An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
... a developmentally-regulated cell surface protein; Xenopus nrp1; P28824); and receptor-like tyrosine protein phosphatase. The ... A 170 amino acid domain, the so-called MAM (meprin, A-5 protein, and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase mu) domain, has been ... These proteins have a modular, receptor-like architecture comprising a signal peptide, an N-terminal extracellular domain, a ... MAM domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain. It is an extracellular domain found in many receptors. ...
Kolm, Peggy J.; Sive, Hazel L. (September 1995). "Efficient Hormone-Inducible Protein Function in Xenopus laevis". ... She used a simple anterior organ, the mucus-secreting cement gland of the frog Xenopus, to define the genetic network required ... In 1993, Sive founded the Cold Spring Harbor Course on Early Development of Xenopus and taught this together with colleagues ... Function of these genes, including otx2 and zic1 (opl), was studied using hormone-inducible fusion proteins, a technique first ...
It associates with pre-rRNA through protein-protein interactions as well as base-pairing. To allow the U3 to function properly ... Genes for Xenopus laevis U3 small nuclear RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5435-5442. Marmier-Gourrier N, Cle´ry A, Schlotter F ... nearly 80 ribosomal proteins assemble with the pre-rRNA. During transcription of pre-rRNA, early ribosomal binding proteins ... Xenopus U3 snoRNA docks on pre-rRNA through a novel base-pairing interaction. submitted. 2003 Herrera A, Olson MOJ. Association ...
"Targeting protein for xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) regulates γ-histone 2AX (γ-H2AX) levels upon ionizing radiation". ... Targeting protein for Xklp2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPX2 gene. It is one of the many spindle assembly ... Boleti H, Karsenti E, Vernos I (January 1996). "Xklp2, a novel Xenopus centrosomal kinesin-like protein required for centrosome ... Yan L, Li S, Xu C, Zhao X, Hao B, Li H, Qiao B (December 2013). "Target protein for Xklp2 (TPX2), a microtubule-related protein ...
In Xenopus laevis embryos, maternal cingulin is recruited to apical cell-cell junctions from 2-cells stage. In 2004, a protein ... Moreover, cingulin forms a complex with JAM-A, a tight junction membrane protein. Most of cingulin protein interactions are ... "The junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin modulate the expression of tight junction protein genes through GATA-4". PLOS ... Cingulin (CGN; from the Latin cingere "to form a belt around") is a cytosolic protein encoded by the CGN gene in humans ...
The Kinesin-related protein XKCM1 stimulates catastrophes in Xenopus microtubules. The Kinesin-Related Protein 13 MCAK ... Catastrophin (Catastrophe-related protein) is a term use to describe proteins that are associated with the disassembly of ... shows an ability to inhibit catastrophe without affecting the microtubule growth rate Xenopus Microtubule Protein 215 (XMAP215 ... Microtubule-associated protein Kinesin Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter ...
"Anterior gradient 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis)". Gene/Protein. The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 28 February 2014. Thompson DA, ... Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR-2), also known as secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog, is a protein that in ... Many other homologous proteins have been discovered afterwards in Xenopus. AGR2 is the human homolog of XAG-2. It is expressed ... Its protein expression has been shown to be regulated by both androgens and estrogens. AGR2 is a protein disulfide isomerase, ...
Losada A, Hirano M, Hirano T (1998). "Identification of Xenopus SMC protein complexes required for sister chromatid cohesion". ... SMC1β, REC8 and STAG3 proteins are meiosis specific cohesins. The STAG3 protein appears to be essential for female meiosis. A ... Several proteins aid in the loading process. For example, Scc2 and Scc4 are both required for cohesin to load in budding yeast ... The SMC proteins are found in prokaryotes and have been conserved through evolution. The coils of SMC1 and SMC3 are conserved ...
I. Complete sequence and homology with the Xenopus protein, N1/N2". Biol. Reprod. 43 (4): 559-68. doi:10.1095/biolreprod43.4. ... Nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NASP gene. Multiple isoforms are encoded by ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
This gene is orthologous to the Xenopus and mouse MITR genes. The MITR protein lacks the histone deacetylase catalytic domain. ... HDAC9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... This encoded protein may play a role in hematopoiesis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts have been described for this ... The protein encoded by this gene has sequence homology to members of the histone deacetylase family. ...
A similar protein in Xenopus is involved in embryonic pattern formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ... This gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that is specific for receptor-regulated SMAD proteins in the bone morphogenetic protein ( ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SMURF1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ...
"Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes". Nature. 391 (6663): 181-4. Bibcode:1998Natur.391.. ... Innexins or related proteins are widespread among Eumetazoa, with the exception of echinoderms. Gap junction proteins with no ... Innexins are transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions in invertebrates. Gap junctions are composed of membrane proteins ... "Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes". Nature. 391 (6663): 181-4. Bibcode:1998Natur.391.. ...
Erikson, Eleanor; Maller, James L. (1985). "A Protein Kinase from Xenopus Eggs Specific for Ribosomal Protein S6". PNAS. 82 (3 ... Ribosomal+Protein+S6+Kinases,+90-kDa at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Ribosomal+Protein+ ... including other ribosomal proteins. Cytosolic substrates of p90rsk include protein phosphatase 1; glycogen synthase kinase 3 ( ... There are two subfamilies of rsk, p90rsk, also known as MAPK-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1), and p70rsk, also known as ...
Forkhead box protein H1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXH1 gene. FOXH1 encodes a human homolog of Xenopus ... FOXH1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Liu B, Dou CL, Prabhu L, Lai E (January 1999). "FAST-2 is a mammalian winged-helix protein which mediates transforming growth ... Liu B, Dou CL, Prabhu L, Lai E (1999). "FAST-2 is a mammalian winged-helix protein which mediates transforming growth factor ...
Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science 256(5055): 385-387 Barrett-Jolley, ... It is analogous to the genome, the metabolome (describing metabolites), the proteome (describing general protein expression), ...
"Genome-Wide Identification and Expression of Xenopus F-Box Family of Proteins". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0136929. doi:10.1371/journal ... and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this ... The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), ... Ge R, Wang Z, Zeng Q, Xu X, Olumi AF (July 2011). "F-box protein 10, an NF-κB-dependent anti-apoptotic protein, regulates TRAIL ...
In molecular biology, a SANT domain is a protein domain that allows many chromatin remodeling proteins to interact with ... Horton JR, Elgar SJ, Khan SI, Zhang X, Wade PA, Cheng X (June 2007). "Structure of the SANT domain from the Xenopus chromatin ... remodeling factor ISWI". Proteins. 67 (4): 1198-202. doi:10.1002/prot.21352. PMC 2688785. PMID 17377988. Boyer LA, Latek RR, ...
Arthur PK, Claussen M, Koch S, Tarbashevich K, Jahn O, Pieler T (July 2009). "Participation of Xenopus Elr-type proteins in ... In the case of protein-coding genes, this usually leads to a reduction in the quantity of the corresponding protein in the cell ... Some Morpholinos knock down expression so effectively that, after degradation of preexisting proteins, the targeted proteins ... a protein can help to determine the function of the protein moiety encoded by that exon or can sometimes knock down the protein ...
"Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein". Science. 256 (5055): 385-7. Bibcode: ... Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). This gene ... The protein physically resembles channel proteins and is abundant in erythrocytes and renal tubes. The gene encoding this ... "Erythrocyte Mr 28,000 transmembrane protein exists as a multisubunit oligomer similar to channel proteins". The Journal of ...
