Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.

A single nuclear transcript encoding mitochondrial RPS14 and SDHB of rice is processed by alternative splicing: common use of the same mitochondrial targeting signal for different proteins. (1/10201)

The rice mitochondrial genome has a sequence homologous to the gene for ribosomal protein S14 (rps14), but the coding sequence is interrupted by internal stop codons. A functional rps14 gene was isolated from the rice nuclear genome, suggesting a gene-transfer event from the mitochondrion to the nucleus. The nuclear rps14 gene encodes a long N-terminal extension showing significant similarity to a part of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) protein from human and a malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Isolation of a functional rice sdhB cDNA and subsequent sequence comparison to the nuclear rps14 indicate that the 5' portions of the two cDNAs are identical. The sdhB genomic sequence shows that the SDHB-coding region is divided into two exons. Surprisingly, the RPS14-coding region is located between the two exons. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that both sdhB and rps14 are present at a single locus in the rice nucleus. These findings strongly suggest that the two gene transcripts result from a single mRNA precursor by alternative splicing. Protein blot analysis shows that the size of the mature RPS14 is 16.5 kDa, suggesting removal of the N-terminal 22.6-kDa peptide region. Considering that the rice mitochondrial genome lacks the sdhB gene but contains the rps14-related sequence, transfer of the sdhB gene seems to have occurred before the transfer of the rps14 gene. The migration of the mitochondrial rps14 sequence into the already existing sdhB gene could bestow the capacity for nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting.  (+info)

Intragenic inversion of mtDNA: a new type of pathogenic mutation in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy. (2/10201)

We report an unusual molecular defect in the mitochondrially encoded ND1 subunit of NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy and isolated complex I deficiency. The mutation is an inversion of seven nucleotides within the ND1 gene, which maintains the reading frame. The inversion, which alters three highly conserved amino acids in the polypeptide, was heteroplasmic in the patient's muscle but was not detectable in blood. This is the first report of a pathogenic inversion mutation in human mtDNA.  (+info)

Distinct NMDA receptor subpopulations contribute to long-term potentiation and long-term depression induction. (3/10201)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are persistent modifications of synaptic strength that have been implicated in learning, memory, and neuronal development. Despite their opposing effects, both forms of plasticity can be triggered by the activation of NMDA receptors. One mechanism proposed for this bidirectional response is that the specific patterns of afferent stimulation producing LTP and LTD activate to different degrees a uniform receptor population. A second possibility is that these patterns activate separate receptor subpopulations composed of different NMDA receptor (NR) subunits. To test this hypothesis we examined the inhibition of LTP and LTD by a series of competitive NMDA receptor antagonists that varied in their affinities for NR2A/B and NR2C/D subunits. The potency for the inhibition of LTP compared with inhibition of LTD varied widely among the agents. Antagonists with higher affinity for NR2A/B subunits relative to NRC/D subunits showed more potent inhibition of LTP than of LTD. D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, which binds to NR2A/B with very high affinity relative to NR2C/D, showed an approximately 1000-fold higher potency for LTP than for LTD. These results show that distinct subpopulations of NMDA receptors characterized by different NR2 subunits contribute to the induction mechanisms of potentiation and depression.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the cysteine-rich domain of TFIIH p44 subunit. (4/10201)

In an effort to understand the structure function relationship of TFIIH, a transcription/repair factor, we focused our attention on the p44 subunit, which plays a central role in both mechanisms. The amino-terminal portion of p44 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of the XPD helicase activity; here we show that its carboxyl-terminal domain is essential for TFIIH transcription activity and that it binds three zinc atoms through two independent modules. The first contains a C4 zinc finger motif, whereas the second is characterized by a CX(2)CX(2-4)FCADCD motif, corresponding to interleaved zinc binding sites. The solution structure of this second module reveals an unexpected homology with the regulatory domain of protein kinase C and provides a framework to study its role at the molecular level.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulatory subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase. I. Identification of the kinase and its role in the turnoff of phosphodiesterase in vitro. (5/10201)

Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an essential component in retinal phototransduction. PDE is regulated by Pgamma, the regulatory subunit of PDE, and GTP/Talpha, the GTP-bound alpha subunit of transducin. In previous studies (Tsuboi, S., Matsumoto, H. , Jackson, K. W., Tsujimoto, K., Williamas, T., and Yamazaki, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15016-15023; Tsuboi, S., Matsumoto, H., and Yamazaki, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15024-15029), we showed that Pgamma is phosphorylated by a previously unknown kinase (Pgamma kinase) in a GTP-dependent manner in photoreceptor outer segment membranes. We also showed that phosphorylated Pgamma loses its ability to interact with GTP/Talpha, but gains a 10-15 times higher ability to inhibit GTP/Talpha-activated PDE than that of nonphosphorylated Pgamma. Thus, we propose that the Pgamma phosphorylation is probably involved in the recovery phase of phototransduction through shut off of GTP/Talpha-activated PDE. Here we demonstrate that all known Pgammas preserve a consensus motif for cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5), a protein kinase believed to be involved in neuronal cell development, and that Pgamma kinase is Cdk5 complexed with p35, a neuronal Cdk5 activator. Mutational analysis of Pgamma indicates that all known Pgammas contain a P-X-T-P-R sequence and that this sequence is required for the Pgamma phosphorylation by Pgamma kinase. In three different column chromatographies of a cytosolic fraction of frog photoreceptor outer segments, the Pgamma kinase activity exactly coelutes with Cdk5 and p35. The Pgamma kinase activity ( approximately 85%) is also immunoprecipitated by a Cdk5-specific antibody, and the immunoprecipitate phosphorylates Pgamma. Finally, recombinant Cdk5/p35, which were expressed using clones from a bovine retina cDNA library, phosphorylates Pgamma in frog outer segment membranes in a GTP-dependent manner. These observations suggest that Cdk5 is probably involved in the recovery phase of phototransduction through phosphorylation of Pgamma complexed with GTP/Talpha in mature vertebrate retinal photoreceptors.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulatory subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase. II. Its role in the turnoff of phosphodiesterase in vivo. (6/10201)

Retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is regulated by Pgamma, the regulatory subunit of PDE, and GTP/Talpha, the GTP-bound alpha subunit of transducin. In the accompanying paper (Matsuura, I., Bondarenko, V. A., Maeda, T., Kachi, S., Yamazaki, M., Usukura, J., Hayashi, F., and Yamazaki, A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 32950-32957), we have shown that all known Pgammas contain a specific phosphorylation motif for cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) and that the unknown kinase is Cdk5 complexed with its activator. Here, using frog rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) isolated by a new method, we show that Cdk5 is involved in light-dependent Pgamma phosphorylation in vivo. Under dark conditions only negligible amounts of Pgamma were phosphorylated. However, under illumination that bleached less than 0.3% of the rhodopsin, approximately 4% of the total Pgamma was phosphorylated in less than 10 s. Pgamma dephosphorylation occurred in less than 1 s after the light was turned off. Analysis of the phosphorylated amino acid, inhibition of Pgamma phosphorylation by Cdk inhibitors in vivo and in vitro, and two-dimensional peptide map analysis of Pgamma phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro indicate that Cdk5 phosphorylates a Pgamma threonine in the same manner in vivo and in vitro. These observations, together with immunological data showing the presence of Cdk5 in ROS, suggest that Cdk5 is involved in light-dependent Pgamma phosphorylation in ROS and that the phosphorylation is significant and reversible. In an homogenate of frog ROS, PDE activated by light/guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) was inhibited by Pgamma alone, but not by Pgamma complexed with GDP/Talpha or GTPgammaS/Talpha. Under these conditions, Pgamma phosphorylated by Cdk5 inhibited the light/GTPgammaS-activated PDE even in the presence of GTPgammaS/Talpha. These observations suggest that phosphorylated Pgamma interacts with and inhibits light/GTPgammaS-activated PDE, but does not interact with GTPgammaS/Talpha in the homogenate. Together, our results strongly suggest that after activation of PDE by light/GTP, Pgamma is phosphorylated by Cdk5 and the phosphorylated Pgamma inhibits GTP/Talpha-activated PDE, even in the presence of GTP/Talpha in ROS.  (+info)

Mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATP synthase. Subunit regions on the F1 motor shielded by F(0), Functional significance, and evidence for an involvement of the unique F(0) subunit F(6). (7/10201)

Studies reported here were undertaken to gain greater molecular insight into the complex structure of mitochondrial ATP synthase (F(0)F(1)) and its relationship to the enzyme's function and motor-related properties. Significantly, these studies, which employed N-terminal sequence, mass spectral, proteolytic, immunological, and functional analyses, led to the following novel findings. First, at the top of F(1) within F(0)F(1), all six N-terminal regions derived from alpha + beta subunits are shielded, indicating that one or more F(0) subunits forms a "cap." Second, at the bottom of F(1) within F(0)F(1), the N-terminal region of the single delta subunit and the C-terminal regions of all three alpha subunits are shielded also by F(0). Third, and in contrast, part of the gamma subunit located at the bottom of F(1) is already shielded in F(1), indicating that there is a preferential propensity for interaction with other F(1) subunits, most likely delta and epsilon. Fourth, and consistent with the first two conclusions above that specific regions at the top and bottom of F(1) are shielded by F(0), further proteolytic shaving of alpha and beta subunits at these locations eliminates the capacity of F(1) to couple a proton gradient to ATP synthesis. Finally, evidence was obtained that the F(0) subunit called "F(6)," unique to animal ATP synthases, is involved in shielding F(1). The significance of the studies reported here, in relation to current views about ATP synthase structure and function in animal mitochondria, is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of peroxisomal Pex5p from rat liver. Pex5p in the Pex5p-Pex14p membrane complex is a transmembrane protein. (8/10201)

Pex5p is the receptor for the vast majority of peroxisomal matrix proteins. Here, we show that about 15% of rat liver Pex5p is found in the peroxisomal fraction representing 0.06% of total peroxisomal protein. This population of Pex5p displays all the characteristics of an intrinsic membrane protein. Protease protection assays indicate that this pool of Pex5p has domains exposed on both sides of the peroxisomal membrane. The strong interaction of Pex5p with the membrane of the organelle is not affected by mild protease treatment of intact organelles, conditions that result in the partial degradation of Pex13p. Cytosolic Pex5p is a monomeric protein. In contrast, virtually all peroxisomal Pex5p was found to be part of a stable 250-kDa protein assembly. This complex was isolated and shown to comprise just two subunits, Pex5p and Pex14p.  (+info)

Neural progenitor number is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B p65 and p50 subunit-dependent proliferation rather than cell survival
PMID 21455670] Genetic variation in genes encoding for polymerase ? subunits associates with breast cancer risk, tumour characteristics and survival ...
