The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.

A novel in vivo assay for the analysis of protein-protein interaction. (1/21932)

The Ras Recruitment System (RRS) is a method for identification and isolation of protein-protein interaction. The method is based on translocation of cytoplasmic mammalian Ras protein to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane through protein-protein interaction. The system is studied in a temperature-sensitive yeast strain where the yeast Ras guanyl nucleotide exchange factor is inactive at 36 degrees C. Protein-protein interaction results in cell growth at the restrictive temperature. We developed a gene reporter assay for the analysis of protein-protein interaction in mammalian cells. Ras activation in mammalian cells induces the mitogen-activated kinase cascade (MAPK), which can be monitored using Ras-dependent reporter genes. This greatly extends the usefulness of the system and provides a novel assay for protein-protein interaction in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Decisive structural determinants for the interaction of proline derivatives with the intestinal H+/peptide symporter. (2/21932)

To elucidate the decisive structural factors relevant for dipeptide-carrier interaction, the affinity of short amide and imide derivatives for the intestinal H+/peptide symporter (PEPT1) was investigated by measuring their ability to inhibit Gly-Sar transport in Caco-2 cells. Dipeptides with proline or alanine in the C-terminal position displayed affinity constants (Ki) of 0.15-1.2 mM and 0.08-9.5 mM, respectively. There was no clear relationship between hydrophobicity, size or ionization status of the N-terminal amino acid and the affinity of the dipeptides. However, analyzing the individual peptide bond conformations of Xaa-Pro dipeptides, a striking correlation between the cis/trans ratios (trans contents 24-70%) and the affinity constants was observed. After correcting the Ki values for the incompetent cis isomers, the Ki corr values of most dipeptides were in a small range of 0.1-0.16 mM. This result revealed the decisive role of peptide bond conformation even for a transport protein that is quite promiscuous in substrate translocation. When measuring affinity constants of Xaa-Pro and Xaa-Sar dipeptides, the cis/trans ratios cannot be ignored. Lower affinities of Lys-Pro, Arg-Pro and Pro-Pro indicate that additional molecular factors affect their binding at PEPT1. The Ki values obtained for the corresponding Xaa-Ala dipeptides support this conclusion. Potential substrates or inhibitors of peptide transport were found among Xaa-piperidides and Xaa-thiazolidides. Dipeptides with N-terminal proline displayed a very diverse affinity profile. However, in contrast to current knowledge, several Pro-Xaa dipeptides such as Pro-Leu, Pro-Tyr and Pro-Pro are recognized by PEPT1 with appreciable affinities. Binding seems mainly determined by the hydrophobicity of the C-terminal amino acid and the rigidity of the structure.  (+info)

Involvement of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in platelet activation: tyrosine phosphorylation mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and protein kinase C, translocation to the cytoskeleton and association with Shc through Grb2. (3/21932)

Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) (also known as RAFTK, CAKbeta or CADTK) has been identified as a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of protein-tyrosine kinases and it has been suggested that the mode of Pyk2 activation is distinct from that of FAK. In the present study we investigated the mode of Pyk2 activation in human platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, Pyk2, as well as FAK, was markedly tyrosine-phosphorylated, in a manner mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-mediated aggregation. The residual Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in the absence of platelet aggregation was completely abolished by pretreatment with BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid acetoxymethyl ester]. The Pyk2 phosphorylation was inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation. In contrast, direct activation of PKC with the active phorbol ester PMA induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK but only when platelets were fully aggregated with the exogenous addition of fibrinogen (the ligand for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin). Furthermore, PMA-induced Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation was also observed when platelets adhered to immobilized fibrinogen. The activation of the von Willebrand factor (vWF)--glycoprotein Ib pathway with botrocetin together with vWF failed to induce Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation. Most Pyk2 and FAK was present in the cytosol and membrane skeleton fractions in unstimulated platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, both Pyk2 and FAK were translocated to the cytoskeleton in an aggregation-dependent manner. In immunoprecipitation studies, Pyk2, as well as FAK, seemed to associate with Shc through Grb2. With the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Shc-SH2, Grb2-SH2, and Grb2 N-terminal and C-terminal SH3 domains, it was implied that the proline-rich region of Pyk2 (and FAK) binds to the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 and that the phosphotyrosine residue of Shc binds to the SH2 domain of Grb2. Although Pyk2 and FAK have been reported to be differentially regulated in many cell types, our results suggest that, in human platelets, the mode of Pyk2 activation is mostly similar to that of FAK, in terms of alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-dependent and PKC-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Pyk2, as well as FAK, might have one or more important roles in post-aggregation tyrosine phosphorylation events, in association with the cytoskeleton and through interaction with adapter proteins including Grb2 and Shc.  (+info)

Aut7p, a soluble autophagic factor, participates in multiple membrane trafficking processes. (4/21932)

Aut7p, a protein recently implicated in autophagic events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, exhibits significant homology to a mammalian protein, p16, herein termed GATE-16 (Golgi-associated ATPase Enhancer of 16 kDa), a novel intra-Golgi transport factor. Here we provide evidence for the involvement of Aut7p in different membrane trafficking processes. Aut7p largely substitutes for the activity of GATE-16 in mammalian intra-Golgi transport in vitro. In vivo, AUT7 interacts genetically with endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi SNAREs, specifically with BET1 and SEC22. Aut7p interacts physically with the following two v-SNAREs: Bet1p, which is involved in endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicular transport, and Nyv1p, implicated in vacuolar inheritance. We suggest that, in addition to its role in autophagocytosis, Aut7p has pleiotropic effects and participates in at least two membrane traffic events.  (+info)

Targeting motifs and functional parameters governing the assembly of connexins into gap junctions. (5/21932)

To study the assembly of gap junctions, connexin--green-fluorescent-protein (Cx--GFP) chimeras were expressed in COS-7 and HeLa cells. Cx26-- and Cx32--GFP were targeted to gap junctions where they formed functional channels that transferred Lucifer Yellow. A series of Cx32--GFP chimeras, truncated from the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail, were studied to identify amino acid sequences governing targeting from intracellular assembly sites to the gap junction. Extensive truncation of Cx32 resulted in failure to integrate into membranes. Truncation of Cx32 to residue 207, corresponding to removal of most of the 78 amino acids on the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, led to arrest in the endoplasmic reticulum and incomplete oligomerization. However, truncation to amino acid 219 did not impair Cx oligomerization and connexon hemichannels were targeted to the plasma membrane. It was concluded that a crucial gap-junction targeting sequence resides between amino acid residues 207 and 219 on the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of Cx32. Studies of a Cx32E208K mutation identified this as one of the key amino acids dictating targeting to the gap junction, although oligomerization of this site-specific mutation into hexameric hemichannels was relatively unimpaired. The studies show that expression of these Cx--GFP constructs in mammalian cells allowed an analysis of amino acid residues involved in gap-junction assembly.  (+info)

Identification of mammalian TOM22 as a subunit of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane. (6/21932)

A mitochondrial outer membrane protein of approximately 22 kDa (1C9-2) was purified from Vero cells assessing immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody, and the cDNA was cloned based on the partial amino acid sequence of the trypsin-digested fragments. 1C9-2 had 19-20% sequence identity to fungal Tom22, a component of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane (the TOM complex) with receptor and organizer functions. Despite such a low sequence identity, both shared a remarkable structural similarity in the hydrophobicity profile, membrane topology in the Ncyt-Cin orientation through a transmembrane domain in the middle of the molecule, and the abundant acidic amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain. The antibodies against 1C9-2 inhibited the import of a matrix-targeted preprotein into isolated mitochondria. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digitonin-solubilized outer membranes revealed that 1C9-2 is firmly associated with TOM40 in the approximately 400-kDa complex, with a size and composition similar to those of the fungal TOM core complex. Furthermore, 1C9-2 complemented the defects of growth and mitochondrial protein import in Deltatom22 yeast cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 1C9-2 is a functional homologue of fungal Tom22 and functions as a component of the TOM complex.  (+info)

Inhibition of NFkappaB by methyl chlorogenate from Eriobotrya japonica. (7/21932)

Methylchlorogenic acid (MC) is one of the main components in the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. We previously reported that MC is the most potent antioxidant among several components of Eriobotrya japonica, and its antioxidant activity is stronger than that of chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are expected to inhibit redox-sensitive NFkappaB activation since NFkappaB is readily influenced by cellular oxidative state. Based on these findings, in vivo experiments with MC were conducted to determine its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB activation in mouse liver. Results clearly showed that MC is a potent suppressor of BHP-induced NFkappaB activation. We observed a significant reduction by MC on BHP-induced translocation of p65 subunit of NFkappaB. This may be due to formation of p50/p65 heterodimer, which is mainly inducible NFkappaB. MC slightly blocked the BHP-induced IkappaB alpha degradation. There is a possibility of IkappaB alpha resynthesis via activated NFkappaB during a 5 h waiting period following BHP injection. The present results suggest that MC may inhibit NFkappaB activation, exhibiting its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB-dependent gene expression. Thus, it can be expected that MC may have potential for therapeutic intervention on various NFkappaB-dependent pathological conditions such as inflammatory or possibly mutagenic processes.  (+info)

Functional and structural characterization of synthetic HIV-1 Vpr that transduces cells, localizes to the nucleus, and induces G2 cell cycle arrest. (8/21932)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Vpr contributes to nuclear import of the viral pre-integration complex and induces G(2) cell cycle arrest. We describe the production of synthetic Vpr that permitted the first studies on the structure and folding of the full-length protein. Vpr is unstructured at neutral pH, whereas under acidic conditions or upon addition of trifluorethanol it adopts alpha-helical structures. Vpr forms dimers in aqueous trifluorethanol, whereas oligomers exist in pure water. (1)H NMR spectroscopy allows the signal assignment of N- and C-terminal amino acid residues; however, the central section of the molecule is obscured by self-association. These findings suggest that the in vivo folding of Vpr may require structure-stabilizing interacting factors such as previously described interacting cellular and viral proteins or nucleic acids. In biological studies we found that Vpr is efficiently taken up from the extracellular medium by cells in a process that occurs independent of other HIV-1 proteins and appears to be independent of cellular receptors. Following cellular uptake, Vpr is efficiently imported into the nucleus of transduced cells. Extracellular addition of Vpr induces G(2) cell cycle arrest in dividing cells. Together, these findings raise the possibility that circulating forms of Vpr observed in HIV-infected patients may exert biological effects on a broad range of host target cells.  (+info)