This domain was first identified as a zinc finger at the C terminus of AN1 SWISSPROT, a ubiquitin-like protein in Xenopus ... Proteins containing an AN1-type zinc finger include: Ascidian posterior end mark 6 (pem-6) protein . Human AWP1 protein ( ... "Two related localized mRNAs from Xenopus laevis encode ubiquitin-like fusion proteins". Gene. 128 (2): 181-8. doi:10.1016/0378- ... Certain stress-associated proteins (SAP) contain AN1 domain, often in combination with A20 zinc finger domains (SAP8) or C2H2 ...
The AD hallmark proteins tau in NFTs or GVBs and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in GVBs colocalize with CK1δ. In ... "Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative". Developmental Dynamics. 225 (4): 384-91. doi: ... So far, C-terminal phosphorylation of CK1δ by upstream kinases has been confirmed for protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B ... Locasale JW, Shaw AS, Chakraborty AK (August 2007). "Scaffold proteins confer diverse regulatory properties to protein kinase ...
The protein Ectodermin, firstly identified in Xenopus embryos, promotes ectodermal fate and suppresses the mesoderm formation ... Snir, M., Ofir, R., Elias, S., and Frank, D. (2006). Xenopus laevis POU91 protein, an Oct3/4 homologue, regulates competence ... In Xenopus laevis, the specification of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) occurs at the blastula stage. ... The p53 protein binds to the promoters of early mesodermal genes. p53 is maternally deposited transcript that forms a ...
Vale, Ronald D. (22 February 1991). "Severing of stable microtubules by a mitotically activated protein in Xenopus egg extracts ... In 1991, he discovered the first protein that severed microtubules and later purified and named it katanin. In 1996, Vale and ... Since 2003, Vale has focused on dynein, a motor protein discovered by Ian R. Gibbons in 1965. Although its discovery occurred ... In 1985, Vale, Sheetz and Reese isolated the dominant motor protein in the cytosol, naming it "kinesin." They showed that ...
However, it has been found to encompass a wide variety of differing protein structures in eukaryotic cells. Xenopus laevis ... It often appears as a metal-binding domain in multi-domain proteins. Proteins that contain zinc fingers (zinc finger proteins) ... The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) binds to the CpG site. It is used in mammals for antiviral defense. Various protein ... This method classifies zinc finger proteins into "fold groups" based on the overall shape of the protein backbone in the folded ...
"Differential antero-posterior expression of two proteins encoded by a homeobox gene in Xenopus and mouse embryos". The EMBO ... "A gradient of homeodomain protein in developing forelimbs of Xenopus and mouse embryos". Cell. 55 (6): 1017-1024. doi:10.1016/ ... Most homeodomain-containing proteins function as transcription factors and fundamentally bind and regulate the activity of ... The homeodomain is the segment of the protein that binds to precise regulatory regions of the target genes. Genes within the ...
"Global absolute quantification reveals tight regulation of protein expression in single Xenopus eggs". Nucleic Acids Research. ... The conversion to DNA makes it possible to amplify protein levels and use NGS to quantify proteins. In one such approach, two ... to map variable protein expression in tissues and/or tumors, and to measure changes in protein expression and cell signaling in ... or dimethyl labels which are used to identify which cell a certain protein came from (proteins coming from each cell have a ...
A gradient of homeodomain protein in developing forelimbs of Xenopus and mouse embryos. Cell 55, 1017-1024 Oliver, G., Sosa- ... In 2020, he published his research on the role of the Reelin protein promotes cardiac regeneration and repair by reducing cell ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... similarity to Xenopus importin, yeast SRP1, and human RCH1 (KPNA2), respectively. The similarities among these proteins ... 1994). "The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in ... Importin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA3 gene. The transport of molecules between the ...
Wright, C. V., Schnegelsberg, P., & De Robertis, E. M. (1989). XlHbox 8: a novel Xenopus homeo protein restricted to a narrow ... In humans this protein is encoded by the PDX1 gene, which was formerly known as IPF1. The gene was originally identified in the ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus PDX1+protein,+human at the US National Library of ... 1997). "The p38/reactivating kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade mediates the activation of the transcription ...
Chartrain I, Couturier A, Tassan JP (2006). "Cell-cycle-dependent cortical localization of pEg3 protein kinase in Xenopus and ... Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PEG3 gene. PEG3 is an imprinted gene ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... Yarden RI, Brody LC (2002). "Identification of proteins that interact with BRCA1 by Far-Western library screening". J. Cell. ...
"Xenbase Gene: Summary for pax8, species: Xenopus tropicalis". Xenbase. xenbase.org. Retrieved 2009-07-17. A Xenopus laevis and ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ...
... annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. It is produced and ... Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis 1.249938611×10. ^. 9 Drosophila melanogaster 1.11996522×10. ^. 9 Pan troglodytes 1.008323292×10. ...
Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... and Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).[39][48] In animals, supplemental boron has been shown to reduce calcium excretion and ...
Lissamphibia: llyffant Xenopus tropicalis;. *Pysgod teleost: Takifugu rubripes (fugu), Tetraodon nigroviridis (chwyddbysgodyn ... Opsiwn arall yw anodiad awtomatig - defnyddio pŵer cyfrifiadurol i gymharu dilyniannau protein a DNA. ...
The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... "Cyclin B dissociation from CDK1 precedes its degradation upon MPF inactivation in mitotic extracts of Xenopus laevis embryos". ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Ataliotis, P; Symes, K; Chou, MM; Ho, L; Mercola, M (September 1995). "PDGF signalling is required for gastrulation of Xenopus ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Hannink M, Donoghue DJ (1989). "Structure and function of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and related proteins". Biochim ...
Yeast cells are normally protected by a thick cell wall which makes extraction of cellular proteins difficult. Enzymatic ... coli spheroplast can be used as an ion-channel expression system comparable to the Xenopus oocyte.[4][5][6][7] ...
"The human histamine H3 receptor couples to GIRK channels in Xenopus oocytes". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 567 (3): 206-10. PMID 17537431 ... receptor antagonist clobenpropit enhances GABA release to protect against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity through the cAMP/protein ...
October 2017). "Multiplexed quantification of proteins and transcripts in single cells". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (10): 936-939 ... and Xenopus laevis.[83] In each case multiple stages of the embryo were studied, allowing the entire process of development to ... In 2017, two approaches were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through ...
2005). „Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID ... 1999). „The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". J. ... 2004). „Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86-90. PMID 15232106. doi:10.1126/science.1097639.. ... Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope TJ, Hunter T (1999). „Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of DNA ...
It contains no detergents but is created by whipping up proteins and lectins secreted by the female.[81][82] ... Barthalmus, G. T.; Zielinski W. J. (1988). "Xenopus skin mucus induces oral dyskinesias that promote escape from snakes". ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow. Retrieved August 24, 2012.. ... Xenopus laevis), which gives the frogs an opportunity to escape.[129][130] Caecilians have been little studied in this respect ...
Channels Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes by the Ca2+. Channel Antagonist Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967)". Molecular Pharmacology. 48 (3 ... Western blot and protein analysis were conducted to determine the relative amounts of VGCC subunit expression. α1C, α1D, and α2 ... "The involvement of actin, calcium channels and exocytosis proteins in somato-dendritic oxytocin and vasopressin release" ...
2004). „Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86-90. PMID 15232106. doi:10.1126/science.1097639.. ... The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". J Biol Chem. ... Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope TJ, Hunter T (1999). „Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of DNA ... Kneissl M, Pütter V, Szalay AA, Grummt F (2003). „Interaction and assembly of murine pre-replicative complex proteins in yeast ...
Xenopus laevis)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (10): 4612. Fowler, Sarah; Cavanagh, Rachel. "Sharks, ... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Most sharks are "cold- ...