Question 8: In some protein assemblies, one subunit may be referred to as a regulatory subunit and another as a catalytic subunit. An enzyme composed of both regulatory and catalytic subunits when assembled is often referred to as a ________. ...
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab75993 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subunit-dependent postsynaptic expression of kainate receptors on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1. AU - Wondolowski, Joyce. AU - Frerking, Matthew. PY - 2009/1/14. Y1 - 2009/1/14. N2 - Kainate receptors (KARs) contribute to postsynaptic excitation in only a select subset of neurons. To define the parameters that specify the postsynaptic expression of KARs, we examined the contribution of KARs to EPSCs on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1. Interneurons in stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare express KARs both with and without the GluR5 subunit, but KAR-mediated EPSCs are generated mainly, if not entirely, by GluR5-containing KARs. Extrasynaptic glutamate spillover profoundly recruits AMPA receptors (AMPARs) with little effect on KARs, indicating that KARs are targeted at the synapse more precisely than AMPARs. However, spontaneous EPSCs with a conventional AMPAR component did not have a resolvable contribution of KARs, suggesting that the KARs that contribute to the ...
Multiple voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary mediators of cell excitability. They are multimers that consist of the pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits. Although ion permeability and voltage sensing are primarily determined by the alpha subunit, beta subunits are important modulators of sodium channel function. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of axotomy on the expression of beta subunits (beta(1), beta(2) and beta(3)) and coexpression of Na(v)1.3 and beta(3) subunits in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We used sciatic nerve transection models or spared nerve injury (SNI) models in the rat. In reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, there were no significant differences between contralateral and ipsilateral DRGs of beta(1) and beta(2) mRNA 3 days after axotomy. beta(3) mRNA expression in ipsilateral DRGs increased significantly compared with contralateral DRGs 3 days after axotomy. In in situ hybridization histochemistry, beta(1) ...
The SWI/SNF complex contains 12-15 subunits [1-3], which are combinatorially assembled to create as many as several thousand biochemically distinct complexes. In development, changes to composition of SWI/SNF can drive developmental progression [4, 5]. In cancer, SWI/SNF is among the most commonly found mutations, with mutations observed in as many as 20% of tumors [6, 7]. However, these mutations are not equally spread across the subunits. Mutations in the ARID family members (ARID1A, ARID1B and ARID2) and the ATPase subunits (BRG1 and BRM) are more prevalent than in the other subunits [6, 7]. Additionally, in some cancers multiple subunits are mutated. This is the case in hepatocellular carcinoma where mutations have been identified in all three ARID subunits [8-10]. In other cancers, mutations are highly specific, such as BRG1 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) [11] and SNF5 mutations in malignant rhabdoid tumors [12], and ARID1A in ovarian clear cell ...
The receptor subtypes involved in the physiological and pharmacological actions of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in peripheral and endocrine tissues are not clear. Information about the molecular characteristics of GABA(A) receptors in peripheral endocrine tissues is only available for the pancreas and the adrenal medulla. Using reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the widespread expression of GABA(A) receptors subunits in rat peripheral tissues, including adrenal, ovary, testis, placenta, uterus, and small intestine is shown. It is shown that GABA(A) receptor subunits are expressed in multiple endocrine tissues in a tissue specific manner. These results give an insight into the likely pharmacological properties of these GABA(A) receptors in these tissues. The gonadal endocrine tissues such as the placenta, ovary and the testis express greater range of GABA(A) receptor subunits relative to the adrenal gland. The tissues with greater smooth muscle content, the small intestine and
AMP-activated protein kinase is an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric enzyme whose primary role involves maintenance of energy balance in the eukaryotic cell. The structure and function of each of the subunits is conserved through evolution; however, although there are two or three genes encoding each subunit in the mammalian systems, there is but a single gene for each of them in Drosophila, making it an attractive model system to study the functions of AMPK in vivo (Pan and Hardie, 2002). Although it has been the focus of much research, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying the regulatory functions of the β and γ subunits: β acts as a scaffold via its C-terminal domain and contains a carbohydrate-binding domain that associates the mammalian enzyme complex with glycogen, whereas the gamma subunit contains the so-called Bateman domains, responsible for binding of AMP and therefore allosteric activation of AMPK (Hardie, 2007). Finally, all three subunits are essential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and applications of affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits of G proteins. AU - Pang, Iok-Hou. AU - Smrcka, Alan V.. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - This chapter discusses synthesis and applications of affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits of G proteins. All G proteins composed of α,β, and γ subunits. Stimulation of the proteins is effected by exchange of GTP for GDP. This activation can be mimicked, in vitro, by the binding of AIF4 - in concert with guanosine 5-diphosphate (GDP). Activation promotes dissociation of α and βγ subunits. Because generic purified complexes of βγ subunits interact with a wide variety of unique α subunits, it is possible to use βγ as an affinity reagent for the study of α subunits. The development of a functional immobilized βγ resin provided a novel method for isolating and purifying α subunits of G proteins and a unique means for studying the interaction between α and ...
Two main results have emerged from this work. First, we have established that the quaternary organization of P2X subunits can be accurately defined using a combination of BRET and fluorescence complementation. Second, we have demonstrated that P2X5 and P2X2 subunits associate in a new heteromeric receptor with two stoichiometries. We have provided evidence that this receptor is endogenously expressed within specific neuronal populations, and displays functional properties that were previously thought to be unique to the P2X7 receptor (Surprenant et al., 1996).. Our cell surface assay (Chaumont et al., 2004) allowed a preliminary screening of P2X subunits interacting at the plasma membrane. Indeed, this approach has accurately identified subunits known to interact with P2X2 or P2X5, such as P2X3 and P2X1, respectively (Lewis et al., 1995; Haines et al., 1999; Lê et al., 1999; Surprenant et al., 2000), and revealed P2X2 subunits as a new assembly partner of P2X5. In native tissue, P2X2 and P2X5 ...
Knockdown of glutamate-cysteine ligase by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) reveals that both catalytic and modulatory subunits are essential for the survival of primary neurons ...
This unit should take you approximately 24 hours to complete. ☐ Subunit 3.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.2: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.3: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4: 5.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.3: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.4: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.5: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.6: 1.0 hour. ☐ Subunit 3.5: 3.0hours ☐ Subunit 3.6: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.7: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.8: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9: 4.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.3: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.4: 1.0 hour. Unit3 Learning Outcomes ...
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
From NCBI Gene:. The protein encoded by this gene is a critical subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, members of the glutamate receptor channel superfamily which are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. These subunits play a key role in the plasticity of synapses, which is believed to underlie memory and learning. Cell-specific factors are thought to control expression of different isoforms, possibly contributing to the functional diversity of the subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
Dive into the research topics of Subregional differences in GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor subunit expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of sedentary versus physically active rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CACNB1 (calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Date: June 2017 Source: Biological Shape Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ISBSA), pp 249-258. School of Dentistry, UCLA, USA, 19-22 June 2015. Abstract: Facial morphology is the result of mazy interactions between environmental and epigenetic factors that lead to the composition of multiple subunits integrated to function as a whole. In this work, we […]. Read More ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gammaisoform (EC (PI3-kinase p110 subunit gamma) (PtdIns-3-kinase subunit p110) (PI3K) (PI3Kgamma) (p120-PI3K ...
HTF Market Report released a new research document of 35 pages on industry titled as Interleukin 7 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw127 or CD127 or IL7R) - Pipe
Rubisco molecules with at least one (and probably only one) plastid-synthesized small subunit (i.e., L8S7SH) were somewhat less stable than L8S8 molecules. The former lost 35S label slowly during the chase period whereas the latter retained it completely (Figure 6). Perhaps the presence of even one His tag is sufficient to destabilize the whole hexadecamer slightly. However, the turnover rate of L8S7SH was slow compared with that of the D1 protein. Although enhanced turnover might contribute to the scarcity of plastid-synthesized small subunits, it cannot by itself completely explain it.. It is possible, however, that the plastid-synthesized small subunits or their precursors might be subject to rapid turnover before assembly into Rubisco. Although unassembled His-tagged small subunits would be isolated by the Ni2+ chelation procedure, such rapid degradation might keep their steady state pool sizes so small that they would escape detection in pulse-labeling experiments (Figure 6). Rapid ...
Alpha-morpholino subunits and polymer compositions composed of alpha-morpholino subunits are disclosed. These subunits can be linked together by uncharged linkages, one to three atoms in length, joini
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
Mediator has been shown to be essential for regulation of RNA Polymerase II mediated transcription. Mediator functions as an interface between the general transcriptional machinery and a multitude of DNA binding transcriptional regulators, although the molecular mechanism for the process is elusive. Mediator is a large complex of over twenty subunits, most of which are conserved from yeast to plants to mammals. Many of these subunits are essential for viability in yeast, and mutations in the corresponding genes have global effects on transcription. Mediator was originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but has since been described in most eukaryotes. However, until recently the Mediator complex was not identified in plants. This thesis describes the first successful identification and isolation of the Mediator complex from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By raising antibodies against candidate A. thaliana Mediator subunits, we were able to purify a multisubunit protein complex. Mass ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that cancer progression is associated with up-regulation or reactivation of telomerase and the underlying mechanism remains an active area of research. The heterotrimeric MRN complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1, which is required for the repair of double-strand breaks, plays a key role in telomere length maintenance. In this study, we show significant differences in the levels of expression of MRN complex subunits among various cancer cells and somatic cells. Notably, siRNA-mediated depletion of any of the subunits of MRN complex led to complete ablation of other subunits of the complex. Treatment of leukemia and prostate cancer cells with etoposide lead to increased expression of MRN complex subunits, with concomitant decrease in the levels of telomerase activity, compared to breast cancer cells. These studies raise the possibility of developing anti-cancer drugs targeting MRN complex subunits to sensitize a subset of cancer cells to radio- and/or ...
PI-3 kinase subunit gamma antibody for detecting human phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
As most subunits of the transcriptional mediator complex have not been functionally analyzed in vertebrates, the extent to which subunit composition may contribute to developmental mechanisms has remained unclear. Here, we present the first functional analysis of the subunit Crsp34 in the context of development and cell differentiation of zebrafish. We tested the concept of subunit-specific roles by analyzing the loss-of-function effects of three mediator subunits on the development of the vertebrate CNS: Trap100 (Pietsch et al. 2006), Crsp150 (Amsterdam et al. 2004), and Crsp34 (this study). As an experimental system we chose the developing zebrafish retina, since it represents one of the best-studied units of the CNS, regarding anatomy and control of proliferation, as well as expression of genes involved in patterning and differentiation for zebrafish (reviewed in Malicki 2000). Therefore, analysis of the retina in a mutant embryo allows us to detect developmental defects at high ...
