Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.

A single nuclear transcript encoding mitochondrial RPS14 and SDHB of rice is processed by alternative splicing: common use of the same mitochondrial targeting signal for different proteins. (1/10201)

The rice mitochondrial genome has a sequence homologous to the gene for ribosomal protein S14 (rps14), but the coding sequence is interrupted by internal stop codons. A functional rps14 gene was isolated from the rice nuclear genome, suggesting a gene-transfer event from the mitochondrion to the nucleus. The nuclear rps14 gene encodes a long N-terminal extension showing significant similarity to a part of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) protein from human and a malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Isolation of a functional rice sdhB cDNA and subsequent sequence comparison to the nuclear rps14 indicate that the 5' portions of the two cDNAs are identical. The sdhB genomic sequence shows that the SDHB-coding region is divided into two exons. Surprisingly, the RPS14-coding region is located between the two exons. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that both sdhB and rps14 are present at a single locus in the rice nucleus. These findings strongly suggest that the two gene transcripts result from a single mRNA precursor by alternative splicing. Protein blot analysis shows that the size of the mature RPS14 is 16.5 kDa, suggesting removal of the N-terminal 22.6-kDa peptide region. Considering that the rice mitochondrial genome lacks the sdhB gene but contains the rps14-related sequence, transfer of the sdhB gene seems to have occurred before the transfer of the rps14 gene. The migration of the mitochondrial rps14 sequence into the already existing sdhB gene could bestow the capacity for nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting.  (+info)

Intragenic inversion of mtDNA: a new type of pathogenic mutation in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy. (2/10201)

We report an unusual molecular defect in the mitochondrially encoded ND1 subunit of NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy and isolated complex I deficiency. The mutation is an inversion of seven nucleotides within the ND1 gene, which maintains the reading frame. The inversion, which alters three highly conserved amino acids in the polypeptide, was heteroplasmic in the patient's muscle but was not detectable in blood. This is the first report of a pathogenic inversion mutation in human mtDNA.  (+info)

Distinct NMDA receptor subpopulations contribute to long-term potentiation and long-term depression induction. (3/10201)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are persistent modifications of synaptic strength that have been implicated in learning, memory, and neuronal development. Despite their opposing effects, both forms of plasticity can be triggered by the activation of NMDA receptors. One mechanism proposed for this bidirectional response is that the specific patterns of afferent stimulation producing LTP and LTD activate to different degrees a uniform receptor population. A second possibility is that these patterns activate separate receptor subpopulations composed of different NMDA receptor (NR) subunits. To test this hypothesis we examined the inhibition of LTP and LTD by a series of competitive NMDA receptor antagonists that varied in their affinities for NR2A/B and NR2C/D subunits. The potency for the inhibition of LTP compared with inhibition of LTD varied widely among the agents. Antagonists with higher affinity for NR2A/B subunits relative to NRC/D subunits showed more potent inhibition of LTP than of LTD. D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, which binds to NR2A/B with very high affinity relative to NR2C/D, showed an approximately 1000-fold higher potency for LTP than for LTD. These results show that distinct subpopulations of NMDA receptors characterized by different NR2 subunits contribute to the induction mechanisms of potentiation and depression.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the cysteine-rich domain of TFIIH p44 subunit. (4/10201)

In an effort to understand the structure function relationship of TFIIH, a transcription/repair factor, we focused our attention on the p44 subunit, which plays a central role in both mechanisms. The amino-terminal portion of p44 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of the XPD helicase activity; here we show that its carboxyl-terminal domain is essential for TFIIH transcription activity and that it binds three zinc atoms through two independent modules. The first contains a C4 zinc finger motif, whereas the second is characterized by a CX(2)CX(2-4)FCADCD motif, corresponding to interleaved zinc binding sites. The solution structure of this second module reveals an unexpected homology with the regulatory domain of protein kinase C and provides a framework to study its role at the molecular level.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulatory subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase. I. Identification of the kinase and its role in the turnoff of phosphodiesterase in vitro. (5/10201)

Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an essential component in retinal phototransduction. PDE is regulated by Pgamma, the regulatory subunit of PDE, and GTP/Talpha, the GTP-bound alpha subunit of transducin. In previous studies (Tsuboi, S., Matsumoto, H. , Jackson, K. W., Tsujimoto, K., Williamas, T., and Yamazaki, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15016-15023; Tsuboi, S., Matsumoto, H., and Yamazaki, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15024-15029), we showed that Pgamma is phosphorylated by a previously unknown kinase (Pgamma kinase) in a GTP-dependent manner in photoreceptor outer segment membranes. We also showed that phosphorylated Pgamma loses its ability to interact with GTP/Talpha, but gains a 10-15 times higher ability to inhibit GTP/Talpha-activated PDE than that of nonphosphorylated Pgamma. Thus, we propose that the Pgamma phosphorylation is probably involved in the recovery phase of phototransduction through shut off of GTP/Talpha-activated PDE. Here we demonstrate that all known Pgammas preserve a consensus motif for cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5), a protein kinase believed to be involved in neuronal cell development, and that Pgamma kinase is Cdk5 complexed with p35, a neuronal Cdk5 activator. Mutational analysis of Pgamma indicates that all known Pgammas contain a P-X-T-P-R sequence and that this sequence is required for the Pgamma phosphorylation by Pgamma kinase. In three different column chromatographies of a cytosolic fraction of frog photoreceptor outer segments, the Pgamma kinase activity exactly coelutes with Cdk5 and p35. The Pgamma kinase activity ( approximately 85%) is also immunoprecipitated by a Cdk5-specific antibody, and the immunoprecipitate phosphorylates Pgamma. Finally, recombinant Cdk5/p35, which were expressed using clones from a bovine retina cDNA library, phosphorylates Pgamma in frog outer segment membranes in a GTP-dependent manner. These observations suggest that Cdk5 is probably involved in the recovery phase of phototransduction through phosphorylation of Pgamma complexed with GTP/Talpha in mature vertebrate retinal photoreceptors.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulatory subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase. II. Its role in the turnoff of phosphodiesterase in vivo. (6/10201)

Retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is regulated by Pgamma, the regulatory subunit of PDE, and GTP/Talpha, the GTP-bound alpha subunit of transducin. In the accompanying paper (Matsuura, I., Bondarenko, V. A., Maeda, T., Kachi, S., Yamazaki, M., Usukura, J., Hayashi, F., and Yamazaki, A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 32950-32957), we have shown that all known Pgammas contain a specific phosphorylation motif for cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) and that the unknown kinase is Cdk5 complexed with its activator. Here, using frog rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) isolated by a new method, we show that Cdk5 is involved in light-dependent Pgamma phosphorylation in vivo. Under dark conditions only negligible amounts of Pgamma were phosphorylated. However, under illumination that bleached less than 0.3% of the rhodopsin, approximately 4% of the total Pgamma was phosphorylated in less than 10 s. Pgamma dephosphorylation occurred in less than 1 s after the light was turned off. Analysis of the phosphorylated amino acid, inhibition of Pgamma phosphorylation by Cdk inhibitors in vivo and in vitro, and two-dimensional peptide map analysis of Pgamma phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro indicate that Cdk5 phosphorylates a Pgamma threonine in the same manner in vivo and in vitro. These observations, together with immunological data showing the presence of Cdk5 in ROS, suggest that Cdk5 is involved in light-dependent Pgamma phosphorylation in ROS and that the phosphorylation is significant and reversible. In an homogenate of frog ROS, PDE activated by light/guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) was inhibited by Pgamma alone, but not by Pgamma complexed with GDP/Talpha or GTPgammaS/Talpha. Under these conditions, Pgamma phosphorylated by Cdk5 inhibited the light/GTPgammaS-activated PDE even in the presence of GTPgammaS/Talpha. These observations suggest that phosphorylated Pgamma interacts with and inhibits light/GTPgammaS-activated PDE, but does not interact with GTPgammaS/Talpha in the homogenate. Together, our results strongly suggest that after activation of PDE by light/GTP, Pgamma is phosphorylated by Cdk5 and the phosphorylated Pgamma inhibits GTP/Talpha-activated PDE, even in the presence of GTP/Talpha in ROS.  (+info)

Mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATP synthase. Subunit regions on the F1 motor shielded by F(0), Functional significance, and evidence for an involvement of the unique F(0) subunit F(6). (7/10201)

Studies reported here were undertaken to gain greater molecular insight into the complex structure of mitochondrial ATP synthase (F(0)F(1)) and its relationship to the enzyme's function and motor-related properties. Significantly, these studies, which employed N-terminal sequence, mass spectral, proteolytic, immunological, and functional analyses, led to the following novel findings. First, at the top of F(1) within F(0)F(1), all six N-terminal regions derived from alpha + beta subunits are shielded, indicating that one or more F(0) subunits forms a "cap." Second, at the bottom of F(1) within F(0)F(1), the N-terminal region of the single delta subunit and the C-terminal regions of all three alpha subunits are shielded also by F(0). Third, and in contrast, part of the gamma subunit located at the bottom of F(1) is already shielded in F(1), indicating that there is a preferential propensity for interaction with other F(1) subunits, most likely delta and epsilon. Fourth, and consistent with the first two conclusions above that specific regions at the top and bottom of F(1) are shielded by F(0), further proteolytic shaving of alpha and beta subunits at these locations eliminates the capacity of F(1) to couple a proton gradient to ATP synthesis. Finally, evidence was obtained that the F(0) subunit called "F(6)," unique to animal ATP synthases, is involved in shielding F(1). The significance of the studies reported here, in relation to current views about ATP synthase structure and function in animal mitochondria, is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of peroxisomal Pex5p from rat liver. Pex5p in the Pex5p-Pex14p membrane complex is a transmembrane protein. (8/10201)

Pex5p is the receptor for the vast majority of peroxisomal matrix proteins. Here, we show that about 15% of rat liver Pex5p is found in the peroxisomal fraction representing 0.06% of total peroxisomal protein. This population of Pex5p displays all the characteristics of an intrinsic membrane protein. Protease protection assays indicate that this pool of Pex5p has domains exposed on both sides of the peroxisomal membrane. The strong interaction of Pex5p with the membrane of the organelle is not affected by mild protease treatment of intact organelles, conditions that result in the partial degradation of Pex13p. Cytosolic Pex5p is a monomeric protein. In contrast, virtually all peroxisomal Pex5p was found to be part of a stable 250-kDa protein assembly. This complex was isolated and shown to comprise just two subunits, Pex5p and Pex14p.  (+info)

Neural progenitor number is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B p65 and p50 subunit-dependent proliferation rather than cell survival
PMID 21455670] Genetic variation in genes encoding for polymerase ? subunits associates with breast cancer risk, tumour characteristics and survival ...
