Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein PrecursorsTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 22.214.171.124.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.PhosphopeptidesAlamethicin: A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
It consists of a central cyclic pentapeptide code assembled from nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). The NRPS contains 4 ... These proteins condense and cyclize two molecules of L-2,3-diaminopropionate (L-Dap), two molecules of L-serine (L-Ser), and ... After α,β-desaturation via VioJ, three modifications to the preliminary cyclic structure occur. Hydroxylation of C-6 in the ... It is produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces puniceus, that binds to RNA and inhibits prokaryotic protein synthesis and ...
... and evaluation in model cyclic peptides". Tetrahedron. 49 (17): 3593-3608. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)90217-0. Hata M, Marshall ... The GABAA receptor is a protein complex located in the synapses of neurons. All GABAA receptors contain an ion channel that ... Ripka WC, De Lucca GV, Bach AC, Pottorf RS, Blaney JM (1993). "Protein β-turn mimetics I. Design, synthesis, ... Benzodiazepines have been found to mimic protein reverse turns structurally, which enable them with their biological activity ...
They have the same chemical structure as proteins, except they are shorter. In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable ... Microcystins are cyclic peptides and can be very toxic for plants and animals including humans. They bioaccumulate in the liver ... Of all the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are of most concern to human health. The microcystins and nodularins poison the ... A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. ...
It is a cyclic fungal peptide, composed of 11 amino acids. Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin ... A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab ( ... It binds to FKBP1A like tacrolimus, however the complex does not inhibit calcineurin but another protein, mTOR. Therefore, ... such as fluorouracil protein synthesis inhibitors. Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and ...
Antimicrobial peptides Cyclic peptides Craik DJ, Daly NL, Bond T, Waine C (December 1999). "Plant cyclotides: A unique family ... Gustafson KR, McKee TC, Bokesch HR (October 2004). "Anti-HIV cyclotides". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 5 (5): 331-40. doi ... One of the interesting features of cyclic peptides is that knowledge of the peptide sequence does not reveal the ancestral head ... Plants are a rich source of cyclic peptides, with the vast majority of these molecules being produced via non-ribosomal ...
These amino acids, as residues in peptides and proteins, undergo enzymatical loss of water and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. ... The dehydroalanine residue was first detected in the cyclic antimicrobial peptide nisin. In food, DHA frequently alkylates ... It is a hypothetic molecule that does not exist except as a residue found as a residue in peptides of microbial origin. It is ... Although it had been reported to occur in both edible and non-food proteins only after base treatment (such as occurs in ...
2S,4S)-cis-4-Hydroxyproline is found in the toxic cyclic peptides from Amanita mushrooms (e.g., phalloidin). Imino acid ... Hydroxyproline is found in few proteins other than collagen. For this reason, hydroxyproline content has been used as an ... Bella, J; Eaton, M; Brodsky, B; Berman, HM (1994). "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A ... Although it is not directly incorporated into proteins, hydroxyproline comprises roughly 4% of all amino acids found in animal ...
Jan 1997, Protein and Peptide Letters. W Kadima, L Ogendal, R Bauer, [...] and P Porting: The influence of ionic strength and ... W. Kadima, P. Raharivelomanana and B. Bechtel: The binding of cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate to the insulin hexamer. ... Oct 2003, Protein Science. Webe Kadima: Role of Metal Ions in the T- To R-Allosteric Transition in the Insulin Hexamer. Nov ...
A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... For example, teprotide, a peptide isolated from the venom of the Brazilian pit viper Bothrops jararaca, was a lead in the ... These signaling molecules include hormones and growth factors in turn are composed of peptides, biogenic amines, steroid ...
Bacteria secrete proteases to hydrolyse the peptide bonds in proteins and therefore break the proteins down into their ... the catalytic asparagine forms a cyclic chemical structure that cleaves itself at asparagine residues in proteins under the ... others attack internal peptide bonds of a protein (endopeptidases, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, elastase). ... depending on the amino acid sequence of a protein, or break down a complete peptide to amino acids (unlimited proteolysis). The ...
Examples of oligopeptides include: Amanitins - Cyclic peptides taken from carpophores of several different mushroom species. ... It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein ... The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule. Oligoester Oligomer Oligopeptidase Peptide synthesis ... Peptide T - N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine ...
Present in nature are both linear and cyclic tetrapeptides, tetrapeptides may be cyclized by a fourth peptide bond or other ... often showing affinity and specificity for a variety of receptors in protein-protein signaling. ... Dipeptide Tripeptide Pentapeptide Decapeptide cyclic peptide "Elamipretide". AdisInsight. Retrieved 24 April 2017. Kloner, RA; ... A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds ...
Defensin α-defensin β-defensin Cyclic peptide Conibear AC, Craik DJ (26 September 2014). "The chemistry and biology of theta ... θ-defensins are produced from 76 amino acid precursor proteins. A single nine amino acid peptide is derived from each precursor ... Structure of human retrocyclin-2 θ-defensin θ-defensins are cyclic peptides of 18 amino acids (~2 kDa), possessing ... "A cyclic antimicrobial peptide produced in primate leukocytes by the ligation of two truncated alpha-defensins". Science. 286 ( ...
... whereas other enzymes cleave peptides but not folded proteins. Attempts to synthesize proteins in the test tube were ... Nevertheless, cyclol bonds were identified in small, naturally occurring cyclic peptides in the 1950s. Clarification of the ... "Protein Denaturation and the Properties of Protein Groups". Advances in Protein Chemistry. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 2: ... She also published two books describing the cyclol theory and small peptides in general. The cyclol model of protein structure ...