P48736: Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform; PI3-kinase subunit gamma; PI3K-gamma; PI3Kgamma; PtdIns-3-kinase subunit gamma;; Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 110 kDa catalytic subunit gamma; PtdIns-3-kinase subunit p110-gamma; p110gamma; Phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic gamma polypeptide; Serine/threonine protein kinase PIK3CG;; p120- ...
The human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encodes channels producing IKr currents in the human heart. hERG subunits are encoded by two alternate transcripts, 1a and 1b, which are identical except for their divergent amino (N) termini. Mutations or drug block of the hERG channel can result in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) leading to potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Studying the assembly process of the hERG subunits is important in elucidating the varied mechanisms by which hERG mutations, many of which are unique to the 1a N-terminus, can result in trafficking defects and disease. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the preferential assembly of hERG 1b with 1a is mediated by N-terminal interactions. Our results demonstrate that 1a and 1b heteromerize in the endoplasmic reticulum. A previously identified C-terminal tetramerization domain is not required for this interaction. hERG 1a and1b N-termini were sufficient for inter-subunit association and in vitro binding assays demonstrated that ...
Human embryonic, fetal, and adult hemoglobin have different subunit interface strengths. Correlation with lifespan in the red cell L.R. Manning, J.E. Russell, J.C. Padovan, B.T. Chait, A. Popowicz, R.S. Manning, and J.M. Manning, Protein Science 16 (2007) 1641.. ...
NMDA receptors are hetero-oligomers assembled from two typesof subunits, NR1 and NR2. The NR1 subunit is a single geneproduct, whereas the NR2 subunit is encoded by four differentgenes: NR2A-NR2D (147). Native NMDA receptors are thoughtto be heteromultimers containing four or five subunits consistingof two NR1 subunits and two or three NR2 subunits (38). Atmost synapses throughout the central nervous system, NMDA receptorsare composed of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2Aor NR2B subunits. NR2A and NR2B subunits are ubiquitously distributedthrough the central nervous system and have been shown to undergoa developmental switch in hippocampal and cortical neurons(179). At birth NMDA receptors are composed of NR1/NR2B subunits,and there is a switch from NR2B to NR2A subunits around P7.However, in the LA, a recent study has shown that applicationof the NR2B-selective antagonist ifenprodil blocks the inductionof fear conditioning, suggesting that receptors containingNR2B subunits are present ...
Looking for online definition of Laminin-4 subunit alpha in the Medical Dictionary? Laminin-4 subunit alpha explanation free. What is Laminin-4 subunit alpha? Meaning of Laminin-4 subunit alpha medical term. What does Laminin-4 subunit alpha mean?
S cerevisiae RSC complex: an essential, abundant chromatin-remodeling complex of multiple subunits; has homology to SWI/SNF complex; amino acid sequence given in first source
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and similar compounds, which then serve as second messengers in growth signaling pathways. PI3K is composed of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents a regulatory subunit of PI3K. The encoded protein contains two SH2 domains through which it binds activated protein tyrosine kinases to regulate their activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016 ...
Proteasome subunit alpha type-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSMA2 gene. This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex ...
This gene encodes a member of the prefoldin beta subunit family. The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly synthesized polypeptides, thereby allowing them to fold correctly. The complex, consisting of two alpha and four beta subunits, forms a double beta barrel assembly with six protruding coiled-coils. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Interleukin 15 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CD215 or IL15RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 Interleukin 15 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CD215 or IL15RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10579333
The cytolytic ionotropic ATP receptor P2X7 has several important roles in immune cell regulation, such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and microbial killing. Although P2X7 receptors are frequently coexpressed with another subtype of P2X receptor, P2X4, they are believed not to form heteromeric assemblies but to function only as homomers. Both receptors play a role in neuropathic pain; therefore, understanding how they coordinate the cellular response to ATP is important for the development of effective pain therapies. Here, we provide biochemical and electrophysiological evidence for an association between P2X4 and P2X7 that increases the diversity of receptor currents mediated via these two subtypes. The heterologously expressed receptors were coimmunoprecipitated from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and the endogenous P2X4 and P2X7 receptors were similarly coimmunoprecipitated from bone marrow-derived macrophages. In HEK293 cells, the fraction of P2X4 receptors biotinylated at the ...
Compare N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 38, NatC auxiliary subunit ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles with other protein molecules to form a protein complex. Some naturally occurring proteins have a relatively small number of subunits and therefore described as oligomeric, for example hemoglobin or DNA polymerase. Others may consist from a very large number of subunits and therefore described as multimeric, for example microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins. The subunits of a multimeric protein may be identical, homologous or totally dissimilar and dedicated to disparate tasks.
An Inter-subunit salt bridge is broken in the active conformation of AP2.Predicted location of the modified worm residues within the inactive (PBD ID: 2VGL) and
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
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Component Of A Heterodimeric Poc4p-Irc25p Chaperone; Involved In Assembly Of Alpha Subunits Into The 20S Proteasome; May Regulate Formation Of Proteasome Isoforms With Alternative Subunits Under Different Conditions
MetabolismEnergy metabolismATP-proton motive force interconversionATP synthase F1, epsilon subunit (TIGR01216; EC; HMM-score: 120.2) ...
Elliott, K.J.; Ellis, S.B.; Berckhan, K.J.; Urrutia, A.; Chavez-Noriega, L.E.; Johnson, E.C.; Veliçelebi, G.; Harpold, M.M., 1996: Comparative structure of human neuronal alpha 2-alpha 7 and beta 2-beta 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and functional expression of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7, beta 2, and beta 4 subunits
ASICs are permeable to cations and are activated by extracellular acidosis. They are subject to modulation by extracellular alkalosis, intracellular pH and various other factors. Much of what we know about these channels properties comes from expressing recombinant ASIC subunits in heterologous cells. Channels are formed by combinations of ASIC subunits in homotrimeric or heterotrimeric complexes, with different subunits conferring distinct properties (TABLE 1). The amino acid sequences of ASIC subunits are well conserved between species, in fact the mouse ASIC 1a and the human ASIC 1a share over 99% of their amino acid sequence identity. The recently described crystal structure of the chicken ASIC1 homomultimeric channel has shed light on the subunit interactions and, along with sequence homology analyses, has driven numerous structure-function experiments that are revealing how the channels respond to pH and other stimuli. In addition to the non-covalent inter-subunit interactions, disulphide ...
Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopusoocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emaxwithout affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, ...
Acts as a regulatory subunit of the 26 proteasome which is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Is not a genuine component of the 26S proteasome, but an auxiliary factor that interacts with the proteasomal ATPase of 19S regulatory particle (RP). Acts as a chaperone which regulates the highly structured assembly of the 19S regulatory particle. Involved in the substrate specificity of the 26S proteasome and is especially involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated GCN4. May contribute to the stability of the 26S proteasome in some stress conditions.
The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzymes rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzymes rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human DNA polymerase delta p50 protein (ab114798). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
TY - JOUR. T1 - The N-terminal domain of GABA receptor subunit ρ1 contains regions required for subunit assembly. AU - Hackam, A. S.. AU - Wang, Tian-Li. AU - Guggino, William B. AU - Cutting, Garry R. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose. The retina GABAC-like receptor subunit ρ1 forms robustly expressing homooligomeric receptors, whereas the GABAA receptor subunits require heterooligomerization for efficient expression. This indicates that each ρ1 subunit has the information for precise assembly into a functional receptor. This study was performed to investigate the topology of ρ1 and to localize the domain directing subunit assembly. Methods. Two ρ1 mutants were created: N-ρ1, containing a termination signal at codon 256 immediately prior to the putative first transmembrane domain, and C-ρ1, in which sequence from the putative signal peptide to the first hydrophobic region was deleted. Wild-type ρ1 and the truncation mutants were translated in vitro for immunoprecipitation and ...
CC -!- SUBUNIT: F-type ATPases have 2 components, F(1) - the catalytic core CC - and F(0) - the membrane proton channel. F(1) has five subunits: CC alpha(3), beta(3), gamma(1), delta(1), epsilon(1). F(0) has four main CC subunits: a(1), b(1), b(1) and c(10-14). The alpha and beta chains CC form an alternating ring which encloses part of the gamma chain. F(1) CC is attached to F(0) by a central stalk formed by the gamma and epsilon CC chains, while a peripheral stalk is formed by the delta, b and b CC chains. else CC -!- SUBUNIT: F-type ATPases have 2 components, F(1) - the catalytic core CC - and F(0) - the membrane proton channel. F(1) has five subunits: CC alpha(3), beta(3), gamma(1), delta(1), epsilon(1). F(0) has three main CC subunits: a(1), b(2) and c(10-14). The alpha and beta chains form an CC alternating ring which encloses part of the gamma chain. F(1) is CC attached to F(0) by a central stalk formed by the gamma and epsilon CC chains, while a peripheral stalk is formed by the delta ...
This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c, c, and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene is one of two genes that encode the V1 domain C subunit proteins and is found ubiquitously. This C subunit is analogous but not homologous to gamma subunit of F-ATPases. Previously, this gene was ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of In the Telencephalon, GluN2C NMDA Receptor Subunit mRNA is Predominately Expressed in Glial Cells and GluN2D mRNA in Interneurons. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
nAChRs are pentameric complexes made up of combinations of a number of different nAChR subunits, which can be classified as α subunits, containing two cysteine residues at positions analogous to Cys192 and Cys193, and non-alpha subunits (structural subunits), which can be defined as β subunits when they are expressed in the vertebrate nervous system. There are nine α subunits (α2-α10) and three β subunits (β2, β3, and β4) in the CNS. Nicotinic receptors are assembled as combinations of α (2-6) and and β (2-4) subunits.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Base-CP proteasome can serve as a platform for stepwise lid formation. AU - Yu,Zanlin. AU - Livnat-Levanon,Nurit. AU - Kleifeld,Oded. AU - Mansour,Wissam. AU - Nakasone,Mark A.. AU - Castaneda,Carlos A.. AU - Dixon,Emma K.. AU - Fushman,David. AU - Reis,Noa. AU - Pick,Elah. AU - Glickman,Michael H.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - 26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid ...
Interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 15 receptor that in humans is encoded by the IL15RA gene. The IL-15 receptor is composed of three subunits: IL-15R alpha, CD122, and CD132. Two of these subunits, CD122 and CD132, are shared with the receptor for IL-2, but IL-2 receptor has an additional subunit (CD25). The shared subunits contain the cytoplasmic motifs required for signal transduction, and this forms the basis of many overlapping biological activities of IL15 and IL2, although in vivo the two cytokines have separate biological effects. This may be due to effects of the respective alpha chains, which are unique to each receptor, the kinetics and affinity of cytokine-cytokine receptor binding, or due to the availability and concentration of each cytokine. IL-15Ralpha specifically binds IL15 with very high affinity, and is capable of binding IL-15 independently of other subunits. It is suggested that this property allows IL-15 to be produced by one cell, ...
GNG12 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 92 aa (1-69 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 10.1kDa.
We next investigated whether beta gamma subunits play a role in the sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase activity; using expression of alpha tau to inhibit beta gamma-mediated effects, we found that the quinpirole-induced sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase was abolished ...
The |i|a|/i| subunit is the largest of 15 different subunits that make up the vacuolar H|sup|+|/sup|-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex, where it functions in proton translocation. In mammals, this subunit has four paralogous isoforms, |i|a|/i|1-|i|a|/i|4, which may encode signals for targeting assembled V-A …
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_2059 (SAUSA300_RS11340); symbol: atpG; product: F0F1 ATP synthase subunit gamma
Sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPases are tetrameric proteins, consisting of two large alpha subunits and two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunits bear the active site and penetrate the membrane, while the beta subunits carry oligosaccharide groups and…
heteropentamer of subunit of 140/145, 40,38, 37 and 36.5 kDa (RFC is a pentamer comprising a large subunit, RFC1, and four small subunits, RFC2-RFC5) ...
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex, typically composed of eight subunits (designated as CSN1 to CSN8) in higher eukaryotes such as ...
reference: ASPP proteins discriminate between PP1 catalytic subunits through their SH3 domain and the PP1 C-tail., Bertran MT, Mouilleron S, Zhou Y, Bajaj R, Uliana F, Kumar GS, van Drogen A, Lee R, Banerjee JJ, Hauri S, OReilly N, Gstaiger M, Page R, Peti W, Tapon N, Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 15;10(1):771. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08686-0. PMID: 30770806 ...
... meaning that a protein must have one gene for each unique subunit. Fusion protein Subunit vaccine Protein quaternary structure ... A subunit is often named with a Greek or Roman letter, and the numbers of this type of subunit in a protein is indicated by a ... Large assemblies of proteins such as viruses often use a small number of types of protein subunits as building blocks. ... Longer multimeric proteins such as microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins may consist of very large numbers of subunits. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R12C gene. The gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C". Retrieved 2016-11-14. Surks HK, Richards CT, Mendelsohn ME (2003 ... subunit of myosin phosphatase. The encoded protein regulates the catalytic activity of protein phosphatase 1 delta and assembly ... "Myosin phosphatase-Rho interacting protein. A new member of the myosin phosphatase complex that directly binds RhoA". J. Biol. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGGT1B gene. Protein ... "Entrez Gene: Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I subunit beta". Retrieved 2018-09-21. Kusama T, Mukai M, Tatsuta M, ... and a 43-kD beta subunit, encoded by the PGGT1B gene. The FNTA gene encodes the alpha subunit for both GGTase-I and the related ... "Crystallographic analysis of CaaX prenyltransferases complexed with substrates defines rules of protein substrate selectivity ...
Alpha subunits (α) refers to several protein subunits, e.g.: G proteins Gi alpha subunit Gs alpha subunit Gq alpha subunit The ... pore-forming loop of ion channels This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Alpha subunit. If an ...
A protein subunit is a polypeptide chain or protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to ... Parts of the protein shell or capsid of a virus are often suitable. The goal is for the protein subunit to prime the immune ... Large assemblies of proteins such as viruses often use a small number of types of protein subunits as building blocks. A key ... Another protein-based approach involves self‐assembly of multiple protein subunits into a Virus-like particle (VLP) or ...
The proteins bind to a regulatory subunit, cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit (CKS), which is essential for their ... kinase regulatory subunit family is a family of proteins consisting of the regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent protein ... This regulatory subunit is a small protein of 79 to 150 residues. In yeast (gene CKS1) and in fission yeast (gene suc1) a ... The regulatory subunits exist as hexamers, formed by the symmetrical assembly of 3 interlocked homodimers, creating an unusual ...
... , also known as CACNA1H, is a protein which in humans is encoded by ... This gene encodes Cav3.2, a T-type member of the α1 subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex ... 2003). "T-type calcium channel regulation by specific G-protein betagamma subunits". Nature. 424 (6945): 209-13. doi:10.1038/ ... and γ subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The α1 subunit has 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into ...
Gq protein alpha subunit is a family of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits. This family is also commonly called the Gq/11 ... G protein Phospholipase C Calcium signaling Protein kinase C Gs alpha subunit Gi alpha subunit G12/G13 alpha subunits Gilman AG ... G alpha subunits may be referred to as Gq alpha, Gαq, or Gqα. Gq proteins couple to G protein-coupled receptors to activate ... The transducer in this system is a heterotrimeric G protein, composed of three subunits: a Gα protein such as Gαq, and a ...
Gi protein alpha subunit is a family of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits. This family is also commonly called the Gi/o ( ... system G protein-coupled receptor Heterotrimeric G protein Adenylyl cyclase Protein kinase A Gs alpha subunit Gq alpha subunit ... The transducer in this system is a heterotrimeric G protein, composed of three subunits: a Gα protein such as Giα, and a ... Gi proteins: Gi1α, Gi2α, and Gi3α Go protein: Goα (in mouse there is alternative splicing to generate Go1α and Go2α) Gz protein ...
G alpha subunits are one of the three types of subunit of guanine nucleotide binding proteins, which are membrane-associated, ... This family consists of the G protein alpha subunit, which acts as a weak GTPase. G protein classes are defined based on the ... regulator of G protein signalling) proteins or by covalent modifications. There are several isoforms of each subunit, many of ... G proteins carry lipid modifications on one or more of their subunits to target them to the plasma membrane and to contribute ...
Liljeqvist S, Ståhl S (July 1999). "Production of recombinant subunit vaccines: protein immunogens, live delivery systems and ... The manufacturing process of recombinant subunit vaccines are as follows: Identification of immunogenic subunit Subunit ... Recombinant subunit vaccines are biological preparations that are composed of microbial subunits produced using recombinant DNA ... Wingfield PT (April 2015). "Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins". Current Protocols in Protein Science. 80 (1 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HBZ gene. Zeta-globin is an alpha-like hemoglobin. The ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PFDN6 gene. ENSG00000204220, ENSG00000235692, ENSG00000206283 ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: PFDN6 prefoldin subunit 6". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches ... 2004). "Selective contribution of eukaryotic prefoldin subunits to actin and tubulin binding". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (6): 4196-203 ...
... for her discoveries on G-protein subunit structure and function. She described the physiological roles of these subunits as an ... Location and function of reactive sulfhydryl groups of alpha subunit 39 (1987) Action of G protein subunits on the cardiac ... Clapham, D. E.; Neer, E. J. (1997). "G PROTEIN βγ SUBUNITS , Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology". Annual Review of ... Neer, EJ; Clapham, DE (12 May 1988). "Roles of G protein subunits in transmembrane signalling". Nature. 333 (6169): 129-34. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA1 gene. Laminin, alpha 1 has been shown to interact ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... 1994). "Dystroglycan is a binding protein of laminin and merosin in peripheral nerve". FEBS Lett. 352 (1): 49-53. doi:10.1016/ ... Moser TL, Enghild JJ, Pizzo SV, Stack MS (1993). "The extracellular matrix proteins laminin and fibronectin contain binding ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC1 gene. Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix ... Hunter DD, Shah V, Merlie JP, Sanes JR (1989). "A laminin-like adhesive protein concentrated in the synaptic cleft of the ... Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. ... Kohfeldt E, Sasaki T, Göhring W, Timpl R (1998). "Nidogen-2: a new basement membrane protein with diverse binding properties". ...
KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into ... Importin subunit alpha-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA5 gene. The transport of molecules between the ... "Cloning of two novel human importin-alpha subunits and analysis of the expression pattern of the importin-alpha protein family ... 1994). "The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA6 gene. Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and ... 1997). "The nuclear localization sequences of the BRCA1 protein interact with the importin-alpha subunit of the nuclear ... Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. The protein encoded by ... The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INO80E gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169592 ... "Entrez Gene: INO80 complex subunit E". Retrieved 2017-11-15. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SRPRA gene. The gene encodes a subunit of the ... "Entrez Gene: SRP receptor alpha subunit". Retrieved 2016-03-08. This article incorporates text from the United States National ... is involved in the targeting and translocation of signal sequence tagged secretory and membrane proteins across the endoplasmic ... Human proteins, All stub articles, Human chromosome 11 gene stubs). ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA2 gene. The import of proteins into the nucleus is a ... a protein that specifically interacts with the RAG-1 recombination-activating protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... alpha 1 or alpha 2 subunit binds nuclear localization signal and beta subunit interacts with peptide repeat-containing ... KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA2 gene. Laminin, an extracellular matrix protein, is ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... It is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, which are bound to each other by disulfide bonds into a cross-shaped ... This gene encodes the alpha 2 chain, which constitutes one of the subunits of laminin 2 (merosin) and laminin 4 (s-merosin). ...