Question 8: In some protein assemblies, one subunit may be referred to as a regulatory subunit and another as a catalytic subunit. An enzyme composed of both regulatory and catalytic subunits when assembled is often referred to as a ________. ...
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab75993 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subunit-dependent postsynaptic expression of kainate receptors on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1. AU - Wondolowski, Joyce. AU - Frerking, Matthew. PY - 2009/1/14. Y1 - 2009/1/14. N2 - Kainate receptors (KARs) contribute to postsynaptic excitation in only a select subset of neurons. To define the parameters that specify the postsynaptic expression of KARs, we examined the contribution of KARs to EPSCs on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1. Interneurons in stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare express KARs both with and without the GluR5 subunit, but KAR-mediated EPSCs are generated mainly, if not entirely, by GluR5-containing KARs. Extrasynaptic glutamate spillover profoundly recruits AMPA receptors (AMPARs) with little effect on KARs, indicating that KARs are targeted at the synapse more precisely than AMPARs. However, spontaneous EPSCs with a conventional AMPAR component did not have a resolvable contribution of KARs, suggesting that the KARs that contribute to the ...
Multiple voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary mediators of cell excitability. They are multimers that consist of the pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits. Although ion permeability and voltage sensing are primarily determined by the alpha subunit, beta subunits are important modulators of sodium channel function. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of axotomy on the expression of beta subunits (beta(1), beta(2) and beta(3)) and coexpression of Na(v)1.3 and beta(3) subunits in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We used sciatic nerve transection models or spared nerve injury (SNI) models in the rat. In reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, there were no significant differences between contralateral and ipsilateral DRGs of beta(1) and beta(2) mRNA 3 days after axotomy. beta(3) mRNA expression in ipsilateral DRGs increased significantly compared with contralateral DRGs 3 days after axotomy. In in situ hybridization histochemistry, beta(1) ...
The SWI/SNF complex contains 12-15 subunits [1-3], which are combinatorially assembled to create as many as several thousand biochemically distinct complexes. In development, changes to composition of SWI/SNF can drive developmental progression [4, 5]. In cancer, SWI/SNF is among the most commonly found mutations, with mutations observed in as many as 20% of tumors [6, 7]. However, these mutations are not equally spread across the subunits. Mutations in the ARID family members (ARID1A, ARID1B and ARID2) and the ATPase subunits (BRG1 and BRM) are more prevalent than in the other subunits [6, 7]. Additionally, in some cancers multiple subunits are mutated. This is the case in hepatocellular carcinoma where mutations have been identified in all three ARID subunits [8-10]. In other cancers, mutations are highly specific, such as BRG1 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) [11] and SNF5 mutations in malignant rhabdoid tumors [12], and ARID1A in ovarian clear cell ...
The receptor subtypes involved in the physiological and pharmacological actions of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in peripheral and endocrine tissues are not clear. Information about the molecular characteristics of GABA(A) receptors in peripheral endocrine tissues is only available for the pancreas and the adrenal medulla. Using reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the widespread expression of GABA(A) receptors subunits in rat peripheral tissues, including adrenal, ovary, testis, placenta, uterus, and small intestine is shown. It is shown that GABA(A) receptor subunits are expressed in multiple endocrine tissues in a tissue specific manner. These results give an insight into the likely pharmacological properties of these GABA(A) receptors in these tissues. The gonadal endocrine tissues such as the placenta, ovary and the testis express greater range of GABA(A) receptor subunits relative to the adrenal gland. The tissues with greater smooth muscle content, the small intestine and
AMP-activated protein kinase is an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric enzyme whose primary role involves maintenance of energy balance in the eukaryotic cell. The structure and function of each of the subunits is conserved through evolution; however, although there are two or three genes encoding each subunit in the mammalian systems, there is but a single gene for each of them in Drosophila, making it an attractive model system to study the functions of AMPK in vivo (Pan and Hardie, 2002). Although it has been the focus of much research, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying the regulatory functions of the β and γ subunits: β acts as a scaffold via its C-terminal domain and contains a carbohydrate-binding domain that associates the mammalian enzyme complex with glycogen, whereas the gamma subunit contains the so-called Bateman domains, responsible for binding of AMP and therefore allosteric activation of AMPK (Hardie, 2007). Finally, all three subunits are essential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and applications of affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits of G proteins. AU - Pang, Iok-Hou. AU - Smrcka, Alan V.. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - This chapter discusses synthesis and applications of affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits of G proteins. All G proteins composed of α,β, and γ subunits. Stimulation of the proteins is effected by exchange of GTP for GDP. This activation can be mimicked, in vitro, by the binding of AIF4 - in concert with guanosine 5-diphosphate (GDP). Activation promotes dissociation of α and βγ subunits. Because generic purified complexes of βγ subunits interact with a wide variety of unique α subunits, it is possible to use βγ as an affinity reagent for the study of α subunits. The development of a functional immobilized βγ resin provided a novel method for isolating and purifying α subunits of G proteins and a unique means for studying the interaction between α and ...
Two main results have emerged from this work. First, we have established that the quaternary organization of P2X subunits can be accurately defined using a combination of BRET and fluorescence complementation. Second, we have demonstrated that P2X5 and P2X2 subunits associate in a new heteromeric receptor with two stoichiometries. We have provided evidence that this receptor is endogenously expressed within specific neuronal populations, and displays functional properties that were previously thought to be unique to the P2X7 receptor (Surprenant et al., 1996).. Our cell surface assay (Chaumont et al., 2004) allowed a preliminary screening of P2X subunits interacting at the plasma membrane. Indeed, this approach has accurately identified subunits known to interact with P2X2 or P2X5, such as P2X3 and P2X1, respectively (Lewis et al., 1995; Haines et al., 1999; Lê et al., 1999; Surprenant et al., 2000), and revealed P2X2 subunits as a new assembly partner of P2X5. In native tissue, P2X2 and P2X5 ...
Knockdown of glutamate-cysteine ligase by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) reveals that both catalytic and modulatory subunits are essential for the survival of primary neurons ...
This unit should take you approximately 24 hours to complete. ☐ Subunit 3.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.2: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.3: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4: 5.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.3: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.4: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.5: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.6: 1.0 hour. ☐ Subunit 3.5: 3.0hours ☐ Subunit 3.6: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.7: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.8: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9: 4.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.3: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.4: 1.0 hour. Unit3 Learning Outcomes ...
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
From NCBI Gene:. The protein encoded by this gene is a critical subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, members of the glutamate receptor channel superfamily which are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. These subunits play a key role in the plasticity of synapses, which is believed to underlie memory and learning. Cell-specific factors are thought to control expression of different isoforms, possibly contributing to the functional diversity of the subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
Dive into the research topics of Subregional differences in GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor subunit expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of sedentary versus physically active rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CACNB1 (calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Date: June 2017 Source: Biological Shape Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ISBSA), pp 249-258. School of Dentistry, UCLA, USA, 19-22 June 2015. Abstract: Facial morphology is the result of mazy interactions between environmental and epigenetic factors that lead to the composition of multiple subunits integrated to function as a whole. In this work, we […]. Read More ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gammaisoform (EC (PI3-kinase p110 subunit gamma) (PtdIns-3-kinase subunit p110) (PI3K) (PI3Kgamma) (p120-PI3K ...
HTF Market Report released a new research document of 35 pages on industry titled as Interleukin 7 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw127 or CD127 or IL7R) - Pipe
Rubisco molecules with at least one (and probably only one) plastid-synthesized small subunit (i.e., L8S7SH) were somewhat less stable than L8S8 molecules. The former lost 35S label slowly during the chase period whereas the latter retained it completely (Figure 6). Perhaps the presence of even one His tag is sufficient to destabilize the whole hexadecamer slightly. However, the turnover rate of L8S7SH was slow compared with that of the D1 protein. Although enhanced turnover might contribute to the scarcity of plastid-synthesized small subunits, it cannot by itself completely explain it.. It is possible, however, that the plastid-synthesized small subunits or their precursors might be subject to rapid turnover before assembly into Rubisco. Although unassembled His-tagged small subunits would be isolated by the Ni2+ chelation procedure, such rapid degradation might keep their steady state pool sizes so small that they would escape detection in pulse-labeling experiments (Figure 6). Rapid ...