Purified HEK AR Nuclear Translocation Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. HEK AR Nuclear Translocation Assay Kit can be used for research.
Purified p53 Nuclear Translocation Assay Kit (Cell-Based) from Creative Biomart. p53 Nuclear Translocation Assay Kit (Cell-Based) can be used for research.
Background Indie luciferase reporter assays and fluorescent translocation assays have already been successfully found in medication discovery for a number of molecular targets. would work for high throughput testing and can determine small substances that hinder FOXO signaling at different amounts. Background Forkhead package O (FOXO) proteins are growing as transcriptional integrators of pathways that regulate a number of cellular procedures, including differentiation, rate of metabolism, tension response, cell routine and apoptosis [1-3]. FOXO transcription elements have been suggested to do something as em real /em tumor suppressors because of the inhibitory results on cell routine and success [4], properties mediated by their binding as monomers to consensus DNA binding sites. Their transcriptional activity is certainly governed with a network of signaling occasions, the best known of which may be the phosphorylation of FOXO proteins at three extremely conserved serine and threonine IL6ST ...
View Notes - bis_104_pq_29_ans_ss_i_2009 from BIS BIS 104 at UC Davis. Increased numbers of GLUT-4 receptors transport glucose from blood into the ell where it is rapidly phosphorylated to maintain
Parkinsons disease : Alpha synucleins non-amyloidal component (NAC) aids the proteins movement through axons - Featured
Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell membrane leading to glucose uptake is the rate-limiting step in diabetes. It is also a defined target of antidiabetic drug research. Existing GLUT4 translocation assays are based on time-consuming immunoassays and are hampered by assay variability and low sensitivity. We describe a real-time, visual, cell-based qualitative GLUT4 translocation assay using CHO-HIRc-myc-GLUT4eGFP cells that stably express myc- and eGFP-tagged GLUT4 in addition to human insulin receptor (HIRc). GLUT4 translocation is visualized by live cell imaging based on GFP fluorescence by employing a cooled charge-coupled device camera attached to a fluorescent microscope. This video imaging method and further quantitative analysis of GLUT4 on the cell membrane provide rapid and foolproof visual evidence that this method is suitable for screening GLUT4 translocation modulators.. ...
The table below shows the top 100 pain related interactions that have been reported for chemokine receptor transport out of membrane raft. They are ordered first by their pain relevance and then by number of times they were reported for chemokine receptor transport out of membrane raft. Please click on the INT link to display more detailed information on each interaction. ...
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Recent identification of several members of the chloroplastic protein translocation machinery has allowed for further refinement of our understanding of the mechanism by which precursors are transported into chloroplasts. We have attempted to define the composition of complexes that form during translocation using co‐immunoprecipitation techniques with antibodies specific to translocation components. We have observed that precursors could be found in stable association with translocation complexes after solubilization with a mild detergent, decylmaltoside. Characterization of these complexes has led to two conclusions: (i) that under limiting ATP conditions, precursors associated with translocation complexes containing components of the outer and inner envelope membranes; and (ii) that the chaperone ClpC, a stromal Hsp100 homolog, was associated with precursor‐containing complexes under these limiting ATP conditions.. The data presented here suggest a new role for the stromal Hsp100 homolog ...
View Notes - wingfield.npb101.readings.2009 from NPB NPB 101 at UC Davis. adhesion molecules, gap junctions, receptors, transport molecules Feedback loops (negative and positive) How are chemical
The protein export is the active transport of proteins from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell, or to the periplasmic compartment in Gram-negative bacteria. The sec dependent pathway is the general protein export system that transports newly synthesized proteins into or across the cell membrane. The translocation channel is formed from a conserved trimeric membrane protein complex, called the Sec61/SecY complex. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is another protein transport system that transports folded proteins in bacteria, archaea, and chloroplasts. Many Tat systems comprise three functionally different membrane proteins, TatA, TatB, and TatC, but TatA and TatE seem to have overlapping functions, with TatA having by far the more important role ...
A significant population of leaf cells contain plasmodesmata in a dilated state, allowing macromolecular transport between cells. Protein movement potential is regulated by subcellular address and size. These parameters of protein movement illustrate how gradients of signaling macromolecules could b …
A system and computer program product for tracking and monitoring assets along a transport route. The system includes at least one receiver for receiving asset identifications transmitted from the as
The intracellular localization and movement (i.e. translocation) of proteins are critically correlated with the functions and activation states of these proteins. Simple and accessible detection methods that can rapidly screen a large cell population with single cell resolution have been seriously lacking. I
The research labs of the associate professor Dr. Thomas Becker and Prof. Dr. Nikolaus Pfanner from the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Freiburg discovered a function of the metabolite channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane in protein transport.
Container Train is the most effective way to organize transportation of containerized cargo by railroad allowing the cargo owners to save significantly both on the cost of transportation and on the transit time. RUSCON operates dedicated container trains which are speсialized on specific cargo flows as well as public container trains which have fixed schedule and open to accept cargoes of any cargo owners. ...
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The carboxyl terminal of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits binds both G protein-coupled receptors and mastoparan (MP), a tetradecapeptide allostere. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the carboxyl domains of G(i)3 alpha and G(t) display intrinsic biological activities in cell-free systems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a cell penetrant delivery system to further investigate the biological properties of a peptide mimetic of the G(i)3 alpha carboxyl terminal (G(i)3 alpha(346-355); H-KNNLKECGLY-NH2). Kinetic studies, using a CFDA-conjugated analogue of G(i)3 alpha(346-355), confirmed the rapid and efficient intracellular translocation of TP10-G(i)3 alpha(346-355) (t(0.5) = 3 min). Translocated G(i)3 alpha(346-355), but not other bioactive cargoes derived from PKC and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, promoted the dual phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK without adverse changes in cellular viability. The relative specificity of this novel biological activity was further confirmed by ...
Several lines of evidence indicated that CIA5 is an essential translocon component for protein import into chloroplasts. Null cia5 mutants were lethal and accumulated unprocessed chloroplast precursor proteins. Chloroplasts from cia5 mutants were specifically defective in protein translocation across the inner membrane. CIA5 was specifically copurified with other major translocon components, and cia5 mutant chloroplasts had reduced levels of other translocon components. Furthermore, the expression level of CIA5 is comparable to other major translocon components. Because CIA5 is located in the inner membrane, it should be called a Tic protein. On SDS-PAGE, pea CIA5 migrated in between pea Tic20 and Tic22, very close to Tic22 (data not shown). We have therefore renamed CIA5 as Arabidopsis Tic21 (At Tic21).. CIA5/At Tic21 is deeply embedded in the inner membrane, and its cyanobacterial homologues have some similarities to proteins that are annotated as amino acid transporters and sugar permeases. ...
This book addresses the most recent advances in the transport of proteins across a variety of biological membranes. In addressing this topic, this volume includes several new twists not previously addressed in the literature. In the last few years, the study of protein translocation has been revolutionized by the availability of structural information on many of the components and complexes involved in the process. Unlike earlier books written on protein translocation, this volume considers these advances. In addition, several chapters discuss facets of protein translocation from a systems biology perspective, considered by many to be the next paradigm for biological study. Readers of this book will come away with a deeper understanding of the problems facing researchers of protein translocation and see how the most modern biological techniques and approaches are being recruited to answer those questions. The chapters are also written such that problems awaiting future investigation are clearly ...
Androgen Receptor Translocation Assay from Innoprot analyzes stimuli for their ability to modulate receptor nuclear translocation process. To perform this assay, we quantify the fluorescence distribution inside the cells with a High Content Imaging system. Human androgen receptor (hAR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor responsible for the development of the male phenotype. The androgen receptor…. ...
Trafficking of postsynaptic receptors is a means of regulating synaptic function in the dendrites, yet the details of delivery processes are not well explored. In this study, we present two general pathways for receptor transport to synaptic sites in the dendrite. Six of the seven GPCRs examined notably preferred passive diffusion from the cell body to the dendrite branches. This energy efficient transport via the plasma membrane is likely shared by most postsynaptic GPCRs. An alternate pathway, as seen with 5-HT1B, retains receptors in transport vesicles. At the cost of expending energy on active transport, 5-HT1B is maintained as a readily accessible source of mobile receptors for rapid exocytotic recruitment to the membrane throughout the dendrites. Though unique among the receptors included in our study, this active trafficking pathway may be used by yet unexamined receptors.. Previous postsynaptic GPCR studies describing intracellular trafficking are mostly limited to receptor recycling or ...
The piece of gold that Richard Taylor was thrilled to track down weighed less than a single bacterium. Taylor, a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute, was working to follow individual nanogold-labeled molecules that move just nanometers, billionths of a meter.
Conserved ER Protein Translocation Channel; Essential Subunit Of Sec61 Complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, And Sss1p); Forms Channel For SRP-dependent Protein Import; With Sec63 Complex Allows SRP-independent Protein Import Into ER; Involved In Posttranslational Soluble Protein Import Into The ER, ERAD Of Soluble Substrates, And Misfolded Soluble Protein Export From The ER
Degradation of the plant hormone cytokinin is controlled by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. The molecular and cellular behavior of these proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that CKX1 is a type-II single-pass membrane protein that predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that this CKX isoform is a bona fide ER protein directly controlling the cytokinin which triggers the signaling from the ER. By using various approaches, we demonstrate that CKX1 forms homodimers and homooligomers in vivo. The N-terminal part of CKX1 was necessary and sufficient for the protein oligomerization as well as for targeting and retention in the ER. Moreover, we show that protein-protein interaction is largely facilitated by transmembrane helices and depends on a functional GxxxG-like interaction motif. Importantly, mutations rendering CKX1 monomeric interfere with its steady-state localization in the ER and cause a loss of the CKX1 biological ...
One of the most important metabolic actions of insulin is catalysing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. This is accomplished via activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and subsequent translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular storage vesicles to the plasma membrane. As such, this represents an ideal system for studying the convergence of signal transduction and protein trafficking. The GLUT4 translocation process is complex, but can be dissected into at least 4 discrete trafficking steps. This raises the question as to which of these is the major regulated step in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Numerous molecules have been reported to regulate GLUT4 trafficking. However, with the exception of TBC1D4, the molecular details of these distal signalling arms of the insulin signalling network and how they modify distinct steps of GLUT4 trafficking have not been established. We discuss the need to adopt a more global approach to expand and deepen our understanding of the
Membrane proteins are critical components of all cells, controlling, e.g., signaling, nutrient exchange, and energy production, and are the target of over half of all drugs currently in production. At an early stage of their synthesis, nearly all membrane proteins are directed to a protein-conducting channel, the SecY/Sec61 complex, which permits access to the membrane via its lateral gate.
There are two automated imaging systems in the Facility that can be used for HCS applications. The first is an InCell 6000 which is a semi-confocal imaging system designed to image cells cultured in standard format multi-well plates (although it can also image cells on slides). In addition to imaging fixed cells, the system has many features which make it suitable for live cell analysis including temperature control, CO2 regulation and liquid handling. The InCell 6000 is equipped with a Caliper Twister II robotic plate loader which significantly increases the throughput capability of the system. Potential applications for this system include live/dead analysis, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, cytoplasmic/ nucleus translocation assays, DNA damage, tube formation (angiogenesis), neurite outgrowth, micronucleus assays, morphometric analysis (tubulin) and cell migration ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Introduction: Regulatory processes, an emerging feature in intracellular membrane traffic. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Jäntti, Jussi. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - The subject of this volume is the molecular mechanism of the intracellular membrane trafficking, a central eukaryotic cell biological process. In the post genomic era, essential molecules involved in intracellular membrane/protein transport are emerging with increasing pace. The present challenge is to compile the molecular networks that govern these processes. Understanding of regulatory processes and participating molecules are likely to reveal global cellular regulatory circuits that couple membrane trafficking with other cellular functions. The part of the membrane transport machinery, which forms stabile protein complexes is rather well known already. However, the regulatory mechanisms that link these more stabile complexes to other cellular functions are only starting to emerge. This book focuses on the regulatory ...
The biogenesis and positioning of organelles involves complex interacting processes and precise control. Progress in our understanding is being made rapidly as advances in analysing the nuclear and organellar genome and proteome combine with developments in live-cell microscopy and manipulation at the subcellular level. This paper introduces the collected papers resulting from Organelle Biogenesis and Positioning in Plants, the 2009 Biochemical Society Annual Symposium. Including papers on the nuclear envelope and all major organelles, it considers current knowledge and progress towards unifying themes that will elucidate the mechanisms by which cells generate the correct complement of organelles and adapt and change it in response to environmental and developmental signals.. ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes will be held in Galveston, TX. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) vesicles containing unique RNA and protein cargo, secreted by all cell types in culture. They are also found in abundance in body fluids including blood, saliva, and urine. At the moment, the mechanism of exosome formation, the makeup of the cargo, biological pathways, and resulting
Inhibition of Delta pH pathway protein transport by antibodies to Hcf106. (A) Maize thylakoids were preincubated with 0.1 mg/ml anti-Hcf106 or preimmune (PI) Ig
Abstract: The β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) inserts outer membrane β-barrel proteins (OMPs) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In Enterobacteriacea, BAM also mediates export of the stress sensor lipoprotein RcsF to the cell surface by assembling RcsF-OMP complexes. Here, we report the crystal structure of the key BAM component BamA in complex with RcsF. BamA adopts an inward-open conformation, with the lateral gate to the membrane closed. RcsF is lodged deep within the lumen of the BamA barrel, binding regions proposed to undergo outward and lateral opening during OMP insertion. On the basis of our structural and biochemical data, we propose a push-and-pull model for RcsF export following conformational cycling of BamA, and provide a mechanistic explanation for how RcsF uses its interaction with BamA to detect envelope stress. Our data also suggest that the flux of incoming OMP substrates is involved in the control of BAM activity ...