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of ... Bogenhagen DF, Brown DD (1981). "Nucleotide sequences in Xenopus 5S DNA required for transcription termination". Cell. 24 (1): ... Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.[6] Usually, testing is used to find changes that are ... In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by a living cell to construct specific proteins. The ...
DiNitto, JP; Huber, PW (Oct 23, 2001). "A role for aromatic amino acids in the binding of Xenopus ribosomal protein L5 to 5S ... La proteinEdit. Interaction of 5S rRNA with the La protein prevents the RNA from degradation by exonucleases in the cell.[17] ... Proteins are shown in blue, 23S rRNA in orange and 5S rRNA in yellow.[11] 5S rRNA together with the ribosomal proteins L5 and ... Other ribosomal proteinsEdit. In prokaryotes the 5S rRNA binds to the L5, L18 and L25 ribosomal proteins, whereas in eukaryotes ...
These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin ... Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, -2, -3) and humans (DVL-1, -2, -3). Dsh relays complex Wnt signals in tissues and cells, in normal ... This region mediates many protein-protein interactions and regulates multiple biological processes.[3] ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Xenopus tadpoles may be able to swim for minutes as long as they do not bump into anything.[4] The tadpole live from remaining ... "Octylphenol (OP) Alters the Expression of Members of the Amyloid Protein Family in the Hypothalamus of the Snapping Turtle, ... of a Xenopus hatchling's first day after hatching is spent hanging from a thread of mucus secreted from near its mouth will ...
miR-181 expression has a reverse correlation with Tcl1 protein expression. mir-181 a and b are over-expressed and act as bad ... Tang GQ, Maxwell ES (January 2008). "Xenopus microRNA genes are predominantly located within introns and are differentially ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ... They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. ...
Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... Amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the mechanisms of apoptosis. In fact, iodine and ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[83] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ...
The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as ... Cohen, Sarit; Marcel Mechali (2002). "Formation of extrachromosomal circles from telomeric DNA in Xenopus laevis". EMBO Reports ... The size of an animal mtDNA plasmid is roughly 16.6 kb and although it contains genes for tRNA and mRNA synthesis, proteins ... Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a ...
If Xenopus neurons are grown in an environment with RNA synthesis or protein synthesis inhibitors that transition is prevented. ... Xenopus sodium and potassium currents increase drastically after a neuron goes through its final phase of mitosis. The sodium ... Miller C (1987). "How ion channel proteins work". In LK Kaczmarek; IB Levitan. Neuromodulation: The Biochemical Control of ... A cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer of molecules in which larger protein molecules are embedded. The lipid bilayer is ...
... yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence".[2][3][4][5][6][7] He has been selected to receive the 2015 Othmer Gold ... Miskevich F.; Doench J.G.; Townsend M.T.; Sharp P.A.; Constantine-Paton M. (15 April 2006). "RNA Interference of Xenopus NMDAR ...
When expressed, the myoD gene produces a protein referred to as MyoD (or MyoD1), which can bind certain DNA sequences, stop ... Turner, DL; Weintraub, H (1994). "Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a ... Benezra, R; Davis, RL; Lockshon, D; Turner, DL; Weintraub, H (1990). "The protein Id: a negative regulator of helix-loop-helix ... Weisbrod, S; Weintraub, H (1979). "Isolation of a subclass of nuclear proteins responsible for conferring a DNAse I-sensitive ...
... protein = , water = , alcohol = , caffeine = , vitA_ug = , vitA_iu = , betacarotene_ug = , lutein_ug = , thiamin_mg = , ...
... , also known as metablastin and oncoprotein 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STMN1 gene. Stathmin is a ... phylogenetic conservation and developmental regulation in Xenopus". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (22): 16420-9. ... Regulation of stathmin is cell cycle dependent and controlled by the cell's protein kinases in response to specific cell ... Jourdain L, Curmi P, Sobel A, Pantaloni D, Carlier MF (September 1997). "Stathmin: a tubulin-sequestering protein which forms a ...
Protein Crystallography: Xenon and Krypton Derivatives for Phasing Archive.org (vaadatud 07.03.2015) ... The diverse actions of volatile and gaseous anesthetics on human-cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors expressed in Xenopus ... Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography. New York, Springer, 2007, pp. 123-171. ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... infecting the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis". Parasite. 21: 20. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014020. PMC 4018937. PMID 24823278. ... The highest expressed kidney specific protein is uromodulin, the most abundant protein in urine with functions that prevent ... Many of the corresponding kidney specific proteins are expressed in the cell membrane and function as transporter proteins. ...
"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... "The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". The Journal ... Kneissl M, Pütter V, Szalay AA, Grummt F (Mar 2003). "Interaction and assembly of murine pre-replicative complex proteins in ... "Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86-90. doi:10.1126/science.1097639. PMID 15232106.. الوسيط , ...
The mitotic apparatus is made up of a central spindle and polar asters made up of polymers of tubulin protein called ... "In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy of differentiation in Xenopus laevis embryos from the first cleavage onwards". ... Cytokinesis is mediated by the contractile ring made up of polymers of actin protein called microfilaments. Karyokinesis and ... The rapid cell cycles are facilitated by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the ...
kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis] kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis]. gi,118403658, ... The NIH Xenopus initiative. [Dev Dyn. 2002] Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative.. Klein ... kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001072317.1 ... RefSeq protein isoforms See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the klhdc8a gene (XP_017946827.1). ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, and ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The NIH Xenopus initiative. [Dev Dyn. 2002] Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative.. Klein ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis] prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis]. gi, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91884. Q6NUE7. Xenopus laevis (African clawed ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91884. Q68F97. A0A1L8ENT7. Q6DDR9. UPI00022F3388 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00622. SPRY. 1 hit. PF00643. zf-B_box. 1 hit. PF13445. zf- ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF08833, Axin_b-cat_bind, 1 hit. PF00778, DIX, 1 hit. ... "Interaction of dishevelled and Xenopus axin-related protein is required for wnt signal transduction.". Itoh K., Antipova A., ... "Interaction of dishevelled and Xenopus axin-related protein is required for wnt signal transduction.". Itoh K., Antipova A., ...
Xcsp stands for Xenopus Cysteine String Protein. Xcsp is defined as Xenopus Cysteine String Protein very rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "Xcsp." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html,Xcsp,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp). ...
XMAP stands for Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein. XMAP is defined as Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein very rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "XMAP." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html,XMAP,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html ...
Xenopus laevis. For example, a number of heat shock protein genes, such as hsp70, hsp90, and ubiquitin are not heat-inducible ... Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, ... Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression During Xenopus Development Cell Mol Life Sci. 1997 Jan;53(1):114-21. doi: 10.1007/pl00000573 ... Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, Xenopus ...
To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to for … ... proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed mRNA analogs, with yields of up to 100 ng ... Complex formation between influenza virus polymerase proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes Virology. 1989 Jul;171(1):162-9. doi ... To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to form ...
Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein. By L Ebihara, EC Beyer, KI Swenson, DL Paul, DA Goodenough ... Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein. By L Ebihara, EC Beyer, KI Swenson, DL Paul, DA Goodenough ... Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... To confirm that the oocyte cDNA encodes a gap junction channel, the protein was over expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection ...
Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry. B. Gillo, I. ... The Alphavirus 6K Protein Activates Endogenous Ionic Conductances when Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes ... Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry ... Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry ...
U8 snoRNA-binding protein X29. A, B. 212. Xenopus laevis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: nudt16. EC: 3.6.1.62 (UniProt), 3.6.1.64 ( ... Crystal Structure of Xenopus laevis nudix hydrolase nuclear SnoRNA decapping Protein X29. Scarsdale, J.N., Peculis, B.A., ... Crystal Structure of Xenopus laevis nudix hydrolase nuclear SnoRNA decapping Protein X29. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1U20/pdb ...
