucleotides); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 130068-27-8 ... 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (VacA protein, Helicobacter pylori); 0 (cagA protein, Helicobacter pylori). ... PURPOSE: In this study, we prepared GapC1-150-IsdB126-361-TRAP (GIT) proteins plus heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) as an intra- ... Previous studies showed that the GapC protein of S. aureus, which is a surface protein with high glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ...
0 (CLDN3 protein, human); 0 (CLDN4 protein, human); 0 (Claudin-3); 0 (Claudin-4); 0 (Enterotoxins); 0 (enterotoxin, Clostridium ... 147336-22-9 (Green Fluorescent Proteins); EC 2.4.2.1 (Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase); EC 2.7.7.49 (TERT protein, human); EC ... At the protein level, the suicide system significantly promoted Bax, caspase-3 and p53 expression and suppressed Bcl-2 ... eGFP could also be visualized after induction with DOX, and the HSV1-TK protein could be detected by western blotting. In MSC- ...
The staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) superantigen interacts with various TCR Vβ chains, including Vβ3 and Vβ17. Decidual T ... As the CEACAM1 protein interacts homotypically with other CEACAM1 proteins (15, 22, 23) (see Figures 6 and 7) and decidual ... The HIV virus uses a similar mechanism of specific downregulation of HLA-A and -B proteins, mediated by the Nef protein, to ... Generation of Ig fusion proteins. The extracellular portion of the CEACAM1 protein was amplified by PCR using the following ...
... the BGN core protein contains leucine-rich repeats that facilitate protein-protein interactions (1). Recently, binding of BGN ... T cell-mediated lethal shock triggered in mice by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: critical role of tumor ... Protein concentrations were determined using the BCA Protein Assay Reagent (Pierce Biotechnology Inc.). ... C and D) RT-PCR of BGN mRNA (C) and Western blot of BGN core protein (D) secreted into culture media from Bgn+/0 and Bgn-/0 ...
Small and large bowel adherence mediated via various adhesions and accessory proteins; enterotoxin and cytotoxin production. 8- ... Small bowel adherence via various adhesions that confer host specificity; heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxin production. 10 ...
Protein G Agarose (crosslinked 4% agarose beads) for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS ... Purity: ,98% (HPLC, SDS-PAGE); entirely free from staphylococcal enterotoxins. Other Notes For life science research only. Not ... Protein G was initially isolated from G148, a human group G Streptococcal strain. It is a cell wall protein and shows high ... Structure: recombinant Protein G (E. coli, Mr = 22,000) is covalently coupled to crosslinked 4% agarose beads: 2.5mg Protein G ...
Heat-labile enterotoxins (Escherichia coli).Guidebook to protein toxins and their use in cell biology.Montecucco C., Rappuoli R ... Protein engineering studies of A-chain loop 47-56 of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin point to a prominent role of this ... CT is the prototype for the V. cholerae-Escherichia colifamily of heat-labile enterotoxins. E. coli heat-labile enterotoxins ( ... Fusion proteins containing the A2 domain of cholera toxin assemble with B polypeptides of cholera toxin to form immunoreactive ...