Yet there are arguments made against this view. Although memory has never been found - and may never be found - in the human brain, there are attempts nevertheless to explain it as such; a particular experience for example can be physically monitored; the neuronal movements can be mapped, which will imply a technology that can see INTO neurons and all the protein movements occurring therein. Since this will involve millions of processes within a single neuron, well need an impressive supercomputer to do all this. But lets say we do all, and discover that this cluster of neurons corresponds to this memory; and show it that everytime this memory is activated, these proteins are assembled just like that. It seems almost absurd in the complexity; and even logically, we know that correlation isnt causation, and that is the real kicker about science and mind. You cant ever prove or unprove it. It just is: it stays as it is and we live as we live, and in the end, we die, and we dissolve into the ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab70521 交差種: Hu 適用: ICC/IF…EEA1抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
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an ICT based solutions, applications and services that are applied in all areas of transport in order to achieve, safer, more reliable and efficient transport journeys. ...
Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a prominent substrate for activated tyrosine kinase receptors that has been proposed to play a role in endosomal membrane trafficking. The protein contains a FYVE domain, which specifically binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate (PI 3-P). We show that this interaction is required both for correct localization of the protein to endosomes that only partially coincides with early endosomal autoantigen 1 and for efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. Treatment with wortmannin reveals that Hrs phosphorylation also requires PI 3-kinase activity, which is necessary to generate the PI 3-P required for localization. We have used both hypertonic media and expression of a dominant-negative form of dynamin (K44A) to inhibit endocytosis; under which conditions, receptor stimulation fails to elicit phosphorylation of Hrs. Our results provide a clear example of the
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The Tat (twin-arginine translocation) protein export system is found in the cytoplasmic membrane of most prokaryotes and is dedicated to the transport of folded proteins. The Tat system is now known to be essential for many bacterial processes including energy metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and bacterial pathogenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that substrate-specific accessory proteins prevent improperly assembled substrates from interacting with the Tat transporter. During the transport cycle itself substrate proteins bind to a receptor complex in the membrane which then recruits a protein-translocating channel to carry out the transport reaction.
Receptors localized at the plasma membrane are critical for the recognition of pathogens. The molecular determinants that regulate receptor transport to the plasma membrane are poorly understood. In a screen for proteins that interact with the FLAGELIN-SENSITIVE2 (FLS2) receptor using Arabidopsis thaliana protein microarrays, we identified the reticulon-like protein RTNLB1. We showed that FLS2 interacts in vivo with both RTNLB1 and its homolog RTNLB2 and that a Ser-rich region in the N-terminal tail of RTNLB1 is critical for the interaction with FLS2. Transgenic plants that lack RTNLB1 and RTNLB2 (rtnlb1 rtnlb2) or overexpress RTNLB1 (RTNLB1ox) exhibit reduced activation of FLS2-dependent signaling and increased susceptibility to pathogens. In both rtnlb1 rtnlb2 and RTNLB1ox, FLS2 accumulation at the plasma membrane was significantly affected compared with the wild type. Transient overexpression of RTNLB1 led to FLS2 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and affected FLS2 glycosylation but ...
The major research focus of my group is the transport of proteins by the twin arginine protein transport pathway. This pathway, which is found in the cytoplasmic membranes of most bacteria, and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts, is highly unusual because it transports pre-folded proteins. Protein substrates are targeted to the Tat machinery by N-terminal signal peptides that contain an S/T- R-R-x-F-L-K twin arginine motif. Our aims are to study the function and mechanism of the Tat protein transporter, and the contribution that it makes to the physiology of bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus uses an unusual Type VII secretion system to secrete possible virulence factors. In a collaboration with Professor Bill Hunter we have been structurally and biochemically characterising components and substrates of this system. Contact details ...
Protein translocase subunit SecY; The central subunit of the protein translocation channel SecYEG. Consists of two halves formed by TMs 1-5 and 6-10. These two domains form a lateral gate at the front which open onto the bilayer between TMs 2 and 7, and are clamped together by SecE at the back. The channel is closed by both a pore ring composed of hydrophobic SecY resides and a short helix (helix 2A) on the extracellular side of the membrane which forms a plug. The plug probably moves laterally to allow the channel to open. The ring and the pore may move independently (443 aa ...
Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several
TY - JOUR. T1 - LHS1 and SIL1 provide a lumenal function that is essential for protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. AU - Tyson, John R. AU - Stirling, Colin J. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Lhs1p is an Hsp70-related chaperone localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. Δlhs1 mutant cells are viable but are constitutively induced for the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we demonstrate a severe growth defect in Δire1Δlhs1 double mutant cells in which the UPR can no longer be induced. In addition, we have identified a UPR- regulated gene, SIL1, whose overexpression is sufficient to suppress the Δire1Δlhs1 growth defect. SIL1 encodes an ER-localized protein that interacts directly with the ATPase domain of Kar2p (BiP), suggesting some role in modulating the activity of this vital chaperone. SIL1 is a non-essential gene but the Δlhs1Δsil1 double mutation is lethal and correlates with a complete block of protein translocation into the ER. We conclude that the ...
Not all proteins that accumulate in a specific subcellular compartment undergo processes of selective sorting and transport. Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. Prominent examples for this process are the proteins VAMP2 and NgCAM. NgCAM is sorted into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. In contrast, VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites; however it is preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane, a process, which also results in an axonal enrichment31. Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. Although such process initially ...
Our results are consistent with the idea that the FP-Rab6 membrane system defines a separate compartment that corresponds to a Golgi→ER transport pathway containing specific retrograde cargo and exhibiting distinct functional requirements. The FP-Rab6 compartment comprises all FP-Rab6 elements, the Golgi-associated pool, tubular and globular trafficking elements, and peripheral corner regions. It is separate from some of the traditionally defined morphological compartments (endosomes, lysosomes, and Golgi→plasma membrane transport carriers), and partly overlaps with others (Golgi, ER). FP-Rab6 dynamics in live cells emphasized elements that were neglected in static images, thus revealing morphological features of endogenous Rab6 that had previously been overlooked ( Goud et al. 1990; Antony et al. 1992). Since endogenous Rab6 and FP-Rab6 have common features ( Fig. 2), FP-Rab6 dynamics are most likely not induced by overexpression of the FP-Rab6 fusion protein.. During the period when STB ...
The biogenesis of secretory as well as transmembrane proteins requires the activity of the universally conserved protein-conducting channel (PCC), the Sec61 complex (SecY complex in bacteria). In eukaryotic cells the PCC is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum where it can bind to translating ribosomes for co-translational protein transport. The Sec complex consists of three subunits (Sec61alpha, beta and gamma) and provides an aqueous environment for the translocation of hydrophilic peptides as well as a lateral opening in the Sec61alpha subunit that has been proposed to act as a gate for the membrane partitioning of hydrophobic domains. A plug helix and a so-called pore ring are believed to seal the PCC against ion flow and are proposed to rearrange for accommodation of translocating peptides. Several crystal and cryo-electron microscopy structures revealed different conformations of closed and partially open Sec61 and SecY complexes. However, in none of these samples has the ...
Component of the coat protein complex II (COPII) which promotes the formation of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The coat has two main functions, the physical deformation of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane into vesicles and the selection of cargo molecules.
Endosomal internalisation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins is important for regulation of multiple cellular processes, among these the termination of receptor signalling and degradation of misfolded membrane proteins. ESCRT (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins are vital for the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies for subsequent degradation in the lysosome. In this study we generated two stable cell lines expressing the EGFP tagged ESCRT proteins Hrs and hVps22. Our goal was to utilise these cell lines for investigations into ESCRT protein dynamics, the relative order of ESCRT protein recruitment to the endosomes, and the endosomal localisation of ESCRT proteins. However, though the EGFP-Hrs cell line seemed to express a functional Hrs protein, the EGFP-hVps22 protein was completely cytosolic and could not be visualised on endosomes. hVps4, and its mouse homologue Skd1 is an AAA-type ATPase shown to be necessary for ...
TRIM22 alters the sub-cellular localization of Gag protein.A) Analysis of Gag localization by fluorescence microscopy. HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected w
The long length of axons makes them critically dependent on intracellular transport for their growth and survival. This movement is called axonal transport. Cargoes originating from the cell body move out towards the axon tip and cargoes originating in the axon or at the axon tip move back towards the cell body. The outbound movement is known as anterograde transport and it includes cargoes required for the growth, maintenance and plasticity of axons and presynaptic terminals. The inbound movement is called retrograde transport and it includes cargoes returning to the cell body for recycling or degradation, as well as cargoes that relay signals back to the cell body to modulate gene expression in response to the local environment.. Though axonal transport has a special name, it is not fundamentally different from the pathways of intracellular traffic found in other parts of nerve cells or in other cells. However, it is remarkable for its scale. For example, there are axons in our bodies that ...
The most thoroughly characterized quality‐control system is the one operating in the ER, which is a compartment specialized in the folding and subsequent export of translocated proteins. Unfolded proteins are typically denied access to the export pathway until they fold correctly, and those that fail to do so are disposed of by a process known as ERAD. This involves the retrotranslocation (dislocation) of misfolded substrates from the lumen of the ER, across the ER membrane back into the cytosol, followed by their ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Under stress conditions, in which the workload imposed on the ER exceeds its capacity, cells respond by increasing the transcription of genes coding for ER chaperones as well as for ERAD components, and by attenuating protein synthesis-the so‐called unfolded protein response. R.S. Hegde (Bethesda, MD, USA) and D. T. Ng (Singapore) reported on additional ways in which the secretory pathway can respond to stress.. Hegde discussed an ...
Peroxisomes require the translocation of folded and functional target proteins of various sizes across the peroxisomal membrane. We have investigated the structure and function of the principal import receptor Pex5p, which recognizes targets bearing a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal type 1. …
Listing of the answers to the question: Proteins that are destined to become associated with the inner surface of the plasma membrane are:
Researchers from Freiburg discovered a novel mechanism that ensures obstacle-free protein traffic into the powerhouse of the cell
Exosomes are tiny (30-150 nm) vesicles secreted by all cell types in culture and found in large numbers in all body fluids. These vesicles, loaded with unique RNA and protein cargo, have a wide range of biological functions, only a small part of which is currently understood. For example, they are known to serve as
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingTat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway signal sequence (TIGR01409; HMM-score: 25.5) ...
def: The directed movement of proteins in a cell, including the movement of proteins between specific compartments or structures within a cell, such as organelles of a eukaryotic cell. [GOC:mah ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Rivka A Rachel, Kunio Nagashima, T Norene OSullivan, Laura S Frost, Frank P Stefano, Valeria Marigo, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia].
A meeting at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, Nov 17-21, 2013. From their Welcome Letter: This meeting will bring together experts from the diverse fields of trafficking to discuss mechanisms of mRNA and protein transport, and their relationship to prominent diseases associated with organelle biogenesis. We hope to trigger significant scientific discourse between…
Description of photograph included into Photographic Archive of the Fundación Juan March: title, year, provenance, place, names. Print. Use conditions
Please, check the service warnings and service modifications on regular interurban transport routes in Majorca: bus, train, metro and public bicycle.
Please, check the service warnings and service modifications on regular interurban transport routes in Majorca: bus, train, metro and public bicycle.
Purinergic signaling has been established as an important feature of inflammation and homeostasis. The expression of a number of P2 receptor subtypes in the gut has been reported. In this study, using
The Imagestream is an image cytometer that allows quantitative data to be acquired as well as images of every event passing through the instrument to be recorded. This machine can analyse up to 5000 cells/sec. This clever machine allows the user to look at features of cells such as co-localisation, staining location, cell-cell location, spot counting and cell death analysis ...
In developing our recipes, we choose only the very best raw materials from the world, with the most competitive prices; we organize the transport from any part of the world to the packaging plants and, once bottled we organize the transport to its final destination; we study the standards and seasonality of the products; we research and control supplies on a global scale to ensure raw material availability all year round.. ...
Open Challenge! 3v3 singles 2 Day DQ 0 Recoveries, 5 Chills Arena Final Destination: Thats right, a battle at Final Dest. Just like in Brawl, if...
CARGO COMPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION Class A The presence of a fire would be easily discovered by a crewmember while at his or her station and each part of
உயிரணு உயிரியலில் உயிரணுக்கணிகம் அல்லது கலக்கணிகம் அல்லது குழியவுரு (Cytoplasm) என்பது உயிரணு ஒன்றின் உள்ளடக்கத்தில், உயிரணுக் கரு தவிர்ந்த மிகுதியாக உள்ள பகுதியாகும். இது உயிரணு நீர்மம் (en:Cytosol) எனும் நீர்மக் கரைசலையும் (இந்த நீர்மக் கரைசல் உயிரணு மென்சவ்விற்கு உள்ளாக இருக்கும் கூழ்மப் பொருள்), உயிரணுக்களின் உள்ளே காணப்படும் நுண்ணுறுப்புக்களையும் உள்ளடக்கிய பகுதி ஆகும். இந்த ...
Protein transport. Secretory proteins, mostly glycoproteins, are moved across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Proteins that ... Only properly folded proteins are transported from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus - unfolded proteins cause an unfolded ... 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi ... Correct folding of newly made proteins is made possible by several endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins, including protein ...
4.5 Protein targeting and import *4.5.1 Transport proteins and membrane translocons ... Transport proteins and membrane translocons. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, an ... From here, chloroplast proteins bound for the stroma must pass through two protein complexes-the TOC complex, or translocon on ... The protein MinD prevents FtsZ from linking up and forming filaments. Another protein ARC3 may also be involved, but it is not ...