... isolated from Xenopus laevis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF081803 ... Xenopus laloo protein: involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast growth factor; ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus laloo protein ... Xenopus laloo protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus laloo protein involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast ...
... a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila vasa; MW 78,238 Da; pI 5.54; amino acid sequence given in first source ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus XVLG1 protein ... Xenopus XVLG1 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus XVLG1 protein a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila ... XVLG1 protein, Xenopus; Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 product, Xenopus; vasa-like 1 protein, Xenopus ...
Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ...
Localized synthesis of the Vg1 protein during early Xenopus development Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... REF-1, a protein with two bHLH domains, alters the pattern of cell fusion in C. elegans by regulating Hox protein activity ... We have raised antibodies to recombinant Vg1 protein and used them to show that Vg1 protein is first detected in stage IV ... During embryogenesis, Vg1 protein is synthesized until the gastrula stage. The embryonically synthesized Vg1 protein is present ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 4: a ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... We show that transcripts encoding Xenopus bone morphogenetic protein 4 (XBMP-4) are detectable in the unfertilized egg, and ... The dominance of XBMP-4 over activin may account for the ability of injected XBMP-4 RNA to ventralize whole Xenopus embryos. ... The mesoderm of amphibian embryos such as Xenopus laevis arises through an inductive interaction in which cells of the vegetal ...
deoxyribonucleic acid) by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Phosphorylation Genetic aspects Protein kinases ... DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein. ( ... APA style: DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.. (n.d.) >The Free Library ... MLA style: "DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.." The Free Library. 1997 ...
... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ...
Xklp2 stands for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2. Xklp2 is defined as Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 rarely. ... Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2); (Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2) protein ... Targeting protein for xenopus kinesin-like protein 2; protein targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin; Ser-139-phosphorylated ... The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a ...
Labeling of the Xenopus oocyte O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins by GalNAz and biotin alkyne.A, after labeling of the Xenopus oocytes ( ... Several of these proteins were already identified as bearing O-GlcNAc residues, but none were described previously in Xenopus ( ... Because of a low expression of O-GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O- ... 2B) were performed on immature and matured Xenopus oocytes crude extracts, and bound proteins were analyzed by Western blot. ...
Xenopus embryonic ectoderm has become an attractive model for studies of cell polarity. An assay is described, in which ... In summary, the above experimental protocol will help in diverse studies of protein-protein interactions and protein ... Fluorescent fusion proteins are expressed in Xenopus embryos by RNA microinjection, ectodermal explants are prepared and ... Xenopus embryonic epithelial cells is an excellent system to study subcellular localization of various signaling proteins. ...
... proteins and CArG binding factor-A (CBF-A). The Hnrpab proteins comprise numerous proteins with a general packing role in RNA ... and protein concentration was measured using the Bio-Rad protein assay. For DIGE minimal labeling, 25 μg of protein sample were ... the analysis of 45 protein spots allowed the identification of 28 different proteins (Table I). Single peptide-based protein ... Protein Expression Profiling in the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis Tadpoles Exposed to the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture ...
Expression and localization of the Xenopus laevis small heat shock protein, HSPB6 (HSP20), in A6 kidney epithelial cells.. [ ... Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic ... Previously, the only sHSPs that have been studied in detail in the model frog system, Xenopus laevis, were members of the HSP30 ... X. laevis HSPB6 cDNA encodes a 168 aa protein that contains an α-crystallin domain, a polar C-terminal extension and some ...
Protein (His tag). Species: Xenopus tropicalis. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630893. ... It can be used to produce protein material with high added value that is very close to the natural protein. Our proteins ... A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. But the low ... Protein Type Recombinant Purification tag / Conjugate His tag Application ELISA. Options Bulk discount ...
Spatio-temporal distribution of the protein of Xenopus vasa homologue (Xenopus vasa-like gene 1, XVLG1) in embryos * * IKENISHI ... Involvement of the protein of Xenopus vasa homolog (Xenopus vasa-like gene 1, XVLG1) in the differentiation of primordial germ ... Possible role of the 38kDa protein, lacking in the gastrula-arrested Xenopus mutant, in gastrulation Tanaka Tetsuya S. , ... Characterization and localization of tropomyosin proteins in Xenopus embryos with specific antibodies TANAKA Tetsuya S. , ...
Protein (His tag). Species: Xenopus laevis. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1631713. ... It can be used to produce protein material with high added value that is very close to the natural protein. Our proteins ... Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Characteristics Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed ... A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. But the low ...
In order to uncover the Mus101 function in DNA replication, we have isolated the Xenopus Mus101 protein and used Xenopus egg ... The Xenopus Xmus101 protein is required for the recruitment of Cdc45 to origins of DNA replication. Ruth A. Van Hatten, Antonin ... 1 A). To initiate an analysis of this protein family in DNA replication, we isolated a Xenopus homologue of Mus101, named ... These antibodies recognize a 180-kD protein in Xenopus egg extract (Fig. 1 B), and can immunoprecipitate the 180 kD in vitro ...
Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos.. M T Murray, ... Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos. ... To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we ... suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. ...
... ... Seb4 - an RNA-binding protein as a novel regulator of myogenesis during early development in Xenopus laevis ... an RNA-binding protein as a novel regulator of myogenesis during early development in Xenopus laevis. Dissertation, LMU München ...
