Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Goosecoid Protein: Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Organizers, Embryonic: Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.TailEndoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neural Plate: The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nodal Signaling Ligands: Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.PhosphoproteinsChlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Genes, mos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Xenopus laevis stomach proteins xP1 and xP4; xenopus integumentary mucins A.1 (preprospasmolysin) and C.1, proteins which may ... xenopus skin protein xp2 (or APEG); Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein B (ZP-B); intestinal sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48 ... including protein pS2 (TFF1) a protein secreted by the stomach mucosa; spasmolytic polypeptide (SP) (TFF2), a protein of about ... Bork P (1993). "A trefoil domain in the major rabbit zona pellucida protein". Protein Sci. 2 (4): 669-670. doi:10.1002/pro. ...
It associates with pre-rRNA through protein-protein interactions as well as base-pairing. To allow the U3 to function properly ... Genes for Xenopus laevis U3 small nuclear RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5435-5442. Marmier-Gourrier N, Cle´ry A, Schlotter F ... nearly 80 ribosomal proteins assemble with the pre-rRNA. During transcription of pre-rRNA, early ribosomal binding proteins ... Xenopus U3 snoRNA docks on pre-rRNA through a novel base-pairing interaction. submitted. 2003 Herrera A, Olson MOJ. Association ...
I. Complete sequence and homology with the Xenopus protein, N1/N2". Biol. Reprod. 43 (4): 559-68. doi:10.1095/biolreprod43.4. ... Nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NASP gene. Multiple isoforms are encoded by ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
This gene is orthologous to the Xenopus and mouse MITR genes. The MITR protein lacks the histone deacetylase catalytic domain. ... HDAC9 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... This encoded protein may play a role in hematopoiesis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts have been described for this ... The protein encoded by this gene has sequence homology to members of the histone deacetylase family. ...
A similar protein in Xenopus is involved in embryonic pattern formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ... This gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that is specific for receptor-regulated SMAD proteins in the bone morphogenetic protein ( ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SMURF1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ...
"Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes". Nature. 391 (6663): 181-184. doi:10.1038/34426. ... Innexins are transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions in invertebrates. Gap junctions are composed of membrane proteins ... "Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes". Nature. 391 (6663): 181-4. doi:10.1038/34426. PMID ... Both types of protein consist of a cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, followed by four (TMSs) that delimit one cytoplasmic and two ...
Erikson, Eleanor; Maller, James L. (1985). "A Protein Kinase from Xenopus Eggs Specific for Ribosomal Protein S6". PNAS. 82 (3 ... Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Ribosomal Protein ... including other ribosomal proteins. Cytosolic substrates of p90rsk include protein phosphatase 1; glycogen synthase kinase 3 ( ... There are two subfamilies of rsk, p90rsk, also known as MAPK-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1), and p70rsk, also known as ...
Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science 256(5055): 385-387 Barrett-Jolley, ... It is analogous to the genome, the metabolome (describing metabolites), the proteome (describing general protein expression), ...
"Structure of the SANT domain from the Xenopus chromatin remodeling factor ISWI". Proteins: Structure, Function, and ... In molecular biology, a SANT domain is a protein domain that allows many chromatin remodeling proteins to interact with ...
"Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein". Science. 256 (5055): 385-7. doi:10.1126/ ... The protein physically resembles channel proteins and is abundant in erythrocytes and renal tubes. The gene encoding this ... Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). This gene ... "Erythrocyte Mr 28,000 transmembrane protein exists as a multisubunit oligomer similar to channel proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 266 ...
"A novel zinc finger protein is associated with U7 snRNP and interacts with the stem-loop binding protein in the histone pre- ... Wu CH, Gall JG (1993). "U7 small nuclear RNA in C snurposomes of the Xenopus germinal vesicle". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 90 ( ... Pillai RS, Will CL, Lührmann R, Schümperli D, Müller B (2001). "Purified U7 snRNPs lack the Sm proteins D1 and D2 but contain ... Yang XC, Torres MP, Marzluff WF, Dominski Z (2009). "Three proteins of the U7-specific Sm ring function as the molecular ruler ...