  • The production of enterotoxins, lipase and total extracellular protein by four strains of Staphylococcus aureus grown in batch culture at a controlled pH of 6.5 in a completely defined medium was markedly reduced by glucose or glycerol constantly maintained at 0.I M. A concomitant increase in the production of deoxyribonuclease, up to 13-fold, showed however that not all extracellular proteins are under the same control mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • We offer Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies for use in common research applications: Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Each Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Bacteria. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcus aureus monoclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • A new group of serotype F bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus has been found which mediates the simultaneous triple-lysogenic conversion of enterotoxin A, staphylokinase and beta-lysin. (nih.gov)
  • The structural gene entC3, which encodes staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 was cloned from the genome of Staphylococcus aureus FRI-913 and sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and animals because this bacterium produces a wide variety of exotoxins, including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) ( 8 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus produces several enterotoxins and superantigens, exposure to which can elicit profound toxic shock. (emmes.com)
  • In the field of molecular biology, enterotoxin type B, also known as Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), is an enterotoxin produced by the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus infections have been strongly associated to its ability to produce several virulent factors such as adhesins, collagenases, protein A, coagulases, hemolysins, and leukocidins ( Krakauer and Stiles, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Rabbit polyclonal to Staphylococcus Enterotoxin E (Biotin) ( Abpromise for all tested applications). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Recognizes Enterotoxins A and D of Staphylococcus aureus. (lsbio.com)
  • Recognizes Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin type G. (lsbio.com)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is an exotoxin excreted by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. (medscape.com)
  • Non-absorbent substrates for use in inhibiting the production of exoproteins from Gram positive bacteria, such as harmful proteins produced by Staphylococcus species, are provided. (google.de)
  • The enterotoxin genes are accessory genetic elements in Staphylococcus aureus , meaning that not all strains of this organism are enterotoxin-producing. (highveld.com)
  • The enterotoxin genes are found on prophage, plasmids, and pathogenicity islands in different strains of Staphylococcus aureus . (highveld.com)
  • These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme ( C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). (mdpi.com)
  • Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin. (mdpi.com)
  • We identified and characterized a novel staphylococcal enterotoxin-like putative toxin, which is named SER. (asm.org)
  • Immune responses to the vaccination were determined by measurement of anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (anti-SEB) IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a toxin neutralization assay (TNA). (emmes.com)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is the prototype for the Vibrio cholerae - Escherichia coli family of heat-labile enterotoxins having an AB5 structure. (asm.org)
  • Calmodulin, a calcium-binding protein, is necessary for expression of catalytic activity of the toxin-activated adenylate cyclase in brain and other tissues. (springer.com)
  • The major virulence factor of the bacterium is the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), a close homologue of the cholera toxin. (preprints.org)
  • After 18 h of growth in brain heart infusion broth, all seven Bacillus isolates carrying genes encoding enterotoxin HBL produced this toxin. (asm.org)
  • Full length native protein: beta subunit Cholera Toxin. (abcam.com)
  • Isolation and identification of Clostridium difficile , which produces an enterotoxin (toxin A) and a cytotoxin (toxin B), favored the hypothesis that this bacterium was the cause of pseudomembranous colitis associated with AAD ( 3 , 4 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The ARF genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking and as activators of phospholipase D. The product of this gene is localized to the plasma membrane, and regulates vesicular trafficking, remodelling of membrane lipids, and signaling pathways that lead to actin remodeling. (genecards.org)
  • Systemic release of α-toxin causes septic shock, while enterotoxins and TSST-1 cause toxic shock. (news-medical.net)
  • In 1969 Finkelstein and LoSpalluto (2) had purified the toxin and shown it to be a 84 kDa protein. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is the toxin most commonly associated with classic food poisoning . (medscape.com)
  • The toxin binds directly to the major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II proteins on target cells, subsequently stimulating the proliferation of large numbers of T lymphocytes. (medscape.com)
  • The main objective of our project is to develop new dual-site ligands for cholera toxin inhibition featuring 2 pharmacophoric fragments, a GM1 mimic and a blood group mimic, connected across a linker able to span the two binding sites of enterotoxins. (europa.eu)