  • In amphibian embryos, several lines of evidence indicate that neural fate is repressed by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) and anterior neural specification occurs via a reduction in signaling through the BMP-4 receptor ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • A complementary DNA encoding a gap junction present in Xenopus oocytes and early embryos has now been cloned and sequenced. (sciencemag.org)
  • A bHLH protein, termed NeuroD, for neurogenic differentiation, has now been identified as a differentiation factor for neurogenesis because (i) it is expressed transiently in a subset of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems at the time of their terminal differentiation into mature neurons and (ii) ectopic expression of neuroD in Xenopus embryos causes premature differentiation of neuronal precursors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Xenopus Vg1 gene encodes a maternal mRNA that is localized to the vegetal hemisphere of both oocytes and embryos and encodes a protein related to the TGF-beta family of small secreted growth factors. (biologists.org)
  • The mesoderm of amphibian embryos such as Xenopus laevis arises through an inductive interaction in which cells of the vegetal hemisphere of the embryo act on overlying equatorial and animal pole cells. (biologists.org)
  • The dominance of XBMP-4 over activin may account for the ability of injected XBMP-4 RNA to 'ventralize' whole Xenopus embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Fluorescent fusion proteins are expressed in Xenopus embryos by RNA microinjection, ectodermal explants are prepared and protein localization is evaluated by epifluorescence. (jove.com)
  • Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we have examined for the first time the expression of the hsp110 gene in Xenopus laevis cultured cells and embryos. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Analysis of Xenopus embryos revealed that hsp110 mRNA was present in unfertilized eggs, indicating that it is a maternal mRNA, unlike the hsp70 message which was only detectable in response to heat shock. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the SLRP family member Asporin (ASPN) plays a crucial role in the early stages of eye development in Xenopus embryos. (naist.jp)
  • Xoom is maternally stored and functions as a transmembrane protein for gastrulation movement in Xenopus embryos. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In pull-down experiments, the xARH phosphotyrosine binding domain interacted with the LDL and vitellogenin receptors found in Xenopus oocytes and embryos. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhou, Y, Zhang, J & King, ML 2003, ' Xenopus Autosomal Recessive Hypercholesterolemia Protein Couples Lipoprotein Receptors with the AP-2 Complex in Oocytes and Embryos and Is Required for Vitellogenesis ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 278, no. 45, pp. 44584-44592. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibition of BMPs at the onset of neurulation (stage 13) was sufficient to prevent tail formation in Xenopus embryos. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The expression of Xenopus laevis ePABP2 is restricted to early embryos. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis are widely used for the study of early vertebrate development. (cuny.edu)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Xenopus laevis embryos were sectioned, and whole-mount antibody staining and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to determine the total number and percentage of differentiated cardiomyocytes in mitosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We show that cell-cycling post-gastrulation is not essential for cardiac differentiation in Xenopus embryos, and conversely that some cells can express markers of cardiac differentiation even when still in cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We assessed whether TGF-beta signaling is involved in the left - right specification of Xenopus post- gastrula embryos by microinjecting Xenopus TGF-beta5 protein into the left or right flank of neurula - tailbud embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • Injection of the antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against Xenopus TGF-beta5 into the left dorsal blastomere inhibited the normal left -handed expression of Xnr-1 and Pitx2 , and caused the organ reversal in the injected embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • We demonstrate that DS-epi1 is important for the generation of isolated iduronic acid residues in chondroitin sulfate (CS)/DS proteoglycans in early Xenopus embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Expression analysis of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) and its paralogs PTBP2 and PTBP3 during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis. (inserm.fr)
  • We have determined expression patterns of the three members of this gene family ptbp1, ptbp2 and ptbp3 during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization. (inserm.fr)
  • Fully-sequenced Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) and IMAGE cDNA clones contain full coding sequences of expressed genes from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Xenopus resources include clones from the I.M.A.G.E. Consortium as well as Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) clones for both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Sequencing and analysis of 10,967 full-length cDNA clones from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis reveals post-tetraploidization transcriptome remodeling. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Extracts derived from eggs of the Japanese common toad Bufo japonicus or of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis have also been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three influenza virus polymerase (P) proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed mRNA analogs, with yields of up to 100 ng per oocyte. (nih.gov)
  • To confirm that the oocyte cDNA encodes a gap junction channel, the protein was over expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of RNA synthesized in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, the family of small heat shock protein genes, hsp30, are differentially expressed after the midblastula stage as well as being regulated at the level of mRNA stability. (nih.gov)
  • To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we searched for soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the oocyte that are able to selectively bind mRNAs, using as substrate radiolabeled mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • We have also observed changes in the in vitro mRNA binding properties of these polypeptides during oogenesis and early embryonic development, in relation to their phosphorylation state and to the activity of an approximately 15S particle-associated protein kinase, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. (rupress.org)
  • In Xenopus A6 kidney epithelial cells hsp110 mRNA was detected constitutively and was heat inducible. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In a previous report we documented an increased Na(+)-dependent transport of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from rabbit duodenum (Yagci et al. (uzh.ch)
  • MGP messenger RNA (mRNA) was present in all tissues analyzed although predominantly expressed in Xenopus bone and heart and its presence was detected early in development at the onset of chondrocranium development and long before the appearance of the first calcified structures and metamorphosis. (ualg.pt)
  • 1994). B3B7, 15/0 do not express MHC class I and class II mRNA or protein. (rochester.edu)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CROCC mRNA encoding a coiled coil protein was present maternally, as well as throughout early development. (bvsalud.org)
  • Poly (A) binding proteins are intimately implicated in controlling a number of events in mRNA metabolism from nuclear polyadenylation to cytoplasmic translation and stability. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the klhdc8a gene (XP_017946827.1). (nih.gov)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, Xenopus laevis. (nih.gov)
  • In cells treated simultaneously with 10 μM sodium arsenite and different heat shock temperatures, enhanced accumulation of HSP30 and HSP70 protein was first detected at 26˚C with larger responses at 28 and 30 ˚C. HSF1 activity was involved in combined stress-induced hsp gene expression since the HSF1 activation inhibitor, KNK437, inhibited HSP30 and HSP70 accumulation. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Human BCRP is the second member of the G subfamily of the ABC transporter proteins (ABCG2), and is closely related to the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Identification of alternative promoter usage for the matrix Gla protein gene. (ualg.pt)
  • Recent cloning of the Xenopus laevis (Xl) matrix Gla protein (MGP) gene indicated the presence of a conserved overall structure for this gene between mammals and amphibians but identified an additional 5'-exon, not detected in mammals, flanked by a functional, calcium-sensitive promoter, 3042 bp distant from the ATG initiation codon. (ualg.pt)
  • Xoom has been identified as a novel gene that plays an important role in gastrulation of Xenopus laevis embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Except for the B3B3 line that has undergone unproductive gene rearrangement, all other lines express IgH and L mRNAs but do not synthesize any Ig protein (Robert et al. (rochester.edu)
  • Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their gene expression patterns were profiled using semi-quantitative real time PCR. (springer.com)
  • This is the first time that the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit or severin have been shown to be down-regulated on both gene and protein expression levels during the metamorphosis of B. neritina . (springer.com)
  • Currently, gene replacement combined with knockdown of the mutant protein is the only preventative therapy that can be envisioned because of poor understanding of the disease mechanisms. (jneurosci.org)
  • To clone the first anion channel from Xenopus laevis ( X. laevis ), we isolated a calcium -activated chloride channel (CLCA)-like membrane protein 6 gene (CMP6) in X. laevis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Evidence for differential expression during early development in Xenopus laevis. (ualg.pt)
  • DNA-PK has been reported to suppress RNA polymerase I transcription in extracts of embryonic kidney cells of Xenopus (Kuhn et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Furthermore, experiments with extracts of Xenopus eggs have indicated that DNA-PK may be involved in the phosphorylation of P1 protein (Someya et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Xenopus Cdc6 protein is essential for the initiation of a single round of DNA replication in cell-free extracts . (xenbase.org)