The by far most common clinical test for ACPAs is the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti CCP) ELISA. In 2008 a serological ... When RA is clinically suspected, a physician may test for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies ( ... 2007). "Meta-analysis: diagnostic accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and rheumatoid factor for rheumatoid ... Hence, new serological tests check for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies ACPAs . These tests are again positive in 61-75% ...
Roberts RW, Szostak JW (1997). "RNA-peptide fusions for the in vitro selection of peptides and proteins". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... "Messenger RNA-programmed incorporation of multiple N-methyl-amino acids into linear and cyclic peptides". Chemistry & Biology. ... Ribosome display Protein engineering Protein-protein interaction screening Amstutz P, Forrer P, Zahnd C, Plückthun A (2001). " ... mRNA display is a display technique used for in vitro protein, and/or peptide evolution to create molecules that can bind to a ...
Nestler EJ (2015). "Reflections on: "A general role for adaptations in G-Proteins and the cyclic AMP system in mediating the ... immediately after a high and triggers changes in gene expression that affect proteins such as dynorphin; dynorphin peptides ... In the NAcc, CREB is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) ... "cAMP response element binding protein" (CREB). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is one brain structure that has been implicated in ...
... are the smallest possible cyclic peptides, which are peptidomimetic in nature and bear resemblance with a constrained protein ... Prasad C (Dec 1995). "Bioactive cyclic dipeptides". Peptides. 16 (1): 151-164. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(94)00017-Z. PMID 7716068. ... It was first synthesized by Curtius and Gloebel in 1888 and was the first compound containing a peptide bond to be studied by X ... These cyclic dipeptides incorporate both donor and acceptor groups for hydrogen bonding and are small, conformationally ...
Th 9 cells
"Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Cyclic Adenosine 5 '-Monophosphate/Protein Kinase A Pathway Promote IL-9 Production in Th9 ... calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic ... and STAT5-regulated cytokine gene expression in cells expressing the Tax protein of HTLV-1". Oncogene. 24 (29): 4624-4633. doi: ...
... which activates protein kinase A (PKA), which activates (by protein phosphorylation) cAMP response element-binding protein ( ... Some synthetic agonists of PAR2 are short peptides that imitate the aforesaid tethered ligand but do not cleave the ... MC1R/cAMP signaling pathway: Activation of MC1R causes activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), which produces cyclic adenosine ... 1163 Other enzymes involved in the synthesis include tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2 ...
Type I secretion is also involved in export of non-proteinaceous substrates like cyclic β-glucans and polysaccharides. Proteins ... which requires the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide on the secreted protein. Others are translocated across the ... In addition to the secretin protein, 10-15 other inner and outer membrane proteins compose the full secretion apparatus, many ... these proteins translocate into the ER lumen, where they are glycosylated and where molecular chaperones aid protein folding. ...
AANAT is activated through a protein kinase A system in which cyclic AMP (cAMP) is involved. The activation of AANAT leads to ... a peptide which affects pCREB transcription, have a resulting increase in melatonin synthesis. ... The presence of the protein RIBEYE and other proteins in both pinealocytes and sensory cells (both photoreceptors and hair ... The presence of proteins such as Munc13-1 indicates that they are important in neurotransmitter release. At night, synaptic ...
Guanylate cyclase activator 2B
Binding of this peptide to its cognate receptor stimulates an increase in cyclic GMP and may regulate salt and water ... Guanylate cyclase activator 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GUCA2B gene. This gene encodes a preproprotein ... a member of the guanylin family of peptides and an endogenous ligand of the guanylate cyclase-C receptor. ... that is proteolytically processed to generate multiple protein products, including uroguanylin, ...
Molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism
Ethanol exposure alters the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and cyclic AMP responsive element ... Peptides, 23, 87-96. Chandler, L.J., Sutton, G. (2005). Acute ethanol inhibits extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein ... Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Pandey, S.C. (2004). The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein: role in positive and negative ...
It is important to note that not every proline peptide bond is critical to the structure or function of a protein, and not ... Proline has an unusually conformationally restrained peptide bond due to its cyclic structure with its side chain bonded to its ... 0kcal/mol for regular peptide bonds). Unlike regular peptide bonds, the X-prolyl peptide bond will not adopt the intended ... Prolyl isomerases therefore function as protein folding chaperones. Cis peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues are often ...
Deming, Timothy (2012). Peptide-Based Materials. Springer Publishing. Neurath, Hans (1966). "The Proteins Composition, ... While enriched glycine and proline in exon 1 and 3 introduce cyclic structures into the protein, tyrosine residuals are able to ... signal peptide and 3 peptide encoded by exon 1, 2, and 3. The signal peptide guides pro resilin into extracellular space, where ... Exon 1 encoded peptide is mainly hydrophilic, and is more extended when immersed in water. In contrast, exon 3 encoded peptide ...
Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction.
The budding of HIV from infected cells is driven by the protein-protein interaction between the p6 domain of the HIV Gag ... protein and the UEV domain of the human... ... Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein ... Design of Cyclic Peptides as Protein Recognition Motifs.. Protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous, essential to almost all ... Summary of "Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-. Protein Interaction.". The budding of HIV from ...
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are a collection of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and contain overlapping...
Antibodies against carbamylated proteins and cyclic citrullinated peptides in systemic lupus erythematosus : results from two...
Antibodies against carbamylated proteins and cyclic citrullinated peptides in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from two ... as reactivity with cyclic arginine peptide (CAP) is typically present. Antibodies targeting carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) ... Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) are citrulline-dependent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the ... 1. Diagnostic and prognostic potential of joint imaging in patients with anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Open this ...