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (elsevier.com)
  • The present invention provides a recombinant toxin or the subunit B thereof selected from the group consisting of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), its subunit B (LTB), cholera toxin (CT) and its subunit B (CTB), in immunogenic form, expressed in eukaryotic cells, a vaccine comprising said toxin or subunit B thereof, and use of said recombinant toxin or subunit B thereof in human or veterinary vaccines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A recombinant toxin or the subunit B thereof selected from the group consisting of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), the subunit B of TL (LTB), cholera toxin (CT) and the subunit B of CT (CTB), in immunogenic form, wherein said immunogenic toxin or the subunit B thereof has been expressed in eukaryotic cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Their pathogenesis involves polymerization of actin jet trails and invasion of M cells, as well as a protein synthesis inhibiting toxin. (studystack.com)
  • Several members of the claudin family are receptors for the bacterial toxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The substrates are particularly useful for inhibiting the production of TSST-1, alpha-toxin and/or enterotoxins A, B and. (google.de)
  • LT enterotoxin is antigenically related to the cholera toxin. (vetstream.com)
  • Ein porenbildendes Toxin ( englisch pore-forming toxin , PFT) ist ein Protein , das eine Pore in bestimmten Biomembranen bildet und als Toxin wirkt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manche β-PFT wie das Clostridium ε-Toxin und das Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) binden an Rezeptoren , vermutlich Claudin bei CPE, [14] sowie vermutlich GPI-Anker oder andere Glykosylierungen beim ε-Toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although much progress has been made recently in defining enterotoxin structure and superantigenicity properties, much remains to be learned regarding the binding of enterotoxins to receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and how toxin production leads to the symptoms associated with staphylococcal food poisoning. (highveld.com)
  • On this page, you can see a 3D structure of the cholera toxin protein. (davidson.edu)
  • Reset and spin the cholera toxin protein. (davidson.edu)
  • Here is another view of the cholera toxin protein. (davidson.edu)
  • The A2 chain is crucial for toxin assembly and successful functioning since there are few direct stabilizing interactions between A1 and B. The A2 subunit assumes a complete alpha-helical structure except for a 52-degree kink in the central portion of the protein. (davidson.edu)
  • The SAg protein family is comprised of 23 distinct members designated as staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) or enterotoxin-like (SEl) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). (uiowa.edu)
  • A recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B (rSEB) containing 3 distinct mutations in the major histocompatibility complex class II binding site was combined with an alum adjuvant (Alhydrogel) and used as a potential parenteral vaccine named STEBVax. (emmes.com)
  • Review of occupational exposures at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases from 1989 to 2002 showed that three laboratory workers had symptoms after ocular exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). (cdc.gov)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of at least 15 antigenically distinct enterotoxin proteins ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • eMedicine - CBRNE - Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B". eMedicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is 1 of 7 originally identified enterotoxins produced by certain strains of the coagulase-positive S aureus bacteria, a gram-positive cocci that form clumps. (medscape.com)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) consists of 239 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 28 kd. (medscape.com)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a relatively stable compound that is easily soluble in water. (medscape.com)
  • Many of the effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are mediated stimulation of T lymphocytes by the host's immune system. (medscape.com)
  • Identification and enumeration of indicator microorganisms and pathogens were done by conventional culture methods, meanwhile staphylococcal enterotoxin by immunoassay. (edu.mx)
  • Neither Listeria monocytogenes nor Staphylococcal enterotoxin was detected. (edu.mx)
  • The 167 C-terminal residues of the three toxins are identical, except for one conservative amino acid substitution in enterotoxin C3. (nih.gov)
  • This study also provides evidence that the N-termini of Type C enterotoxins determine subtype-specific antigenic epitopes, while more conserved C-terminal regions determine biological properties and cross-reactive antigenic epitopes shared with other pyrogenic toxins. (nih.gov)
  • ETEC-derived plasmids are responsible for the distribution of the genes encoding the main toxins, namely, the heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins. (asm.org)
  • Both toxins consist of two subunits, the catalytically active subunit A and the receptor domain subunit B. The toxic activity of LT is caused by the catalytic activity of subunit A, which is able to catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of protein Gsα in eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we probed eleven single-residue variants of the heat-labile enterotoxin with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and compared the data to the parent toxins. (preprints.org)