  • We have cloned a Xenopus Cdc6 homolog ( Xcdc6 ) and characterized its role in DNA replication with Xenopus egg extracts. (xenbase.org)
  • We have utilised a cell-free system of concentrated Xenopus laevis egg extracts to investigate the regulation and possible functions of DNA-PK. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we developed an in vitro import system based on Xenopus egg extracts. (rupress.org)
  • To address the function of xARH, we examined its expression pattern in development and used pull-down experiments to assess interactions between xARH, lipoprotein receptors and proteins in embryo extracts. (elsevier.com)
  • The xARH C-terminal region pulled-down several proteins from embryo extracts including α- and β-adaptins, subunits of the AP-2 endocytic complex. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we use the eight-subunit augmin complex as an example of how to dissect the function and assembly of a protein complex using meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. (princeton.edu)
  • Song, JG & Petry, S 2018, ' Dissecting protein complexes in branching microtubule nucleation using meiotic xenopus egg extracts ', Cold Spring Harbor Protocols , vol. 2018, no. 9, pp. 728-732. (princeton.edu)
  • In order to understand how origin licensing and Mcm2-7 loading are regulated, we have been purifying from Xenopus egg extracts all the proteins required to support functional origin licensing [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, a number of heat shock protein genes, such as hsp70, hsp90, and ubiquitin are not heat-inducible until after the midblastula stage of embryogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Many of these stress proteins are also synthesized constitutively during oogenesis and embryogenesis during which they may act as molecular chaperones as well as being involved in sequestering proteins in an inactive state until required by the developing embryo. (nih.gov)
  • During embryogenesis, Vg1 protein is synthesized until the gastrula stage. (biologists.org)
  • xARH is a localized maternal RNA in Xenopus with an unknown function in oogenesis and embryogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • These included genes encoding an unusual group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein, and a number of other stress-related and DNA repair proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Xenopus embryonic ectoderm has become an attractive model for studies of cell polarity. (jove.com)
  • Xenopus embryonic epithelial cells is an excellent system to study subcellular localization of various signaling proteins. (jove.com)
  • The Xenopus serves as a model organism for the study of embryonic development, developmental biology, cell biology, and oncogenesis. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Oogenesis in Xenopus laevis (Daudin). (nii.ac.jp)
  • To explore these phenomena, Xenopus laevis oocytes from stages I-VI of oogenesis were isolated and proteins analyzed on SDS-PAGE. (elsevier.com)
  • A proteomics analysis was performed on developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed from 2 to 5 days postfertilization to either 0.1 or 1 ppm Aroclor 1254, a PCB mixture. (mcponline.org)
  • We knocked down FMRP expression using morpholino oligos in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and performed a series of behavioral and electrophysiological assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used to assess the early effects of FMRP upregulation and knockdown in the optic tectum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have investigated the activity and function of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during neural specification in Xenopus . (pnas.org)
  • Because FGF signaling is mediated largely by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway ( 26 , 27 ), these studies suggest that MAPK may play a critical role in the specification of neural fate and anteroposterior pattern. (pnas.org)
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a multi-subunit enzyme that includes the Ku protein, which is a heterodimer composed of 70-kDa and 80-kDa polypeptide subunits (Dvir et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The results suggest that PCBs induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (peroxiredoxins 1 and 2), adaptative changes in the energetic metabolism (enolase 1, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain types), and the implication of the unfolded protein response system (glucose-regulated protein, 58 kDa). (mcponline.org)
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of a 460 kDa subunit that contains the catalytic domain (DNA-PKcs) complexed with two polypeptides of 70 kDa and 80 kDa (Ku70 and Ku80) which comprise the Ku autoantigen. (biologists.org)
  • Cardiac differentiation in Xenopus requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Xic1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results demonstrate that the CDKI Xic1 is required in Xenopus cardiac differentiation, and that this function is localized at its N-terminus, but it is distinct from its ability to arrest the cell cycle and inhibit overall CDK kinase activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In terms of protein expression in oocytes, the Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (TK) promoter was up to sevenfold more effective than the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter, and equally as effective as the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat element. (elsevier.com)
  • Preincubation of GIRK channel-expressing oocytes with phospholipase C inhibitor, {1-[6-((17b-3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl) amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione} (U73122), or protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine or chelerythrine, blocked the inhibitory ginsenoside effect on the GIRK current. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that ginsenoside inhibits the activity of the GIRK 1/4 channel expressed in the Xenopus oocyte through a pertussis toxin-insensitive and Gα q/11 -, phospholipase C- and protein kinase C-mediated signal transduction pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • To obtain clues for mechanisms involved in the cell cycle regulation unique to meiosis, we have examined changes in chromosomal morphology and H1 kinase activity during a meiotic period from metaphase I (MI) to metaphase II (MII) in Xenopus oocytes. (biologists.org)
  • When H1 kinase activation at MII was delayed by a transient inhibition of protein synthesis after GVBD, oocytes were able to support formation of interphase nuclei and DNA replication between the first meiotic division and the MII arrest, indicating that the cell cycle entered S-phase between meiosis I and meiosis II. (biologists.org)
  • Expression and localization of the Xenopus laevis small heat shock protein, HSPB6 (HSP20), in A6 kidney epithelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, I examined the effect of concurrent low doses of sodium arsenite and mild heat shock temperatures on the expression of hsp30 and hsp70 genes in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We have investigated the effect of extracellular proteases on the amiloride-sensitive Na + current (I Na ) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the three subunits α, β, and γ of the rat or Xenopus epithelial Na + channel (ENaC). (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that extracellular proteases are able to increase the open probability of the epithelial sodium channel by an effect that does not occur through activation of a G protein-coupled receptor, but rather through proteolysis of a protein that is either a constitutive part of the channel itself or closely associated with it. (rupress.org)
  • An assay is described, in which subcellular distribution of fluorescent proteins is assessed in ectoderm cells. (jove.com)
  • FoxI1e activates ectoderm formation and controls cell position in the Xenopus blastula. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Xenopus LIM-homeodomain protein Xlim5 regulates the differential adhesion properties of early ectoderm cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Xenbase: The Xenopus Model Organism Knowledgebase. (xenbase.org)
  • This study presents, for the first time, a characterization of HSP110 in Xenopus laevis, adding to the growing knowledge of HSPs in this important model organism. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • These results show that in this system, as in mammals, MGP may be required to delay or prevent mineralization of cartilage and soft tissues during the early stages of development and indicate that Xenopus is an adequate model organism to further study MGP function during growth and development. (ualg.pt)
  • For the first time, these nanoparticles were evaluated in an in vivo Xenopus laevis model to study whole organism toxicity and their impact on iron and zinc metabolic pathways. (springer.com)
  • This testing approach based on a battery of cellular systems and the use of the Xenopus laevis model could be a viable strategy for studying the toxicity, degradability and ultimately the long-term fate of zinc ferrites in the organism. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore the induction of these stress protein genes has been correlated with enhanced thermoresistance. (nih.gov)
  • While frogs have the same number of genes (3) in this family of genes, they have far fewer isoforms of the protein products compared to humans (where FMRP alone can exist in at least 12 distinct forms), making study of the different functions simpler. (fraxa.org)
  • Altogether, these three genes code for many different forms of proteins that have a complex pattern of expression in different tissues and organs. (fraxa.org)
  • This animal, the frog Xenopus laevis, contains all three genes, but the number of protein forms coded by these genes is much smaller than in mammals, which allows us to study protein expression in a simpler environment. (fraxa.org)
  • Electrophysiological studies that employ Xenopus oocytes include: 1) analysis of channel permeability properties and pharmacological sensitivity, 2) investigation of the properties of mutant channel subunits to address structure-function issues, 3) analysis of channel post-translational modifications, assembly and stoichiometry, 4) study of channel modulation by receptors and second messengers, 5) functional screens for genes encoding ion channels and transporters (expression-cloning). (wormbook.org)
  • abstract = "MeCP2 is the founder member of a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins able to repress transcription from methylated DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein sequence is homologous to the well-characterized gap junction structural proteins rat connexin32 and connexin43. (sciencemag.org)
  • Toward this goal, MGP was purified from Xenopus long bones and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined and used to clone the Xenopus MGP complementary DNA (cDNA) by a mixture of reverse-transcription (RT)- and 5'- rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ualg.pt)