red') is an oligomeric protein responsible for oxygen (O2) transport in the marine invertebrate phyla of sipunculids, ... A Staphylococcus aureus protein containing this domain, iron-sulfur cluster repair protein ScdA, has been noted to be important ... Coates, C.J., Decker, H. (2017). "Immunological properties of oxygen transport proteins: hemoglobin, hemocyanin and hemerythrin ... It is also found in the NorA protein from Cupriavidus necator, this protein is a regulator of response to nitric oxide, which ...
... be transported to the plasma membrane for secretion and it allows the Wnt protein to bind its receptor Frizzled Wnt proteins ... Dsh proteins are present in all organisms and they all share the following highly conserved protein domains: an amino-terminal ... For example, Wnt proteins are palmitoylated. The protein porcupine mediates this process, which means that it helps regulate ... This destruction complex includes the following proteins: Axin, adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A ...
Many different cargo proteins can be transported into the nucleus by importin. Often, different proteins will require different ... but the key proteins involved had not been elucidated up until that point. A 60 kDa cytosolic protein, essential for protein ... Importin is a type of karyopherin that transports protein molecules from the cell's cytoplasm to the nucleus. It does so by ... It is this activity of Ran that allows for the unidirectional transport of proteins. There are several disease states and ...
In this manner, they can facilitate the transport of proteins, vesicles and organelles along the apical-basal axis of the cell ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ... including the motor proteins kinesin and dynein, microtubule-severing proteins like katanin, and other proteins important for ... Plus end tracking proteins are MAP proteins which bind to the tips of growing microtubules and play an important role in ...
However, large proteins must have a specific signaling sequence to be transported across the outer membrane, so the protein ... Glucose-related protein 75 (grp75) is another dual-function protein. In addition to the matrix pool of grp75, a portion serves ... Larger proteins can enter the mitochondrion if a signaling sequence at their N-terminus binds to a large multisubunit protein ... Herrmann JM, Neupert W (April 2000). "Protein transport into mitochondria". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 3 (2): 210-4. doi: ...
The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is processed into two cell-surface-associated subunits, although ... 2000). "Anion transport in heart". Physiol. Rev. 80 (1): 31-81. PMID 10617765. Pauli BU, Abdel-Ghany M, Cheng HC, et al. (2001 ... Protein structure prediction methods suggest the N-terminal region of CLCA1 protein is a zinc metalloprotease. Chloride channel ... CLCA1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CLCA1 genome location and ...
These proteins are primarily concerned with cholesterol transport StAR (STARD1) MLN64 (STARD3) These proteins are involved in ... STARD7 STARD10 Collagen type IV alpha-3-binding protein (COL4A3BP/Ceramide transfer protein (CERT)/STARD11) These proteins ... The archetypical domain is found in StAR (Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), a mitochondrial protein that is synthesized ... domain proteins, all of which bind hydrophobic ligands. In the case of plants, many of the START proteins fall into the ...
Commercial Protein Crystal Growth experiment; Chemical Vapor Transport Experiment; Heat Pipe Performance Experiment; ...
This protein is voltage-sensitive. Contrary to previous research, prestin has also been shown to transport anions; the exact ... Therefore, a change in the shape of many prestin proteins, which tend to conglomerate together, will ultimately lead to a ... Bai, J. P.; Surguchev, A.; Montoya, S.; Aronson, P. S.; Santos-Sacchi, J.; Navaratnam, D. (2009). "Prestin's Anion Transport ... Prestin is the transmembrane protein underlying the OHC's ability to elongate and contract, a process essential for OHC ...
Transport of insoluble protein contributes to the fast movement while the slow transport is transporting up to 40% - 50% ... soluble protein. The speed of transport depends on the types of cargo to be transported. Neurotrophins, a family of proteins ... structural proteins such as tubulin and neurofilament subunits are transported at lower rates. Proteins that are transported ... The cargoes are transported by motor proteins that uses neurotubules as a 'track'. The axonal transport can be classified ...
"Binding protein-dependent transport systems". Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. 22 (4): 571-592. doi:10.1007/ ... two ABC proteins and two TMD proteins). Prokaryotic importers require additional extracytoplasmic binding proteins (one or more ... "Homology between proteins controlling Streptomyces fradiae tylosin resistance and ATP-binding transport". Gene. 102 (1): 27-32 ... The ABC module (approximately two hundred amino acid residues) is known to bind and hydrolyze ATP, thereby coupling transport ...
Rothman, James E. (1994). "Mechanisms of intracellular protein transport". Nature. 372 (6501): 55-63. Bibcode:1994Natur.372... ... transport of small molecules, and containing the ribosomes responsible for protein synthesis. Cytosol contains predominantly ... Protein synthesis begins at the ribosome, both free ones and those bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Each ribosome is ... Proteins are usually not ready for their final target after leaving the ribosome. Ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum ...
1978: First demonstration of in vitro post-translational protein transport. 1980: First demonstration of the binding of a ... "Homologous plant and bacterial proteins chaperone oligomeric protein assembly". Nature. 333 (6171): 330-334. doi:10.1038/ ... 1997: Appointed Academic Visitor for four years at University of Oxford to work on protein folding with Professor Chris M. ... Blair, G. E.; Ellis, R. J. (1973). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. I. Light-driven synthesis of the large subunit of ...
1992). "Human lysosomal protective protein. Glycosylation, intracellular transport, and association with beta-galactosidase in ... "Transport of human lysosomal neuraminidase to mature lysosomes requires protective protein/cathepsin A". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 17 (6 ... Wiegant J, Galjart NJ, Raap AK, d'Azzo A (1991). "The gene encoding human protective protein (PPGB) is on chromosome 20". ... 1992). "A mutation in a mild form of galactosialidosis impairs dimerization of the protective protein and renders it unstable ...
... where cargo proteins fail to be transported and dysfunctional or unnecessary proteins fail to be degraded. There are numerous ... whereby a heat shock protein 70kDa protein 8 (HSPA8)-containing complex facilitates degradation of proteins containing a KFERQ ... Vergés M (2016-01-01). Jeon KW (ed.). "Retromer in Polarized Protein Transport". International Review of Cell and Molecular ... Additionally, some MDVs can be positive for mitochondrial-anchored protein ligase (MAPL), which helps the retromer transport ...
Ion transport peptide (ITP) from locust. ITP stimulates salt and water reabsorption and inhibits acid secretion in the ileum of ... Caenorhabditis elegans uncharacterised protein ZC168.2. These neurohormones are peptides of 70 to 80 amino acid residues which ... In molecular biology, the crustacean neurohormone family of proteins is a family of neuropeptides expressed by arthropods. The ...
Baskin E.F.; Bukshpan S; Zilberstein G V (2006). "pH-induced intracellular protein transport". Physical Biology. 3 (2): 101-106 ... the protein's overall charge will decrease until the protein reaches the pH region that corresponds to its pI. At this point it ... the proteins become focused into sharp stationary bands with each protein positioned at a point in the pH gradient ... A protein that is in a pH region below its isoelectric point (pI) will be positively charged and so will migrate toward the ...
The cargo carrier is transported to the TGN by motor proteins such as dynein. Tethering of the cargo carrier to the recipient ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ... Pfeffer SR (Feb 2001). "Membrane transport: retromer to the rescue". Current Biology. 11 (3): R109-11. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822( ... However, it is clear that there are other complexes and proteins that act in this retrieval process. So far it is not clear ...
See also vesicular transport protein disorders. This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... transport vesicle membrane. • membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • presynapse. • plasma membrane. • synapse. • cell. Biological ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... RefSeq (protein). NP_001153800. NP_001153801. NP_115674. NP_001153800.1. NP_001153801.1. ...
The term is used in other areas of biology to refer more broadly to non-protein (or even protein) molecules that either ... Friedkin M, Lehninger AL (1949). "Esterification of inorganic phosphate coupled to electron transport between ... and FAD-dependent proteins". Proteins. 44 (3): 282-91. doi:10.1002/prot.1093. PMID 11455601. Bryce (March 1979). "SAM - ... whereas molecules that inhibit receptor proteins are termed corepressors. One such example is the G protein-coupled receptor ...
... "transport protein". Soils containing high phosphorus are particularly susceptible to creating insoluble forms of calcium.[ ... Transport protein identified. "Blossom End Rot: How to Identify, Treat, and ... However, because of the nature of the disorder (i.e. poor transport of calcium to low transpiring tissues), the problem cannot ... are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or non-transpiring tissues because calcium is not transported in ...
... facilitated by transport proteins. Active transport is the uptake by cells of ions or molecules against a concentration ... 794 p. University of Zurich (2011). Blossom end rot: Transport protein identified. ... moving passively through the cell lipid bilayer membrane without the use of transport proteins. Facilitated diffusion is the ... Nitrogen is transported via the xylem from the roots to the leaf canopy as nitrate ions, or in an organic form, such as amino ...
... has many protein-protein interactions, including ubiquitin proteins such as ubiquitin C and UBL4A, as well as CUL3 and ... which is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is the largest of the five complexes of the electron transport chain. ... NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA4 gene. The NDUFA3 protein is a ... The NDUFA4 gene produces a 9.4 kDa protein composed of 81 amino acids. NDUFA4 has traditionally been defined as a subunit of ...
... mediates NES-dependent protein transport. It exports several hundreds of different proteins from the nucleus. XPO1 is ... "Nucleocytoplasmic Transport of RNAs and RNA-Protein Complexes". Journal of Molecular Biology. 428 (10): 2040-2059. 2016-05-22. ... "Ran-binding protein 3 is a cofactor for Crm1-mediated nuclear protein export". J. Cell Biol. 153 (7): 1391-402. doi:10.1083/jcb ... is a eukaryotic protein that mediates the nuclear export of various proteins and RNAs. XPO1 (CRM1) originally was identified in ...
Diamond, J. M. (1996). "Wet transport proteins". Nature. 384 (6610): 611-612. doi:10.1038/384611a0. PMID 8967947. The Curse of ... Karasov, W. H.; Pond Rs, 3.; Solberg, D. H.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Regulation of proline and glucose transport in mouse ... Diamond, J. M.; Tormey, J. M. (1966). "Role of long extracellular channels in fluid transport across epithelia". Nature. 210 ( ... Lewis, S. A.; Diamond, J. M. (1975). "Active sodium transport by mammalian urinary bladder". Nature. 253 (5494): 747-748. doi: ...
Understanding how protein folding occurs in three-dimensional molecules is one of biology's enduring problems. Proteins with ... Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (2008). Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Nonlinear Ion Transport and Fundamentals of FAIMS. ... studying protein folding and protein conformation in the gas phase, using techniques such as Ion-mobility spectrometry. In 1995 ... examining the role of proteins and protein folding in neurodegenerative diseases, identifying possible cancer-related markers ...
This protein permits the cleavage of cholesterol into pregnenolone by mediating the transport of cholesterol from the outer ... Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAR gene. The protein encoded by this ... Sugawara T, Shimizu H, Hoshi N, Nakajima A, Fujimoto S (October 2003). "Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-binding protein ... Sun HS, Hsiao KY, Hsu CC, Wu MH, Tsai SJ (September 2003). "Transactivation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in human ...
About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion ... Among these protein targets, the enzyme N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) generates bioactive ... Bile acids bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their transporters. ... the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor/TGR5.[7][10] They bind less specifically to some other ...
Main article: Membrane protein. Proteins within the membrane are key to its working. These proteins mainly transport chemicals ... It is estimated that up to a third of the human proteome[4] may be membrane proteins.[5] Some of these proteins are linked to ... Some proteins are always stuck into it, these are called integral membrane proteins. It also has some which are only sometimes ... The membrane contains many proteins. The surface proteins can act as gates. They let some chemicals into the cell and let other ...
... while major veins are responsible for its transport outside of the leaf. At the same time water is being transported in the ... The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... Vascular plants transport sucrose in a special tissue called the phloem. The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other, but ... Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... "West Africa - Ebola virus disease Update: Travel and transport". International travel and health. World Health Organization ( ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ... EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex, ...
... the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior of the ER. Sec61 is the protein- ... ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ... Yeast OST is composed of eight different membrane-spanning proteins in three subcomplexes (one of them is OST4).[7][8] These ...
GABA metabolism/transport modulators This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. ... chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • ... chloride transport. • ion transmembrane transport. • signal transduction. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ...
Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi ... It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm ... Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), so called because it is studded with ribosomes, and secretes proteins into the cytoplasm. ... Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Among its functions is the production of proteins and steroids, the maintenance of plasma ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... lipid transport. • positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • lipid metabolic process. ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ... 2006). "Consistent effects of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in ...
... blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ... haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. The haemocyanin is dissolved in the plasma instead of being ...
... vitamins and proteins. Since higher concentration of fat and protein in the sake would lead to off-flavors and contribute rough ... Traditionally sake was best transported in the cool spring, to avoid spoilage in the summer heat, with a secondary transport in ... and contains less protein and lipid than the ordinary rice eaten by the Japanese. Sake rice is used only for making sake, ...
The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion.[8] ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding ...
I used be a researcher use the fruit fly as a model system to study mechanisms of intracellular transport (I then moved onto ... Truth be told, it's the size (in amino acids) of a protein I once studied. Yes, a bit geeky. ...
The composite nature of bone, comprising one-third organic (mainly protein collagen) and two thirds mineral (calcium phosphate ... When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ...
The adoption of joules as units of energy, FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Energy and Protein, 1971. A report on the ...
... also activates or inhibits the activities of a number of proteins.[22] For example, quercetin is a non-specific ... It is a naturally occurring polar auxin transport inhibitor.[5] ... Influence of Auxin Polar Transport". The Plant Cell. 9 (10): ... quercetin has also been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER).[26][27] ... "The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells ...
Gigi II was another grey whale calf that was captured in the Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and was transported to SeaWorld.[140] The ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ... This distinction is being questioned as these aboriginal groups are using more modern weaponry and mechanized transport to hunt ... Gigi was a grey whale calf that died in transport. ... and then are either transported domestically to aquariums or ...
The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ... "Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology ...
Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... The synaptic anchoring protein Gephyrin is indirectly linked to the GABAA receptors. ... molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system. ...
Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ... Transport * sw:Usafiri. Treaty of Versailles * sw:Mkataba wa Versailles. Tree * sw:Mti. Trigonometry * sw:Trigonometry. ...
Gluten, the protein found in grains such as wheat, rye, spelt, and barley, contributes to protein aggregation and firm texture ... and is manufactured using a process and heat treatment that allows it to be transported and stored at ambient temperatures. ... Another major component of durum wheat is protein which plays a large role in pasta dough rheology.[53] Gluten proteins, which ... Starch gelatinization and protein coagulation are the major changes that take place when pasta is cooked in boiling water.[53] ...
Hatefi, Y. (1985): "The mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation system". Ann Rev Biochem, 54:1015-1069. ... NCBI Protein procura É o maior complexo da cadea respiratoria; nos mamíferos consta de 45 cadeas polipeptídicas, das cales sete ...
TransportEdit. Until recently, it was thought that the sole important retinoid delivery pathway to tissues involved retinol ... bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP4). More recent findings, however, indicate that retinoids can be delivered to tissues ... "The multifaceted nature of retinoid transport and metabolism". Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition. 3 (3): 126-39. doi:10.3978 ...
and interstitial protein osmotic pressure (. π. i. {\displaystyle \pi _{i}}. ), and two absorptive forces, plasma protein ... The second Kedem-Katchalsky equation explains the trans endothelial transport of solutes, J. s. {\displaystyle J_{s}}. . ... Thus, the difference in protein concentration would produce a flow of fluid into the vessel at the venous end equivalent to 28 ... Albumin and other proteins in the interstitial spaces return to the circulation via lymph. ...
protein transport. • cerebral cortex cell migration. • positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ... L-glutamate transport. • brain morphogenesis. • Notch signaling pathway. • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ... choline transport. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • Notch receptor processing. • negative regulation of protein ...
The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow ... "STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN ANIMAL TISSUES". The Journal of General Physiology. 26 (4): 391-404. ISSN ... "Functional Design of Proteins". Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. W. H. Freeman. ...
Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ... M cells within the Peyer's patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid ...
It was transported with them throughout the Indo-Pacific during the Austronesian expansion (c. 5,000 BP), reaching as far as ... Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to ... Ginger is sent through various stages to be transported to its final destination either domestically or internationally, and ... it is transported to the closest assembly market where it is then taken to main regional or district level marketing centres.[ ...
Mechanisms of intracellular protein transport.. Rothman JE1.. Author information. 1. Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics ... Recent advances have uncovered the general protein apparatus used by all eukaryotes for intracellular transport, including ... Both vesicles and their acceptor membranes carry targeting proteins which interact specifically to initiate docking. A general ...
The illustration on the left depicts the surface of the protein with a view on the crevice that allows the movement of lipids ... The illustration on the right shows a ribbon model of the membrane protein where the bound calcium ions are shown in purple. ... The illustration on the left depicts the surface of the protein with a view on the crevice that allows the movement of lipids ... The illustration on the right shows a ribbon model of the membrane protein where the bound calcium ions are shown in purple. ...
Transport of proteins into and out of the nucleus occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). A heterodimeric protein complex ... Protein transport across the NPC may occur via guided diffusion involving the karyopherin-mediated docking and undocking of ... Molecular mechanisms of nuclear protein transport.. Moroianu J1.. Author information. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology, ... Two additional proteins, the GTPase Ran and p10, are required to translocate the docked NLS protein into the nucleus. The alpha ...
This marks the SWEET family of proteins as drastically different from other sugar transport proteins. ... Airlock-like transport protein structure discovered. Carnegie Institution for Science. Journal. Nature. Funder. Stanford ... These transport proteins are thus essential in all organisms. It is not surprising that the transporters of humans and plants ... Airlock-like transport protein structure discovered Key for diabetes research and crop sciences ...
This shows the structure of the iron transport-protein. The view is from within the membrane (indicated by black lines). A zoom ... Structure of an iron-transport protein revealed. University of Zurich. Journal. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. ... This shows the structure of the iron transport-protein. The view is from within the membrane (indicated by black lines). A zoom ...
How does ATP enable transport proteins to move ions across a cell membrane. ?. Once translated, proteins are dispersed ... Nucleus conduct transport of molecules across the nuclear membranes and transport out the mRNA for protein synthesis. ... Is diffusion a type of active transport or passive transport. ?. It is a type of cellular passive transport. Diffusion is one ... The Golgi body sorts and packages proteins for transport. The mitochondrion is the organelle that performs cellular ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... RNA transcription, translation and transport factor protein (IPR019265). Short name: RTRAF Overlapping homologous superfamilies ... This entry represents RNA transcription, translation and transport factor protein (RTRAF, also known as hCLE/C14orf166) from ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Protein family membership. *Receptor-transporting protein (IPR026096)*Receptor-transporting protein 3 (IPR026691) ...
They are also known as transporter proteins or carrier molecules, among other names. There are multiple types of transport... ... Transport proteins are proteins that move materials within an organism. ... Transport proteins are proteins that move materials within an organism. They are also known as transporter proteins or carrier ... Hemoglobin, for example, transports oxygen molecules to tissue. Myoglobin, another transport protein, then takes oxygen from ...
... A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Transport_protein". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane ...
Term: glutamate/aspartate transport protein. ID: PIRSF005475 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse ... MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein ... The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence ... You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, ...
Recent advances have uncovered the general protein apparatus used by all eukaryotes for intracellular transport, including ... Mechanisms of intracellular protein transport Nature. 1994 Nov 3;372(6501):55-63. doi: 10.1038/372055a0. ... Recent advances have uncovered the general protein apparatus used by all eukaryotes for intracellular transport, including ... Both vesicles and their acceptor membranes carry targeting proteins which interact specifically to initiate docking. A general ...
... escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the ... A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein that acts as such a carrier. A vesicular transport ... Membrane+transport+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Vesicular+Transport+Proteins ... There are several different kinds of transport proteins. Carrier proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small ...
Hemoglobin is an oxygen transport protein found in vertebrates. The transport protein is crucial for life of multi cellular ... Hemoglobin Transport Protein. Jordan Levin 19 Contents:. I. Introduction II. General Structure III. Oxygen Binding IV. ... The human hemoglobin protein is made up of four subunits, two identical alpha subunits ( A and C , 141 residues) and two ... These two configurations are known as the T or tense structure where the protein has a low affinity for oxygen and the R or ...
Recent advances in understanding the machinery of vesicle transport have established general principles that underlie a broad ...
Membrane transport protein Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.990 --- vesicular transport proteins Vesicular+Transport+ ... such as the EHD protein family Rab proteins SNAREs Vesicular transport adaptor proteins e.g. Sorting nexins Synaptotagmin TRAPP ... A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of ... COP 1 (Cytosolic coat protein complex ) : retrograde transport; Golgi -- Endoplasmic reticulum COP 2 (Cytosolic coat protein ...
Mao Q, Unadkat JD (2005) Role of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) in drug transport. AAPS J 7:E118-E133PubMed ... Moss D.M., Siccardi M., Marzolini C. (2018) Mechanisms of Drug Interactions II: Transport Proteins. In: Pai M., Kiser J., ... Role of organic cation transporter OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K for transport and drug ... ATP-dependent transport of rosuvastatin in membrane vesicles expressing breast cancer resistance protein. Drug Metab Dispos 34: ...
Further reports about: , Biochemistry , Centre , Gas , NH4+ , PNAS , Phone , Rhesus , Transport , blood , protein , proteins , ... Biochemistry »Centre »Gas »NH4+ »PNAS »Phone »Rhesus »Transport »blood »protein »proteins »protons ... Rhesus Proteins Transport Ions, not Gas. 27.06.2014. Using artificial lipid vesicles, biochemists show how membrane proteins ... Direct observation of electrogenic NH4+ transport in ammonium transport (Amt) proteins, PNAS 2014; published ahead of print ...
Because the protein is holding on more tightly and is less likely to let go, the velocity of transport of the cargo actually ... Transport is necessary for life. Whether its us driving to the shops to buy food, or proteins inside our cells carrying ... Inside our cells, transport of molecules is carried out by a protein called dynein which walks along a track called a ... Transport protein in eukaryotes binds more tightly to its track via molecular force transmission only when heavily loaded. Edit ...
The twin-arginine transport system (Tat) has the remarkable ability of transporting folded proteins across membranes while ... suggests a structurally homogeneous form of Tat protein translocase that transports folded proteins of differing diameter. J ... 2006) Oligomers of Tha4 organize at the thylakoid Tat translocase during protein transport. J Biol Chem 281(9):5476-5483. ... 2001) Thylakoid ΔpH-dependent precursor proteins bind to a cpTatC-Hcf106 complex before Tha4-dependent transport. J Cell Biol ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9WZ31 - Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099) ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Cdc25 is a GTP-exchange protein involved in activating RAS in response to fermentable carbon sources. In this paper it is ... The Cdc25 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for normal glucose transport Microbiology (Reading). 1996 Jul;142 ( ... probably due to the decreased cAMP level and hence decreased protein kinase A activity. Because the Cdc25 protein is localized ... Furthermore, it is shown that the decrease in glucose uptake activity is not due to a decrease in protein synthesis or to an ...
H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C] H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [ ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_013552.3 ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
... have discovered a new type of molecular machine used by bacteria for intracellular protein transport and gliding motility. ... "In this paper, we show that bacteria possess molecular motors that are used for transporting proteins along the length of a ... Researchers find new molecular motors that bacteria use to transport proteins by Staff ... have discovered a new type of molecular machine used by bacteria for intracellular protein transport and gliding motility. The ...
Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals. Professor Giorgio Carta ... Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals. *Chemical Engineering Seminar Series ... Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals-Chemical Engineering - Carnegie Mellon ... Chemical Engineering, , Upcoming Events , Recent Events , Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence * Number of PDB entries for P78487: no matching PDB entries ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P78487 - Homo sapiens 0 * P15575 - Gallus gallus no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
36: Protein-Membrane Interactions available in on, also read synopsis and reviews. ... Current topics in membranes and transport ;. Illustration:. Yes. Series Volume:. 90-1v. 36. Subject:. Membrane proteins.. ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 457425.XNR_2029. Genome annotation databases. EnsemblBacteriai. EFE83460; ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR013525 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR013525 ABC_2_trans. IPR000412 ABC_2_transport. ...
... which promotes the formation of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The coat has two main functions, the ... Component of the coat protein complex II (COPII) ... ER-Golgi transport, Protein transport, Transport. Enzyme and ... Protein transport protein Sec31AAdd BLAST. 1249. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Cluster: Protein transport protein Sec31A. 5. Q9Z2Q1-2. O94979-6. UPI000789628B. UPI000787437B. UPI0007876876. UPI00072F7B5D. ...
  • Both vesicles and their acceptor membranes carry targeting proteins which interact specifically to initiate docking. (
  • Nucleus conduct transport of molecules across the nuclear membranes and transport out the mRNA for protein synthesis. (
  • Transport proteins are essential to the function of living beings, and very few molecules are able to cross between membranes without the aid of a protein. (
  • What was previously known is that Amt proteins extend across cellular membranes where they specifically transport the nitrogen into bacteria and plant cells, essential nutrient for their growth and survival. (
  • The twin-arginine transport system (Tat) has the remarkable ability of transporting folded proteins across membranes while avoiding uncontrolled ion leakage. (
  • Now, in U.S. National Science Foundation -funded work, the University of Alabama at Birmingham researcher and his colleagues describe how two small ESX proteins made by the M. tuberculosis bacteria mediate the secretion of TNT by pore formation in the membranes that envelop the bacteria. (
  • The Gordon Research Seminar on Protein Transport Across Membranes will deal with understanding protein translocation across and into membranes and the underlying molecular mechanism and regulation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using different experimental approaches, including structural, biochemical, and biophysical techniques. (
  • This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). (
  • GUWAHATI: In a path-breaking research, the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IIT-G) researchers have shown how some specialised protein molecules found on the cell membranes of all biological cells carry carbohydrate molecules into cells from outside. (
  • The researchers have studied specific protein molecules called ABC transporters, present in bacterial cell membranes and have shown that these transporters are selective about the type of carbohydrates they transport into cells. (
  • These special forms of proteins present in the cell membranes of almost all living cells, he said, capture the carbohydrates from outside the cell and deliver them into the cells. (
  • Alder NN, Theg SM (2003) Energetics of protein transport across biological membranes. (
  • Thylakoids of plants and cyanobacteria are able to transport folded or malformed proteins across tightly sealed membranes via a protein translocation system. (
  • Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma. (
  • Cells use a myriad of transport proteins to shuttle substances across their membranes: food and building blocks are imported, toxins and other waste is exported. (
  • Transport proteins are proteins within the membranes of cells that transport substances such as molecules and ions across the membrane or within the cell, or can be involved in vesicular transport . (
  • That's a good thing to know for scientists studying the transport of RNA, DNA and proteins - all of which count as polymers - or those who are developing membranes for use in biosensors or as drug-delivery devices. (
  • Photoaffinity labeling detected preferentially in the HL60/ADR membranes a 190-kilodalton protein binding [ 3 H]LTC 4 and 8-azido[α- 32 P]ATP. (
  • They transport a variety of compounds through membranes against steep concentration gradients at the cost of ATP hydrolysis. (
  • Cholesterol and its numerous oxygenated derivatives (oxysterols) profoundly affect the biophysical properties of membranes, and positively and negatively regulate sterol homoeostasis through interaction with effector proteins. (