  • It makes several types of protein toxins which are probably responsible for symptoms during infections. (news-medical.net)
  • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. (mdpi.com)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC): do not produce enterotoxins or Shiga-like toxins, cause enteritis/diarrhea and colisepticemia by other mechanisms. (vetstream.com)
  • Verotoxin or Shiga-like toxins - inhibit protein synthesis in host cells. (vetstream.com)
  • STa proteins and their protection from degradation by in vivo association with B-subunits of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. (nih.gov)
  • Attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein as an adjuvant for oral vaccination against fowl typhoid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study we systematically analyzed the functional importance of selected residues in CT-A that are fully conserved in all members of the V. cholerae - E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin family. (asm.org)
  • E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is very similar to choleragen in structure and function. (springer.com)
  • 10. The vaccine of claim 8 against E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin containing the recombinant LT or LTB. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention is directed towards a novel composition which is a genetically distinct mutant of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). Specifically, the mutant LT designated LT(R192G/L211A) is modified by two amino acid substitutions, i.e., the arginine at amino acid position 192 is replaced by glycine and the leucine at amino acid position 211 is replaced by alanine. (google.com)
  • This indicated that the exported hybrids, once associated with LTB, were stabilized and formed molecules that behaved essentially as native LT. The protective effect exerted by the B-subunit might conceivably be extended to other LTA-derived hybrid proteins, thus allowing the fusion of other foreign peptides to LTA and their subsequent recovery in the same fashion. (nih.gov)
  • Polyclonal rabbit antisera to synthetic peptides of the cholera enterotoxin B subunit were cross-reactive to various degrees with the proteins in our library, which include two different cholera enterotoxins, two H-LTs, P-LT, and four chimeric proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) are secretory peptides produced by some bacterial strains, such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli which are in general toxic to animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of cellular components, choleragen catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of small guanidino compounds such as arginine as well as peptides and proteins that contain arginine. (springer.com)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • Interestingly, both of the synthetic peptides, one (residues 99-128) containing the enterotoxin-like sequence and the other (residues 191-219) containing 29 C-terminal amino acids of CAL-1 NSP4, induced diarrhea in 5.5-day-old mice, but not in 17.5-day-old mice, when administered parenterally. (deepdyve.com)
  • Stiles BG, Pradhan K, Fleming JM, Samy RP, Barth H, Popoff MR. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being. (mdpi.com)
  • The C-terminal region of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) can bind to specific claudins, resulting in the disintegration of tight junctions (TJs) and an increase in the paracellular permeability across epithelial cell sheets. (sciencemag.org)
  • The homology of claudin-4 to Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) receptor suggests that this protein may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention and, indeed, preliminary studies in cell lines and xenografts have shown some promise in this regard ( 16 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The main virulence determinants of ETEC strains are heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) ( 2 , 40 ) and specific colonization factors (CFs) ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • SEC was the most predominant enterotoxin detected in S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis milk in sheep, goats, and cattle. (scirp.org)
  • PCR studies revealed the presence of DNA sequences encoding hemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxin complex and B. cereus enterotoxin T (BceT) in five B. cereus strains and in Bacillus coagulans NB11. (asm.org)
  • S. aureus strains previously incriminated in enterocolitis ( 36 ) were reported ( 6 ) to be secondary enterotoxin A (SEA) producers. (asm.org)
  • Some strains of B. fragilis associated with diarrhea in young farm animals ( 7 , 8 ) and humans ( 9 ) produce an extracellular enterotoxin also known as fragilysin. (asm.org)
  • The clinical implications of fragilysin remain unclear, since strains producing this enterotoxin may be carried as part of the normal colonic flora. (asm.org)
  • The enterotoxin gene cluster ( egc ) is a group of 6 SAgs ( selo, selm, sei, selu, seln, and seg ) assembled into an operon-like cluster that is present in the majority of S. aureus strains isolated from IE patients. (uiowa.edu)
  • Rotavirus NSP4 is a multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident nonstructural protein with the N terminus anchored in the ER and about 131 amino acids (aa) of the C-terminal tail (CT) oriented in the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • In this report, employing a large number of methods and deletion and amino acid substitution mutants, we provide evidence for the cooperation between the extreme C terminus and a putative amphipathic α-helix located between aa 73 and 85 (AAH 73-85 ) at the N terminus of ΔN72, a mutant that lacked the N-terminal 72 aa of nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) from Hg18 and SA11. (asm.org)