  • A protein lacking an SKL sequence can be coimported, providing strong evidence for import of a folded protein. (rupress.org)
  • Sequence analysis showed that p32 has about 50% identity to the known nuclear poly(A) binding proteins (PABPN1) but is more closely related to a group of mammalian proteins of unknown function. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Most fish were thought to dispose of ammonium simply by leaking it out of their gills but when Shigehisa Hirose from the Tokyo Institute of Technology discovered a new family of proteins (Rhesus proteins) in pufferfish with a similar amino acid sequence to other ammonium transport proteins, it became clear that ammonium disposal was more complex. (biologists.org)
  • It includes orthologues from several model organisms - mammals (human unless otherwise indicated), African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ), zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), fruitfly ( Drosophila melanogaster ) and nematode worm ( Caenorhabditis elegans ) - and provides links to appropriate sequence databases for each molecule. (nature.com)
  • The p20 sequence revealed that it belongs to the family of the WAP (whey acidic protein) proteins, often functioning as a protease inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • Injection of the DNA construct encoding prochymosin without its signal sequence resulted in synthesis of prochymosin protein that was localized exclusively in the oocyte cytoplasm. (elsevier.com)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (fishersci.fi)
  • Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin): a Systematical and Chronological Survey of the Development from the Fertilized Egg Till the End of Metamorphosis. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The yeast protein expression system is the most economical and efficient eukaryotic system for secretion and intracellular expression. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The yeast protein expression system serve as a eukaryotic system integrate the advantages of the mammalian cell expression system. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A protein expressed by yeast system could be modificated such as glycosylation, acylation, phosphorylation and so on to ensure the native protein conformation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Our proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Yeast host strain glycerol stocks for protein expression and CytoTrap or HybriZAP Yeast Two-Hybrid Systems. (selectscience.net)
  • We have described previously the sudden O -GlcNAcylation increase occurring during the Xenopus laevis oocyte G 2 /M transition, and we have demonstrated that the inhibition of O -GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) blocked this process, showing that the O -GlcNAcylation dynamism interferes with the cell cycle progression. (mcponline.org)
  • Cleavage and inactivation of DNA-PKcs is prevented by prior addition of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 or inhibition of an apoptotic protease that has characteristics of the CPP-32/Ced-3 family of cysteine proteases that cleave poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. (biologists.org)
  • In order to study the effects of BMP signalling in later development, a transgenic line of Xenopus that allows heat-shock inducible inhibition of BMPs was utilised. (otago.ac.nz)
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the light-sensitive retinal degeneration caused by the rhodopsin mutation P23H, which causes retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans, we expressed Xenopus laevis , bovine, human, and murine forms of P23H rhodopsin in transgenic X. laevis rod photoreceptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mutation prevents expression of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) throughout development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the context of the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system, this technique yields ion channels with encoded Cy-ncAAs that are trafficked to the plasma membrane where they display robust function and distinct fluorescent signals as detected by TIRF microscopy. (elifesciences.org)
  • The CHIP28 protein is an abundant integral membrane protein in mammalian RBCs and renal proximal tubules and belongs to a family of membrane proteins with unknown functions. (jhu.edu)
  • Fariss RN, Molday RS, Fisher SK, Matsumoto B. Evidence from normal and degenerating photoreceptors that two outer segment integral membrane proteins have separate transport pathways. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The data show that Cy-ncAAs (based on Cy3 and Cy5) are tolerated by the eukaryotic ribosome in cell-free and whole-cell environments and can be incorporated into soluble and membrane proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • This shortcoming is further limiting when labelling side-chains in eukaryotic membrane proteins which can have many 'background' cysteine residues, that when mutated can lower expression profiles or have functional consequences. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have raised antibodies to recombinant Vg1 protein and used them to show that Vg1 protein is first detected in stage IV oocytes and reaches maximal levels in stage VI oocytes and eggs. (biologists.org)
  • We show that transcripts encoding Xenopus bone morphogenetic protein 4 (XBMP-4) are detectable in the unfertilized egg, and that injection of XBMP-4 RNA into the animal hemisphere of Xenopus eggs causes animal caps isolated from the resulting blastulae to express mesoderm-specific markers. (biologists.org)
  • We chose Xenopus sperm nuclei as the DNA template because it is the natural substrate for replication in Xenopus eggs and because it is replicated very efficiently in the cell-free system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Xenopus egg extract is a lysate that is prepared by crushing the eggs of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, the same procedure was applied to eggs of Xenopus laevis, becoming popular for studying cell cycle progression and cell cycle-dependent cellular events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your search returned 2 Proteins H1 histone family member 0 L homeolog Recombinant Proteins across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • They also affect, at least at the highest concentration tested, the synthesis of proteins involved in normal cytogenesis (α-tropomyosin, myosin heavy chain, and α-actin). (mcponline.org)
  • We hypothesized that the first phase may be independent of de novo synthesis of proteins and, instead, involves post-translational modifications of existing proteins, providing a simple mechanism to quickly initiate metamorphosis. (springer.com)
  • The initial morphogenetic changes that led to attachment of B. neritina did not depend on de novo protein synthesis, but the subsequent gradual morphogenesis did. (springer.com)
  • In this case, we suggest the rapidity of metamorphosis in B. neritina may be facilitated by a simple and quick mechanism that is independent of de novo protein synthesis and instead involves post- translational modification of existing proteins. (springer.com)
  • Microinjection of the ovalbumin, prelysozyme and preprochymosin constructs into the nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in the synthesis, segregation in membranes and secretion into the extracellular medium of ovalbumin, lysozyme and prochymosin, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • No protein synthesis was detected after the injection of these reverse-orientation constructs into baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This is thought to occur because FMRP is a RNA binding protein that inhibits protein synthesis downstream of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor activation [ 8 ], and therefore prevents normal plasticity and synaptic maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of a low expression of O -GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O -GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O -GlcNAc-directed antibodies or wheat germ agglutinin lectin affinity were hard to apply, albeit these techniques allowed the identification of actin and erk2. (mcponline.org)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • The proteins were probed with antibodies specific for O-GlcNAc. (elsevier.com)
  • The imposing size of this cell (1.3-mm diameter with a nucleus of 300 μm), a total protein quantity of 25 μg/oocyte, and its amenability for manipulation made this model powerful for the characterization and the identification of many key cell cycle components, such as the M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the cytostatic factor ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we focused on the pharmacological characterization of cannabinoid receptor coupling to G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Characterization of a native swelling-induced chloride current, ICl.swell, and its regulatory protein, pICln, in Xenopus oocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • The Xenopus hsp110 cDNA encodes an 854 amino acid protein, which shares 74% identity with mice and humans. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In this experimental protocol we describe how subcellular localization of Diversin, a cytoplasmic protein that has been implicated in signaling and cell polarity determination 6, 7 is visualized in Xenopus ectodermal cells to study Wnt signal transduction 8 . (jove.com)
  • The intracellular localization of HSP110 protein in response to stress was also investigated. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Although asymmetric localization of PCP proteins is central to their function, we understand little about PCP protein localization during convergent extension. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together, these results provide a dynamic and quantitative view of PCP protein localization during convergent extension and suggest a complex and intimate link between the dynamic localization of core PCP proteins, actomyosin assembly, and polarized junction shrinking during cell intercalation in the closing vertebrate neural tube. (elifesciences.org)
  • but less is known about PCP protein localization dynamics during cell intercalation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Recently, we provided evidence that ginsenoside, the active component of Panax ginseng, uses the pertussis toxin-insensitive Gα q/11 -phospholipase C-β3 signal transduction pathway to increase Ca 2+ -activated Cl - currents in the Xenopus oocyte. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we sought to determine whether ginsenoside influenced the activity of GIRK 1 and GIRK 4 (GIRK 1/4) channels expressed in the Xenopus oocyte, and if so, the underlying signal transduction mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • Agilent offers a range of protein interaction and signal transduction tools, enabling scientists to map the role that proteins play in signaling networks and elucidate critical functionality of cellular systems. (selectscience.net)