Interleukin-23 subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL23A gene. IL-23 is produced by dendritic cells and ... Interleukin-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an IL-12p40 subunit that is shared with IL-12 and the IL-23p19 subunit. ... Knockout mice deficient in either p40 or p19, or in either subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R and IL12R-β1) develop less ... Experimental work revealed that p19 formed a heterodimer by binding to p40, a subunit of IL-12. This new heterodimer was named ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC2 gene. Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix ... 2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. ... 1994). "Herlitz's junctional epidermolysis bullosa is linked to mutations in the gene (LAMC2) for the gamma 2 subunit of nicein ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INTS5 gene. The Integrator complex is a complex that ... The protein encoded by this gene represents a subunit of the Integrator complex. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185085 - ... "Entrez Gene: Integrator complex subunit 5". Retrieved 2017-10-09. v t e This article incorporates text from the United States ... associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit. This complex is brought to U1 and U2 small nuclear ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INO80C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000153391 ... "Entrez Gene: INO80 complex subunit C". Retrieved 2016-07-16. Jin J, Cai Y, Yao T, Gottschalk AJ, Florens L, Swanson SK, ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN2 gene. The calpains, calcium-activated neutral ... regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme, calpain 2. Multiple heterogeneous ... Corasaniti MT, Navarra M, Catani MV, Melino G, Nisticò G, Finazzi-Agrò A (1996). "NMDA and HIV-1 coat protein, GP120, produce ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN2 calpain 2, (m/II) large subunit". Gil-Parrado S, Fernández-Montalván A, Assfalg-Machleidt I, Popp O, ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VPS37B gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000139722 ... "Entrez Gene: VPS37B, ESCRT-I subunit". Retrieved 2018-05-01. Rose JE, Behm FM, Drgon T, Johnson C, Uhl GR (2010). "Personalized ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA1 gene. Importin subunit alpha-5 has been shown to ... alpha 1 or alpha 2 subunit binds nuclear localization signal and beta subunit interacts with peptide repeat-containing ... "Molecular interactions between the importin alpha/beta heterodimer and proteins involved in vertebrate nuclear protein import ... 1994). "The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in ...
"Evidence that a protein-protein interaction 'hot spot' on heterotrimeric G protein betagamma subunits is used for recognition ... "Mechanism of assembly of G protein betagamma subunits by protein kinase CK2-phosphorylated phosducin-like protein and the ... One of the major functions of Gβγ is the inhibition of the Gα subunit. The individual subunits of the G protein complex were ... Heterotrimeric G proteins, also called guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins, consist of three subunits, called alpha, beta, ...
... subunit and an orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (ODCase, EC subunit. These two sites catalyze the last two steps ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... For catalysis to occur, a dimer must exist in which a loop from one subunit covers the active site from the other one. In ... It is believed that the two separate catalytic sites fused into a single protein to stabilize its monomeric form. The covalent ...
Each subunit has three different structural domains: a short N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain; an α-helical ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... of the protein. The catalytic domain is homologous to mammalian peroxidases such as myeloperoxidase. It has been found that ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRG2 gene. Gamma-aminobutyric ... Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Moss SJ, Doherty CA, Huganir RL (July 1992). "Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C ...
"TRIP Database". a manually curated database of protein-protein interactions for mammalian TRP channels. (Articles with short ... This subunit also contains a lipase domain between its S1 and S2 segments. While the function of this domain is unknown it has ... The three proteins TRPML1, TRPML2 and TRPML3 are encoded by the mucolipin-1 (MCOLN1), mucolipin-2 (MCOLN2) and mucolipin-3 ( ... comprises a group of three evolutionarily related proteins that belongs to the large family of transient receptor potential ion ...
... (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene ... DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ... "Subunit structures and stoichiometries of human DNA fragmentation factor proteins before and after induction of apoptosis". The ...
A diploid isolate of C. blankii had an observed "potential for use in single cell protein production from hemicellulose ... Blood sample DNA sequencing of the 26S ribosomal subunit can definitively identify C. blankii. In nature, Candida blankii forms ...
Wiedenmann, Jörg (2008). "Marine proteins". In Patrick J. Walsh (ed.). Oceans and human health: risks and remedies from the ... an arginine and an isoleucine subunit. The maximum in the wavelength of the luminescence is dependent on pH and salinity of the ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG4 gene. GNG4 ... "A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits and the Raf-1 protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (24): 14251-4. doi ... Downes GB, Gautam N (1999). "The G protein subunit gene families". Genomics. 62 (3): 544-52. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5992. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: GNG4 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4". Yan K, Kalyanaraman V, Gautam N (Mar 1996). " ...
Many proteins may adopt a beta sheet as part of their secondary structure. In beta sheets, sections of a single polypeptide may ... The chronological sequence of each amino acid sub-unit is the basis for directionality notation in polypeptides; a given ... This would further lead to the production of incorrect proteins. Polypeptides have an N-terminus and a C-terminus, which refer ... "Secondary structure of Proteins". Retrieved 2017-04-01. (Articles with short description, Short ...
... emerging roles of the glycogen targeting subunits of protein phosphatase-1" (PDF). Diabetes. 49 (12): 1967-77. doi:10.2337/ ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
YqaJ is one of three protein subunits that form a toroid with a tapered channel passing through the middle. The channel changes ... This protein domain, often found in bacterial species, is actually of viral origin. The protein forms an oligomer and functions ... The function of this protein domain is to digest DNA. Most viruses, inject their host with linear DNA, and this gets ...
"DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic ... of breast and ovarian cancers the protein encoded by DIRAS3 is not expressed, suggesting that it functions as a tumor ... "A phylogenetic approach to test for evidence of parental conflict or gene duplications associated with protein-encoding ...
To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special ... These subunits can be categorized into two classes based on the ATP dependence of subunits, ATP-dependent subunits and ATP- ... The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 is 37 kDa in size and composed of 324 amino acids. The ... which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes ...
These proteins mediate the import and insertion of hydrophobic membrane proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane.[ ... Mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TIMM10 gene. TIMM10 ... 1998). "Import of mitochondrial carriers mediated by essential proteins of the intermembrane space". Science. 279 (5349): 369- ... related mitochondrial import proteins". Genomics. 61 (3): 259-67. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5966. PMID 10552927. "Entrez Gene: ...
... caused by inhibition of protein synthesis through binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Tylosin has a wide ...
"Protein-protein interactions of hCsl4p with other human exosome subunits". J. Mol. Biol. 315 (4): 809-18. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2002). "AU binding proteins recruit the exosome to degrade ARE-containing mRNAs". Cell. 107 (4): 451-64. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674 ... Schilders G, van Dijk E, Pruijn GJ (2007). "C1D and hMtr4p associate with the human exosome subunit PM/Scl-100 and are involved ...
... proteins are of interest for biotechnology and industrial use due to their thermostable nature. One application is ... They also code for citrate synthase and two subunits of 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, which plays the same role as alpha ... Intracellular proteins are not necessarily stable at low pH however, as Sulfolobus species maintain a significant pH gradient ... They are also unique in the sense that the genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus are constantly transcribed and ...
WW domain binding protein 1-like), CACNA1C (Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), DPYD ( ... By suppressing Jarid1b protein level, miR-137 is believed to play a role in modulating the differentiated state of mouse ESCs. ... miR-137 is located on chromosome 1p22 within the non-protein-coding RNA gene AK094607. It is transcribed as a non-coding ... This binding in turn results in an inhibition of translation of the target protein or degradation of the target messenger RNA. ...
The protein encoded by this gene forms functional heteromeric kainate-preferring ionic channels with the subunits encoded by ... Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIK5 gene. This gene encodes a protein ... GRIK5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... January 1995). "The genes encoding the glutamate receptor subunits KA1 and KA2 (GRIK4 and GRIK5) are located on separate ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... and gamma subunit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in signaling of myeloid high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ... Yamanashi Y, Baltimore D (January 1997). "Identification of the Abl- and rasGAP-associated 62 kDa protein as a docking protein ...
There is also a group of tracers that consist of protein products that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the ... Luppi PH, Fort P, Jouvet M (November 1990). "Iontophoretic application of unconjugated cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) combined ... virus or protein can be locally injected, after which it is allowed to be transported anterogradely. Viral tracers can cross ... a subunit of the conventional kinesin microtubule-based motor". NeuroImage. 145 (Pt A): 44-57. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.09 ...
The latter one is the source of reduced FAD for the monooxygenase subunits and has some side activity as a monooxygenase. So ... which is supported by fusion protein of a monooxygenase and reductase (StyA2B). ...
The four subunits may be identical, or different from one another. In addition to the four central α-subunits, there are also ... Phylogenetic studies of proteins expressed in bacteria revealed the existence of a superfamily of voltage-gated sodium channels ... these four domains are part of a single α-subunit in the case of most Na+ and Ca2+ channels, whereas there are four α-subunits ... Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the ...
... consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to ... Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24 ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Sequence analysis identified alternatively spliced variants that encode different ... 39S ribosomal protein L4, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL4 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
Parafibromin, LEO1, PAF1, and CTR9 form the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A and ... "The parafibromin tumor suppressor protein is part of a human Paf1 complex". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (2): 612-20. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CDC73 gene. ...
A connector protein dimer (e.g. CTCF or YY1) stabilizes the loop by anchoring one member on the enhancer and the other on the ... November 1993). "A third recognition element in bacterial promoters: DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase". ... The loop is stabilized by a dimer of a connector protein (e.g. dimer of CTCF or YY1), with one member of the dimer anchored to ... The RNA transcript may encode a protein (mRNA), or can have a function in and of itself, such as tRNA or rRNA. Promoters are ...
Whereas the function of fubi is currently unknown, ribosomal protein S30 is a component of the 40S subunit of the cytoplasmic ... Similar to ribosomal protein S30, ribosomal proteins S27a and L40 are synthesized as fusion proteins with ubiquitin. GRCh38: ... It encodes a fusion protein consisting of the ubiquitin-like protein FUBI at the N-terminus and ribosomal protein S30 at the C- ... 40S ribosomal protein S30 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAU gene. This gene is the cellular homolog of the fox ...
Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UQCRH gene. Its gene product is ... Rieske protein), UQCRB, "11kDa protein", UQCRH (cyt c1 Hinge protein), Rieske Protein presequence, "cyt. c1 associated protein ... a subunit of the respiratory chain protein Ubiquinol Cytochrome c Reductase (UQCR, Complex III or Cytochrome bc1 complex; E.C. ... "Entrez Gene: UQCRH ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein". Liu AY, Bradner RC (1993). "Elevated expression of the ...
This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ... "Caspase-mediated cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor subunit 2alpha". Biochem. J. 342 (Pt 1): 65-70. doi: ... This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of ... Vincenz, C; Dixit V M (March 1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE ...
Protein-protein interactions play a very important role in Na⁺-K⁺ pump-mediated signal transduction. For example, the Na⁺-K⁺ ... Lee K, Jung J, Kim M, Guidotti G (January 2001). "Interaction of the alpha subunit of Na,K-ATPase with cofilin". The ... this membrane protein can also relay extracellular ouabain-binding signalling into the cell through regulation of protein ... A cell's osmolarity is the sum of the concentrations of the various ion species and many proteins and other organic compounds ...
GGL; G protein gamma subunit-like motifs. * NM_053064.5 → NP_444292.1 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit ... subunit gamma-2. Names. g gamma-I. guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2. guanine nucleotide binding protein ... GGL; G protein gamma subunit-like motifs. * NM_001243774.2 → NP_001230703.1 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) ... GGL; G protein gamma subunit-like motifs. * NM_001389707.1 → NP_001376636.1 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) ...