  • The recent identification of the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) as the first viral enterotoxin has attracted considerable attention toward understanding its structure and function. (asm.org)
  • Expression and purification of polyhistidine-tagged rotavirus NSP4 proteins in insect cells. (springer.com)
  • A functional NSP4 enterotoxin peptide secreted from rotavirus-infected cells. (springer.com)
  • The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 acts as a viral enterotoxin to induce diarrhea and causes Ca 2+ -dependent transepithelial Cl − secretion in young mice. (pnas.org)
  • The rotavirus enterotoxin nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) directly inhibits glucose-mediated sodium absorption. (deepdyve.com)
  • The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4, shown previously to elevate intracellular calcium levels when added exogenously as well as when expressed intracellularly, is a key player in intracellular calcium regulation during rotavirus infection. (asm.org)
  • Expression of NSP4 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (NSP4-EGFP), but not expression of EGFP alone, caused stabilization of long cellular projections in fully confluent HEK 293 cells. (asm.org)
  • The best candidate for this extracellular activity is the rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4, shown to be secreted into the medium of rotavirus-infected cells ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • To minimize the cytotoxicity of NSP4 expression ( 45 ), we used an inducible HEK 293-derived cell line that expresses NSP4 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) upon activation of a tetracycline (Tet)-responsive promoter ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • We found that intracellularly expressed NSP4 causes sub-plasma membrane actin reorganization in a calcium-dependent manner through decreased phosphorylation of the actin remodeling protein cofilin. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed the NSP4 structure of a group B rotavirus strain, CAL-1, and determined whether enterotoxin activity was present in CAL-1 NSP4. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, CAL-1 NSP4 had an enterotoxin-like sequence (residues 106-127) that was only 27% identical to the enterotoxin region of NSP4 of KUN (a group A rotavirus strain) at residues 114-135. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chimeric proteins exhibiting antigenic determinants of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and heat-stable (STa) enterotoxins on the same molecule may provide a means to obtain immunoprophylactic and diagnostic reagents for Escherichia coli-caused diarrhea. (nih.gov)
  • Members of heat-stable enterotoxin B family assume a helical secondary structure, with two alpha helices forming a disulfide cross-linked alpha-helical hairpin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular refractoriness to the heat-stable enterotoxin peptide is associated with alterations in levels of the differentially glycosylated forms of guanylyl cyclase C". Eur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition and signal transduction mechanism of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin and its receptor, guanylate cyclase C". J. Pept. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the heat-stable enterotoxin, this one is inactivated at high temperatures. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Receptor for the E.coli heat-stable enterotoxin (E.coli enterotoxin markedly stimulates the accumulation of cGMP in mammalian cells expressing GC-C). Also activated by the endogenous peptide guanylin. (abcam.com)
  • Heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins. (vetstream.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the DNA regions located near the heat-labile enterotoxin-encoding genes ( eltAB ) of several clinical isolates. (asm.org)
  • Possible mechanisms of dissemination of IS element-associated enterotoxin-encoding genes are discussed. (asm.org)
  • Cytotoxic effect of co-expression of human hepatitis A virus 3C protease and bifunctional suicide protein FCU1 genes in a bicistronic vector. (bireme.br)
  • Detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins was performed by PCR and the ability to express these genes was assessed among isolates by RT-PCR. (scirp.org)
  • Expression of the enterotoxin genes is often under the control of global virulence gene regulatory systems. (highveld.com)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxins are classified as superantigens that act by linking T-cell receptor with MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on classical antigen-presenting cells (APC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxins are superantigens due its properties to induce extensive proliferation of T cells mediated by cross-linking of the variable region of the β chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells ( Fraser, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Research has elucidated the structures of numerous enterotoxin-like superantigens, with two new enterotoxins, now known as SES and SET, just discovered in 2008. (medscape.com)
  • These proteins have the additional property of being superantigens and, as such, have adverse effects on the immune system. (highveld.com)
  • S. aureus secretes proteins known as superantigens (SAgs) that have been studied for their role in toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning, and pneumonia. (uiowa.edu)