Citrullination of linear and cyclic altered peptide ligands from myelin basic protein (MBP(87-99)) epitope elicits a Th1...
Citrullination of linear and cyclic altered peptide ligands from myelin basic protein (MBP(87-99)) epitope elicits a Th1 ... Citrullination of linear and cyclic altered peptide ligands from myelin basic protein (MBP(87-99)) epitope elicits a Th1 ... peptides. PBMC from MS patients and controls were cultured with citrullinated peptides, and both peptides caused a Th1 ... We synthesized two novel citrullinated peptides, linear [Cit(91), Ala(96), Cit(97)]MBP(87-99) and cyclo(87-99)[Cit(91), Ala(96 ...
Developing "hot-loop"-inspired cyclic peptides to inhibit the oncogenic Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein interaction. - Tufts Digital...
Developing "hot-loop"-inspired cyclic peptides to inhibit the oncogenic Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein interaction.. Keenan, Caitlin ... Send Comment about Developing "hot-loop"-inspired cyclic peptides to inhibit the oncogenic Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein ... to design and test cyclic peptide inhibitors of a protein-protein interaction that is involved in cell cycle regulation and ... Peptides.. Tufts University. Department of Chemistry.. Kritzer Laboratory (Tufts University). Permanent URL. http://hdl.handle. ...
Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Associates Differentially with Erosions and Synovitis and Has a Different Temporal Course...
Objective Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP)-positive and anti-CCP-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Associates Differentially with Erosions and Synovitis and Has a Different Temporal Course ... in Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody (Anti-CCP)-positive versus Anti-CCP-negative Early Rheumatoid Arthritis. Anne F. ... Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Associates Differentially with Erosions and Synovitis and Has a Different Temporal Course ...
PDF | Targeting a 'hot loop' in the oncogenic Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein interaction with cyclic peptide inhibitors. | ID:...
Targeting a hot loop in the oncogenic Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein interaction with cyclic peptide inhibitors. Keenan, Caitlin M ... Send Comment about Targeting a hot loop in the oncogenic Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein interaction with cyclic peptide inhibitors ... This protein-protein interaction is involved in regulating progression from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle and is associated ... This project involves the development of conformationally constrained mimetic peptides, informed by the Loop Finder program ...
A cyclic peptide inhibitor of C-terminal binding protein dimerization links metabolism with mitotic fidelity in breast cancer...
A cyclic peptide inhibitor of C-terminal binding protein dimerization links metabolism with mitotic fidelity in breast cancer ... A cyclic peptide inhibitor of C-terminal binding protein dimerization links metabolism with mitotic fidelity in breast cancer ... A cyclic peptide inhibitor of C-terminal binding protein dimerization links metabolism with mitotic fidelity in breast cancer ... A cyclic peptide inhibitor of C-terminal binding protein dimerization links metabolism with mitotic fidelity in breast cancer ...
Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate<...
Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. PLoS One. ... Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. / Pan, ... title = "Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate", ... T1 - Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate ...
Structure Cluster - 1CPI: REGIOSELECTIVE STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MIMICRY OF PEPTIDES. DESIGN OF HYDROLYTICALLY...
DESIGN OF HYDROLYTICALLY-STABLE CYCLIC PEPTIDOMIMETIC INHIBITORS OF HIV-1 PROTEASE. ... Description: CYCLIC PEPTIDE INHIBITOR protein , Length: 6 This entity is too short to be considered for the all vs. all ... REGIOSELECTIVE STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MIMICRY OF PEPTIDES. DESIGN OF HYDROLYTICALLY STABLE CYCLIC PEPTIDOMIMETIC INHIBITORS ... Description: HIV-1 PROTEASE protein , Length: 99 No structure alignment results are available for 1CPI.A, 1CPI.B explicitly.. ...
Phys.org - cyclic peptides
Cellular processing of proteins found in Congolese child birthing tea now revealed. Many plants produce compounds that serve as ... Insertion of the amino acid into bioactive peptides enhanced their binding affinity up to 40-fold. Peptides ... ... Small intestine permeable peptides facilitate digestive tract absorption. Because biopharmaceuticals are medium- and high- ... Researchers have created tiny protein tubes named after the Roman god Janus which may offer a new way to accurately channel ...
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein associates differentially with erosions and synovitis and has a different temporal course...
Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP)-positive and anti-CCP-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been suggested ... Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein associates differenti... Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein associates differentially with ... erosions and synovitis and has a different temporal course in cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP)-positive versus ... We aimed to compare circulating cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a marker of cartilage turnover, in untreated anti- ...
Antibodies against carbamylated proteins and cyclic citrullinated peptides in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from two...
... as reactivity with cyclic arginine peptide (CAP) is typically present. Antibodies targeting carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) ... Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) are citrulline-dependent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the ... anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP)-positive and anti-cyclic arginine peptide (anti-CAP)-positive patients in the ... Antibodies against carbamylated proteins and cyclic citrullinated peptides in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from two ...
Cyanotoxin - Wikipedia
They have the same chemical structure as proteins, except they are shorter. In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable ... Cyclic peptides. A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. ... Cyclic peptides Microcystins Liver Microcystis, Anabaena, Planktothrix (Oscillatoria), Nostoc, Hapalosiphon, Anabaenopsis ... Of all the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are of most concern to human health. The microcystins and nodularins poison the ...
RCSB PDB - 3MVJ: Human cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA inhibitor complex
L-PEPTIDE LINKING. C3 H8 N O6 P. SER. ... Human cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA inhibitor complex ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha. A, B, E. 371. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PKA, PKACA, ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor alpha. I, J, K. 20. N/A. Mutation(s): 0 ... L-PEPTIDE LINKING. C4 H10 N O6 P. THR. ... Protein Feature View. ( Mouse scroll to zoom / Hold left click ...
Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction<...
Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction. ACS Chemical Biology. ... Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction. In: ACS Chemical ... Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction. / Sable, Rushikesh; ... title = "Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction", ...
Virtual Screening Using Combinatorial Cyclic Peptide Libraries Reveals Protein Interfaces Readily Targetable by Cyclic Peptides
... protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data ... Keywords: Protein-protein interactions; Reference structures; Cyclic peptides; Pharmacophore models; Thrombin inhibitors ... Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but ... of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide ...
Oral activity of a nature-derived cyclic peptide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis | PNAS
2010) Ligand-based peptide design and combinatorial peptide libraries to target G protein-coupled receptors. Curr Pharm Des 16( ... Nbz-peptide was dissolved in the ligation buffer in 1 mM and the solution was stirred for 24 h. The cyclic peptide was purified ... Cyclic peptide for multiple sclerosis treatment. Kathrin Thell, Roland Hellinger, Emine Sahin, Paul Michenthaler, Markus Gold- ... Cyclic peptide for multiple sclerosis treatment. Kathrin Thell, Roland Hellinger, Emine Sahin, Paul Michenthaler, Markus Gold- ...
Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins - Google Books
Current subject areas covered are Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Carbohydrate Chemistry, Catalysis, Electron Spin ... carboxylic catalysed chain Chem Chem.Lett Chen chiral auxiliary Chromatogr complex compounds conformation cyclic peptides ... Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins, Volume 28. Amino acids, peptides and proteins. Volume 28 of Specialist Periodical Reports. ... Peptides_and_Proteins.html?id=7kHYVk7c25QC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAmino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. ...
Cyclic peptide oral bioavailability: Lessons from the past. - ARC Centre for Innovations in Peptide and Protein Science
Comparative α-helicity of cyclic pentapeptides in water. - ARC Centre for Innovations in Peptide and Protein Science
Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | In Search of Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting the Flexible CK2 Subunit Interface
In search of compounds inhibiting this critical protein-protein interaction, we previously designed an active cyclic peptide ( ... Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (α and/or α) subunits and two regulatory (β) subunits ... cyclic peptides; protein-protein interaction; cell death protein kinase CK2; subunit interface; cyclic peptides; protein- ... In search of compounds inhibiting this critical protein-protein interaction, we previously designed an active cyclic peptide ( ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides
They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are characterized by a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot arrangement ... Cyclotides are plant mini-proteins whose natural function is thought to be to protect plants from pest or pathogens, ... Keywords: circular protein; cyclic peptide; cyclotide; cystine knot; insecticide; kalata B1 circular protein; cyclic peptide; ... They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are characterized by a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot arrangement ...
Stepwise Evolution of a Buried Inhibitor Peptide over 45 My
The de novo evolution of genes and the novel proteins they encode has stimulated much interest in the contribution such ... Peptides, Cyclic / genetics* * Peptides, Cyclic / metabolism * Phylogeny * Prealbumin / genetics * Protein Precursors / ... These findings document the evolution of a novel peptide inside a benign region of a pre-existing protein. We illustrate how a ... Expansion of this region, including two Cys residues, enlarged the peptide ∼34 Ma and made the buried peptides bicyclic. ...
JCI - Spare guanylyl cyclase NO receptors ensure high NO sensitivity in the vascular system
Nonstandard abbreviations used: ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; cGKI, cGMP-dependent protein kinase I; cGMP, cyclic GMP; DEA- ... Radioimmunoassay of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 10:1-33. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases and the cardiovascular system: insights from genetically modified mice. Circ. Res. 93:907- ... Cyclic GMP levels determined in intact aortic rings of WT, α1 -, and α2 -deficient mice. Cyclic GMP content was determined in ...
Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/ Disulfide bonds - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
2 Disulfide Bonds in Proteins. *3 Disulfide Bonds in cyclic peptides. *4 Making disulfides ... Disulfide Bonds in cyclic peptides. Most cyclic peptide bonds are formed between disulfide bonds. As a result, the ... Extracellular proteins often have several disulfide bonds, whereas intracellular proteins usually lack them. In proteins, these ... denaturation of cyclic peptides can often be attributed to the stability of disulfide bonds. In the study with the peptide 1 ( ...
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification<...
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 causes pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances insulin secretion and synthesis. It also regulates the insulin, glucokinase, and GLUT2 ... protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of pancreatic beta-cells by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein ... which ultimately leads to increases in PDX-1 protein levels and translocation of the protein to the nuclei of beta-cells. ... pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein (PDX-1), by increasing its total protein levels, its translocation to the nucleus and ...
Head-to-tail cyclization of a heptapeptide eliminates its cytotoxicity and significantly increases its inhibition effect on...
... protein aggregation is the main hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). Inhibition of Aβ fibrillation is thus a promising ... Takahashi T, Mihara H. Peptide and protein mimetics inhibiting amyloid β-peptide aggregation. Accounts of Chemical Research, ... Cho P Y, Joshi G, Boersma M D, Johnson J A, Murphy R M. A cyclic peptide mimic of the β-amyloid binding domain on transthyretin ... Arai T, Sasaki D, Araya T, Sato T, Sohma Y, Kanai M. A cyclic KLVFF-derived peptide aggregation inhibitor induces the formation ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System | Circulation Research
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. ... Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene ... Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in contractile ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases. Genes and Proteins. cGKs are serine/threonine kinases that are present in a variety of ...