... is similar to the Band 3 transport protein found in red blood cells. Pendrin is the protein which is mutated in Pendred ... Scott DA, Karniski LP (January 2000). "Human pendrin expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes mediates chloride/formate exchange". ... The encoded protein has homology to sulfate transporters. Another little-understood role of pendrin is in airway ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Pendred Syndrome/DFNB4 Description at oto.wustl.edu SLC26A4 protein, human at the US National ...
... the zinc finger name has now come to encompass a wide variety of differing protein structures. Xenopus laevis TFIIIA was ... Proteins that contain zinc fingers (zinc finger proteins) are classified into several different structural families. Unlike ... This method classifies zinc finger proteins into "fold groups" based on the overall shape of the protein backbone in the folded ... These zinc fingers can be found in several transcription factors including the yeast Gal4 protein. Various protein engineering ...
"Differential antero-posterior expression of two proteins encoded by a homeobox gene in Xenopus and mouse embryos". EMBO Journal ... "A gradient of homeodomain protein in developing forelimbs of Xenopus and mouse embryos". Cell. 55 (6): 1017-1024. doi:10.1016/ ... Most homeodomain-containing proteins function as transcription factors and fundamentally bind and regulate the activity of ... The homeodomain is the segment of the protein that binds to precise regulatory regions of the target genes. Genes within the ...
Xenopus laevis) Blastomeres Isolated from Early Stage Embryos, Which Form a Geometric Progression in Protein Content". ... The conversion to DNA makes it possible to amplify protein levels and use NGS to quantify proteins. To do this, two antibodies ... "Global absolute quantification reveals tight regulation of protein expression in single Xenopus eggs". Nucleic Acids Research. ... or dimethyl labels which are used to identify which cell a certain protein came from (proteins coming from each cell have a ...
"Anterior gradient 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis)". Gene/Protein. The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 28 February 2014. Thompson DA, ... Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR-2), also known as secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog, is a protein that in ... Many other homologous proteins have been discovered afterwards in Xenopus. AGR2 is the human homolog of XAG-2. It is expressed ... Its protein expression has been shown to be regulated by both androgens and estrogens. AGR2 is a protein disulfide isomerase, ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... similarity to Xenopus importin, yeast SRP1, and human RCH1 (KPNA2), respectively. The similarities among these proteins ... 1994). "The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in ... Importin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA3 gene. The transport of molecules between the ...
Chartrain I, Couturier A, Tassan JP (2006). "Cell-cycle-dependent cortical localization of pEg3 protein kinase in Xenopus and ... Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the Peg3 gene. Peg3 is an imprinted gene ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... Yarden RI, Brody LC (2002). "Identification of proteins that interact with BRCA1 by Far-Western library screening". J. Cell. ...
In Xenopus laevis embryos, maternal cingulin is recruited to apical cell-cell junctions from 2-cells stage. In 2004, a protein ... Moreover, cingulin forms a complex with JAM-A, a tight junction membrane protein. Most of cingulin protein interactions are ... "The junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin modulate the expression of tight junction protein genes through GATA-4". PLoS ... Cingulin (CGN; from the Latin cingere "to form a belt around") is a cytosolic protein encoded by the CGN gene in humans ...
Through studies of Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation, Ferrell showed how graded changes in the inductive stimulus progesterone ... Ultrasensitivity in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Sep 17;93(19):10078-83. PMID ... Hysteresis drives cell-cycle transitions in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 4;100(3):975-80. ... The biochemical basis of an all-or-none cell fate switch in Xenopus oocytes. Science. 1998 May 8;280(5365):895-8. PMID 9572732 ...