Alpha-morpholino subunits and polymer compositions composed of alpha-morpholino subunits are disclosed. These subunits can be linked together by uncharged linkages, one to three atoms in length, joini
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
Mediator has been shown to be essential for regulation of RNA Polymerase II mediated transcription. Mediator functions as an interface between the general transcriptional machinery and a multitude of DNA binding transcriptional regulators, although the molecular mechanism for the process is elusive. Mediator is a large complex of over twenty subunits, most of which are conserved from yeast to plants to mammals. Many of these subunits are essential for viability in yeast, and mutations in the corresponding genes have global effects on transcription. Mediator was originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but has since been described in most eukaryotes. However, until recently the Mediator complex was not identified in plants. This thesis describes the first successful identification and isolation of the Mediator complex from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By raising antibodies against candidate A. thaliana Mediator subunits, we were able to purify a multisubunit protein complex. Mass ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that cancer progression is associated with up-regulation or reactivation of telomerase and the underlying mechanism remains an active area of research. The heterotrimeric MRN complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1, which is required for the repair of double-strand breaks, plays a key role in telomere length maintenance. In this study, we show significant differences in the levels of expression of MRN complex subunits among various cancer cells and somatic cells. Notably, siRNA-mediated depletion of any of the subunits of MRN complex led to complete ablation of other subunits of the complex. Treatment of leukemia and prostate cancer cells with etoposide lead to increased expression of MRN complex subunits, with concomitant decrease in the levels of telomerase activity, compared to breast cancer cells. These studies raise the possibility of developing anti-cancer drugs targeting MRN complex subunits to sensitize a subset of cancer cells to radio- and/or ...
PI-3 kinase subunit gamma antibody for detecting human phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
As most subunits of the transcriptional mediator complex have not been functionally analyzed in vertebrates, the extent to which subunit composition may contribute to developmental mechanisms has remained unclear. Here, we present the first functional analysis of the subunit Crsp34 in the context of development and cell differentiation of zebrafish. We tested the concept of subunit-specific roles by analyzing the loss-of-function effects of three mediator subunits on the development of the vertebrate CNS: Trap100 (Pietsch et al. 2006), Crsp150 (Amsterdam et al. 2004), and Crsp34 (this study). As an experimental system we chose the developing zebrafish retina, since it represents one of the best-studied units of the CNS, regarding anatomy and control of proliferation, as well as expression of genes involved in patterning and differentiation for zebrafish (reviewed in Malicki 2000). Therefore, analysis of the retina in a mutant embryo allows us to detect developmental defects at high ...
P48736: Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform; PI3-kinase subunit gamma; PI3K-gamma; PI3Kgamma; PtdIns-3-kinase subunit gamma;; Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 110 kDa catalytic subunit gamma; PtdIns-3-kinase subunit p110-gamma; p110gamma; Phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic gamma polypeptide; Serine/threonine protein kinase PIK3CG;; p120- ...
The human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encodes channels producing IKr currents in the human heart. hERG subunits are encoded by two alternate transcripts, 1a and 1b, which are identical except for their divergent amino (N) termini. Mutations or drug block of the hERG channel can result in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) leading to potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Studying the assembly process of the hERG subunits is important in elucidating the varied mechanisms by which hERG mutations, many of which are unique to the 1a N-terminus, can result in trafficking defects and disease. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the preferential assembly of hERG 1b with 1a is mediated by N-terminal interactions. Our results demonstrate that 1a and 1b heteromerize in the endoplasmic reticulum. A previously identified C-terminal tetramerization domain is not required for this interaction. hERG 1a and1b N-termini were sufficient for inter-subunit association and in vitro binding assays demonstrated that ...
Human embryonic, fetal, and adult hemoglobin have different subunit interface strengths. Correlation with lifespan in the red cell L.R. Manning, J.E. Russell, J.C. Padovan, B.T. Chait, A. Popowicz, R.S. Manning, and J.M. Manning, Protein Science 16 (2007) 1641.. ...
NMDA receptors are hetero-oligomers assembled from two typesof subunits, NR1 and NR2. The NR1 subunit is a single geneproduct, whereas the NR2 subunit is encoded by four differentgenes: NR2A-NR2D (147). Native NMDA receptors are thoughtto be heteromultimers containing four or five subunits consistingof two NR1 subunits and two or three NR2 subunits (38). Atmost synapses throughout the central nervous system, NMDA receptorsare composed of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2Aor NR2B subunits. NR2A and NR2B subunits are ubiquitously distributedthrough the central nervous system and have been shown to undergoa developmental switch in hippocampal and cortical neurons(179). At birth NMDA receptors are composed of NR1/NR2B subunits,and there is a switch from NR2B to NR2A subunits around P7.However, in the LA, a recent study has shown that applicationof the NR2B-selective antagonist ifenprodil blocks the inductionof fear conditioning, suggesting that receptors containingNR2B subunits are present ...
Looking for online definition of Laminin-4 subunit alpha in the Medical Dictionary? Laminin-4 subunit alpha explanation free. What is Laminin-4 subunit alpha? Meaning of Laminin-4 subunit alpha medical term. What does Laminin-4 subunit alpha mean?
S cerevisiae RSC complex: an essential, abundant chromatin-remodeling complex of multiple subunits; has homology to SWI/SNF complex; amino acid sequence given in first source
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and similar compounds, which then serve as second messengers in growth signaling pathways. PI3K is composed of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents a regulatory subunit of PI3K. The encoded protein contains two SH2 domains through which it binds activated protein tyrosine kinases to regulate their activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016 ...
Proteasome subunit alpha type-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSMA2 gene. This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex ...
This gene encodes a member of the prefoldin beta subunit family. The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly synthesized polypeptides, thereby allowing them to fold correctly. The complex, consisting of two alpha and four beta subunits, forms a double beta barrel assembly with six protruding coiled-coils. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Interleukin 15 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CD215 or IL15RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 Interleukin 15 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CD215 or IL15RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10579333
The cytolytic ionotropic ATP receptor P2X7 has several important roles in immune cell regulation, such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and microbial killing. Although P2X7 receptors are frequently coexpressed with another subtype of P2X receptor, P2X4, they are believed not to form heteromeric assemblies but to function only as homomers. Both receptors play a role in neuropathic pain; therefore, understanding how they coordinate the cellular response to ATP is important for the development of effective pain therapies. Here, we provide biochemical and electrophysiological evidence for an association between P2X4 and P2X7 that increases the diversity of receptor currents mediated via these two subtypes. The heterologously expressed receptors were coimmunoprecipitated from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and the endogenous P2X4 and P2X7 receptors were similarly coimmunoprecipitated from bone marrow-derived macrophages. In HEK293 cells, the fraction of P2X4 receptors biotinylated at the ...
Compare N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 38, NatC auxiliary subunit ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles with other protein molecules to form a protein complex. Some naturally occurring proteins have a relatively small number of subunits and therefore described as oligomeric, for example hemoglobin or DNA polymerase. Others may consist from a very large number of subunits and therefore described as multimeric, for example microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins. The subunits of a multimeric protein may be identical, homologous or totally dissimilar and dedicated to disparate tasks.
An Inter-subunit salt bridge is broken in the active conformation of AP2.Predicted location of the modified worm residues within the inactive (PBD ID: 2VGL) and
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
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Component Of A Heterodimeric Poc4p-Irc25p Chaperone; Involved In Assembly Of Alpha Subunits Into The 20S Proteasome; May Regulate Formation Of Proteasome Isoforms With Alternative Subunits Under Different Conditions
MetabolismEnergy metabolismATP-proton motive force interconversionATP synthase F1, epsilon subunit (TIGR01216; EC; HMM-score: 120.2) ...
Elliott, K.J.; Ellis, S.B.; Berckhan, K.J.; Urrutia, A.; Chavez-Noriega, L.E.; Johnson, E.C.; Veliçelebi, G.; Harpold, M.M., 1996: Comparative structure of human neuronal alpha 2-alpha 7 and beta 2-beta 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and functional expression of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7, beta 2, and beta 4 subunits
ASICs are permeable to cations and are activated by extracellular acidosis. They are subject to modulation by extracellular alkalosis, intracellular pH and various other factors. Much of what we know about these channels properties comes from expressing recombinant ASIC subunits in heterologous cells. Channels are formed by combinations of ASIC subunits in homotrimeric or heterotrimeric complexes, with different subunits conferring distinct properties (TABLE 1). The amino acid sequences of ASIC subunits are well conserved between species, in fact the mouse ASIC 1a and the human ASIC 1a share over 99% of their amino acid sequence identity. The recently described crystal structure of the chicken ASIC1 homomultimeric channel has shed light on the subunit interactions and, along with sequence homology analyses, has driven numerous structure-function experiments that are revealing how the channels respond to pH and other stimuli. In addition to the non-covalent inter-subunit interactions, disulphide ...
Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopusoocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emaxwithout affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, ...
Acts as a regulatory subunit of the 26 proteasome which is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Is not a genuine component of the 26S proteasome, but an auxiliary factor that interacts with the proteasomal ATPase of 19S regulatory particle (RP). Acts as a chaperone which regulates the highly structured assembly of the 19S regulatory particle. Involved in the substrate specificity of the 26S proteasome and is especially involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated GCN4. May contribute to the stability of the 26S proteasome in some stress conditions.
The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzymes rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzymes rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human DNA polymerase delta p50 protein (ab114798). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
TY - JOUR. T1 - The N-terminal domain of GABA receptor subunit ρ1 contains regions required for subunit assembly. AU - Hackam, A. S.. AU - Wang, Tian-Li. AU - Guggino, William B. AU - Cutting, Garry R. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose. The retina GABAC-like receptor subunit ρ1 forms robustly expressing homooligomeric receptors, whereas the GABAA receptor subunits require heterooligomerization for efficient expression. This indicates that each ρ1 subunit has the information for precise assembly into a functional receptor. This study was performed to investigate the topology of ρ1 and to localize the domain directing subunit assembly. Methods. Two ρ1 mutants were created: N-ρ1, containing a termination signal at codon 256 immediately prior to the putative first transmembrane domain, and C-ρ1, in which sequence from the putative signal peptide to the first hydrophobic region was deleted. Wild-type ρ1 and the truncation mutants were translated in vitro for immunoprecipitation and ...