  • Structural work has confirmed the association of the corresponding residues 284-287 in the Xenopus homolog protein to the "minor" NLS-binding site of importin alpha and has shown a second region (residues 327-330 of Xenopus TPX2) contacting the "major" NLS-binding site (Giesecke and Stewart, 2010). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The frog model is an extraordinarily flexible experimental tool since it is possible to directly address questions about the functions of each protein, either during development or in the adult animal. (fraxa.org)
  • Previously, the only sHSPs that have been studied in detail in the model frog system, Xenopus laevis, were members of the HSP30 family and HSPB1 (HSP27). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Frog proteins have been linked to the NCBI's Entrez Protein database. (nature.com)
  • In their research article , Jiří Friml and colleagues describe PATELLINs, plasma membrane-localized proteins required for auxin-induced PIN1 relocalization and multiple developmental processes. (biologists.org)
  • Little information exists about single N-acetylglucosamine modifications on proteins in growth and developmental model systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic aggregates and facilitate their refolding and/or degradation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • and the N-terminal domain of Xenopus TATA box-binding protein has been shown to be a target of DNA-PK in vivo (Labhart, 1996). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1996), The Xenopus Cdc6 protein is essential for the i. (xenbase.org)
  • A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The capability of the mammalian methyl-CpG-binding protein to interact with p20 is confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed overexpressing the WAP protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The 1796 bp cDNA codes for a protein of 425 amino acids. (uzh.ch)
  • both the full length protein and the N-terminus (amino acids 1-352) are able to bind microtubules in vitro (Schatz et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • An evolutionary conserved region of 35 amino acids at the C-terminus has been shown both in Xenopus and mouse TPX2 to bind the Eg5 kinesin (Eckerdt et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • A general method is described for the site-specific genetic encoding of cyanine dyes as non-canonical amino acids (Cy-ncAAs) into proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • turned these probes into amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, and then supplied them to cells that were genetically programmed to incorporate the probes into a protein of interest as it was being built. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results support the proposal that the Vg1 protein is an endogenous growth-factor-like molecule involved in mesoderm induction within the amphibian embryo. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus, germ layer specification occurs prior to gastrulation and requires the transcription factor VegT both for the cell-autonomous specification of endoderm and the generation of mesoderm-inducing signals. (mysciencework.com)
  • We report here, for the first time, a requirement for Pitx proteins in cement gland formation, in vivo: knockdown of both Pitx1 and Pitx2c inhibits endogenous cement gland formation. (cuny.edu)
  • X. laevis HSPB6 cDNA encodes a 168 aa protein that contains an α-crystallin domain, a polar C-terminal extension and some possible phosphorylation sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because MAPK has been shown to down-regulate Smad1, MAPK may disrupt bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) signaling during neural specification. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we use quantitative live imaging to simultaneously monitor cell intercalation behaviors and PCP protein dynamics in the Xenopus laevis neural plate epithelium. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ajuba LIM proteins are snail/slug corepressors required for neural crest development in Xenopus. (mendeley.com)
  • Using Xenopus neural crest as a model of in vivo Snail- or Slug-induced EMT, we demonstrate that Ajuba LIM proteins contribute to neural crest development as Snail/Slug corepressors and are required for in vivo Snail/Slug function. (mendeley.com)
  • Previous studies have implicated changes in dendritic spine architecture as the primary result of loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), but recent work has shown that neural proliferation is decreased and cell death is increased with either loss of FMRP or overexpression of FMRP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yang, Chen, Pan, Kou, Xu: Glycosylation modification of human prion protein provokes apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The embryonically synthesized Vg1 protein is present only in vegetal cells of an early blastula. (biologists.org)
  • Among the most potent MIFs are the activins, members of the TGF-beta family, but RNA for activin A and B is not detectable in the Xenopus embryo until neurula and late blastula stages, respectively, and this is probably too late for the molecules to act as natural inducers. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, another strategy based on an in vitro enzymatic labeling of O -GlcNAc residues with azido-GalNAc followed by a chemical addition of a biotin alkyne probe and by enrichment of the tagged proteins on avidin beads was used. (mcponline.org)
  • In vitro translation resulted in a protein of 60 kDa and provided no evidence of glycosylation. (uzh.ch)
  • This new in vitro assay will be useful for further dissecting the mechanism of peroxisome protein import. (rupress.org)
  • Further progress on the mechanism of peroxisome protein import critically depends on in vitro experiments in which components can be depleted and manipulated. (rupress.org)
  • here we show that a novel Xenopus laevis protein of 20 kDa, p20, is able to interact in vivo and in vitro with MeCP2. (elsevier.com)
  • The most common approach for expression of exogenous proteins in Xenopus oocytes is to inject in vitro transcribed complementary RNA into the oocyte cytoplasm ( Figure 1a ). (wormbook.org)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • This is the first demonstration of an encoded cyanine dye as a ncAA in a eukaryotic expression system and opens the door for the analysis of proteins with single-molecule resolution in a cellular environment. (elifesciences.org)
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (cusabio.com)
  • I am studying a protein that is usually responsible for male gonad differentiation in mammals but is. (biocompare.com)
  • We have shown that the most prominent CDKI in Xenopus, p27(Xic1)(Xic1), plays a role in neuronal and myotome differentiation beyond its ability to arrest the cell cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A targeted knock-down of Xic1 protein by Xic1Mo microinjection decreases the expression of markers of cardiac differentiation, which can be partially rescued by co-injection of full-length Xic1 RNA, demonstrating that Xic1 is essential for heart formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EGF-like domains in extracellular matrix proteins : localized signals for growth and differentiation? (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has been proposed that an intermediate level of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is essential for cement gland formation. (cuny.edu)
  • In heat shocked Xenopus A6 cells, HSP110 localized in distinct patterns surrounding the nucleus and was enhanced in the nucleus after prolonged heat stress. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Ajuba LIM proteins interact with Snail in the nucleus on endogenous E-cadherin promoters and contribute to Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin. (mendeley.com)
  • Because Ajuba LIM proteins are also components of adherens junctions and contribute to their assembly or stability, their functional interaction with Snail proteins in the nucleus suggests that Ajuba LIM proteins are important regulators of epithelia dynamics communicating surface events with nuclear responses. (mendeley.com)
  • Message for the small heat shock protein, hsp27, was not detectable until the early tailbud stage, indicating that this hsp was not present maternally and was developmentally regulated. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Coexpression of a Wnt ligand or a Frizzled receptor alters the distribution of Diversin fused with red fluorescent protein, RFP, and recruits it to the cell membrane in a polarized fashion 8, 9 . (jove.com)
  • Cannabinoids were tested on Xenopus laevis oocytes coexpressing the CB 1 receptor and GIRK1 and GIRK4 channels (CB 1 /GIRK1/4) or the CB 2 receptor and GIRK1/4 channels (CB 2 /GIRK1/4). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, a conserved aspartate residue in the CB 1 receptor is required for normal communication with GIRK channels in oocytes demonstrating the interaction between receptor and channels is G protein dependent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • They concluded that a component of the Na + channel protein could be cleaved by a protease at a site protectable by amiloride bound to its receptor. (rupress.org)
  • Rhodopsin is a heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptor synthesized at high levels in the cell body or rod inner segment (RIS) and subsequently transported to a specialized light-sensitive organelle called the rod outer segment (ROS), which consists of a large stack of flattened membranous disks ensheathed within a plasma membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are regulators of axon outgrowth and guidance in a variety of different vertebrate and invertebrate systems. (carleton.ca)
  • Expression of human estrogen receptor mutants in Xenopus oocytes: correlation between transcriptional activity and ability to form protein-DNA complexes. (unil.ch)
  • A 170 amino acid domain, the so-called MAM (meprin, A-5 protein, and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase mu) domain, has been recognised in the extracellular region of functionally diverse proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have a modular, receptor-like architecture comprising a signal peptide, an N-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • and receptor-like tyrosine protein phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteomics has been initially used successfully in drug discovery, biomarker identification, and protein-protein interaction studies in human disease processes ( 23 , 24 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we identify the Ajuba family of LIM proteins as functional corepressors of the Snail family via an interaction with the SNAG domain. (mendeley.com)