  • Using this technique we also demonstrate that to obtain detectable amounts of these recombinant proteins it is essential to coexpress them with the respective B-subunit of LT (LTB). (nih.gov)
  • The immune response of the sows immunized with the recombinant proteins was compared with a commercial vaccine containing ETEC bacterins. (scirp.org)
  • There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of antibodies to the fimbriae F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P) and F18 in the sows vaccinated with the recombinant proteins compared with the control group. (scirp.org)
  • His-tag fusion at the C-terminus and glutathione- S -transferase (GST)-fusion at the N-terminus were used as expression systems, and conditions for recombinant proteins expression were obtained. (springer.com)
  • however, in both systems, NSP5 and NSP6 recombinant proteins were expressed as inclusion bodies. (springer.com)
  • Conditions for solubilization and purification of recombinant proteins were achieved. (springer.com)
  • This is the first report of expression and purification of NSP5 and NSP6 recombinant proteins in suitable amounts for further structural analysis. (springer.com)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • The Escherichia coli eltB gene secreting heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was cloned into an Asd(+) plasmid pJHL65. (semanticscholar.org)
  • HA/protease can proteolytically activate CT A subunit ( 6 ) and the El Tor cytolysin/hemolysin ( 38 ) and can hydrolyze several physiologically important proteins such as mucin, fibronectin, and lactoferrin ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The entire A subunit is translated as one single protein that is nicked by a bacterial endoprotease to form the enzymatic A1 subunit (green) and the connector A2 chain (yellow). (davidson.edu)
  • However, growth of S. aureus s6 in Mgilimited continuous culture showed that glucose repression of enterotoxin B when the growth rate was held constant was more than twice that in batch culture. (nih.gov)
  • The specific rate of production of enterotoxin B, lipase, deoxyribonuclease, beta-haemolysin and total extracellular protein by S. aureus s6 increased as the growth rate increased from 0.07 to 0.24 h-1. (nih.gov)
  • THe genetic determinants mediating expression of enterotoxin A (entA) and staphylokinase (sak) were cloned from the DNA of the triple-converting phage and expression of the cloned determinants detected in Escherichia coli and S. aureus. (nih.gov)
  • S. aureus Enterotoxin type A. (genetex.com)
  • This emphasizes the utmost need to implement proactive measures and more emphasis will be placed on the application of hygiene practices in hospitals to control S. aureus infection and enterotoxins production. (scirp.org)
  • Occurence of production of both enterotoxin A and the bicomponent leucotoxin LukE-LukD by the S. aureus isolates was significantly different from that by random isolates. (asm.org)
  • S. aureus Enterotoxin A+D antibody LS-C511403 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to s. aureus S. aureus Enterotoxin A+D. Validated for ELISA and WB. (lsbio.com)
  • Percentage of cross-reactivity with enterotoxins of S. aureus. (lsbio.com)
  • S. aureus expresses quite a few extracellular proteins that are virulent to the host. (news-medical.net)
  • S. aureus has numerous surface proteins that promote attachment to host proteins such as laminin and fibronectin that form part of the extracellular matrix. (news-medical.net)
  • Protein A is a surface protein of S aureus which binds immunoglobulin G molecules by the Fc region. (news-medical.net)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • The ser gene product, SER, was successfully expressed as a recombinant protein in an Escherichia coli expression system, and recombinant SER (rSER) showed significant T-cell stimulation activity. (asm.org)
  • The most common enterotoxin gene was sea gene (66%), followed by seb, sec, see and seg (38%, 23%, 19% and 5%) respectively. (scirp.org)
  • CCL18 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 18) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • ARF6 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 6) is a Protein Coding gene, and is affiliated with the lncRNA class. (genecards.org)
  • In my studies, I identified the enterotoxin gene cluster ( egc ) SAgs as critical factors involved in the development of vegetations. (uiowa.edu)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with the ~ 22 kDa Claudin-4 protein and does not cross-react with the protein at 55 kDa. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our previous studies have shown that BFT rapidly (by 1 min) cleaves E-cadherin, an intercellular adhesion protein forming the zonula adherens of intestinal epithelial cells, and that cleavage of E-cadherin correlates with the onset of morphologic changes in the cells (occurring by 10 min after BFT treatment of HT29/C1 cells) ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. (mdpi.com)