This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c, c, and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene is one of two genes that encode the V1 domain C subunit proteins and is found ubiquitously. This C subunit is analogous but not homologous to gamma subunit of F-ATPases. Previously, this gene was ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of In the Telencephalon, GluN2C NMDA Receptor Subunit mRNA is Predominately Expressed in Glial Cells and GluN2D mRNA in Interneurons. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
nAChRs are pentameric complexes made up of combinations of a number of different nAChR subunits, which can be classified as α subunits, containing two cysteine residues at positions analogous to Cys192 and Cys193, and non-alpha subunits (structural subunits), which can be defined as β subunits when they are expressed in the vertebrate nervous system. There are nine α subunits (α2-α10) and three β subunits (β2, β3, and β4) in the CNS. Nicotinic receptors are assembled as combinations of α (2-6) and and β (2-4) subunits.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Base-CP proteasome can serve as a platform for stepwise lid formation. AU - Yu,Zanlin. AU - Livnat-Levanon,Nurit. AU - Kleifeld,Oded. AU - Mansour,Wissam. AU - Nakasone,Mark A.. AU - Castaneda,Carlos A.. AU - Dixon,Emma K.. AU - Fushman,David. AU - Reis,Noa. AU - Pick,Elah. AU - Glickman,Michael H.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - 26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid ...
Interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 15 receptor that in humans is encoded by the IL15RA gene. The IL-15 receptor is composed of three subunits: IL-15R alpha, CD122, and CD132. Two of these subunits, CD122 and CD132, are shared with the receptor for IL-2, but IL-2 receptor has an additional subunit (CD25). The shared subunits contain the cytoplasmic motifs required for signal transduction, and this forms the basis of many overlapping biological activities of IL15 and IL2, although in vivo the two cytokines have separate biological effects. This may be due to effects of the respective alpha chains, which are unique to each receptor, the kinetics and affinity of cytokine-cytokine receptor binding, or due to the availability and concentration of each cytokine. IL-15Ralpha specifically binds IL15 with very high affinity, and is capable of binding IL-15 independently of other subunits. It is suggested that this property allows IL-15 to be produced by one cell, ...
GNG12 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 92 aa (1-69 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 10.1kDa.
We next investigated whether beta gamma subunits play a role in the sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase activity; using expression of alpha tau to inhibit beta gamma-mediated effects, we found that the quinpirole-induced sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase was abolished ...
The |i|a|/i| subunit is the largest of 15 different subunits that make up the vacuolar H|sup|+|/sup|-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex, where it functions in proton translocation. In mammals, this subunit has four paralogous isoforms, |i|a|/i|1-|i|a|/i|4, which may encode signals for targeting assembled V-A …
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_2059 (SAUSA300_RS11340); symbol: atpG; product: F0F1 ATP synthase subunit gamma
Sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPases are tetrameric proteins, consisting of two large alpha subunits and two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunits bear the active site and penetrate the membrane, while the beta subunits carry oligosaccharide groups and…
heteropentamer of subunit of 140/145, 40,38, 37 and 36.5 kDa (RFC is a pentamer comprising a large subunit, RFC1, and four small subunits, RFC2-RFC5) ...
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex, typically composed of eight subunits (designated as CSN1 to CSN8) in higher eukaryotes such as ...
reference: ASPP proteins discriminate between PP1 catalytic subunits through their SH3 domain and the PP1 C-tail., Bertran MT, Mouilleron S, Zhou Y, Bajaj R, Uliana F, Kumar GS, van Drogen A, Lee R, Banerjee JJ, Hauri S, OReilly N, Gstaiger M, Page R, Peti W, Tapon N, Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 15;10(1):771. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08686-0. PMID: 30770806 ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG7 gene. GNG7 ... Ueda N, Iñiguez-Lluhi JA, Lee E, Smrcka AV, Robishaw JD, Gilman AG (1994). "G protein beta gamma subunits. Simplified ... "Entrez Gene: GNG7 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7". Yan K, Kalyanaraman V, Gautam N (Mar 1996). " ... "Differential ability to form the G protein betagamma complex among members of the beta and gamma subunit families". J. Biol. ...
Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are composed of three distinct protein subunits named alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) ... When activated, a heterotrimeric G protein dissociates into activated, GTP-bound alpha subunit and separate beta-gamma subunit ... regions that in the active state are able to make protein-protein contacts with partner proteins that alter the function of ... Each of these Gα protein families contains multiple members, such that the mammals have 16 distinct α-subunit genes. The Gβ and ...
Microtubules are composed of tubulin protein dimer subunits. The dimers each have hydrophobic pockets that are 8 nm apart and ... He originally suggested the tubulin-subunit electrons would form a Bose-Einstein condensate, but this was discredited. He then ... correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly". Biosens Bioelectron. 47: 141-8. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2013.02.050. ... since quantum mechanics determines the shapes and properties of molecules like neurotransmitters and proteins, and these ...
... is a tetrameric protein with identical subunits. Each subunit is made up of a single 301 amino acid polypeptide ...
"A 102 kDa subunit of a Golgi-associated particle has homology to beta subunits of trimeric G proteins". EMBO J. 12 (7): 2847-53 ... Coatomer subunit beta' is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COPB2 gene. The Golgi coatomer complex (see MIM 601924) ... It consists of 7 protein subunits, including COPB2.[supplied by OMIM] COPB2 has been shown to interact with: COPB1, PRKCE, and ... "Entrez Gene: COPB2 coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 2 (beta prime)". Eugster A, Frigerio G, Dale M, Duden R (August 2000 ...
"Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits" (PDF). Nature. 524 (7563): 119-124. doi:10.1038/nature14862. PMID ... The Cédric Orelle research group created ribosomes with tethered and inseparable subunits (or Ribo-T). Sleator, RD (2013). " ...
The capsomere is a subunit of the capsid, an outer covering of protein that protects the genetic material of a virus. ... having a few protein subunits that are repeated. This is because the viral genome is being as economic as possible by only ... Subunits called protomers aggregate to form capsomeres. Various arrangements of capsomeres are: 1) Icosahedral, 2) Helical, and ... needing a few protein codons to make a large structure. One of the major functions of a capsid is to introduce the enclosed ...
... for her discoveries on G-protein subunit structure and function. She described the physiological roles of these subunits as an ... Location and function of reactive sulfhydryl groups of alpha subunit 39 (1987) Action of G protein subunits on the cardiac ... Neer, EJ; Clapham, DE (May 12, 1988). "Roles of G protein subunits in transmembrane signalling". Nature. 333 (6169): 129-34. ... Prat, AG; Ausiello, DA; Cantiello, HF (July 1993). "Vasopressin and protein kinase A activate G protein-sensitive epithelial ...
The protein subunits of both classes each have an α/β domain folded into a TIM barrel containing the active site. Several ... The aldolase used in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis is a cytoplasmic protein. Three forms of class I protein are found in ... The Escherichia coli galactitol operon protein, gatY, and N-acetyl galactosamine operon protein, agaY, which are tagatose- ... subunits are assembled into the complete protein. The two classes share little sequence identity. With few exceptions only ...
Microtubules are made up of tubulin protein subunits. The tubulin protein dimers of the microtubules have hydrophobic pockets ... Orchestration refers to the hypothetical process by which connective proteins, such as microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), ... Hameroff originally suggested in the fringe Journal of Cosmology that the tubulin-subunit electrons would form a Bose-Einstein ... argued that aromatic molecules cannot switch states because they are delocalised; and that changes in tubulin protein- ...
SarcKATP are composed of eight protein subunits (octamer). Four of these are members of the inward-rectifier potassium ion ... The kir6.1 and kir6.2 genes encode the pore-forming subunits of the KATP channel, with the SUR subunits being encoded by the ... ATP-sensitive potassium channels are composed of Kir6.x-type subunits and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits, along with ... The Kir subunits have two transmembrane spans and form the channel's pore. The SUR subunits have three additional transmembrane ...
... is a multimer of protein subunits. For instance, the form of this enzyme in E. coli is a ca. 800 kDa ... Each subunit can be divided into five domains: (1) the amino-terminal wing domain, (2) the linker domain, (3) the PLP-binding ... The surface protein residues of the homodimer consume protons, leading to the formation of active decamers which further ... Dissociation and reassociation of subunits". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (8): 1678-84. PMID 4870600. Eliot AC, ...
XPE is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits. The larger subunit DDB1 primarily functions as a core component of ... The XPA protein acts during NER as a scaffold for assembly of other DNA repair proteins at sites of DNA damage to ensure ... The XPC protein forms a complex with RAD23B protein to form the initial damage recognition factor in global genomic nucleotide ... The XPF (ERCC4) protein together with the ERCC1 protein forms a complex usually designated ERCC1-XPF. This complex separates ...
Structurally, proteins are long chains of amino acid subunits. In some way, the genetic molecule, DNA, had to contain ... The details of how sequences of DNA instruct cells to make specific proteins was worked out by molecular biologists during the ... In 1951, Pauling published the structure of the alpha helix, a fundamentally important structural component of proteins. In ... the pairing of nucleotide subunits. In DNA, the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to ...
Kunz, C; Lonnerdal, B (1990). "Human-milk proteins: analysis of casein and casein subunits..." American Journal of Clinical ...
The beta and gamma subunits are integral membrane proteins. The ~45kDa beta subunit has nine transmembrane segments which serve ... The alpha subunit, which is ~65kDa, is a biotinylated peripheral membrane protein on the cytosolic side of the membrane. Within ... The small ~9kDa gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein with a single helix at the N-terminus, followed by a hydrophilic ... Furthermore, the gamma subunit significantly accelerates the rate of oxaloacetate decarboxylation in the alpha subunit, and ...