RGS proteins are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for G protein alpha -subunits. This GAP activity is mediated by the ... Polarity Exchange at the Interface of Regulators of G Protein Signaling with G Protein α-Subunits ... Polarity Exchange at the Interface of Regulators of G Protein Signaling with G Protein α-Subunits. Journal of Biological ... interaction of conserved residues on regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins and Galpha -subunits. We mutated the ...
Overexpression of km23-1 blocks cancer cell division by retaining checkpoint protein. ... Home Topics Cancer Scientists Identify Dynein Subunit Protein as Potential Target for Ovarian Cancer ... Researchers claim overexpression of the dynein subunit protein km23-1 effectively checks growth of human ovarian cancer tumor ... Significantly, although the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 was present in the cancer cells whether they ...
Protein target information for Proteasome subunit beta type-6 (Norway rat). Find diseases associated with this biological ...
... protein characterization, intact proteins, and protein molecular weight determination. ...
... subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Conventional reagents that universally disrupt PKA anchoring are patterned ... Engineering A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-selective regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) through structure-based ... subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Conventional reagents that universally disrupt PKA anchoring are patterned ... These engineered proteins represent a new class of reagents that can be used to dissect the contributions of different AKAP- ...
Timeline for Protein Cytochrome bc1 core subunit 1 from d.185.1.1: MPP-like: *Protein Cytochrome bc1 core subunit 1 from d. ... Protein Cytochrome bc1 core subunit 1 from d.185.1.1: MPP-like appears in SCOP 1.73. *Protein Cytochrome bc1 core subunit 1 ... Lineage for Protein: Cytochrome bc1 core subunit 1. *Root: SCOP 1.75 *. Class d: Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) [53931] (376 ... Protein Cytochrome bc1 core subunit 1 from d.185.1.1: MPP-like appears in the current release, SCOPe 2.08. ...
protein coding gene. Chr1:10038847-10083766 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0015831. protein coding gene. Chr1:7233284-7273972 ... protein coding gene. Chr1:7571199-7613519 (-). CAROLI/EiJ MGP_CAROLIEiJ_G0013944. protein coding gene. Chr1:6126587-6167140 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr1:7447850-7487849 (-). NOD/ShiLtJ MGP_NODShiLtJ_G0015699. protein coding gene. Chr1:8395583-8440549 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr1:7098238-7143821 (-). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0016223. ...
May be used to phosphorylate target proteins or for in vitro enzymological studies of neural and hormonal signal transduction ... 40kDa protein purified from a recombinant E. coli strain expressing the catalytic subunit of bovine PKA ... May be used to phosphorylate target proteins or for in vitro enzymological studies of neural and hormonal signal transduction ... Intracellular targets include ion channels, transcriptional activator proteins, and regulatory enzymes of glycogen metabolism ...
The heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit Gpb1 controls hyphal growth under low oxygen conditions through the protein kinase A ... Galpha subunit Gpa2 recruits kelch repeat subunits that inhibit receptor-G protein coupling during cAMP-induced dimorphic ... GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits * Subject Areas on Research. * A3 adenosine and CB1 receptors activate a PKC-sensitive Cl- ... Identification of a region at the N-terminus of phospholipase C-beta 3 that interacts with G protein beta gamma subunits. ...
Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 with 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole ... Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 with 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole. * ... Crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit. Ermakova, I., Boldyreff, B ... Casein kinase II subunit alpha. A, B. 334. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CSNK2A1, CK2A1. EC: ...
The protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 2 page is available on the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY site. ...
Forty-six large subunit proteins were found, 22 of which showed masses in accordance with the SwissProt database (June 2002) ... For nine proteins (L3, L4, L5, L7A, L10, L14, L19, L31, and L40), the molecular masses could not be determined. Proteins P1 and ... The 60S ribosomal proteins were isolated from ribosomes of human placenta and separated by reversed phase HPLC. The fractions ... A loss of methionine without acetylation was found for protein L8 and L17. ...
Showing Protein Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 (HMDBP08401). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Protein Sequence. ,Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 ... Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling ... and functional expression of the human G protein beta 4-subunit. Physiol Genomics. 2002 Feb 11;8(1):41-50. [PubMed:11842130 ] ...
Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha (tissue specific extinguisher 1) (PRKAR1A), transcript variant ... protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit ... Protein Sequence (showhide) >RC203828 protein sequence. Red=Cloning site Green=Tags(s). ... This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down- ...
Regulatory Subunit 4 (PPP2R4) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1316044 bestellen. ... PPP2R4 (Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator, Regulatory Subunit 4 (PPP2R4)) Protein-Typ Recombinant Proteineigenschaft AA 21-120 ... Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator, Regulatory Subunit 4 (PPP2R4) (AA 1-323) protein (GST tag) PPP2R4 Spezies: Human Wirt: Wheat ... Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator, Regulatory Subunit 4 (PPP2R4) (AA 2-324) protein (His tag) PPP2R4 Spezies: Rind (Kuh) Wirt: ...
The CDC25 family protein phosphatase Mih1 promotes downregulation of cell surface proteins in budding yeast by ... dephosphorylating a subunit of the retromer complex, which mediates plasma membrane recycling. ... 2000) The yeast Chs4 protein stimulates the trypsin-sensitive activity of chitin synthase 3 through an apparent protein-protein ... of protein standards is indicated on the left side of the gels. (E) Purified Mih1 proteins. The indicated Mih1 proteins were ...
AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1, AMPK subunit alpha-1, Tau-protein kinase PRKAA1, Prkaa1,, ... Gene/Protein: Prkaa1 (Mouse). *Product Description: Immunotag™ 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 ELISA ... Immunotag™ 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 ELISA Kit ... think proteins! think G-Biosciences! © 2021 Geno Technology Inc., USA. All Rights Reserved. ...
To delineate which G-protein subunits are involved, α or βγ transducin subunits were purified and microinjected as a sink for ... To delineate which G-protein subunits are involved, α or βγ transducin subunits were purified and microinjected as a sink for ... To delineate which G-protein subunits are involved, α or βγ transducin subunits were purified and microinjected as a sink for ... To delineate which G-protein subunits are involved, α or βγ transducin subunits were purified and microinjected as a sink for ...
LOINC Code LG51002-0 Glial fibrillary acidic protein.alpha subunit Ab.IgG,PrThr,Pt,ANYBldSerPl ... LG51002-0Glial fibrillary acidic protein.alpha subunit Ab.IgG,. PrThr,. Pt,. ANYBldSerPlActive. Basic Attributes. Version First ... Glial fibrillary acidic protein alpha subunit IgG Ab [Presence] in Serum by Cell binding immunofluorescent assay. ... Glial fibrillary acidic protein alpha subunit IgG Ab [Presence] in Serum by Immunofluorescence. ...
... cAMP-binding proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are unrelated to the R subunit of cytoplasmic protein kinase A. In ...
The regulatory 1α subunit of protein kinase a modulates renal cystogenesis. / Ye, Hong; Wang, Xiaofang; Constans, Megan M. et ... The regulatory 1α subunit of protein kinase a modulates renal cystogenesis. American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology. ... The regulatory 1α subunit of protein kinase a modulates renal cystogenesis. In: American Journal of Physiology - Renal ... Dive into the research topics of The regulatory 1α subunit of protein kinase a modulates renal cystogenesis. Together they ...
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits [D12.644.360.360.100]. *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go [D12.644.360.360.100.200] ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits [D12.776.476.375.100]. *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go [D12.776.476.375.100.200] ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits [D12.776.543.325.100]. *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go [D12.776.543.325.100.200] ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits [D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100]. *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go [D08.811. ...
Mechanisms by which Antibiotics that Bind to Bacterial Ribosomal Subunits Interfere with Translation and Block Protein ... This series of Flash animations shows various mechanisms by which antibiotics that bind to bacterial ribosomal subunits ...
5-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1. Details. Name. 5-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1. Synonyms. * ... AMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity / protein kinase activity / protein kinase binding ... lcl,BSEQ0008687,5-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1 METVISSDSSPAVENEHPQETPESNNSVYTSFMKSHRCYDLIPTSSKLVVFDTSLQVKKA ...
CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the γ1 and γ2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein ... subunits for AP-1; two α subunits for AP-2; and two μ3 (μ3A and μ3B), two β3 (β3A and β3B) and two σ3 (σ3A and σ3B) subunits ... CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the γ1 and γ2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein ... The adaptor protein-1 mu1B subunit expands the repertoire of basolateral sorting signal recognition in epithelial cells ...
Here we report a novel mechanistic pathway through which DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) modulates ... The c-Myc protein level in DNA-PKcs deficient human glioma M059J cells was also found much lower than that in DNA-PKcs ... Silencing of DNA-PKcs in HeLa cells resulted in a decreased stability of c-Myc protein, which was associated the increasing of ... However, the abnormal accumulation of c-Myc protein is also a common finding in human cancers with normal copy number and ...
... of a type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase is an integral component of the mammalian sperm flagellum ... We have shown previously that the regulatory subunit (RII) ... of the regulatory subunit of a type II cAMP-dependent protein ... We have shown previously that the regulatory subunit (RII) of a type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase is an integral component ... Differential expression and subcellular localization for subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase during ram spermatogenesis. ...
Extent and nature of contacts between protein molecules in crystal lattices and between subunits of protein oligomers Proteins ... Extent and nature of contacts between protein molecules in crystal lattices and between subunits of protein oligomers ... Potential of Mean Force; Molecular Recognition; Protein Interfaces; Salt Bridges; Hydrophobic Interaction; Protein ... For a protein that is recalcitrant to crystallization, substitution of lysine residues with arginine or glutamine is a ...