  • The disulfide bonds are crucial for the toxic activity of the protein, and are required for maintenance of the tertiary structure, and subsequent interaction with the particulate form of guanylate cyclase, increasing cyclic GMP levels within the host intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HA/protease perturbs the paracellular barrier of cultured intestinal epithelial cells ( 31 , 50 ) by acting on tight-junction-associated proteins ( 51 ) and promotes the detachment of vibrios from monolayers and mucin ( 4 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • In polarized human intestinal Caco-2 cells, rotavirus infection induces calcium-dependent depolymerization of microvillar actin and interferes with protein trafficking ( 9 , 27 ) and cell monolayer integrity by disruption of tight junctions ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • We identified three targets, claudin-4, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4), and 14-3-3σ (stratifin), that were selectively expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric epithelial dysplasia but not in normal stomach. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the coiled-coil domain lacks the information necessary to predict a structural basis for rotavirus virulence, as a peptide from this region exhibited highly reduced diarrhea-inducing potential compared to the full-length protein ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, rotavirus "enterotoxin" sequences could be considerably divergent. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is 1 of the 6 least antigenically distinct enterotoxin proteins that have been identified (A, B, C, D, E, G). SEB has 2 distinct tightly "packed" domains that have a very complex tertiary structure. (medscape.com)
  • These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. (mdpi.com)
  • The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) strongly enhanced hapA transcription in the deceleration phase. (asm.org)
  • Glucose repression of enterotoxins A, B and C and other extracellular proteins in staphlyococci in batch and continuous culture. (nih.gov)
  • Eleven Bacillus species isolated from veterinary samples associated with severe nongastrointestinal infections were assessed for the presence and expression of diarrheagenic enterotoxins and other potential virulence factors. (asm.org)
  • We initially tested whether or not these isolates harbored known enterotoxin-like nucleotide sequences. (asm.org)
  • The genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA that code for six structural and six nonstructural proteins ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcal SAgs constitute quite a large family of structurally related proteins. (asm.org)
  • Structure and function of periplasmic chaperone-like proteins involved in the biosynthesis of K88 and K99 fimbriae in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): have fimbrial adhesins, produce enterotoxin, cause neonatal colibacillosis. (vetstream.com)
  • Previous studies showed a peptide spanning aa 114 to 135 to induce diarrhea in newborn mouse pups with the 50% diarrheal dose approximately 100-fold higher than that for the full-length protein, suggesting a role for other regions in the protein in potentiating its diarrhea-inducing ability. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, a peptide spanning amino acids (aa) 114 to 135 was reported to induce diarrhea at an approximately 100-fold molar excess compared to the full-length protein ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The mature STa protein from Escherichia coli, which is the cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and travellers in developing countries, is a 19-residue peptide containing three disulphide bridges that are functionally important. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A 1 peptide catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to an amino acid, probably arginine, in a 42 000 dalton membrane protein. (springer.com)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxins are 23- to 29-kDa polypeptides in the bacterial superantigen protein family that act by cross-linking HLA-DR or DQ molecules and T-cell receptors. (cdc.gov)
  • Upon entry into enterocytes by endocytosis and following reduction and translocation, CT-A1 ADP-ribosylates a regulatory G-protein (Gsα), which leads to constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase, increased intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP, and secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the lumen of the small intestine ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The nontoxic mutant enterotoxin LT-IIb(T13I), therefore, is potentially a new and safe human mucosal adjuvant. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structure of the cholera enterotoxin, shown in a false-colour image obtained by X-ray protein crystallography. (britannica.com)
  • Rotaviruses are nonenveloped, icosahedral, triple-layered particles, the outer layer made of viral spike protein 4 (VP4) and VP7, the intermediate layer consisting of the subgroup antigen VP6, and the inner layer composed of VP2 ( 18 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • 17. The vaccine of claim 12 for poultry vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) containing recombinant LT, LTB, CT or CTB produced in eukaryotic cells and the IBDV Viral protein 2 (VP-2) antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9 ) showed that a viral protein secreted into the medium of infected Caco-2 cells likewise causes disassembly of microvillar actin in noninfected cells. (asm.org)
  • Cooperation between the two termini appears to generate a unique conformational state, specifically recognized by thioflavin T, that promoted efficient multimerization of the oligomer into high-molecular-mass soluble complexes and dramatically enhanced resistance against trypsin digestion, enterotoxin activity of the diarrhea-inducing region (DIR), and double-layered particle-binding activity of the protein. (asm.org)
  • The degree of immunological relatedness among the three Type C enterotoxins is proportional to their molecular relatedness. (nih.gov)
  • It is a cell wall protein and shows high affinity to IgG (immunoglobulin G). It has a putative molecular weight of 30,000Da. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although with low molecular weight guanidino derivatives the substrate specificity of the enzyme is similar to that of choleragen, with protein substrates it clearly differs. (springer.com)