The same protein may act as the subunit of both the pentamers and hexamers or they may be composed of different proteins. ... Virally-coded protein subunits will self-assemble to form a capsid, in general requiring the presence of the virus genome. ... These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Subunit ... These are formed from identical protein subunits called capsomeres. Viruses can have a lipid "envelope" derived from the host ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(z) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAZ gene. The protein ... Fong HK, Yoshimoto KK, Eversole-Cire P, Simon MI (1988). "Identification of a GTP-binding protein alpha subunit that lacks an ... Linder ME, Middleton P, Hepler JR, Taussig R, Gilman AG, Mumby SM (1993). "Lipid modifications of G proteins: alpha subunits ... Mumby SM, Heukeroth RO, Gordon JI, Gilman AG (1990). "G-protein alpha-subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane ...
Adaptins are clustered subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes. There are several types of adaptin, each related to a ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are proteins that mediate the formation of vesicles for intracellular ... Adaptins show sequence similarity to some COPI subunits, thus they are thought to have a common evolutionary origin. The ... 2011). "The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. PMC 3191125. PMID ...
Yu Z, Feng D, Liang C (2004). "Pairwise interactions of the six human MCM protein subunits". J. Mol. Biol. 340 (5): 1197-206. ... The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in ... The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other ... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ...
Each subunit consists of 180 proteins. By weight, the viron is 80% protein and 20% nucleic acids. Viral replication is ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB3 gene. ... and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits ... 1990). "Molecular cloning of beta 3 subunit, a third form of the G protein beta-subunit polypeptide". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... Downes GB, Gautam N (2000). "The G protein subunit gene families". Genomics. 62 (3): 544-52. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5992. PMID ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB4 gene. Heterotrimeric ... and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits ... 2003). "G protein subunit G gamma 13 is coexpressed with G alpha o, G beta 3, and G beta 4 in retinal ON bipolar cells". J. ... Asano T, Morishita R, Ueda H, Kato K (1999). "Selective association of G protein beta(4) with gamma(5) and gamma(12) subunits ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG3 gene. G ... 1999). "KSR-1 binds to G-protein betagamma subunits and inhibits beta gamma-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... Gamma subunits, such as GNG3, contribute to the specificity of the hundreds of receptor signaling pathways involving G proteins ... Downes GB, Gautam N (Mar 2000). "The G protein subunit gene families". Genomics. 62 (3): 544-52. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5992. ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB2 gene. ... and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits ... 1995). "A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits and the Raf-1 protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (24): ... G protein), beta polypeptide 2". Downes GB, Gautam N (2000). "The G protein subunit gene families". Genomics. 62 (3): 544-52. ...
... these two proteins comprise one of the four classes of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits. Heterotrimeric G proteins ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA13 gene. The GNA13 gene ... G12/G13 alpha subunits G protein-coupled receptor Heterotrimeric G protein Rho family of GTPases GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... G protein), alpha 13". Strathmann MP, Simon MI (1991). "G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein ...
"Protein-protein interactions of hCsl4p with other human exosome subunits". J. Mol. Biol. 315 (4): 809-18. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2002). "AU binding proteins recruit the exosome to degrade ARE-containing mRNAs". Cell. 107 (4): 451-64. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674 ... Schilders G, van Dijk E, Pruijn GJ (2007). "C1D and hMtr4p associate with the human exosome subunit PM/Scl-100 and are involved ...
The protein is a heterodimer of alpha- and beta-subunits. The alpha-subunit binds DNA as a monomer, and appears to have a role ... The protein (known as acute myeloid leukemia 1 protein, oncogene AML-1, core-binding factor (CBF), alpha-B subunit, etc.) binds ... The region of shared similarity, known as the Runt domain, is responsible for DNA-binding and protein-protein interaction. In ... This domain occurs towards the N-terminus of the proteins in this entry. Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain ...
February 2012). "Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels". Nature. 483 (7388): 176-81. ... identity with each other and they have no similarity to any other protein and contain no known protein domains. They are ... In the original publication the authors were careful not to call the piezo proteins ion channels, but a more recent study by ... Piezo1 is a mechanosensitive ion channel protein that in humans is encoded by the gene PIEZO1. Piezo1 and its close homolog ...
"Protein-protein interactions of hCsl4p with other human exosome subunits". J. Mol. Biol. 315 (4): 809-18. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... "Protein-protein interactions between human exosome components support the assembly of RNase PH-type subunits into a six- ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... 2002). "AU binding proteins recruit the exosome to degrade ARE-containing mRNAs". Cell. 107 (4): 451-64. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674 ...
Mumby SM, Heukeroth RO, Gordon JI, Gilman AG (1990). "G-protein alpha-subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... showed that under different conditions the large homogeneous particles could be broken down into discrete subunits.[11] The ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
"A reevaluation of the amino acid sequence of human follitropin beta-subunit". J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi: ... FSHB, HH24, follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit, Follitropin subunit beta. معرفات خارجية. MGI: MGI:95582 HomoloGene: 430 ... وحيدة بيتا للفولليتروبين (بالإنجليزية: Follitropin subunit beta) ويُدعى اختصارًا FSHB، ويُسمى أيضًا وحيدة بيتا للهرمون المنبه ... 1997). "Delayed puberty and hypogonadism caused by mutations in the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene". N. Engl. J ...
The latter one is the source of reduced FAD for the monooxygenase subunits and has some side activity as a monooxygenase. So ... which is supported by fusion protein of a monooxygenase and reductase (StyA2B). ...
ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... The catalytically active subunit of the OST is called STT3. Two paralogs exist in eukaryotes, termed STT3A and STT3B. STT3A is ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
ɔrɡəˈnɛl/) ay isang espesyalisadong subunit ng isang selula na may spesipikang katungkulan at karaniwang hiwalay nan nasasarhan ... Kerfeld, Ca; Sawaya, Mr; Tanaka, S; Nguyen, Cv; Phillips, M; Beeby, M; Yeates, To (August 2005). "Protein structures forming ...
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "gamma-Aminobutyric acidA receptors displaying association of gamma 3-subunits with beta 2/3 and different alpha-subunits ... GABRA4, gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha4 subunit. External IDs. OMIM: 137141 MGI: 95616 HomoloGene: 631 GeneCards ...
Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... 21 ribosomal proteins, and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ...
A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ... When the tick feeds, the Borrelia downregulates OspA and upregulates OspC, another surface protein. After the bacteria migrate ...
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ...
protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... Kalkhoven E, Wissink S, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B (March 1996). "Negative interaction between the RelA(p65) subunit of NF ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... identical protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ...
Hsu SC، Hazuka CD، Roth R، Foletti DL، Heuser J، Scheller RH (June 1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and ... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ... v2 is a parkin-binding protein". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 117 (2): 179-89. PMID 14559152. doi:10.1016/S0169- ...
The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene mutation causes both beta-globin subunits of hemoglobin to change into hemoglobin S ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... A special PKU formula can be obtained in order for the body to have protein.[30] ...
The encoded protein is a type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found ... transition in the second codon position of the 74th codon in the protein) mutation in the PRKAR1A gene confirming the diagnosis ...
Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... The y2 subunit is associated with α1-α6 subunits, which are all known α subunits, so these studies do not show which of the α ... The expression of the subunits can be very different depending on brain region.[6] The combination of the subunits influences ... The GABAA receptors are made up of subunits which form a receptor complex. Humans have 19 receptor subunits and are classified ...
Diglons are heterodimeric proteins composed of IgLON subunits, and Diglon-CO inhibits neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule ... IgLON perekond koosneb neljast liikmest: LSAMP (limbic system-associated membrane protein), Neurotrimin(Ntm)/CEPU-1 (vastavalt ... 15,0 15,1 Lajtha, A. (2007). Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology: Neural protein metabolism and function, 2nd ... Varma, R. and Mayor, S. (1998). GPI-anchored proteins are organized in submicron domains at the cell surface. Nature 394: 798- ...
Carroll J., Fearnley I. M., Shannon R. J., Hirst J. e Walker, J. E. (2003): "Analysis of the subunit composition of complex I ... NCBI Protein procura É o maior complexo da cadea respiratoria; nos mamíferos consta de 45 cadeas polipeptídicas, das cales sete ...
Small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) are found in endospores. These proteins tightly bind and condense the DNA, and are in part ... and the sigma factor subunits of RNA polymerase. ... Small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) saturate the endospore's ... The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between ... In Bacillus subtilus endospores, the spore coat is estimated to contain more than 70 coat proteins, which are organized into an ...
Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (1998). "Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS- ...
Eukaryotic mitochondria contain an unrelated RNAP (member of the "single-subunit RNAP" protein family). ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chains at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis ... Messenger RNA (mRNA). These are templates for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes. ...
This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... BaP diminished NMDA receptor-dependent nerve cell activity measured as mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor subunit.[10] ... "Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract". Free Radic ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... by a signalosome-like subunit and its role in DNA repair". Molecular Cell. 12 (5): 1087-99. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(03)00424-6. ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2[10] and RAD52. ... Protein domains in homologous recombination-related proteins are conserved across the three main groups of life: archaea, ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... in the icosahedral structure each of the 60 triangles that make up the capsid are split into 3 little triangles with a subunit ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase A in the cardiac Ca2+ channel alpha 1C subunit". FEBS Letters. 384 ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ... "Entrez Gene: voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit".. *^ Narayanan D, Xi Q, Pfeffer LM, Jaggar JH (Sep 2010). " ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... which is hollow and is assembled by subunits moving up the central pore to the tip of the flagella, archaeal flagella are ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ...