GenesVitroCellsInhibitorMembrane ProteinsAntibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptideKinasesCitrullinated Peptide AntibodyNatriureticSynthesisLigandsIntracellularFragmentsSmall-moleculeEnzymesGeneration of cyclicPrecursorsInteractionsErythrocyte sediAutoantibodiesAmino acidTherapeuticReceptorGlucagonMimetic peptidesBioactiveDisulfide bondsPDEsTherapeuticsTargetsSequenceConformationallyBiologicallyHormonesMoleculesRheumatoid arthritisGuanosineStructuresGeneticallyMotifsPolypeptideMacrocyclic compoundsMethodsNucleotideRegulate
- We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). (peerj.com)
- Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. (peerj.com)
- The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor ( TLR ) 3 , TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. (peerj.com)
- Development of a Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor of the p6/UEV Protein-Protein Interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
- We report the development of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of the p6/UEV interaction, from a non cell-permeable parent that was identified in a SICLOPPS screen. (bioportfolio.com)
- Here, we report an inhibitor of NADH-dependent dimerization of the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) transcriptional repressor, identified by screening genetically encoded cyclic peptide libraries of up to 64 million members. (soton.ac.uk)
- To improve the stability of the peptides, β-sheet epitopes from the CD2 region implicated in CD58 recognition were grafted into the cyclic peptide frameworks of sunflower trypsin inhibitor and rhesus theta defensin. (elsevier.com)
- We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. (ucd.ie)
- Here, we show how this inhibitor peptide evolved stepwise over tens of millions of years. (nih.gov)
- To trace the origin of the inhibitor peptide SFTI-1, we assembled seed transcriptomes for 110 sunflower relatives whose evolution could be resolved by a chronogram, which allowed dates to be estimated for the various stages of molecular evolution. (nih.gov)
- Evidence suggested that cGK regulated neutrophil spreading, as both VASP phosphorylation and neutrophil spreading were inhibited by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS (cGK inhibitor), but not KT5720 (cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor). (jimmunol.org)
- Here we report the crystal structures of human CXCR4 in complex with a small molecule antagonist at 2.5 Å resolution and with a cyclic peptide inhibitor at 2.9 Å resolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer, on inhibition by SNP or CNP. (aspetjournals.org)
- The team dubbed the inhibitor peptides 'ipglycermides,' which represent a powerful class of iPGM inhibitors. (news-medical.net)
- Intramembrane protease: see Integral Membrane Proteins . (bioinformatics.org)
- Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Gram-negative bacteria dictate permeability of metabolites, antibiotics, and toxins. (elifesciences.org)
- can serve as a road map to study other membrane proteins in their native cellular environment. (elifesciences.org)
Antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide2
- Detection of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) is an important diagnostic and prognostic tool in arthritis, as it is highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and predictive of erosive disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- and C reactive protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), rheumatoid factor (RF) (IgG, IgA, and IgM subtypes), antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and antibodies against interleukin 1α (anti-IL1α), analysed by immunoassays. (bmj.com)
- Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence identifies cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) as major mediators of cGMP signaling in the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
- B, Selected properties of cGMP-dependent protein kinases. (ahajournals.org)
- 6 Like NO, cGMP can affect multiple signaling pathways ( Figure 1 A). 1,5,6 To date, three classes of cGMP receptor proteins have been identified: cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels, cGMP-regulated PDEs, which hydrolyze cAMP and/or cGMP, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (ahajournals.org)
- Chapters include discussions on the guanylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase isoenzyme families for cyclic GMP synthesis and hydrolysis, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases, and various hormones and ligands that regulate cyclic GMP formation and/or metabolism. (booktopia.com.au)
- The increase in cGMP concentrations is known to activate different signaling mediators, such as cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, cGMP-regulated ion channels, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs). (elsevier.com)
- cGMP-driven activation of protein kinases, ion channels, or phosphodiesterases (PDEs) causes a broad variety of physiological responses whereas dysregulation can result in severe pathologies. (springer.com)
- Several effectors of cGMP have been identified, most importantly cGMP-regulated protein kinases (abbreviated as cGKs or PKGs). (springer.com)
- These kinases phosphorylate downstream target proteins which mediate cGMP effects, e.g., by decreasing the intracellular calcium concentration. (springer.com)
- In general, protein-protein interactions between ion channels and protein kinases may be a prominent mechanism underlying neuromodulation. (jneurosci.org)
- A fundamental mechanism underlying neuromodulation is the phosphorylation of ion channels by protein kinases ( Levitan and Kaczmarek, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
- The colocalization and targeting of kinases to ion channels requires a means of orchestrating protein-protein interactions. (jneurosci.org)
Citrullinated Peptide Antibody4
- Objective Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP)-positive and anti-CCP-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been suggested as 2 distinctive disease subsets with respect to disease activity and prognosis. (jrheum.org)
- and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody level, 168 EU. (nih.gov)
- Abdul Wahab A, Mohammad M, Rahman MM, Mohamed Said MS. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody is a good indicator for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Blood was tested for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA). (biomedsearch.com)
- Rationale: The family of natriuretic peptides (NPs), including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), exert important and diverse actions for cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
- Surface Plasmon Resonance demonstrated modest and differential binding of the natriuretic peptides with immobilized PDI in a cell free system. (elsevier.com)
- Simari, Robert D. / Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate . (elsevier.com)
- Signaling cascades initiated by nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs) play an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
- Some clinical studies with cyclic GMP and atrial natriuretic peptide are also discussed. (booktopia.com.au)