... and all TEAD proteins was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In both cases the interaction of the proteins leads to ... Finally in Xenopus, it has been demonstrated that the homolog of TEAD regulates muscle differentiation. Regulation of mouse ... TEAD proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. The binding of MEF2 on the DNA induces and potentiates ... TEAD proteins were notably found in Drosophila (Scalloped), C. elegans (egl -44), S. Cerevisiae and A. nidulans. TEAD2 has been ...
The C-terminal half of this protein has been shown to bind DNA. Studies with the Xenopus homolog suggests an essential role in ... Kinesin-like protein KIF22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF22 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This family of proteins are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes ... Miki H, Setou M, Kaneshiro K, Hirokawa N (June 2001). "All kinesin superfamily protein, KIF, genes in mouse and human". Proc ...
... binding protein and eRF3 are associated in vivo in human and Xenopus cells". Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... Lee JA, Park JE, Lee DH, Park SG, Myung PK, Park BC, Cho S (Feb 2008). "G1 to S phase transition protein 1 induces apoptosis ... Kikuchi Y, Shimatake H, Kikuchi A (Apr 1988). "A yeast gene required for the G1-to-S transition encodes a protein containing an ...
Sister chromatid cohesion protein PDS5 homolog A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDS5A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Functional contribution of Pds5 to cohesin-mediated cohesion in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts". J Cell Sci. 118 (Pt 10 ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (3): 169-76 ...
This post-translational modification is critical for proper folding of TEAD proteins and their stability. TEAD proteins require ... Finally in Xenopus it has been demonstrated that the ortholog of TEAD1 regulates muscle differentiation. Heart development ( ... and all TEAD proteins was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In both cases the interaction of the proteins leads to ... because it is its ability to bind this well-known TEAD proteins co-factor that led to its identification. Indeed, TEAD proteins ...
"Xenbase Gene: Summary for pax8, species: Xenopus tropicalis". Xenbase. xenbase.org. Retrieved 2009-07-17. A Xenopus laevis and ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ...
Using a membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein to visualize cell outlines, we examined the individual cell shape changes ... In Xenopus laevis, somitogenesis consists of the partitioning of the presomitic mesoderm into somites, which undergo a 90- ... In Xenopus laevis, somitogenesis consists of the partitioning of the presomitic mesoderm into somites, which undergo a 90- ... In Xenopus laevis, somitogenesis consists of the partitioning of the presomitic mesoderm into somites, which undergo a 90- ...
kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis] kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis]. gi,118403658, ... The NIH Xenopus initiative. [Dev Dyn. 2002] Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative.. Klein ... kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001072317.1 ... RefSeq protein isoforms See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the klhdc8a gene (XP_017946827.1). ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, and ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The NIH Xenopus initiative. [Dev Dyn. 2002] Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative.. Klein ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis] prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis]. gi, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91884. Q6NUE7. Xenopus laevis (African clawed ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91884. Q68F97. A0A1L8ENT7. Q6DDR9. UPI00022F3388 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00622. SPRY. 1 hit. PF00643. zf-B_box. 1 hit. PF13445. zf- ...
Xcsp stands for Xenopus Cysteine String Protein. Xcsp is defined as Xenopus Cysteine String Protein very rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "Xcsp." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html,Xcsp,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp). ...
XMAP stands for Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein. XMAP is defined as Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein very rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "XMAP." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html,XMAP,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource for Functional Sites in Proteins ... Protein-protein interaction databases. The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource for Functional Sites in Proteins ... Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q6XV80. Q6EKW1. B7ZR97. A0A1L8FZE8. B7ZR99. Xenopus laevis ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q6XV80. Q6EKW1. A0A1L8FZE8. B7ZR99. B7ZR97. ...
Xenopus laevis. For example, a number of heat shock protein genes, such as hsp70, hsp90, and ubiquitin are not heat-inducible ... Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, ... Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression During Xenopus Development Cell Mol Life Sci. 1997 Jan;53(1):114-21. doi: 10.1007/pl00000573 ... Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, Xenopus ...
To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to for … ... proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed mRNA analogs, with yields of up to 100 ng ... Complex formation between influenza virus polymerase proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes Virology. 1989 Jul;171(1):162-9. doi ... To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to form ...
Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein. By L Ebihara, EC Beyer, KI Swenson, DL Paul, DA Goodenough ... Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein. By L Ebihara, EC Beyer, KI Swenson, DL Paul, DA Goodenough ... Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... To confirm that the oocyte cDNA encodes a gap junction channel, the protein was over expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection ...
Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry. B. Gillo, I. ... The Alphavirus 6K Protein Activates Endogenous Ionic Conductances when Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes ... Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry ... Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry ...
U8 snoRNA-binding protein X29. A, B. 212. Xenopus laevis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: nudt16. EC: 3.6.1.62 (UniProt), 3.6.1.64 ( ... Crystal Structure of Xenopus laevis nudix hydrolase nuclear SnoRNA decapping Protein X29. Scarsdale, J.N., Peculis, B.A., ... Crystal Structure of Xenopus laevis nudix hydrolase nuclear SnoRNA decapping Protein X29. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1U20/pdb ...
... isolated from Xenopus laevis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF081803 ... Xenopus laloo protein: involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast growth factor; ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus laloo protein ... Xenopus laloo protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus laloo protein involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast ...
... a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila vasa; MW 78,238 Da; pI 5.54; amino acid sequence given in first source ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus XVLG1 protein ... Xenopus XVLG1 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus XVLG1 protein a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila ... XVLG1 protein, Xenopus; Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 product, Xenopus; vasa-like 1 protein, Xenopus ...
Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 4: a ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... We show that transcripts encoding Xenopus bone morphogenetic protein 4 (XBMP-4) are detectable in the unfertilized egg, and ... The dominance of XBMP-4 over activin may account for the ability of injected XBMP-4 RNA to ventralize whole Xenopus embryos. ... The mesoderm of amphibian embryos such as Xenopus laevis arises through an inductive interaction in which cells of the vegetal ...
Accumulation, organization and deployment of oogenetically derived Xenopus yolk/nonyolk proteins. Rosamund C. Smith, Anton W. ... Accumulation, organization and deployment of oogenetically derived Xenopus yolk/nonyolk proteins. Rosamund C. Smith, Anton W. ... Accumulation, organization and deployment of oogenetically derived Xenopus yolk/nonyolk proteins. Rosamund C. Smith, Anton W. ... Accumulation, organization and deployment of oogenetically derived Xenopus yolk/nonyolk proteins Message Subject (Your Name) ...
deoxyribonucleic acid) by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Phosphorylation Genetic aspects Protein kinases ... DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein. ( ... APA style: DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.. (n.d.) >The Free Library ... MLA style: "DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.." The Free Library. 1997 ...
... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ...
Xklp2 stands for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2. Xklp2 is defined as Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 rarely. ... Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2); (Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2) protein ... Targeting protein for xenopus kinesin-like protein 2; protein targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin; Ser-139-phosphorylated ... The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a ...
Labeling of the Xenopus oocyte O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins by GalNAz and biotin alkyne.A, after labeling of the Xenopus oocytes ( ... Several of these proteins were already identified as bearing O-GlcNAc residues, but none were described previously in Xenopus ( ... Because of a low expression of O-GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O- ... 2B) were performed on immature and matured Xenopus oocytes crude extracts, and bound proteins were analyzed by Western blot. ...
Xenopus (Frog) Model System of Fragile X and Related Proteins. FRAXA Research Foundation 2001-2005 Grants • Completed Research ... This animal, the frog Xenopus laevis, contains all three genes, but the number of protein forms coded by these genes is much ... While frogs have the same number of genes (3) in this family of genes, they have far fewer isoforms of the protein products ... Once this model has been developed, new avenues to study the functions of the FXR proteins in the nervous system will hopefully ...