SHCBP1: encoding protein SHC SH2 domain-binding protein 1. *SLZ1: encoding protein SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit ... UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ... CCDC113: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 113. *Ccdc78: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing 78 ...
G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • G-protein alpha-subunit binding. ... regulation of protein phosphorylation. • histone H3-S10 phosphorylation. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... protein import into nucleus. • positive regulation of potassium ion transport. • response to amphetamine. • научение. • пищевое ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger. • positive regulation of release ...
... subunit.[3] TBP binds to the minor groove[15] of the TATA box via a region of antiparallel β sheets in the protein.[16] Three ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
... of subunits into the electron density. Several programs can also fit subunits computationally. Important information on protein ... This bacterial protein complex is a machine for folding other proteins, which get trapped within the shell. Fatty acid synthase ... Proteins in vitreous ice usually adopt a random distribution of orientations (or viewing angles), allowing a fairly isotropic ... These often enable the user to manually dock in protein coordinates (structures from X-ray crystallography or NMR) ...
A group of RNA and protein subunits, called a spliceosome, removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA segment. This process is ... This creates a protein which works differently from the original version.[3] This is now used in genetic engineering. ... It used to be thought that each gene on DNA coded for a single protein in a continuous strip. Roberts and Sharp independently ... yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence".[1] ...
tumor protein p53 binding protein 2. ASPP2, 53BP2, PPP1R13A. 1q41. PPP1R13B protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 13B. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3D. PPP1R6. 20q13.33. PPP1R3E protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3E. FLJ00089. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 7. sds22. 2q37.3. PPP1R8 protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 8. ard-1, NIPP-1, ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1A. 12q13.2. PPP1R1B protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1B. ...
Protein expression data [Model Organism Protein Expres...] Protein expression data. Model Organism Protein Expression Database ... hemoglobin subunit alpha [Homo sapiens] hemoglobin subunit alpha [Homo sapiens]. gi,4504345,ref,NP_000508.1, ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... LSBio HBA2 / Hemoglobin Alpha 2 Proteins [LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc.] LSBio HBA2 / Hemoglobin Alpha 2 Proteins. LifeSpan ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The alpha subunit only contacts the beta subunit in the dimer, lying on the opposite face from the gamma subunit. RGS proteins ... Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: ...
MULTISPECIES: malonate decarboxylase subunit delta [Pseudomonas]. NCBI Reference Sequence: WP_034109921.1. Identical Proteins ... MULTISPECIES: malonate decarboxylase subunit delta [Pseudomonas] MULTISPECIES: malonate decarboxylase subunit delta [ ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein), alpha subunit (IPR001019) *Fungal G-protein, alpha subunit (IPR002975) ... Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: ...
Blackmer et al. report that the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gβγ) can also block exocytosis by directly binding to ... Recombinant Gβγ subunits bound to purified soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) ... G protein directly regulates SNARE protein fusion machinery for secretory granule exocytosis. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 421-425 (2005 ... This process can be blocked by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) whose activation triggers a number of inhibitory events, ...
... a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein ... A subunit is often named with a Greek or Roman letter, and the numbers of this type of subunit in a protein is indicated by a ... In some protein assemblies, one subunit may be a "catalytic subunit" that enzymatically catalyzes a reaction, whereas a " ... for example microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins. The subunits of a multimeric protein may be identical, homologous or ...
PROTEIN (REPLICATION PROTEIN A 32 KD SUBUNIT). A, C. 129. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RPA2, REPA2, RPA32, RPA34. ... PROTEIN (REPLICATION PROTEIN A 14 KD SUBUNIT). B, D. 121. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RPA3, REPA3, RPA14. ... Replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryote single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), is a heterotrimer. The largest subunit, ... Replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryote single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), is a heterotrimer. The largest subunit, ...
Assembly of subunit d (Vma6p) and G (Vma10p) and the NMR solution structure of subunit G (G(1-59)) of the Saccharomyces ... Assembly of subunit d (Vma6p) and G (Vma10p) and the NMR solution structure of subunit G (G(1-59)) of the Saccharomyces ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C] H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [ ...
Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The yeast R subunit is therefore similar to the type II R subunit of mammalian origin, although it has a larger Mr (64,000 vs. ... Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Sy and M Roselle ... In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. The cAMP-binding ...
... protein subunits include Combining Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry of Intact Protein Complexes to Study the ... Examining the Conformational Dynamics of Membrane Proteins in situ with Site-directed Fluorescence Labeling, G Protein- ... Architecture of Multi-subunit Protein Assemblies, Generation and Purification of Human INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes ... The MultiBac Protein Complex Production Platform at the EMBL, High-resolution Imaging and Analysis of Individual Astral ...
... resulting in dissociation of alpha-GTP from the beta gamma subunits. In most cases, alpha-GTP carries the signal to effectors, ... G proteins by catalysing replacement by GTP of GDP bound to the alpha subunit, ... Hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase through Gi-protein beta gamma subunits Nature. 1992 Mar 12;356(6365):159-61. doi: ... By contrast, genetic evidence in yeast and studies in mammalian cells suggest that beta gamma subunits of G proteins may also ...
... is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which combines, in the absence of cAMP, with the regulatory subunit to form the inactive ... Since this is the free catalytic subunit alone, no cAMP is required for activation. ... The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) ... cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA), catalytic subunit The ... NEBuffer™ for Protein Kinases (PK) -20 10 X Product Categories:. Protein Kinases Products. Applications: Protein Phosphatases ...
The regulatory subunit of neural cAMPdependent protein kinase II represents a unique gene product. J Biol Chem 1985; 260: 6440- ... Coelution of the type II holoenzyme form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with regulatory subunits of the type I form of cAMP- ... The neural type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is present and regulated by hormones in the rat ovary. J ... The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse ...
Both subunits regulate each others protein levels. In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for ... Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping ... the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of the subunit knocked-down and compensates for its loss. We propose that the ... We aimed in this report to understand how both subunits regulate each other in vivo. We show that the levels and capping ...
Here, we show that activation of receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins inhibits TRPM3 channels. This inhibition was ... This inhibition was alleviated by co-expression of proteins that bind the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gβγ). Co- ... Inhibition of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 3 ion channels by G-protein βγ subunits Elife. 2017 Aug 15;6:e26147. doi ... TRPM3 co-immunoprecipitated with Gβ, and purified Gβγ proteins applied to excised inside-out patches inhibited TRPM3 currents, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): A0A0B6XLG9 - Phormidium rubidum 1 * Q54715 - Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803 ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Two-component, 120-subunit icosahedral cage extends protein nanotechnology. Ten designs spanning three distinct icosahedral ... Experimental results are reported for two-component, 120-subunit icosahedral protein nanostructures of 1.8 to 2.8 megadalton ... From a University of Washington Institute for Protein Design news release "Designed Protein Containers Push Bioengineering ... but two distinct protein components. The new designed proteins are described in the latest issue of Science in a paper entitled ...
Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... rgs proteins*transfection*protein kinase c*gtp binding proteins ... gtp binding protein alpha subunits*cyclic amp*knockout mice*g12 g13 gtp binding protein alpha subunits*patch clamp techniques* ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins*gi go gtp binding protein alpha subunits*phospholipase c*g protein coupled receptors* ... gtp binding protein beta subunits*estrenes*calcium channels*gtp binding protein gamma subunits*platelet aggregation*inositol ...
Urease subunit gamma (ureA), Urease subunit gamma (ureA), Urease subunit beta (ureB), Urease subunit alpha (ureC), Urea ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS01120, UREASE_1, 1 hit. PS00145, ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01979, Amidohydro_1, 1 hit. PF00449, Urease_alpha, 1 ...
Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R12C gene. The gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C". Retrieved 2016-11-14. Surks HK, Richards CT, Mendelsohn ME (2003 ... subunit of myosin phosphatase. The encoded protein regulates the catalytic activity of protein phosphatase 1 delta and assembly ... "Myosin phosphatase-Rho interacting protein. A new member of the myosin phosphatase complex that directly binds RhoA". J. Biol. ...
When substrates are diffused into large subunit crystals, the subsequent structure shows that products have formed. The CC- ... this structure represents a state that occurs after peptide bond formation but before the hybrid state of protein synthesis. ... that crystals of the large ribosomal subunits from Haloarcula marismortui are enzymatically active. Addition of these crystals ... The large ribosomal subunit catalyzes peptide bond formation during protein synthesis. Its peptidyl transferase activity has ...
The binding protein of corticotropin-releasing factor: Ligand-binding site and subunit structure. Olaf Jahn, Klaus Eckart, Olaf ... The binding protein of corticotropin-releasing factor: Ligand-binding site and subunit structure ... The binding protein of corticotropin-releasing factor: Ligand-binding site and subunit structure ... The binding protein of corticotropin-releasing factor: Ligand-binding site and subunit structure ...
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways mediate the transmission of signals from the extracellular environment to the ... 1998). A G protein gamma subunit-like domain shared between RGS11 and other RGS proteins specifies binding to Gβ5 subunits. ... Fidelity of G protein β-subunit association by the G protein gamma-subunit-like domains of RGS6, RGS7, and RGS11. Proceedings ... Ggamma subunit-selective G protein beta 5 mutant defines regulators of G protein signaling protein binding requirement for ...
C-reactive protein P2 subunit 4. Alternative name(s):. C-reactive protein PII subunit 41 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... sp,P86689,CRP2_GADMO C-reactive protein P2 subunit 4 (Fragment) OS=Gadus morhua OX=8049 PE=1 SV=1 GRSLVFPEETANSFVELFPAKELSL ...