- C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a third member of the natriuretic peptide family, occurs at the growth plate and acts locally as a positive regulator of endochondral ossification through the intracellular accumulation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). (elsevier.com)
- cGMP-induced effects are regulated by endogenous receptor ligands such as nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs). (springer.com)
- Nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs) are important messenger molecules. (springer.com)
- Receptor for the C-type natriuretic peptide NPPC/CNP hormone. (uniprot.org)
- Receptor for the atrial natriuretic peptide NPPA/ANP and the brain natriuretic peptide NPPB/BNP which are potent vasoactive hormones playing a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis. (uniprot.org)
- Selective activation of the B natriuretic peptide receptor by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). (uniprot.org)
- Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
- The optimal EAA-containing protein format necessary to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis and optimize whole-body net protein balance during caloric deprivation has not been dete. (bioportfolio.com)
- Accordingly, the synthesis and incorporation of such conformationally rigid systems into novel type of peptides has gained large interest. (deepdyve.com)
- Moreover, a number of synthetic approaches have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmacologically interesting cyclic β-amino acid derivatives as monomers with multiple stereogenic centers. (deepdyve.com)
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances insulin secretion and synthesis. (nih.gov)
- Research interests include (enzymatic) synthesis of biologically active modified peptides and peptidomimetics, dendrimers, peptide folding, protein mimics including synthetic antibodies and vaccines. (healthtech.com)
- protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
- Itoh, Y., Ishikawa, M., Naito, M. & Hashimoto, Y. Protein knockdown using methyl bestatin-ligand hybrid molecules: design and synthesis of inducers of ubiquitination-mediated degradation of cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins. (nature.com)
- Cyclic peptide synthesis and confirmation was performed at the Protein Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago. (arvojournals.org)
- HSV-1 virus entry using a recombinant virus strain encoding the beta-galactosidase gene and viral protein synthesis and replication of HSV-1 were assayed in the presence of the control and treatment cyclic peptides. (arvojournals.org)
- Blackwell, H. E. & Grubbs, R. H. Highly efficient synthesis of covalently cross-linked peptide helices by ring-closing metathesis. (nature.com)
- Kim, Y.-W., Grossmann, T. N. & Verdine, G. L. Synthesis of all-hydrocarbon stapled α-helical peptides by ring-closing olefin metathesis. (nature.com)
- Citrullination of linear and cyclic altered peptide ligands from myelin basic protein (MBP(87-99)) epitope elicits a Th1 polarized response by T cells isolated from multiple sclerosis patients: implications in triggering disease. (edu.au)
- These proteins are localized to the actin cytoskeleton and are in vitro and in vivo ligands for the focal adhesion-associated proteins zyxin and vinculin and the actin-binding protein profilin ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Extracellular proteins often have several disulfide bonds, whereas intracellular proteins usually lack them. (wikibooks.org)
- Our results suggest that regulation of PDX-1 by GLP-1 occurs through activation of adenylyl cyclase and the resultant increase in intracellular cAMP, in turn, activates PKA, which ultimately leads to increases in PDX-1 protein levels and translocation of the protein to the nuclei of beta-cells. (nih.gov)
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) elevates the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion in a Na+-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
- Our results suggest that cyclic peptides from natural sources are promising scaffolds for modulating protein-protein interactions that are typically difficult to target with small-molecule compounds. (elsevier.com)
- Here we report five independent crystal structures of CXCR4 bound to an antagonist small molecule IT1t and a cyclic peptide CVX15 at 2.5-3.2 Å resolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Catalytic in vivo protein knockdown by small-molecule PROTACs. (nature.com)
- These protein domains alter conformation in response to changes in small-molecule or ion concentrations. (sciencemag.org)
- Disulfides are created in the presence of enzymes in the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family. (wikibooks.org)
- The C. miyabeanus genome is rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, and harbors 187 small secreted peptides (SSPs) and some fungal effector homologs. (osti.gov)
- Fibrous structures act as load-bearing components in vivo in many natural proteins besides enzymes, which are soluble globular molecules. (nap.edu)
- Enzymes are proteins that jumpstart chemical reactions. (news-medical.net)
Generation of cyclic1
- Photoaffinity palladium reagents for capture of protein-protein interactions. (bioportfolio.com)
- Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are indispensable in almost all cellular processes. (bioportfolio.com)
- Protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous, essential to almost all known biological processes, and offer attractive opportunities for therapeutic intervention. (bioportfolio.com)
- Identification of direct modulators of transcription factor protein-protein interactions is a key challenge for ligand discovery that promises to significantly advance current approaches to cancer therapy. (soton.ac.uk)
- Peptides from the CD2 adhesion domain were designed to inhibit CD2:CD58 interactions. (elsevier.com)
- Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. (ucd.ie)
- Protein-protein interactions (PPI's) mediate interactions that are not only essential to homeostasis, but are also responsible for initiating and maintaining a range of physiological disorders. (healthtech.com)
- Despite the progress that has been made in the field of PPI modulation, the development of molecules that can interfere with protein-protein interactions remains challenging. (healthtech.com)
- The first part provides a basic understanding of the factors governing protein-ligand interactions, followed by a comparison of key experimental methods (calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, NMR) used in generating interaction data. (wiley-vch.de)
- The authors claim that this may well be the largest scale attempt at confirming computational ability to design protein-protein interactions, and I certainly can't refute them. (sciencemag.org)
- Inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions are potential antiviral drugs. (hindawi.com)
- Such mimetic peptides are available as peptide inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions and peptide mimotopes that are conjugated with adjuvant for vaccination. (hindawi.com)