Expression and localization of the Xenopus laevis small heat shock protein, HSPB6 (HSP20), in A6 kidney epithelial cells.. [ ... Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic ... Previously, the only sHSPs that have been studied in detail in the model frog system, Xenopus laevis, were members of the HSP30 ... X. laevis HSPB6 cDNA encodes a 168 aa protein that contains an α-crystallin domain, a polar C-terminal extension and some ...
Protein (His tag). Species: Xenopus tropicalis. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630893. ... It can be used to produce protein material with high added value that is very close to the natural protein. Our proteins ... A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. But the low ... Protein Type Recombinant Purification tag / Conjugate His tag Application ELISA. Options Bulk discount ...
  • Furthermore, the family of small heat shock protein genes, hsp30, are differentially expressed after the midblastula stage as well as being regulated at the level of mRNA stability. (nih.gov)
  • To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we searched for soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the oocyte that are able to selectively bind mRNAs, using as substrate radiolabeled mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • We have also observed changes in the in vitro mRNA binding properties of these polypeptides during oogenesis and early embryonic development, in relation to their phosphorylation state and to the activity of an approximately 15S particle-associated protein kinase, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. (rupress.org)
  • In Xenopus A6 kidney epithelial cells hsp110 mRNA was detected constitutively and was heat inducible. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CROCC mRNA encoding a coiled coil protein was present maternally, as well as throughout early development. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1994). B3B7, 15/0 do not express MHC class I and class II mRNA or protein. (rochester.edu)
  • Poly (A) binding proteins are intimately implicated in controlling a number of events in mRNA metabolism from nuclear polyadenylation to cytoplasmic translation and stability. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The CHIP28 protein is an abundant integral membrane protein in mammalian RBCs and renal proximal tubules and belongs to a family of membrane proteins with unknown functions. (jhu.edu)
  • Fariss RN, Molday RS, Fisher SK, Matsumoto B. Evidence from normal and degenerating photoreceptors that two outer segment integral membrane proteins have separate transport pathways. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The data show that Cy-ncAAs (based on Cy3 and Cy5) are tolerated by the eukaryotic ribosome in cell-free and whole-cell environments and can be incorporated into soluble and membrane proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • The imposing size of this cell (1.3-mm diameter with a nucleus of 300 μm), a total protein quantity of 25 μg/oocyte, and its amenability for manipulation made this model powerful for the characterization and the identification of many key cell cycle components, such as the M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the cytostatic factor ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we focused on the pharmacological characterization of cannabinoid receptor coupling to G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that extracellular proteases are able to increase the open probability of the epithelial sodium channel by an effect that does not occur through activation of a G protein-coupled receptor, but rather through proteolysis of a protein that is either a constitutive part of the channel itself or closely associated with it. (rupress.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein sequence is homologous to the well-characterized gap junction structural proteins rat connexin32 and connexin43. (sciencemag.org)
  • A protein lacking an SKL sequence can be coimported, providing strong evidence for import of a folded protein. (rupress.org)
  • Sequence analysis showed that p32 has about 50% identity to the known nuclear poly(A) binding proteins (PABPN1) but is more closely related to a group of mammalian proteins of unknown function. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Most fish were thought to dispose of ammonium simply by leaking it out of their gills but when Shigehisa Hirose from the Tokyo Institute of Technology discovered a new family of proteins (Rhesus proteins) in pufferfish with a similar amino acid sequence to other ammonium transport proteins, it became clear that ammonium disposal was more complex. (biologists.org)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (fishersci.fi)
  • Both PTPases share sequence identities in their N-terminal segments with two lipid-binding proteins, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein and SEC14p, a phospholipid transferase. (cshl.edu)
  • In addition, the unique insert sequence of PTPX1 shares identity with PSSA, a protein involved in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis. (cshl.edu)
  • Sequence comparison suggests that PTPX10 is the Xenopus homolog of the human PTPase Meg-02, while PTPX1 is a structurally related yet distinct PTPase, Intrinsic PTPase activity of PTPX1 and PTPX10 was demonstrated in lysates of Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses encoding either enzyme. (cshl.edu)