... and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. In mammals, the coatomer can only be ... which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. The coatomer ... recruited by membranes associated to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are small GTP-binding proteins; the complex also ... a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, ...
... protein. Ab159193 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA… ... Recombinant Human PKA gamma (catalytic subunit) protein. See all PKA gamma (catalytic subunit) proteins and peptides. ... AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. cAMP subfamily.. Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain.. Contains 1 protein kinase domain. ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
... Naila ... The current study aimed to investigate radiation-induced regulation of iron proteins including ferritin subunits in rats. Rat ... Liver irradiation increased hepatic protein expression of both ferritin subunits. A rather early increase (3 h) was observed ... In vitro, a significant increase in ferritin subunits at mRNA level was detected after irradiation which was further induced ...
Two alpha subunit donor splice site mutations cause human trifunctional protein deficiency.. J C Brackett, H F Sims, P Rinaldo ... resulting in undetectable levels of alpha subunit protein, and complete loss of trifunctional protein. This is the initial ... Human trifunctional protein catalyzes three steps in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, including the long chain 3- ... Deficiency of this heterocomplex, which contains 4 alpha and 4 beta subunits, causes sudden unexplained infant death, a Reye- ...
The proteins of this group assist protein folding supported by ATP. The specific axial symmetry GroEL structure (two rings of ... The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity ... not engaged in protein-protein interaction) - third column and amino acids engaged in protein-protein complexation versus those ... not engaged in protein-protein interaction) - third column and amino acids engaged in protein-protein complexation versus those ...
  • Identification and differential expression of two forms of regulatory subunits (RH) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase II in Friend erythroleukemic cells. (
  • PP2A consists of a common heterodimeric core enzyme, composed of PPP2CA a 36 kDa catalytic subunit (subunit C) and PPP2R1A a 65 kDa constant regulatory subunit (PR65 or subunit A), that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. (
  • Proteins that associate with the core dimer include three families of regulatory subunits B (the R2/B/PR55/B55, R3/B''/PR72/PR130/PR59 and R5/B'/B56 families), the 48 kDa variable regulatory subunit, viral proteins, and cell signaling molecules. (
  • PP2A is a heterotrimer composed of a scaffold subunit (A), a catalytic subunit (C), and one of many regulatory subunits (B). The dimeric form consisting of the scaffold and catalytic subunit also exists as the core-PP2A enzyme. (
  • AKAPs are a diverse family of proteins that all bind via a small PKA binding domain to the regulatory subunits of PKA. (
  • The binding affinities between PKA and several AKAPs can be different for different isoforms of the regulatory subunits of PKA. (
  • We were able to enrich all four isoforms of the regulatory subunits of PKA and concomitantly identify more than 10 AKAPs. (
  • In contrast, the localizations of PP1δ and PP2A catalytic and regulatory subunits were not significantly affected by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment. (
  • Notably, lower ethanol doses (2.0 g/kg) had no effect on GABA A -R α1 subunit levels, although PKA type II regulatory subunits RIIα and RIIβ were increased at 10 and 60 min when PKC isozymes are also known to be elevated. (
  • The gene encodes a subunit of myosin phosphatase. (
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae VMA6 gene encodes the 36-kDa subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase membrane sector. (
  • Among the five γ-subunit genes, RGG1 encodes the canonical γ-subunit, RGG2 encodes a plant-specific type of γ-subunit with additional amino acid residues at the N-terminus, and the remaining three γ-subunit genes encode atypical γ-subunits with cysteine-rich C-termini. (
  • The gene, which maps to 47A on the second chromosome, encodes two proteins that are both 354 amino acids long but differ in seven amino acids in the amino-terminal region. (
  • This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the serine/theonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase-1. (
  • ATP5H is a member of the ATPase d subunit family and encodes the d subunit of the F0 complex. (
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (
  • A gene on chromosome 15q14 that encodes a protein essential for spindle-assembly checkpoint signalling and for correct chromosome alignment. (
  • SKI6 encodes an essential 3′→5′ exonuclease that is a component of the exosome ( 45 ), and ski6 mutants have defects in assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits ( 7 ). (
  • In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. (
  • The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) is a serine/threonine protein kinase. (
  • The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which combines, in the absence of cAMP, with the regulatory subunit to form the inactive PKA holoenzyme. (
  • Analysis of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase system using molecular genetic approaches. (
  • Genetic characterization of a brain-specific form of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (
  • The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse brain. (
  • Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and regulation of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat ovarian granulosa cells. (
  • The neural type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is present and regulated by hormones in the rat ovary. (
  • The principal target of cAMP is cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) 1 . (
  • G proteins and their receptors (GPCRs) form one of the most prevalent signalling systems in mammalian cells, regulating systems as diverse as sensory perception, cell growth and hormonal regulation [ PMID: 15294442 ]. (
  • G protein activation by G protein coupled receptors: ternary complex formation or catalyzed reaction? (
  • This process can be blocked by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) whose activation triggers a number of inhibitory events, including blocking the entry of calcium through ion channels at the cell surface. (
  • Agonist-bound receptors activate heterotrimeric (alpha beta gamma) G proteins by catalysing replacement by GTP of GDP bound to the alpha subunit, resulting in dissociation of alpha-GTP from the beta gamma subunits. (
  • This conditional pattern of effector responsiveness led to the prediction that receptors coupled to many G proteins will mediate elevation of cellular cyclic AMP, provided that Gs is also active. (
  • Here, we show that activation of receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins inhibits TRPM3 channels. (
  • The central actions of CRF are mediated through at least two different subtypes of CRF receptors (CRFRs), CRFR1 and CRFR2 ( 4 ), and are modulated by a 37-kDa CRF-binding protein (CRFBP) ( 5 ), which is localized in several distinct brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus ( 6 ). (
  • Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors and neuronal functions. (
  • Glutamate receptors of the AMPA-subtype (AMPARs), together with the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs), mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. (
  • They interact with receptors, G protein α subunits and downstream targets to coordinate multiple, different GPCR functions. (
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins consisting of multiple isoforms of distinct Gα, β and γ subunits mediate the actions of a wide variety of cell surface receptors [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Receptors catalyze exchange of tightly bound GDP for GTP on the α subunit in a process that requires the complete heterotrimer. (
  • According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α 1 ) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α 2 , δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. (
  • Coupling properties of the mutated Gα q proteins were determined after coexpression with a panel of 13 G i -and G s -selective receptors and compared with those of Gα proteins modified in only one module. (
  • Gα proteins modified in both modules are significantly more efficacious in channeling non-G q -selective receptors to G q -mediated signaling events compare with those containing each module alone. (
  • Together, our data suggest that receptor-G protein coupling selectivity involves cooperative interactions between the extreme C terminus and linker I of Gα proteins and that distinct determinants of selectivity exist for individual receptors. (
  • Accurate signal transduction demands that seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) selectively regulate a few of the many available and closely related G proteins expressed within a given cell. (
  • G proteins couple delta opioid receptors to multiple cellular effector systems and are critical components of the delta opioid signal transduction cascade. (
  • To investigate the physical association of delta opioid receptors with G proteins, the cloned mouse delta opioid receptor was solubilized, and the G proteins associated with the receptor were identified through coimmunoprecipitation of the receptor/G protein complexes with antisera directed against different G α and G β subunits. (
  • These interactions may be critical in linking delta receptors to phospholipase C. The diversity of G proteins associated with the delta opioid receptor may form the basis for the selective coupling of these receptors to multiple cellular effector systems. (
  • Opioid receptors are coupled to these effector systems by G proteins. (
  • The coupling of G α subunits with delta opioid receptors has been examined by many methods with varying results. (
  • Involvement of G-protein alpha il subunits in activation of G-protein gated inward rectifying K+ channels ( GIRK1 ) by human NPY1 receptors. (
  • This study investigated the type of G-protein alpha subunit(s) that human neuropeptide Y ( NPY )1 receptors preferentially utilize when activating G-protein gated K+ currents. (
  • These receptors were also co-injected with G-protein alpha i1, alpha i2, alpha i3 and alpha o1 subunits to determine which subunit(s) modulate the efficiency of signal transduction. (
  • Activation of GIRK1 currents by neuropeptide Y was selectively potentiated by alpha i1 subunit cDNA whereas coupling dopamine of D2 receptors to this channel was not. (
  • Both protein kinase C (PKC) and A (PKA) are involved in regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptors through phosphorylation. (
  • however, the majority of receptors are composed of 2α, 2β and either a γ or δ subunit ( Olsen and Sieghart, 2009 ). (
  • The ontogeny of the structural and functional characteristics of insulin receptors is determined by examining insulin binding, subunit structure, autophosphorylation, and tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity in partially purified solubilized liver receptors from fetal (∼21 days postconception), neonatal (1- and 7-day-old), and adult rats. (
  • GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) in the EDG (endothelial differentiation gene) and P2Y families are specific receptors for LPA in the plasma membrane, and intracellular signalling via these GPCRs has been well characterized [ 1 ]. (
  • While many signaling processes are guanine nucleotide dependent, the precise coupling between a variety of receptors, G proteins, and effectors remains obscure. (
  • Addgene: Phosphorylation-dependent activation of the Ras-GRF/CDC25Mm exchange factor by muscarinic receptors and G-protein beta gamma subunits. (
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two GTP-binding alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein have been identified, Gpa1 and Gpa2. (