  • The phosphorylation level of the D1 protein varied from 10 to 58% in PS II membranes isolated from pre-illuminated spinach leaves. (
  • Transporters are integral membrane proteins that move important substances such as nutrients, drugs and other substrates across cellular membranes. (
  • Therefore, metabolites have to be transported across the two surrounding membranes. (
  • Researchers from the collaborative research center "Functional Specificity by Coupling and Modification of Proteins", the research training group "Transport Across and Into Membranes", and the cluster of excellence CIBBS Center for Integrative Biological Signalling at the University of Freiburg discovered an unexpected function of the metabolite channel porin/VDAC in protein import into mitochondria. (
  • Until now, there was very limited information about the unique structures of these important transport proteins, which it turns out are different from all other known sugar transporters. (
  • Because the Cdc25 protein is localized at the membrane, these results indicate that Cdc25 is directly involved in glucose transport and may be in direct contact with the glucose transporters. (
  • Future studies on the interaction between COPT transporters and other components of the Cu homeostasis network will improve our knowledge of plant Cu acquisition, distribution, regulation, and utilization by Cu-proteins. (
  • Upon Cu limitation, SPL7 activates the expression of Cu 2+ -reductases ( FRO4 and FRO5 ) and high-affinity Cu transporters ( COPT1 , COPT2 , and COPT6 ) at the plasma membrane that mediate Cu + transport to the cytoplasm [ 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 ](see below). (
  • In addition to SGLT1 and SGLT2, there are five other members in the human protein family SLC5A, several of which may also be sodium-glucose transporters. (
  • These co-transporters are an example of secondary active transport . (
  • Labelled illustration of sodium glucose transport proteins, or sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLTs), which pump glucose into cells. (
  • Clues regarding the molecular identity of one or more components of the cellular efflux system have come recently from investigations of the transport properties of members of the MRP family of ATP-binding cassette transporters. (
  • The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of active transporters involves a large number of functionally diverse transmembrane proteins. (
  • The ABC transporters not only move a variety of substrates into and out of the cell, but are also involved in intracellular compartmental transport. (
  • The inner membrane is equipped with specific transporters, the carrier proteins, which transport metabolites across the inner membrane. (
  • Carrier proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane. (
  • A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of specific molecules across a vesicle's membrane. (
  • They are also known as transporter proteins or carrier molecules, among other names. (
  • There are multiple types of transport proteins that move molecules with different functions in the cell, including water transporter proteins, channel proteins and ATP-powered pumps. (
  • Hemoglobin, for example, transports oxygen molecules to tissue. (
  • Diffusion is a type of transport that moves molecules or compounds in or out of a cell. (
  • Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells binding to four oxygen molecules in the lungs and transports them to the tissues. (
  • Now they have added the protein to a layer of lipid molecules, enabling them to measure the ion currents directly. (
  • The scientific debate on Amt/Rh proteins stems from the difficulty of distinguishing between ammonia and ammonium in measurements, as the two molecules are transformed into each other in a continuous state of balance with protons. (
  • Whether it's us driving to the shops to buy food, or proteins inside our cells carrying individual molecules from where they were made to where they are needed, sometimes things just have to be carried. (
  • Inside our cells, transport of molecules is carried out by a protein called dynein which walks along a track called a microtubule. (
  • One of the largest classes of transporting molecules is the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter, which is widespread in all forms of life", said Dr. Kanaujia. (
  • Much of that success is the result of a seemingly mundane achievement - the development of techniques to purify and study these proteins in isolation, allowing us to barrage them with biophysical methods, some drawn from existing arsenals, others developed specifically for this class of molecules. (
  • Transport of molecules across membrane is the movement of a molecule from inside the membrane to outside or vice versa. (
  • One process is the transport of molecules from one side of a membrane to the other. (
  • Since active transport requires energy, it uses ATP or it couples to molecules moving down the concentration gradient. (
  • This example of active transport is antiport because molecules are being moved in opposite directions. (
  • RNA molecules have to make this intracellular trip, as do proteins that pass through a cell's exterior membrane to perform tasks in the body. (
  • This hypothesis was rapidly tested, refined, and extended [to] encompass the active transport of a diverse range of molecules and ions into virtually every cell type. (
  • Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. (
  • On the left, glucose molecules and sodium ions attach themselves to a carrier protein on the outside surface of the cell. (
  • The crystal structure of a periplasmic l-aspartate/l-glutamate binding protein (DEBP) from Shigella flexneri complexed with an l-glutamate molecule has been determined and refined to an atomic resolution of 1.0 A. There are two DEBP molecules in the asymmetric unit. (
  • The refined model contains 4462 non-hydrogen protein atoms, 730 water molecules, 2 bound glutamate molecules, and 2 Tris molecules from the buffer used in crystallization. (
  • This cytoplasmic protein contains seven WD repeats and an AF-2 domain which function by recruiting coregulatory molecules and in transcriptional activation. (
  • Need to know everything about this Na-K ion transport mechanism, Contribution of protein in transport, Why NA & K, How does protein allows certain molecules to pass through and stops others etc....abt proteins. (
  • The details of how the BBSome proteins organize into a complex that can recognize signaling molecules in the cilium membrane for intraflagellar transport are not fully understood. (
  • Using artificial lipid vesicles, biochemists show how membrane proteins transport ammonium. (
  • Component of the coat protein complex II (COPII) which promotes the formation of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • COPII-coated ER-derived transport vesicles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain a distinct set of membrane-bound polypeptides. (
  • Experiments with an epitope-tagged version of Erv14p indicate that this protein localizes to the ER and is selectively packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. (
  • The ATP-dependent transport of the endogenous glutathione conjugate leukotriene C 4 (LTC 4 ) was more than 25-fold higher in membrane vesicles prepared from human leukemia cells (HL60/ADR) overexpressing the multidrug resistance-associated protein than from drug-sensitive parental HL60 cells or revertant cells. (
  • A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that are INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES. (
  • The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. (
  • NEURONS have a unique requirement to transport synaptic vesicles (SVs) long distances along microtubule tracks in axons to establish synapses for the regulated secretion of neurotransmitters. (
  • A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. (
  • Discovering the structure of these proteins is important, as it is the key to unlocking the mechanism by which they work. (
  • The mechanism by which folded proteins are translocated is poorly understood. (
  • The results suggest a mechanism of protein translocation involving thinning and perturbing the membrane bilayer. (
  • An important mechanism for ciliary/flagellar assembly is intraflagellar transport (IFT). (
  • This structure provides a molecular description of the core of the Tat translocation system and a framework for understanding the unique Tat transport mechanism. (
  • Researchers at the University of Freiburg report a mechanism inside cells that transports proteins to the mitochondria. (
  • Prof. Johannes Herrmann, a researcher at the Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany, and his team discovered a novel mechanism by which newly synthesized proteins reach their respective target compartment in the cell. (
  • As shown in Science , this so far unknown mechanism keeps newly synthesized protein transport-competent and might prevent their aggregation. (
  • These data suggest that AICAR and contraction stimulate glucose transport by a similar insulin-independent signaling mechanism and are consistent with the hypothesis that AMPK is involved in exercise-stimulated glucose uptake. (
  • It is written for Graduates and Professors in Biochemistry and Cell Biology interested in the mechanism and function of small G-proteins but are extremely valuable for those who want to move into the field. (
  • Predicted to have proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism and proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism. (
  • For the first time, Bernese researchers have been able to solve the structure of a transport protein and thus to describe the functional mechanism that plays a significant role in the survival of cancer cells. (
  • Based on this long sought-after structure of a protein of the SLC16-family we obtained insights into the molecular working mechanism of these proteins", says Patrick Bosshart from the IBMM and the NCCR TransCure, who is first author of the study. (
  • The researchers demonstrate that mitochondrial metabolite and protein transport are connected: "The role of porin/VDAC in protein transport could represent an elegant mechanism to fine-tune import of carrier proteins and therefore eventually metabolite transport to meet the requirements of the cell", explains Becker. (
  • This transport mechanism is phosphorylation dependent. (
  • The illustration on the right shows a ribbon model of the membrane protein where the bound calcium ions are shown in purple. (
  • Prokaryotes typically use hydrogen ions as the driving force for chemiosmotic transport, while eukaryotes typically use sodium ions. (
  • Therefore, it was deduced that a protein existed on the plasma membrane which actively pumped the two ions against their biological gradients. (
  • This phosphorylation causes a change in the 3D shape of the protein, making it open up to the extracellular world, and decreases the protein's affinity for sodium ions. (
  • Three sodium ions per unit power this transition, which can be compared to a goods lift: the aspartate and sodium ions bind to part of the transport protein, which then enters the cell. (
  • The transport process first requires that two sodium ions enter the lift. (
  • Using nanopores for single-molecule sequencing of proteins - similar to nanopore-based sequencing of DNA - faces multiple challenges, including unfolding of the complex tertiary structure of the proteins and enforcing their unidirectional translocation through nanopores. (
  • Here, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-molecule experiments to investigate the utility of SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) to unfold proteins for solid-state nanopore translocation, while simultaneously endowing them with a stronger electrical charge. (
  • Our simulations and experiments prove that SDS-treated proteins show a considerable loss of the protein structure during the nanopore translocation. (
  • We support the presentation and discussion of unpublished work, while providing a unique atmosphere to interact, network, and advance our understanding of protein translocation. (
  • Berks BC (2015) The twin-arginine protein translocation pathway. (
  • Berks BC, Palmer T, Sargent F (2003) The Tat protein translocation pathway and its role in microbial physiology. (
  • The Sec-independent Twin-arginine Translocation System Can Transport Both Tightly Folded and Malfolded Proteins across the Thylakoid Membrane Hynds, P. J. (
  • The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. (
  • TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active translocation complex. (
  • Hemoglobin is not only an oxygen binding protein, it plays a key role in the respiratory pathway which includes binding to carbon dioxide once oxygen is released. (
  • The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) pathway is one of two fundamentally different systems for translocating proteins out of the bacterial cytoplasm. (
  • The Tat pathway is required for important cellular processes, including energy metabolism (Tat can export cofactor-containing proteins), cell division, cell motility, quorum sensing, heavy metal resistance, iron acquisition, and biofilm formation ( 3 ). (
  • In this paper it is reported that the Cdc25 protein, in addition to its stimulatory role in the RAS/adenylate cyclase pathway, regulates glucose transport. (
  • IFT122 negatively regulates the Shh pathway in the cilium at a step downstream of the Shh ligand and the transmembrane protein Smoothened, but upstream of the Gli2 transcription factor. (
  • We propose that the balance between positive and negative regulators of the Shh pathway at the cilium tip controls the output of the pathway and that Shh signaling regulates this balance through intraflagellar transport. (
  • Of the three mammalian Gli proteins (Glis 1-3), Gli2 and Gli3 are the primary regulators of the pathway in development ( 20 ). (
  • All three Gli proteins and the pathway regulators Sufu, TULP3, and Kif7 localize to cilia tips ( 7 , 25 - 27 ). (
  • This review focuses on the evolutionarily conserved chloroplast twin arginine transport (cpTat) pathway. (
  • Berks BC, Sargent F, Palmer T (2000) The Tat protein export pathway. (
  • The Sec and Tat export pathways operate in parallel, with the Sec machinery transporting unstructured precursors and the Tat pathway transporting folded proteins. (
  • Proteins are targeted to the Tat pathway by N-terminal signal peptides that contain an almost invariant twin-arginine motif. (
  • The system is moreover able to transport DHFR into the lumen with methotrexate bound in the active site, demonstrating that the ΔpH-driven transport of large, native structures is possible by this pathway. (
  • B ) Magnified view of the cleft pathway where the plasma protein concentration in the narrow space is lower than the mixed_plasma protein concentration in the interstitial space. (
  • The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. (
  • The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. (
  • The new import pathway is called ER-SURF, "since proteins basically surf along the ER surface," explains Katja Hansen, a Ph.D. student in Prof. Herrmann's lab and first author of the Science paper. (
  • Further studies are needed to unravel whether the ER-surf pathway is also relevant for the targeting of proteins to other cellular compartments. (
  • An ER surface retrieval pathway safeguards the import of mitochondrial membrane proteins in yeast, Science (2018). (
  • These findings raise the possibility that PLC-Cp stimulates glucose transport by the exercise/hypoxia-activated, not the insulin-activated, pathway in skeletal muscle. (
  • The results are discussed in terms of a multi-step pathway for transport and localization of MBP mRNA in oligodendrocytes. (
  • How the single transport steps of the carrier import pathway are connected to each other, was not known. (
  • After Fas stimulation, Daxx is activated and plays its role of pro-apoptotic protein in activating the c-JUN-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway. (
  • Molecular mechanisms of nuclear protein transport. (
  • Here, we show for the first time that small Esx proteins of the WXG100 family have an important molecular function by mediating toxin secretion," said Niederweis. (
  • Joshua Shaevitz , an assistant professor from the Department of Physics and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics at Princeton University, along with Mingzhai Sun, a postdoctoral associate at Princeton, and scientists from the Université Aix-Marseille in France, have discovered a new type of molecular machine used by bacteria for intracellular protein transport and gliding motility. (
  • In this paper, we show that bacteria possess molecular motors that are used for transporting proteins along the length of a cell. (
  • Intracellular transport had not been observed previously in bacteria and our results show that the class of molecular motors used for transport in higher organisms is conserved among bacteria. (
  • The molecular architecture of a 2D crystalline protein barrier with nano-scale pores necessarily affects the diffusion behavior of low-concentration solutes even if they are significantly smaller than the pore size [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (
  • Finally, in the fourth session, we will hear about novel functional properties of known transport proteins and the newly discovered molecular identities behind the well-known cellular-transport phenomena. (
  • These precursor proteins are then escorted by molecular chaperones from the ribosomes to the mitochondria. (
  • This second of two volumes discusses subfamily proteins which function in molecular and vesicular transport mechanisms inside the cell. (
  • I am conducting my research project and currently stuck at a point where I need to find out about the proteins role in active transport of ion (Na & K) in molecular level detail. (