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the LOC100496324 cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (genscript.com)
  • Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic aggregates and facilitate their refolding and/or degradation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We show that transcripts encoding Xenopus bone morphogenetic protein 4 (XBMP-4) are detectable in the unfertilized egg, and that injection of XBMP-4 RNA into the animal hemisphere of Xenopus eggs causes animal caps isolated from the resulting blastulae to express mesoderm-specific markers. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus, germ layer specification occurs prior to gastrulation and requires the transcription factor VegT both for the cell-autonomous specification of endoderm and the generation of mesoderm-inducing signals. (mysciencework.com)
  • Open reading frames from a further 39 novel sequences, without counterparts in the database, were screened for the characteristics of intrinsically disordered proteins, i.e. hydrophilicity and lack of stable secondary structure. (biologists.org)
  • Over the past decade, there has been an explosive development of research of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which are also known as unfolded proteins. (springer.com)
  • Because MAPK has been shown to down-regulate Smad1, MAPK may disrupt bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) signaling during neural specification. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we use quantitative live imaging to simultaneously monitor cell intercalation behaviors and PCP protein dynamics in the Xenopus laevis neural plate epithelium. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together, these results provide a dynamic and quantitative view of PCP protein localization during convergent extension and suggest a complex and intimate link between the dynamic localization of core PCP proteins, actomyosin assembly, and polarized junction shrinking during cell intercalation in the closing vertebrate neural tube. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ajuba LIM proteins are snail/slug corepressors required for neural crest development in Xenopus. (mendeley.com)
  • Using Xenopus neural crest as a model of in vivo Snail- or Slug-induced EMT, we demonstrate that Ajuba LIM proteins contribute to neural crest development as Snail/Slug corepressors and are required for in vivo Snail/Slug function. (mendeley.com)
  • Previous studies have implicated changes in dendritic spine architecture as the primary result of loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), but recent work has shown that neural proliferation is decreased and cell death is increased with either loss of FMRP or overexpression of FMRP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trefoil (P-type) domain is a cysteine-rich domain of approximately forty five amino-acid residues has been found in some extracellular eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trypsin-induced increase of I Na was observed with Xenopus and rat ENaC, and was very large (∼20-fold) with the channel obtained by coexpression of the α subunit of Xenopus ENaC with the β and γ subunits of rat ENaC. (rupress.org)
  • While frogs have the same number of genes (3) in this family of genes, they have far fewer isoforms of the protein products compared to humans (where FMRP alone can exist in at least 12 distinct forms), making study of the different functions simpler. (fraxa.org)
  • Individual knockout plants for five 14-3-3 protein isoforms expressed in rosettes lacked circadian activation of K ros . (plantcell.org)
  • Message for the small heat shock protein, hsp27, was not detectable until the early tailbud stage, indicating that this hsp was not present maternally and was developmentally regulated. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • This suggests that at this stage, the nanoparticles' absorption process is residual compared with the following steps in metabolism, distribution and/or excretion processes, indicated by the increase of iron accumulation proteins at both transcriptional and translational level. (springer.com)
  • Ciliary rootlet coiled coil protein (CROCC), the structural component that originates from the basal body at the proximal end of the ciliary rootlet, plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular integrity of ciliated cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The known poly(A) binding proteins can be divided into three distinct structural groups (prototypes PABP1, PABPN1/PABP2 and Nab2p) and two functional families, showing that similar functions can be accomplished by differing structural units. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Structural biologists now recognize that the functional diversity provided by disordered regions complements the functional repertoire of ordered protein regions. (springer.com)
  • In Intrinsically Disordered Protein Analysis :Methods and Experimental Tools, expert researchers explore the high abundance of IDPs in various organisms, their unique structural features, numerous functions, and crucial associations with different diseases. (springer.com)
  • Other investigators have shown that stimulation of receptors linked to the Gα q -phospholipase C pathway inhibits the activity of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K + (GIRK) channels. (elsevier.com)