  • Thermodynamic analysis of a molecular chaperone binding to unfolded protein substrates. (duke.edu)
  • Molecular chaperones are a highly diverse group of proteins that recognize and bind unfolded proteins to facilitate protein folding and prevent nonspecific protein aggregation. (duke.edu)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune response of the sows immunized with recombinant ETEC proteins (F4, F5, F6, F18 and F41). (scirp.org)
  • E. coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are classified into two distinct serogroups (LT-I and LT-II) (reviewed in references 16 and 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxins are a family of sequence similar, but serologically distinct proteins. (highveld.com)
  • Mucosal vaccines consisting solely of protein antigens (Ag) routinely induce only weak immune responses or tolerance at mucosal surfaces ( 50 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • I further characterized the capacity of the individual egc proteins to induce vegetations. (uiowa.edu)
  • Affinity chromatography using Protein G Agarose, like Protein A Agarose, is the method of choice for purification of IgG from many species. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our data suggest that BFT-stimulated IL-8 secretion involves tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as well as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and extracellular signal-related kinase. (asm.org)
  • 12. Type III protein secretion and inhibition of NF- B Klaus Ruckdeschel, Bruno Rouot and Jurgen Heesemann. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • A hypothetical evolutionary tree based on the reported amino acid sequences of the various enterotoxins is constructed. (nih.gov)
  • to the source organism of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • The function of this protein is to facilitate the infection of the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterotoxin C3 differs from enterotoxin C2 by four amino acids and from enterotoxin C1 by nine residues. (nih.gov)
  • Enterotoxin HBL was also harbored by Bacillus polymyxa NB6. (asm.org)
  • Previous research has also shown that 14 different Bacillus species isolated from raw milk and from the farm environment may have the potential to produce diarrheal enterotoxins ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Three types of Bacillus cereus enterotoxins involved in foodborne outbreaks have been identified. (highveld.com)
  • entC3 contains 801 bp and encodes a precursor protein of 266 amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the cytotoxic effect observed after co-expression of hepatitis A virus 3C protease (3C) and yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein (FCU1) in a bicistronic vector. (bireme.br)
  • The constructs were introduced into HEK293 and HeLa cells, and target protein synthesis as well as the effect of 5-fluorocytosine on cell death and the time course of the cytotoxic effect was studied. (bireme.br)
  • The A1 chain is the cytotoxic part of the protein and is capable of binding NAD and catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of G-protein. (davidson.edu)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • ADP-ribosyl transferase activity of CT is stimulated in vitro by the presence of accessory proteins called ARFs ( 49 ), small GTP-binding proteins known to be involved in vesicle trafficking within the eukaryotic cell, but the role of ARFs in the activity of CT in vivo has not yet been determined. (asm.org)
  • Structural deformation upon protein-protein interaction: a structural alphabet approach. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (berkeley.edu)
  • It has been reported that N- and C-termini of NSP5 are important for amount of protein is required for structural analysis, efficient expression systems are required. (springer.com)
  • In addition to being a structural element of many proteins, zinc also functions as a neurotransmitter and an intracellular messenger. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The target of fragilysin is the cell surface protein E-cadherin ( 19 ), which is the principal structural component of the zonula adherens, responsible for cell-cell adhesions. (asm.org)
  • I also demonstrated that the egc proteins may not be exclusively expressed as a single polycistronic transcript but that selu and seg contain promoter elements that may drive their individual expression. (uiowa.edu)
  • For example, STa enterotoxins bind and activate membrane-bound guanylate cyclase, which leads to the intracellular accumulation of cyclic GMP and downstream effects on several signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like choleragen, LT uses guanidino compounds as model ADP-ribose acceptors and catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of a 42 000 dalton protein in cell membrane prepatations. (springer.com)
  • Zinc ions move through membrane channels among various organelles and modify the function of zinc-dependent proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Specific binding between bacterial enterotoxins and oligosaccharides on the host cell membrane is a paradigm for protein-sugar interaction. (europa.eu)
  • One of the major components of TJs is a family of adhesive membrane proteins known as claudins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. (dovepress.com)
  • NB100-64675 detects the labile enterotoxin normally associated with V. cholera and reacts with an epitope on the B chain. (novusbio.com)
  • This medication is known to target galectin-1, heat-labile enterotoxin b chain, neurocan core protein, and lactose permease. (drugbank.ca)