  • The research labs of the associate professor Dr. Thomas Becker and Prof. Dr. Nikolaus Pfanner from the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Freiburg discovered a function of the metabolite channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane in protein transport. (
  • α-Synucleinopathies are severe neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormal accumulation and subsequent aggregation of insoluble α-Syn, a small and intrinsically unfolded cytosolic protein localized at synaptic terminals, in structures called Lewy bodies (LBs) in neuronal or glial cells [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • In addition to Cu acquisition, SPL7 triggers the expression of various microRNAs, denoted Cu-microRNAs, which promote the degradation of the transcripts encoding for dispensable Cu-utilizing proteins, including cytosolic Cu/Zn-SOD ( CSD1 ), chloroplast stroma Cu/Zn-SOD ( CSD2 ), several laccases, and plantacyanin [ 9 , 14 - 16 ]. (
  • Thereby, Xdj1 promotes the transfer of precursory proteins from the cytosolic chaperones to the TOM complex to initiate their import into the mitochondria . (
  • Recruitment of Cytosolic J-Proteins by TOM Receptors Promotes Mitochondrial Protein Biogenesis, Cell Reports (2018). (
  • Aerobic cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm (glycolysis), and mitochondria (Krebs cycle and electron transport chain). (
  • Glycolisis takes place in cytoplasm.Kreb cycle in mitochondrial stroma.Electron transport chain in inner membrane. (
  • It is part of the DDX1-HSPC117-FAM98B complex that shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm transporting RNAs [ PMID: 24608264 ]. (
  • As explained at About, cytoplasm is important because it transports materials throughout the cell of an organism. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, Cu transport toward the cytoplasm is mediated by the conserved CTR/COPT family of high-affinity Cu transport proteins. (
  • This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that resides in multiple locations in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. (
  • In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate apoptosis. (
  • In addition to a defect in glucose uptake, the cdc25-5 mutant strain exhibited differences in glucose metabolism, probably due to the decreased cAMP level and hence decreased protein kinase A activity. (
  • It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in muscle by insulin. (
  • We have hypothesized that the 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a signaling intermediary in exercise-stimulated glucose uptake. (
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin completely blocked insulin-stimulated transport, but did not inhibit AICAR- or contraction-stimulated transport. (
  • The PINOID gene was recently cloned and found to encode a protein-serine/threonine kinase. (
  • Here we show that the PINOID gene is inducible by auxin and that the protein kinase is present in the primordia of cotyledons, leaves and floral organs and in vascular tissue in developing organs or proximal to meristems. (
  • article{4103eda6-97a4-45fe-8b8c-d30ec247d415, abstract = {Many of the core proteins in Photosystem II (PS II) undergo reversible phosphorylation. (
  • These two configurations are known as the T or tense structure where the protein has a low affinity for oxygen and the R or relaxed structure where oxygen binds with higher affinity. (
  • The protein siderocalin, shown as a space-filling model, binds a complex of enterobactin and plutonium (center). (
  • The researchers also discovered that a second J-protein called Djp1 binds to the Tom70 receptor of the TOM complex, indicating that two different J-proteins associate with two distinct TOM receptors to deliver precursor proteins to the TOM complex. (
  • The closed BBSome complex (green) binds the intraflagellar transport machinery (IFT, blue) at the base of the cilium and starts travelling towards the tip of the cilium along a structure called the axoneme (grey), which is formed by microtubules. (
  • Once near the tip, the complex binds ARL6, becoming activated, and it can take ciliary membrane proteins (red) as cargo and transport them to the base of the cilium. (
  • The proteins binds to carrier precursors in the intermembrane space, to the TOM complex and the carrier translocase. (
  • In the nucleus, the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. (
  • This marks the SWEET family of proteins as drastically different from other sugar transport proteins. (
  • Biochemists have long speculate on the mechanistic details of the ammonium transport family of proteins (Amt), which include the Rhesus protein factors, known as the mammalian blood group system. (
  • This outlook paper reviews the contribution of our research group to the characterization of the function played by the Arabidopsis thaliana COPT1-6 family of proteins in plant Cu homeostasis. (
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • One of these polypeptides, termed Erv14p (ER-vesicle protein of 14 kD), corresponds to an open reading frame on yeast chromosome VII that is predicted to encode an integral membrane protein and shares sequence identity with the Drosophila cornichon gene product. (
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (
  • Lepidopteran cells ( Spodoptera frugiperda ) produced isometric virus-like particles (VLP) when infected with a recombinant baculovirus Ac61 that contained the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) coat protein gene modified with an N-terminal histidine tag (P3-6H). (
  • 4 Circadian clock proteins interact with E-box response elements in target gene promoters to affect transcriptional regulation. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. (
  • Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. (
  • TatA, the protein-translocating element of the Tat system, is a small transmembrane protein that assembles into ring-like oligomers of variable size. (
  • The intracellular signaling proteins that lead to exercise-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle have not been identified, although it is clear that there are separate signaling mechanisms for exercise- and insulinstimulated glucose transport. (
  • A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism. (
  • Transport proteins are proteins that move materials within an organism. (
  • Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins (SGLT1), the sodium-glucose cotransporter. (
  • It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1). (
  • Protein transport in thylakoids is accomplished by conserved ancestral prokaryotic plasma membrane translocases containing novel adaptations for the sub-organellar location. (
  • Predicted to localize to the plasma membrane proton-transporting V-type ATPase complex. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • 3 Intraflagellar Transport 122 Homolog (Chlamydomonas) (IFT122) Proteins from 2 manufacturers are available on (
  • It is a type of cellular passive transport. (
  • Diffusion is one of the types of cellular passive transport. (
  • Once translated, proteins are dispersed throughout the cellular environment. (
  • Rodriguez A, Perez-Gonzalez A, Nieto A. Cellular human CLE/C14orf166 protein interacts with influenza virus polymerase and is required for viral replication. (
  • The transport protein is crucial for life of multi cellular organisms that require a constant availability of oxygen for cellular respiration. (
  • S-layer proteins (SLPs) are generally 40-200 kDa and represent up to 15% of total cellular protein production [ 4 ]. (
  • The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane is able to regulate various cellular and tissue functions, with key role as cholesterol transporter for neurosteroid synthesis. (
  • Since the cellular content of chaperones increases upon heat stress , these proteins also termed heat shock proteins (Hsps). (
  • Mitochondria, the compartments that produce most cellular energy, contain surface receptors that facilitate protein uptake. (
  • The ER is a cellular compartment that serves as a central sorting station to deliver proteins to various cellular structures. (
  • These results suggest that P5 readthrough protein of PLRV may not be essential for cellular transport of virus through aphid vectors. (
  • Of these capabilities, the facility of MRP3 in conferring resistance to and mediating the transport of MTX is of particular interest because it raises the possibility that this pump is a component of the previously described cellular efflux system for this antimetabolite. (
  • On the basis of the capacity to transport MTX but not MTX-Glu 2 , it is concluded that MRP3 and MRP1 represent components of the previously described cellular efflux system for MTX. (
  • It has been determined that cellular uptake occurs primarily by carrier-mediated transport via the RFC1 (1 , 2 , 3 , 4) and that once inside the cell, MTX acts as a potent competitive inhibitor of DHFR. (
  • As the bulk of cellular sterols are segregated from the sensory machinery that controls homoeostatic responses, an important regulatory step involves sterol transport or signalling between membrane compartments. (
  • Cancer cells use a transport protein, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), to export lactate and thus to reduce cellular acidification. (
  • that is, they exist within and span the membrane across which they transport substances. (
  • The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion (i.e., passive transport) or active transport. (
  • Each carrier protein is designed to recognize only one substance or one group of very similar substances. (
  • Facilitated diffusion is considered passive transport because substances pass through a cell membrane with the assistance of a protein carrier, and no cell. (
  • Crystallization is ubiquitous in nature and is a standard way to purify chemical substances or determine the structure of proteins. (
  • The membrane spanning component changes configuration with the aid of chemical energy input (often through the use of an associated ATPase protein), thus translocating the chemical from one side of the membrane to the other. (
  • The SGLT proteins use the energy from this downhill sodium ion gradient created by the ATPase pump to transport glucose across the apical membrane , against an uphill glucose gradient. (
  • A related system operates in bacteria, apparently for the export of redox cofactor-containing proteins. (
  • The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) carries out the remarkable process of translocating fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. (
  • In the Tat system, which is structurally and mechanistically unrelated to the Sec translocase, proteins are translocated in a fully folded form ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • A subset of lumen proteins is transported across the thylakoid membrane by a Sec-independent translocase that recognizes a twin-arginine motif in the targeting signal. (
  • The translocase of the outer membrane, also termed TOM complex, forms the entry gate for the precursor proteins. (
  • Furthermore, it is shown that the decrease in glucose uptake activity is not due to a decrease in protein synthesis or to an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Directed transport of the mRNA binding protein, zipcode binding protein1 (ZBP1), into developing axons is believed to play an important role in mRNA localization and local protein synthesis. (
  • One function of mRNA localization is to ensure localized synthesis of the encoded protein. (
  • We have determined the individual and combined effects of insulin and prior exercise on leg muscle protein synthesis and degradation, amino acid transport, glucose uptake, and alanine metabolism. (
  • Protein synthesis and degradation were determined as rates of intramuscular phenylalanine utilization and appearance, and muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) was also determined. (
  • Decreased amino acid availability may limit the stimulatory effect of insulin on muscle protein synthesis after exercise. (
  • Experiments with radio-labelled derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the predominant naturally occurring auxin, indicated that IAA is transported downward from its main site of synthesis, the shoot tip, to the root. (
  • TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. (
  • Therefore, it was concluded that plastid transport into plant and diatom plastids also depended on sequence-specific patterns or motifs that are not present and/or not identical to those in dinoflagellate transit peptides. (
  • Perez-Gonzalez A, Rodriguez A, Huarte M, Salanueva IJ, Nieto A. hCLE/CGI-99, a human protein that interacts with the influenza virus polymerase, is a mRNA transcription modulator. (
  • Transport of mRNA to distal compartments in neurons, such as growth cones and dendritic spines, ensures local translation of proteins in response to receptor signaling. (
  • its contribution to the trafficking of mRNA binding proteins important for mRNA localization is not well understood. (
  • Myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA is localized to myelin produced by oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system. (
  • MBP mRNA microinjected into oligodendrocytes in primary culture is assembled into granules in the perikaryon, transported along the processes, and localized to the myelin compartment. (
  • In this work, microinjection of various deleted and chimeric RNAs was used to delineate regions in MBP mRNA that are required for transport and localization in oligodendrocytes. (
  • The results indicate that transport requires a 21-nucleotide sequence, termed the RNA transport signal (RTS), in the 3′ UTR of MBP mRNA. (
  • Insertion of the RTS from MBP mRNA into nontransported mRNAs, causes the RNA to be transported to the oligodendrocyte processes. (
  • If the coding region of the mRNA is deleted, the RLR is no longer required for localization, and the region between nucleotide 667 and 953, containing the RTS, is sufficient for both RNA transport and localization. (
  • This provided evidence that mRNA encoding a protein synthesized on free polysomes was spatially localized within the cell. (
  • Transport and localization of exogenous myelin basic protein mRNA microinjected into oligodendrocytes. (
  • We have studied transport and localization of MBP mRNA in oligodendrocytes in culture by microinjecting labeled mRNA into living cells and analyzing the intracellular distribution of the injected RNA by confocal microscopy. (
  • Within minutes, the RNA forms granules which, in the case of MBP mRNA, are transported down the processes to the periphery of the cell where the distribution again becomes dispersed. (
  • This work represents the first characterization of intracellular movement of mRNA in living cells, and the first description of the role of RNA granules in transport and localization of mRNA in cells. (
  • Further investigation into the regulation of αENaC by Per1 revealed that cortical αENaC mRNA was reduced in Per1 KO mice, and Per1 knockdown resulted in reduced αENaC protein levels in immortalized murine renal cortical CD (CCD) mpkCCD c14 cells. (
  • Despite exceptional sequence diversity, S-layer proteins (SLPs) share important characteristics such as their ability to form crystalline sheets punctuated with nano-scale pores, and their propensity for charged amino acids, leading to acidic or basic isoelectric points. (
  • The postdoc Łukasz Opaliński from Thomas Becker's research group demonstrated that the J-protein Xdj1 is involved in the transport of mitochondrial proteins. (
  • These receptors specifically recognize mitochondrial proteins and direct them through pores into the interior of mitochondria," explains Prof. Johannes Herrmann, a specialist for mitochondrial biology. (
  • In a close collaboration with Professor Maya Schuldiner from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel, Herrmann's team observed that mitochondrial proteins are initially targeted to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • Because the cdc25-1 mutant is not impaired in its cAMP metabolism, it is concluded that this effect on glucose transport is independent of cAMP levels. (
  • In this review, sphingolipid transport proteins and the processes catalyzed by them are regarded as essential components of sphingolipid metabolism. (
  • Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) is an acyl-CoA synthetase highly expressed in skeletal muscle and modulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism by converting fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA. (
  • Membrane Transport and Metabolism. (
  • The import of carrier proteins is particularly important for mitochondrial metabolism. (
  • These mechanisms of movement are known as carrier-mediated transport. (
  • Mechanisms of intracellular protein transport. (
  • Similar mechanisms are likely to act even more effectively when the endothelial glycocalyx has a low permeability to plasma proteins and contributes to the formation of a plasma ultrafiltrate with low_plasma protein concentration (and low-protein osmotic pressure). (
  • The increase in glucose transport with the combination of maximal AICAR plus maximal insulin treatments was partially additive, suggesting that these stimuli increase glucose transport by different mechanisms. (
  • In mammals, Rhesus proteins regulate acid and ion balance in kidney and liver cells. (
  • RNA binding proteins not only transport but also regulate translation of mRNAs ( Kiebler and Bassell, 2006 ). (
  • In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. (
  • In conclusion, the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake and alanine transport and to suppress protein degradation in skeletal muscle is increased after resistance exercise. (
  • Activation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle by phospholipase C and phorbol ester. (