- Carbohydrate-protein interactions are the first cell surface events in cell-cell communication, following which processes such as infection and signal transduction occur. (hindawi.com)
- Carbohydrate-binding proteins such as plant lectins, bacterial toxins, and anticarbohydrate antibodies are available for studying carbohydrate-protein interactions [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Cardote, T. A. F. & Ciulli, A. Cyclic and macrocyclic peptides as chemical tools to recognise protein surfaces and probe protein-protein interactions. (nature.com)
- To compare the diagnostic utility of laboratory variables, including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with erosive and non-erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (hindawi.com)
- In logistic regression models, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP) at baseline, predicted RRP over 5 years. (springer.com)
- Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the development of autoantibodies to citrullinated self-proteins. (jimmunol.org)
- However, a new class of autoantibodies, designated Abs to citrullinated protein Ags (ACPA), have proven to be more specific than rheumatoid factors for the presence of RA ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Antibodies and autoantibodies are proteins made by the immune system . (medlineplus.gov)
- The cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies blood test measures the autoantibodies produced by the immune system that are directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP) in the blood. (healthtestingcenters.com)
- The cytoplasmic 16-amino acid peptide of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MLV) Env prot. (bioportfolio.com)
- Swiss scientists have developed a new amino acid that can be used to modify the 3-D structure of therapeutic peptides. (phys.org)
- Insertion of the amino acid into bioactive peptides enhanced their binding affinity up to 40-fold. (phys.org)
- Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research. (deepdyve.com)
- For drug design, to improve proteolytic stability, it is desirable to include unnatural building blocks, such as conformationally restricted β-amino acid moieties, into the peptide sequence. (deepdyve.com)
- Reported here are "dual agonist" GPCR-activating properties of the chimeric peptide EP45 that incorporates amino acid motifs found within the blood glucose-lowering agent GLP-1 and the appetite-suppressing agent Peptide YY. (upstate.edu)
- 4 . The nanocapsule of spider silk proteins of claim 1 , wherein the spider silk proteins comprise 5 to 50 repeat units, wherein the repeat unit is selected from the group consisting of the amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 3, the amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 4, and the amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 5. (google.ca)
- An antimicrobial peptide was purified in three chromatographic steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 6,115.59 Da by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). The primary structure of this peptide was determined by amino acid and DNA sequencing, and these analyses revealed that it was translated as a 63-residue precursor. (asm.org)
- proteins and peptides , steroids (fat-soluble molecules whose basic structure is a skeleton of four carbon rings), or derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine, characterized by a 6-carbon, or benzene, ring. (encyclopedia.com)
- Prediction of the stability of protein mutants based on structural environment-dependent amino acid substitution and propensity tables. (semanticscholar.org)
- The team went one step further, adding an amino acid to the peptides to create ring-shaped cyclic peptides, which the scientists hypothesized would have the needed shape and structure to attach to the enzyme surface and disable the enzyme. (news-medical.net)
- Fig. 1: Strategy of constructing cyclophane-braced peptide macrocycles via C-H functionalization of amino acid side chains. (nature.com)
- Fig. 2: Macrocyclization of peptides at iodinated aromatic amino acid units via Pd-catalysed intramolecular C( sp 3 )-H arylation. (nature.com)
- Walsh, C. T., Brien, R. V. O. & Khosla, C. Nonproteinogenic amino acid building blocks for nonribosomal peptide and hybrid polyketide scaffolds. (nature.com)
- d)Joo, S.H. Cyclic peptides as therapeutic agents and biochemical tools. (eurekaselect.com)
- With the content relevant for all drug classes and therapeutic fields, this is an inspiring and often-consulted guide to the complexity of protein-ligand interaction modeling and analysis for both novices and experts. (wiley-vch.de)
- Conversion of Protein Active Regions into Peptidomimetic Therapeutic Leads Using Backbone Cyclization and Cycloscan - How to Do it Yourself! (ingentaconnect.com)
- Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) and related molecules that induce targeted protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system represent a new therapeutic modality and are the focus of great interest, owing to potential advantages over traditional occupancy-based inhibitors with respect to dosing, side effects, drug resistance and modulating 'undruggable' targets. (nature.com)
- Using the mouse corneas as a model of ocular infection, the therapeutic activity of the cyclic peptide was examined under primary and recurrent infection conditions (under UV-B exposure) by monitoring the spread of GFP tagged HSV-1 virus in the eye, determining viral shedding from the tears, examining the mice health and clinical symptoms of infection and performing immunohistochemistry for the presence of viral proteins in the eye. (arvojournals.org)
- Cytoplasmic R-peptide of murine leukemia virus envelope protein negatively regulates its interaction with the cell surface receptor. (bioportfolio.com)
- Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. (bioportfolio.com)
- Modeling Analysis of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Mobilization Under The Control Of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 In Mouse Pancreatic Beta-Cells. (upstate.edu)
- Receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) forms a complex with calcitonin receptor-like receptor to generate the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide. (bireme.br)
- The G protein-coupled chemokine receptor, CXCR4, is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This project involves the development of conformationally constrained mimetic peptides, informed by the Loop Finder program developed by the Kritzer Lab, to block the interaction between two subunits of a ubiquitin ligase. (tufts.edu)
- These peptides are known as "carbohydrate-mimetic peptides (CMPs)" because they mimic carbohydrate structures. (hindawi.com)
- Intermolecular disulfide bonds occur between polypeptide chains while intramolecular disulfide bonds occur within a polypeptide chain and are usually responsible for stabilizing tertiary structures of proteins. (wikibooks.org)
- On the other hand, intermolecular disulfide bonds are attributed to stabilizing quaternary protein structures. (wikibooks.org)
- Disulfide bonds in protein membranes are found in both bacteria and eukaryotes. (wikibooks.org)
- Disulfide bonds have been identified in the protein folding in E. Coli. (wikibooks.org)