  • PKA is retained within distinct subcellular environments by the association of its regulatory type II (RII) subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (
  • Inhibition of this response to erythropoietin by pertussis toxin suggests involvement of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). (
  • However, the role of PKA in ADPKD has not been directly ascertained in vivo, although the expression of the main regulatory subunit of PKA in cilia and other compartments (PKA-RIα, encoded by PRKAR1A) is increased in a mouse model orthologous to ADPKD. (
  • Immunogold localization of the regulatory subunit of a type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase tightly associated with mammalian sperm flagella. (
  • We have shown previously that the regulatory subunit (RII) of a type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase is an integral component of the mammalian sperm flagellum (Horowitz, J.A., H. Toeg, and G.A. Orr. (
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme is composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits, designated PKA R and PKA C, respectively. (
  • The B56γ3 regulatory subunit-containing protein phosphatase 2A outcompetes Akt to regulate p27KIP1 subcellular localization by selectively dephosphorylating phospho-Thr157 of p27KIP1. (
  • These proteins were mainly involved in metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes. (
  • Nitrogen regulatory protein P-II [Interproscan]. (
  • Given that most catalytic and regulatory functions of the cell are carried out by protein complexes, their composition and characterization is of greatest importance in basic and disease biology. (
  • 2011. Telomerase regulatory subunit Est3 in two Candida species physically interacts with the TEN domain of TERT and telomeric DNA. . (
  • E7 from human papil omavirus type 16 cooperate to cancer: the European prospective investigation into doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp321 PMID:20047954 target the PDZ protein Na/H exchange regulatory cancer and nutrition study. (
  • This was confirmed by the ability of microinjected recombinant myristoylated Giα2, but not Giα1 or Giα3 subunits, to reconstitute the response of pertussis toxin-treated erythroblasts to erythropoietin. (
  • We report here the cloning and immuno-biochemical analysis of Rpp25, another protein subunit of RNase P. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against recombinant Rpp25 recognize their corresponding antigens in RNase P-containing fractions purified from HeLa cells, and they also precipitate active holoenzyme. (
  • EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany), which is based on the recombinant MERS-CoV spike protein subunit 1 and specifically detects IgG. (
  • and four, protein subunit vaccine wherein the recombinant proteins of SARS-COV-2 along with an adjuvant (booster) is given as a vaccine. (
  • A soluble multimeric recombinant CD2 protein identifies CD48 as a low affinity ligand for human CD2: divergence of CD2 ligands during the evolution of humans and mice. (
  • When your body responds to the The vaccine contains virus vaccine, it can pieces called spike protein sometimes cause and another ingredient side e ects such as mild fever, headache, called an adjuvant . (
  • Two others, a viral vector vaccine (Janssen) and an adjuvanted protein subunit vaccine (Novavax), have emergency use approval (EUA) in the United States. (
  • Novavax, a protein-subunit COVID vaccine that gained FDA backing in June 2022, also did not end early trials abruptly because of animal deaths, although that shot was not yet available in the U.S. when Hall made his false statements. (
  • An example of an existing subunit vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • The different templates developed and studied for COVID-19 vaccines include the whole-virus vaccine, viral vector vaccine, nucleic acid (deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid), and protein subunit vaccine. (
  • Novavax's COVID-19 vaccine packages harmless proteins of the COVID-19 virus alongside another ingredient called an adjuvant that helps the immune system respond to the virus in the future. (
  • Vaccines-like the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine-that use protein subunit technology have been used for more than 30 years in the United States, beginning with the first licensed hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • Huvet Bio Inc. is developing a COVID-19 vaccine being using a sub-unit method with a high safety profile that uses proteins instead of viruses or bacteria. (
  • Here we report a novel mechanistic pathway through which DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) modulates the stability of c-Myc protein. (
  • Inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit by small molecule inhibitor NU7026 sensitizes human leukemic K562 cells to benzene metabolite-induced apoptosis. (
  • We have previously reported that exposure of workers to benzene and to benzene metabolite hydroquinone in cultured cells induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to mediate the cellular response to DNA double strand break (DSB) caused by DNA-damaging metabolites. (
  • This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. (
  • In silico digestion of all 409 ribosomal protein sequences in Arabidopsis defined the proportion of theoretical gene-specific peptides for each gene family and highlighted the need for low m/z cutoffs of MS ion selection for MS/MS to characterize low molecular weight, highly basic ribosome proteins. (
  • In this study, we used genetic selection in budding yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) to identify gene products that control plasma membrane residence of integral membrane proteins. (
  • Some of those cases with the dysregulated c-Myc protein accumulation are attributed to gene amplification or increased mRNA expression. (
  • However, the abnormal accumulation of c-Myc protein is also a common finding in human cancers with normal copy number and transcription level of c-Myc gene. (
  • Association of the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene with hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, diabetic complications, and diabetic therapies among Japanese. (
  • G-protein beta3 subunit gene variant is unlikely to have a significant influence on serum uric acid level in Japanese workers. (
  • Pilot study of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (C825T) polymorphism and clinical response to olanzapine or olanzapine-related weight gain in persons with schizophrenia. (
  • Association of G-protein beta-3 subunit gene (GNB3) T825 allele with Type II diabetes. (
  • Insulin-mediated venodilation is impaired in young, healthy carriers of the 825T allele of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3). (
  • C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene and atrial fibrillation: association of the TT genotype with a reduced risk for atrial fibrillation. (
  • The 825C>T polymorphism of the G-protein beta-3 subunit gene (GNB3) and breast cancer. (
  • The CHRNG gene provides instructions for making the gamma (γ) protein component (subunit) of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) protein. (
  • CHRNG gene mutations result in an impaired or missing γ subunit. (
  • Upon PKA R subunit binding to the second messenger cAMP, active PKA C subunits are released, initiating a phosphorylation cascade that regulates such cellular functions as metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. (
  • Identification and ethnic distribution of major haplotypes in the gene GNB3 encoding the G-protein beta3 subunit. (
  • The 825C/T polymorphism of G-protein beta3 subunit gene and risk of ischaemic stroke. (
  • The C825T polymorphism of the G-protein ß3 subunit gene and its association with hypertension and stroke: an updated meta-analysis. (
  • Association of the G-protein ß3 subunit gene polymorphism with the incidence of cardiovascular disease independent of hypertension: the Funagata study. (
  • G-Protein ß3-Subunit Gene C825T Polymorphism and Cardiovascular Risk: An Updated Review. (
  • Association of G-protein beta3 subunit gene C825T polymorphism with cardiac and cerebrovascular events in Chinese hypertensive patients. (
  • Caused by mutations in the PPP2R5D gene, which provides instructions for making B56-delta resulting in the production of an altered B56 protein. (
  • The protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 2 page is available on the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY site. (
  • Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. (
  • Gamma non-catalytic subunit mediates binding to AMP, ADP and ATP, leading to activate or inhibit AMPK: AMP-binding results in allosteric activation of alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) both by inducing phosphorylation and preventing dephosphorylation of catalytic subunits. (
  • Gao G, Fernandez CS, Stapleton D, Auster AS, Widmer J, Dyck JR, Kemp BE, Witters LA: Non-catalytic beta- and gamma-subunit isoforms of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. (
  • Violin plots show distribution of expression levels for G-protein, gamma subunit,domain-containing protein (SMED30020678) in cells (dots) of each of the 12 neoblast clusters. (
  • Expression of G-protein, gamma subunit,domain-containing protein (SMED30020678) in the t-SNE clustered sub-lethally irradiated X1 and X2 cells. (
  • Violin plots show distribution of expression levels for G-protein, gamma subunit,domain-containing protein (SMED30020678) in cells (dots) of each of the 10 clusters of sub-leathally irradiated X1 and X2 cells. (
  • This GAP activity is mediated by the interaction of conserved residues on regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins and Galpha -subunits. (
  • For a protein that is recalcitrant to crystallization, substitution of lysine residues with arginine or glutamine is a recommended strategy. (
  • Although DREAM contains multiple binding sites for the NR1 subunit, residues 21-40 of the N terminus are the main binding site for the NR1 subunit. (
  • Unlike Ras proteins they lack cysteine residues at their C-termini and therefore are unlikely to be prenylated. (
  • this leads to the phosphorylation of additional tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for scaffold proteins, effectors and substrates. (
  • A hypothetical protein yjaB of these bacteria, consisting of 147 residues was picked out for in silico analysis. (
  • Typically, mutations that prevent the production of any γ subunit will result in the lethal type, while mutations that allow the production of some γ subunit will lead to the Escobar type. (
  • Mutations in other genes, most providing instructions for other AChR protein subunits, have been found to cause multiple pterygium syndrome. (
  • These results raise the possibility that a type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase located at the outer mitochondrial membrane plays a role in the direct cAMP stimulation of mitochondrial respiration during sperm activation. (
  • Calcium influx through subunits GluR1/GluR3 of kainate/AMPA receptor channels is regulated by cAMP dependent protein kinase. (
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. (
  • Promotes localized and transient activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and thereby modulates the activity of Rho family GTPases. (
  • These spike proteins are ideal targets for vaccines. (
  • Subunit vaccines use pieces of the pathogen - often fragments of protein - to trigger an immune response. (
  • Other protein subunit vaccines used in the United States today include those to protect against influenza and whooping cough (acellular pertussis). (
  • This study aimed to identify immunoreactive proteins in the secretions of L. infantum promastigotes which could be possible targets for the diagnosis and treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the development of vaccines against the disease. (
  • The proteins identified in metabolism pathways, survival and pathogenicity of Leishmania parasites are possible targets that could be used for the diagnosis and treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the development of vaccines against the disease in the future. (
  • The encoded protein functions as a scaffolding protein and plays roles in ubiquitination and transcription, in part though interactions with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5. (
  • 2011. Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein Cdc13 and its interaction with the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase α. . (
  • which function as sorting adapters for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, raising the possibility that it may function in the selection of integral membrane proteins for export. (
  • Functions in integrin signal transduction, but also in signaling downstream of numerous growth factor receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), EPHA2, netrin receptors and LDL receptors. (
  • while others, such as the G-protein coupled receptors , cross as many as seven times. (
  • [2] [3] Many membrane receptors include transmembrane proteins . (
  • In certain receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel . (
  • The findings suggest the importance of phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein uS15 by cytoplasmic protein kinases at several sites for its efficient transfer into the nucleolus, where pre-ribosomal subunits are assembled. (
  • The results suggest that a phosphorylation-based gating mechanism controls cargo selection by yeast retromer, and they establish a functional precedent for CDC25 protein phosphatases that lies outside of their canonical role in regulating cell cycle progression. (
  • ADP also stimulates phosphorylation, without stimulating already phosphorylated catalytic subunit. (