  • In the present study, we used the rat epitrochlearis muscle to evaluate the possibility that PKC activity mediates the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin in mammalian skeletal muscle. (
  • These findings argue against a role of diacylglycerol-mediated PKC activation in the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose transport by insulin. (
  • They also show that the BC3H-1 myocyte is not a good model for studying regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle. (
  • To ensure cell homeostasis, an exchange between the individual compartments, such as protein transport, is an essential process. (
  • the process involves transport across up to three membrane systems with routing through three aqueous compartments. (
  • Subsequently, helper proteins, the small TIM proteins, guide the precursors to the inner membrane. (
  • Insulin infusion at rest did not change the rate of protein degradation (48+/-3 nmol x min(-1) 100 ml(-1) leg volume). (
  • In contrast, insulin infusion after exercise significantly decreased the rate of protein degradation (52+/-9 nmol x min(-1) x 100 ml(-1) leg volume). (
  • The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1 , SYD-2 , and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. (
  • Identification of a specific motif of the DSS1 protein required for proteasome interaction and p53 protein degradation. (
  • The researchers also investigated the transport properties of SfMCT and possible binding sites for inhibitors. (
  • Both meristem organisation and growth of the primary root were rescued when seedlings were grown in the presence of polar auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA). (
  • Treatment of seedlings or plant tissues with inhibitors of this polar auxin transport (PAT), such as naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA) or 2,3,5,-triiodo-benzoic acid (TIBA), showed that PAT provides directional and positional information for developmental processes such as vascular differentiation, apical dominance, organ development and tropic growth. (
  • A heterodimeric protein complex, composed of karyopherin alpha and beta (or importin alpha and beta) functions to target proteins containing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) to the NPCs. (
  • The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple homologs. (
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • In response to Cu limitation, Arabidopsis master Cu homeostasis regulator SPL7 (SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like 7), similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Crr1 transcription factor [ 8 ], activates the expression of multiple genes that contain within their promoter repetitive Cu-responsive elements (CuREs) with a GTAC motif as the essential core sequence [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • The [ 3 H]LTC 4 -labeled 190-kilodalton protein was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against the COOH-terminal sequence of multidrug resistance-associated protein. (
  • The ribosomes inside this fluid are the cell's protein factories, which also produce precursor forms of proteins for the mitochondria. (
  • Proteins destined to mitochondria, the cell's powerhouse, are not directly transported to mitochondria but are directed to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, where they "surf" along its surface. (
  • Transport of proteins into and out of the nucleus occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). (
  • Two additional proteins, the GTPase Ran and p10, are required to translocate the docked NLS protein into the nucleus. (
  • The retina projects proteins into more than 30 different areas of the central nervous system, but for the study, her team chose to evaluate the two major targets: the superior colliculus (which analyzes motion in the visual field and controls goal-directed head and eye movements), and the lateral geniculate nucleus (which analyzes the shape of objects we see and sends that information to a higher brain area, the visual cortex). (
  • These are proteins that are usually in the nucleus of a cell, but we found them far, far away from the nucleus, participating in some form of communication. (
  • Transport of maize streak virus (MSV) DNA into the nucleus of host cells is essential for virus replication and the presence of virus particles in the nuclei of infected cells implies that coat protein (CP) must enter the nucleus. (
  • Both ss and ds DNA moved into the nucleus when co-injected with the CP but not with E. coli proteins alone. (
  • These results suggest that, in addition to entering the nucleus where it is required for encapsidation of the viral ss DNA, the MSV CP facilitates the rapid transport of viral (ss or ds) DNA into the nucleus. (
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (
  • A vesicular transport protein is a transmembrane or membrane associated protein. (
  • Examples include: Archain ARFs Clathrin Caveolin Dynamin and related proteins, such as the EHD protein family Rab proteins SNAREs Vesicular transport adaptor proteins e.g. (
  • Endosomes (receptor-mediated endocytosis) Membrane transport protein Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.990 --- vesicular transport proteins Vesicular+Transport+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Yasushi Sako (1 October 2010). (
  • Researchers have identified RELCH, a tethering protein that is essential for non-vesicular transport of cholesterol. (
  • Small G Proteins: Arf family GTPases in vesicular transport. (
  • Abnormal expression of vesicular transport proteins in pulmonary arterial hypertension in monocrotaline-treated rats. (
  • Intracellular vesicular transport is shown to be dysfunctional in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (
  • The role of vesicular transport proteins in synaptic transmission and neural degeneration. (
  • Our studies indicate that the different tissue specificity, Cu-regulated expression, and subcellular localization dictate COPT-specialized contribution to plant Cu transport and distribution. (
  • The subcellular localization and function of this protein are modulated by post-translational modifications, including sumoylation, phosphorylation and polyubiquitination. (
  • The Hsp70 chaperone is especially important for chaperoning precursor proteins into mitochondria. (
  • The translocases of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) forms the entry gate for almost all mitochondrial precursor proteins. (
  • Specific receptor proteins like Tom22 and Tom70 recognize the incoming precursor proteins. (
  • Copper (Cu) functions as a redox active cofactor in a wide variety of plant proteins including plastocyanin, cytochrome c oxidase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), ethylene receptors, laccases, ascorbate and amine oxidases, plantacyanin, and polyphenol oxidases. (
  • The SemiSWEETs, among the smallest known transport proteins, assemble in pairs, thereby creating a structure that looks like their bigger plant and human SWEET homologs. (
  • Scientists at the University of Groningen studied the structure of a transport system that allows bacteria to pick up aspartate, a building block for proteins, from their environment. (
  • The structure of a transport complex used by bacteria to import aspartate has been mapped in unique detail by University of Groningen scientists. (
  • Pathways for water and plasma proteins across the endothelial barrier that may be regulated by ANP. (
  • A ) Pathways for plasma protein transport across the endothelial permeability barrier that ANP may modulate, including water and plasma transport through the interendothelial cleft at sites where there are infrequent breaks in the junctional strand (see refs. (
  • In conclusion, the bidirectional transport of glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate by SLC38A10, and the immunostaining detected in neurons and astrocytes, suggest that SLC38A10 plays a role in pathways involved in neurotransmission. (
  • The structures also provide an indication of how the transport system prevents leakage of sodium. (
  • Chaperone proteins promote folding of other proteins into their three-dimensional structures. (
  • Do all SVs go back to the soma by retrograde transport or are SV clusters stably maintained at synaptic sites? (
  • Additionally, one of the most important goals in the synaptic vesicle transport field is to determine how the activity of KIF1A is regulated. (
  • We have identified sister of open brain ( sopb ), a null allele of mouse Intraflagellar transport protein 122 ( Ift122 ). (
  • These sugars are taken up into cells, no matter whether these are bacteria, yeast, human cells or plant cells, by proteins that create sugar-specific pores in the membrane that surrounds a cell. (
  • Recent advances in understanding the machinery of vesicle transport have established general principles that underlie a broad variety of physiological processes, including cell surface growth, the biogenesis of distinct intracellular organelles, endocytosis, and the controlled release of hormones and neurotransmitters. (
  • As the creation and maintenance of chemiosmotic gradients require energy input from the cell, this is a form of active transport. (
  • Alcock F, Baker MA, Greene NP, Palmer T, Wallace MI, Berks BC (2013) Live cell imaging shows reversible assembly of the TatA component of the twin-arginine protein transport system. (
  • A new study from Scripps Research , which appears this month in Cell Reports , examines these proteins in unprecedented detail--providing surprising new insights into how visual signals are distributed to different regions of the brain. (
  • Because this type of neuronal protein exists in other parts of the body, it may play a role in other nerve-cell communication disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (
  • Live cell imaging of mCherryZBP1 in neurons expressing GTD showed an increase in the number of motile particles, run length, and stimulated anterograde moving ZBP1 particles, suggesting that MyoVa controls availability of ZBP1 for microtubule-dependent transport. (
  • Haploid cells that lack Erv14p are viable but display a modest defect in bud site selection because a transmembrane secretory protein, Axl2p, is not efficiently delivered to the cell surface. (
  • Aspartate is picked up from the environment, transported through the cell membrane and released on the inside of the cell. (
  • Homologous sequences are present in several other localized mRNAs, suggesting that the RTS represents a general transport signal in a variety of different cell types. (
  • In order to function properly, mitochondria are dependent on roughly 1,000 kinds of proteins, which are imported from the cytosol, the fluid inside the cell. (
  • On the right, the transporter protein moves the carrier through the phospholipid bilayer and ejects the glucose and sodium ion inside the cell. (
  • In cell lines doubly infected with Ac61 and AcFL, VLP were formed that contained PLRV-RNA packaged in P3-6H coat protein (FL). (
  • Ceramide transfer protein (CERT) mediates non‐vesicular transfer of ceramide from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus and thus catalyzes the rate‐limiting step of sphingomyelin biosynthesis. (
  • Our results indicate that multidrug resistance-associated protein mediates the ATP-dependent transport of LTC 4 and structurally related anionic amphiphilic conjugates. (
  • Using Xenopus laevis oocytes overexpressing SLC38A10, we show that SLC38A10 mediates bidirectional transport of L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-glutamate, and D-aspartate, and efflux of L-serine. (
  • Members of the GLUT family of glucose uniporters then transport the glucose across the basolateral membrane, and into the peritubular capillaries . (
  • Specifically, he proposed that the accumulation of glucose in the intestinal epithelium across the brush border membrane was [is] coupled to downhill Na+ transport cross the brush border. (
  • Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and approximately 20% as great, respectively, as that induced by a maximal insulin stimulus. (
  • Neither the submaximal nor maximal effects of PLC-Cp and insulin on glucose transport were additive, suggesting that PLC-Cp interferes with insulin action. (
  • In contrast, there was no additive effect on glucose transport with the combination of AICAR plus contraction. (
  • The researchers tested three Amt proteins that are present in the bacteria and also determined the speed with which they allow ammonium to pass through the membrane. (
  • Based on the preliminary analysis of the ABC transport systems of the bacteria we chose, we hypothesized that it would have different affinities for different carbohydrates", says Dr. Kanaujia. (
  • Research has correlated defects in specific carrier proteins with specific diseases. (
  • A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein that acts as such a carrier. (
  • The transport proteins that move solutes against a concentration gradient are called carrier proteins. (
  • Dr. Lars Ellerieder from Thomas Becker`s research lab showed that porin/VDAC stimulates the import of carrier proteins into the inner membrane. (
  • Thus, porin/VDAC spatially links the single transport steps and thereby stimulate import of carrier proteins. (
  • Thylakoids require the coordinated expression of both nuclear- and plastid-encoded proteins to allow rapid response to changing environmental conditions. (
  • and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex. (
  • Mutagenesis of a potential nuclear localization signal in the CP resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation of the mutant protein. (
  • To investigate if CP might also be involved in viral DNA nuclear transport, Escherichia coli -expressed CP, together with TOTO-1-labeled viral ss or ds DNA, was microinjected into maize and tobacco epidermal cells. (
  • Its repression can be relieved by the sequestration of this protein into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies or nucleoli. (
  • In vitro and in vivo measurement of defined cargoes and motors indicated that opposing motors are simultaneously engaged on cargoes that undergo bidirectional transport and suggest a potential for regulation during activation by controlling motor type and number. (
  • It could be proposed therefore that directed ZBP1 transport is carried out by and requires a fine-tuned regulation of multiple microtubule and actin motors. (
  • The current study aimed to investigate radiation-induced regulation of iron proteins including ferritin subunits in rats. (
  • The circadian clock protein period 1 (Per1) contributes to the regulation of expression of the α subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel at the basal level and in response to the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. (
  • These data support a role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the coordinate regulation of genes involved in renal sodium reabsorption. (
  • In solutions under study colloids/proteins interact via steric, hydrodynamic, van der Waals and/or electrostatic interactions. (
  • However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. (
  • This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Membrane Transport Proteins" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). (
  • Return to Membrane Transport Protein . (
  • Identification and characterization of a mammalian mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette membrane protein. (
  • Sodium-Potassium Pumps are an example of active transport. (
  • This causes the protein to open up the intercellular world and the loss of the phosphate causes the pump to have a lower affinity for potassium and a higher affinity for sodium. (
  • The sodium/potassium pump is active transport because there is coupled transport where one molecule's transfer is dependent on the other molecule's transfer. (
  • 7 Given the critical role of ENaC in sodium transport and BP control, the results suggest that the clock contributes to circadian fluctuations in sodium excretion and BP. (
  • Cargo is loaded onto IFT particles and transported in an anterograde direction from the base of the cilium toward the cilium tip by kinesin 2 motors and, in a retrograde direction, back to the cilium base by cytoplasmic dynein 2 ( 10 ). (
  • On the basis of mutant phenotypes and measurement of transport rates, IFT proteins of the A and B complexes have been suggested to act in retrograde and anterograde transport, respectively ( 9 , 12 - 14 ), although this strict classification of IFT A and B complex function remains equivocal ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • MyoVa inhibition resulted in increased transport dynamics and reversal of orientation of ZBP1 particles in neurons favoring anterograde movement. (
  • Cdc48 and ubiquilins confer selective anterograde protein sorting and entry into the multivesicular body in yeast. (
  • One major question such an allele could address is what happens when synapses are allowed to develop and then anterograde transport is acutely impaired? (
  • This section covers the transport of a protein into a specific organelle--the mitochondria. (
  • The interdisciplinary team studied the role of J-proteins, which are helpers of the Hsp70 chaperones, in the transport of proteins to the mitochondria. (
  • The newly synthesized proteins, often prone to misfolding and aggregating, are bound and stored on the ER surface until they can be passed on to mitochondria," explains Herrmann. (
  • Mitochondria further depend on the import of about 1.000 different proteins from the cytosol. (
  • Why Is Facilitated Diffusion Considered Passive Transport? (
  • The uniporter is also often included as a category of chemiosmotic transporter, although a uniporter can also be considered a facilitated diffusion protein on the basis of function. (