- Most cyclic peptide bonds are formed between disulfide bonds. (wikibooks.org)
- As a result, the denaturation of cyclic peptides can often be attributed to the stability of disulfide bonds. (wikibooks.org)
- They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are characterized by a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot arrangement of three conserved disulfide bonds. (mdpi.com)
- 2,3 Cyclic GMP is degraded by cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (ahajournals.org)
- cGMP signaling is abrogated by cGMP hydrolysis via PDEs and cGMP export via multidrug resistance proteins (also referred to as ABC transporters). (springer.com)
- Cyclic nucleotide PDEs consist of 10 gene families, each having one or more isoforms. (aacrjournals.org)
- This study highlights the use of circular peptides as orally active T-cell-specific immunosuppressive therapeutics against the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, without inducing major adverse effects. (pnas.org)
- Our work provides a proof of principle that nature-derived cyclic peptides serve as oral active therapeutics, utilizing their intrinsic bioactivity and stable three-dimensional structure. (pnas.org)
- Heinis, C. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future. (eurekaselect.com)
- b) Fosgerau, K. Hoffmann, T. Peptide therapeutics: current status and future directions. (eurekaselect.com)
- This volume of Methods in Enzymology looks at Protein Engineering for Therapeutics. (indigo.ca)
- Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
- 2003). Such inhibitors were developed without knowing the target protein structure, and on the assumption of mechanistic homology with carboxypeptidase A. This structure showed little if any such homology, but rather structural (but not sequence) homology to a family of zinc metalloproteases. (bioinformatics.org)
- The most common technique for biosynthesis of protein polymers has been to design an artificial peptide sequence that can be repeated to form a larger polymer and then to construct the DNA polymer that encodes this protein sequence (McGrath et al. (nap.edu)
- Class IIa bacteriocins are Listeria -active peptides containing the consensus sequence YGNGVXC at the N terminus ( 18 , 20 ). (asm.org)
- A random cyclic peptide sequence was also generated to serve as a control. (arvojournals.org)
- Most of the currently available information on structures of macromolecules and proteins has been obtained from either X-ray crystallography experiments or cryo-electron microscopy investigations by means of averaging over many molecules assembled into a crystal or over a large ensemble selected from low signal-to-noise ratio electron micrographs, respectively ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Protacs: chimeric molecules that target proteins to the Skp1-Cullin-F box complex for ubiquitination and degradation. (nature.com)
- Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) are citrulline-dependent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the opposite is suggested in SLE, as reactivity with cyclic arginine peptide (CAP) is typically present. (biomedcentral.com)
- This peptide also suppresses the immune responses in T cells obtained from mice that exhibit the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. (elsevier.com)
- Antibodies targeting citrullinated proteins (ACPAs [anticitrullinated protein antibodies]) are commonly found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), strongly associate with distinct HLA-DR alleles, and predict a more aggressive disease course as compared with seronegative patients. (rupress.org)
- The objective of the present research was to evaluate the usefulness of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and the IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) test for the differential diagnosis of leprosy with articular involvement and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (scielo.br)
- Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) is an antibody present in most rheumatoid arthritis patients. (rheumatoidarthritis.org)
- Several autoimmune disorders, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, are the result of an antibody protein called the antinuclear antibody (ANA). (rheumatoidarthritis.org)
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that is caused by the immune system producing antibody proteins that attack the synovium that lines the joints. (steadyhealth.com)
- Objective: We utilized complementary in vitro and in vivo models to determine the potential role of PDI in regulating the ability of the NPs to generate its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (elsevier.com)
- Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a unique second messenger molecule formed in different cell types and tissues. (springer.com)
- 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp isomer totally reversed both the SNP and CNP inhibitory effects. (aspetjournals.org)
- To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. (ucd.ie)
- After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. (ucd.ie)
- Fig. 2: Structures of ternary complexes formed during targeted protein degradation. (nature.com)
- Some crystal structures were solved with some of the best binders, and they fit the calculations quite well.They proved highly active in cell protection assays, and here comes the small-protein property advantage: incubating these at 80C for an hour before running the assay did not change their activity at all, in marked contrast to what happens with conventional antibodies. (sciencemag.org)
- However, the repertoire of carbohydrate structures recognized by these proteins is limited and insufficient to cover the majority of structures. (hindawi.com)
- Visualization of GPCRs is also performed via selective integration of fluorophores with the protein or peptide tags that are genetically encoded. (news-medical.net)
- advances in both DNA manufacturing and protein design that have led to a fortunate convergence between the upper limit of the size of oligonucleotides (230 bp) that can be synthesized as pools of 10,000 or larger, and the lower limit of the size of genetically encodable computationally designed proteins (roughly 40 amino acids). (sciencemag.org)
- Most genetically encoded sensors have either one or two fluorescent proteins fused to one or two protein domains. (sciencemag.org)
- Our research group has designed highly efficient methods for the construction of potential antimicrobial peptides. (deepdyve.com)
- In this paper we have reported structural characterization of VIP by experimental and computational methods as well as a comparative analysis of the peptide with its transglutaminase catalyzed analog VIP-Diaminopropane (VIP-DAP). (springer.com)
- Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- Gofman Y, Schärfe C, Marks DS, Haliloglu T, Ben-Tal N. Structure, dynamics and implied gating mechanism of a human cyclic nucleotide-gated channel. (harvard.edu)
- Knockout mice for VASP have a defect in cyclic nucleotide-mediated platelet disaggregation and integrin αΙΙbβ3 activation ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
- GO annotations related to this gene include 3,5-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity . (genecards.org)