  • Silencing of DNA-PKcs in HeLa cells resulted in a decreased stability of c-Myc protein, which was associated the increasing of c-Myc phosphorylation on Thr58/Ser62 and ubiquitination level. (
  • Consistent with this depressed DNA-PKcs cell model, overexpressing DNA-PKcs in normal human liver L02 cells, by sub-chronically exposing to very low dose of carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), increased c-Myc protein level, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3 β, as well as cell proliferation. (
  • AMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. (
  • As a result, we found proteins that are involved in important processes during development, such as energy metabolism, control pathways and cellular communication. (
  • Most of these proteins were involved in metabolism pathways, survival and pathogenicity of Leishmania parasites. (
  • Microinjected antibodies to Giα2, but not Giα1 or Giα3, blocked the erythropoietin-stimulated [Ca(i)] rise, identifying Giα2 as the subunit involved. (
  • Proteomic LC-MS analysis of Arabidopsis cytosolic ribosomes: Identification of ribosomal protein paralogs and re-annotation of the ribosomal protein genes. (
  • Although, providing the massive amount of data by recent genome sequencing projects but many of these genomes are still not fully annotated as well as consist of genes/proteins with unknown function and structure. (
  • The CORUM dataset is built from 5299 different genes, representing 26% of the protein coding genes in humans. (
  • Subcellular localization predictions shows it is a cytoplasmic protein. (
  • The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. (
  • In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. (
  • Ro 15-4513 reduced the peak amplitude in the NAc of D 3 R -/- , but not in D 3 R +/+ . We conclude that D 3 R-dependent enhanced expression of α6 GABA A subunit inhibits voluntary alcohol intake by increasing GABA inhibition in the NAc. (
  • Intriguingly, the cell-permeable TAT-21-40 peptide, constructed according to the critical binding site of DREAM to the NR1 subunit, inhibits NMDAR mediated currents in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and has a neuroprotective effect on in vitro neuronal excitotoxic injury and in vivo ischemic brain damage. (
  • Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. (
  • G protein beta3 subunit 825T allele is associated with depression in young, healthy subjects. (
  • G-protein beta3 subunit 825T allele and hypertension. (
  • Here we show that two structurally different phycobiliproteins refold and reassemble in a cooperative manner from their unfolded polypeptide subunits, without biological chaperones. (
  • Telomerase activity is regulated by a number of factors including telomerase complex-associated proteins, chaperones and polypeptide modifiers. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Purification and characterization of Rpp25, an RNA-binding protein subunit of human ribonuclease P'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • The ARFs are a family of 21,000 M(r) proteins with biological roles in constitutive secretion and activation of phospholipase D. The structure of ARF-1 complexed to GDP determined from two crystal forms reveals a topology that is similar to that of the protein p21 ras with two differences: an additional amino-terminal helix and an extra beta-strand. (
  • In the end, whole results indicated the biological function of the target protein to be an acetyltransfarase. (
  • The CORUM database has been providing comprehensive reference information about experimentally characterized, mammalian protein complexes and their associated biological and biomedical properties since 2007. (
  • Recent curation work includes sets of protein complexes, Functional Complex Groups, that offer comprehensive collections of published data in specific biological processes and molecular functions. (
  • Proteomic techniques can show the proteome profile of cells and biological fluids and can also provide more information on protein functions and post-translational modifications of proteins (5). (
  • The fold of a protein is encoded by its amino acid sequence, but how complex multimeric proteins fold and assemble into functional quaternary structures remains unclear. (
  • Sequence similarity was brought in through Protein Data Bank and non-redundant database using BLASTp program of NCBI and a search for templates revealed that yjaB shares 97% homology to a protein of Escherichia coli, indicating this protein is evolutionary conserved and was found with acetyltransfarase. (
  • To delineate which G-protein subunits are involved, α or βγ transducin subunits were purified and microinjected as a sink for βγ or α subunits in the erythroblast, respectively. (
  • Transducin βγ, but not α, subunits eliminated the calcium response to erythropoietin, demonstrating the primary role of the α subunit. (
  • We propose that this structure-directed evolution strategy might be generally applicable for the investigation of other protein interaction surfaces. (
  • 2008. A proposed OB-fold with a protein-interaction surface in Candida albicans telomerase protein Est3. . (
  • Fifty percent of plasma calcium is ionized, 40% is bound to proteins (90% of which binds to albumin), and 10% circulates bound to anions (eg, phosphate, carbonate, citrate, lactate, sulfate). (
  • Specific enzymatic cleavages in vivo yield mature proteins. (
  • S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity. (
  • RGS proteins are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for G protein alpha -subunits. (
  • Our results demonstrate a cooperative, self-chaperone refolding mechanism, whereby the β-subunits independently refold, thereby templating the folding of the α-subunits, which then chaperone the assembly of the native complex, quantitatively returning all coherences. (
  • This protein interacts with PP1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay, is found in a stable complex with PP1 in mammalian cell lysates, and exhibits a potent medulation of PP1 catalytic activity toward exogenous substrate in vitro. (
  • Any process in which macromolecules aggregate, disaggregate, or are modified, resulting in the formation, disassembly, or alteration of a protein-DNA-RNA complex. (
  • GINS a hetero-tetrameric protein complex is known to be essential for the initiation and progression of eukaryotic DNA replication. (
  • Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2β2, AP2μ2 and AP2σ2 subunits, is ubiquitously expressed and involved in endocytosis and trafficking of membrane proteins, such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein coupled receptor that signals via Gα11. (
  • Proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. (
  • IGF-I circulates primarily in a high molecular weight tertiary complex with IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid-labile subunit. (
  • 2007. Regulation of telomere structure and functions by subunits of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex. . (
  • METTL18 is established as the second human histidine-specific protein MTase, and its functional relevance is demonstrated, indicating that METTL18-mediated methylation of RPL3 is important for optimal ribosome biogenesis and function. (
  • Proteomic characterization of archaeal ribosomes reveals the presence of novel archaeal-specific ribosomal proteins. (
  • We report here the cloning and initial characterization of a novel protein ~ named phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS). (
  • Ahmed MS, Islam MA, Hossain MM, Nasreen M. An In Silico Approach for Characterization of an Acetyltransfarase Protein from Shigella flexneriSerotype 5b (strain 8401). (
  • In situ hybridization and qPCR confirmed α6 subunit mRNA expression especially in the NAc. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC73969","clpA","Escherichia coli","ATPase and specificity subunit of ClpA-ClpP ATP-dependent serine protease, chaperone activity [Ensembl]. (
  • Coronaviruses, like the one that causes COVID-19, are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface, called spike proteins . (
  • the COVID-19 spike protein. (
  • In the case of COVID-19, the antigen is typically the characteristic spike protein found on the surface of the virus, which it normally uses to help it invade human cells. (
  • In the case of COVID-19, this is usually the viral spike protein. (
  • The spike protein is a large type I transmembrane protein containing two subunits, S1 and S2. (
  • The Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (previously called casein kinase 2) is composed of two catalytic chains (CK2 alpha) attached to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits (CK2 beta). (
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go" by people in this website by year, and whether "GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • There are four of these alpha subunits in each mitochondrial trifunctional protein molecule. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein, alpha Subunit" by people in Profiles. (
  • The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes. (
  • Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that the AP2S1 p.Arg15Leu mutation impaired protein-protein interactions between AP2σ2 and the other AP2 subunits, and also with the CaSR. (
  • The intracellular domain communicates via protein-protein interactions against effector proteins , which in turn pass a signal to the destination. (
  • The full range of molecular functions that are executed by each retromer subunit have yet to be definitively established, and this is a major obstacle for understanding the mechanisms that underpin retromer-mediated cargo export from the endosome. (
  • The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. (
  • A spontaneously arising mutation that activates the yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) CDC25 family phosphatase, Mih1, results in accelerated turnover of a subset of endocytosed plasma membrane proteins due to deficient sorting into a retromer-mediated recycling pathway. (
  • During endosome maturation, integral membrane proteins are either retained, leading their eventual turnover in the lysosome, or they are exported and delivered to other organelles for re-use. (
  • One mutant obtained displays a loss of retromer-dependent plasma membrane recycling of multiple integral plasma membrane proteins. (
  • To identify factors that regulate post-Golgi trafficking of integral membrane proteins, we harnessed the activity of yeast chitin synthase 3 (Chs3), an integral membrane enzyme that is trafficked between Golgi and endosomal compartments and the plasma membrane. (
  • Without a functional γ subunit, the fetal AChR protein cannot be assembled or properly placed in the muscle cell membrane. (
  • Arf proteins: the membrane traffic police? (
  • sensitivity to membrane phospholipids--each of these activities has been attributed to Arf proteins. (
  • They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the outside world. (
  • Like any integral membrane protein, a transmembrane receptor may be divided into three domains. (
  • 2015. Telomere DNA recognition in Saccharomycotina yeast: potential lessons for the co-evolution of ssDNA and dsDNA-binding proteins and their target sites. . (
  • The subcellular localization of PP1 and the activity toward substrates involved in many aspects of cell physiology have previously been shown to be regulated by association with noncatalytic targeting subunits. (
  • Phospholipase C, immune inhibitor A, chitin-binding protein and a single peptide match to chain A crystal structure of selenomethionine were observed in the secretions of L. infantum promastigotes. (
  • Researchers claim overexpression of the dynein subunit protein km23-1 effectively checks growth of human ovarian cancer tumor cells in vitro and also significantly reduces the tumorigenicity of human SKOV-3 cancer cells transplanted in mice. (
  • The 60S ribosomal proteins were isolated from ribosomes of human placenta and separated by reversed phase HPLC. (
  • Ruiz-Velasco V, Ikeda SR, Puhl HL: Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional expression of the human G protein beta 4-subunit. (
  • The role of G-proteins in regulation of the erythropoietin-modulated Ca 2+ channel was delineated here by microinjection of G-protein modulators or subunits into human erythroid precursors. (
  • The c-Myc protein level in DNA-PKcs deficient human glioma M059J cells was also found much lower than that in DNA-PKcs efficient M059K cells. (
  • Lack of association between human G-protein beta3 subunit variant and overweight in Japanese workers. (
  • Associations of a human G protein beta3 subunit dimorphism with insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis. (
  • Once this genetic material gets into human cells, it uses our cells' protein factories to make the antigen that will trigger an immune response. (
  • Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, adhesion, spreading, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, formation and disassembly of focal adhesions and cell protrusions, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • ATP promotes dephosphorylation of catalytic subunit, rendering the AMPK enzyme inactive. (
  • The new CORUM 4.0 release encompasses 5204 protein complexes offering the largest and most comprehensive publicly available dataset of manually curated mammalian protein complexes. (
  • Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam ). (
  • This series of Flash animations shows various mechanisms by which antibiotics that bind to bacterial ribosomal subunits interfere with translation. (
  • Bacterial extracellular solute-binding proteins [Interproscan]. (
  • Thread subunits are interconnected via donor strand complementation, a feature reminiscent of bacterial chaperone-usher pili. (
  • Interacts with the accessory proteins 3a and 7a. (