  • Rice harbors one canonical α subunit gene ( RGA1 ), four extra-large GTP-binding protein genes (XLGs), one canonical β-subunit gene ( RGB1 ), and five γ-subunit genes (tentatively designated RGG1 , RGG2 , RGG3 / GS3 / Mi / OsGGC1 , RGG4 / DEP1 / DN1 / qPE9-1 / OsGGC3 , and RGG5 / OsGGC2 ) as components of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. (
  • In recent years, a variety of reports have suggested additional modes of activation that could either add complexity to the classical model or represent entirely independent mechanisms for heterotrimeric G protein regulation [ 4 - 10 ]. (
  • The classical heterotrimeric G protein consists of a GDP/GTP-binding Gα subunit with GTPase activity bound to an obligate dimer formed by Gβ and Gγ subunits. (
  • In the present study, we identified the purified 42 and 35 kDa proteins as the heterotrimeric G protein subunits Gα q and Gβ 1 respectively. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • This record is a non-redundant protein sequence. (
  • The sequence identity between different fungal alpha subunits is relatively low and is equivalent to the level of similarity observed between mammalian alpha subtypes. (
  • Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type I adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (
  • Takio K, Smith SB, Krebs EG, Walsh KA, Titani K. Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type II adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (
  • Isolation and sequence of a tryptic peptide containing the autophosphorylation site of the regulatory subunit of bovine brain protein kinase II. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple homologs. (
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (
  • The deduced amino acid sequences of the two proteins are 81% identical to the sequence of a rat Go alpha subunit. (
  • The sequence of two cDNA clones shows there is alternative splicing in the 5'-coding region which, on conceptual translation, would give rise to two proteins with slightly different amino termini. (
  • The primary amino acid sequence of a protein contains all the information necessary for protein folding and its biological activity [ 1 ]. (
  • Pillars Article: Evidence for Amino Acid Sequence Differences among Proteins Resembling the L-chain Subunits of Immunoglobulins. (
  • Herein, we explored whether both modules (linker I and extreme C terminus) interact cooperatively in switching G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-to-effector specificity and created as models mutant Gα q proteins in which glycine was replaced with various amino acids and the C-terminal five Gα q residues with the corresponding Gα i or Gα s sequence. (
  • The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. (
  • They lack the site that is ordinarily modified by pertussis toxin and their sequences vary from the canonical Gly-Ala-Gly-Glu-Ser (GAGES) amino acid sequence found in most other G protein alpha subunits. (
  • Amino acid sequence comparisons suggest that G alpha q and G alpha 11 represent a third class of alpha subunits. (
  • Recently, we described two novel cytoplasmic proteins, FXR1 and FXR2, which are both very similar in amino acid sequence to FMR1 and which also interact strongly with FMR1 and with each other. (
  • The new designed proteins are described in the latest issue of Science in a paper entitled "Accurate design of megadalton-scale multi-component icosahedral protein complexes" [ abstract , full text PDF courtesy of Baker Lab]. (
  • The results presented here justify the authors' conclusion in their abstract: "The ability to design megadalton-scale materials with atomic-level accuracy and controllable assembly opens the door to a new generation of genetically programmable protein-based molecular machines. (
  • Abstract A possible pathogenic polymorphism in the gene for the G subunit of the glycogen-associated regulatory form of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 G subunit), causing an Asp-to-Tyr substitution at codon 905 (Asp905Tyr), has been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and hypersecretion of insulin in the white population. (
  • article{5be1f4a6-d9f6-43e4-84be-f1c903a8b6fe, abstract = {C4b-binding protein (C4BP), an important inhibitor of complement activation, has a unique spider-like shape. (
  • Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction. (
  • RI and RII subunits are known to bind to AKAPs with distinct levels of affinity adding another level of intracellular organization for PKA and also facilitating the diversity of the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathways. (
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are a conserved signal transduction mechanism in eukaryotes. (
  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are integral to the signal transduction pathways that mediate the cell's response to many hormones, neuromodulators, and a variety of other ligands. (
  • An enzyme composed of both regulatory and catalytic subunits when assembled is often referred to as a holoenzyme. (
  • Although the PKA-R isoforms differ in functionality, they share a similar overall organization i.e. a dimerization domain, the catalytic subunits inhibitor region, and two cAMP binding domains. (
  • For example, class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase is composed of a p110 catalytic subunit and a p85 regulatory subunit. (
  • The dissociated subunits activate the downstream pheromone signalling MAP kinase cascade that induce changes necessary to produce mating-competent cells [ PMID: 14536090 , PMID: 7796906 ]. (
  • Induction of adenosine 3', 5'monophosphate-dependent protein kinase subunits during adipogenesis in vitro. (
  • Hartl FT, Roskoski R, Jr. Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. (
  • The regulatory subunit of neural cAMPdependent protein kinase II represents a unique gene product. (
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. (
  • AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain. (
  • These proteins target PP1 to the glycogen particle and also bind differentially to glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and phosphorylase kinase, thereby serving as molecular scaffolds. (
  • Inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit by small molecule inhibitor NU7026 sensitizes human leukemic K562 cells to benzene metabolite-induced apoptosis. (
  • We have previously reported that exposure of workers to benzene and to benzene metabolite hydroquinone in cultured cells induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to mediate the cellular response to DNA double strand break (DSB) caused by DNA-damaging metabolites. (
  • Treatment with NU7026 did not alter the production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress by hydroquinone but repressed the protein level of DNA-PKcs and blocked the induction of the kinase mRNA and protein expression by hydroquinone. (
  • This specificity is largely achieved by binding of PKA to protein scaffolds, whereby a distinct group of proteins called A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) play a dominant role. (
  • Some of the best described scaffolding proteins are the so-called A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which all bind specifically to the N-terminal dimerization domain of the PKA regulatory domain. (
  • Lozeman FJ, Litchfield DW, Piening C, Takio K, Walsh KA, Krebs EG: Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the alpha and the alpha' subunits of casein kinase II. (
  • With fixed amounts of protein, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity in the presence of different insulin concentrations (1 × 10 −8 to 1 × 10 −6 M) was significantly higher in the fetal and neonatal rats than in adult rats. (
  • However, when expressed as a function of insulin-binding activity, the insulin-stimulated tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity in fetal and neonatal rats appears to be similar to that in adult rats because of decreased insulin binding in the latter group. (
  • Neuronal CDC2-like kinase, which is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation, is comprised of a catalytic subunit, CDK5, nad an activating subunit, p25NCK5A. (
  • Displacement of CRF from its binding protein may be achieved by CRFBP-selective peptides (CRFBP inhibitors) such as human/rat (h/r)-CRF 6-33 ( 8 , 14 ), a synthetic fragment of h/rCRF. (
  • We offer Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins for use in common research applications: Blocking/Neutralizing, Control, ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (
  • Our Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Choose from our Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Proteins. (
  • Choose from our DNA Polymerase epsilon subunit 3 Peptides and Proteins. (
  • Secondly, recent progress in our understanding of immune responses against AIDS vaccine candidates that incorporate recombinant proteins or peptides will be reviewed, mainly those that are designed to elicit humoral immune responses. (
  • In this paper, former Baker lab graduate student Jacob Bale, Ph.D. and collaborators describe the computational design and experimental characterization of ten two-component protein complexes that self-assemble into nanocages with atomic-level accuracy. (
  • The authors are not aware of any natural protein complexes characterized to date that exhibit I52 or I32 architectures. (
  • As heterotrimeric complexes, R7 RGS proteins not only associate with and regulate a number of G protein signaling pathway components, but have also been found to form complexes with proteins that are not traditionally associated with G protein signaling. (
  • This review summarizes our current understanding of the biology of the R7 RGS complexes including their structure/functional organization, protein-protein interactions, and physiological roles. (
  • We conclude that spinal G-protein-gated K + channels consisting primarily of GIRK1/GIRK2 complexes modulate thermal nociception and mediate a significant component of the analgesia evoked by intrathecal administration of high morphine doses. (
  • Arkadia (zeige RNF111 ELISA Kits ) complexes with clathrin adaptor AP2 (zeige GTF3A ELISA Kits ) mu2 subunit and regulates EGF (zeige EGF ELISA Kits ) signalling. (
  • G proteins are heterotrimeric complexes consisting of alpha , beta and gamma subunits. (
  • Deletion of S20 conferred two types of initiation defects to the 30S subunit: (i) a significant reduction in the rate of mRNA binding and (ii) a drastic decrease in the yield of 70S complexes caused by an impairment in association with the 50S subunit. (
  • The results of paper I demonstrate that removal of small subunit protein S20 conferred two independent translation initiation defects: (i) a significant reduction in the rate and extent of mRNA binding and (ii) a drastic decrease in the yield of 70S complexes caused by an impairment in subunit association. (
  • To understand the function of FMR1 and the FXR proteins, we carried out cell fractionation and sedimentation experiments with monoclonal antibodies to these proteins to characterize the complexes they form. (
  • G protein alpha subunits are 350-400 amino acids in length and have molecular weights in the range 40-45 kDa. (
  • Baker Lab researchers have extended their work that we cited last summer assembling a large, stable, icosahedral protein molecular cage to a multi-component icosahedral protein complex. (
  • These nanocages are the largest designed proteins to date with molecular weights of 1.8-2.8 megadaltons and diameters comparable to small viral capsids. (
  • Experimental results are reported for two-component, 120-subunit icosahedral protein nanostructures of 1.8 to 2.8 megadalton molecular weight and 24 to 40 nm diameter. (
  • Four proteins in this group, RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11, share a common molecular organization of three modules: (i) the catalytic RGS domain, (ii) a GGL domain that recruits Gβ 5 , an outlying member of the G protein beta subunit family, and (iii) a DEP/DHEX domain that mediates interactions with the membrane anchor proteins R7BP and R9AP. (
  • We determined the molecular basis of this deficiency in a patient with neonatal presentation and later sudden death using reverse transcription and PCR amplification of his alpha subunit mRNA. (
  • This is the initial molecular characterization of trifunctional protein deficiency. (
  • Molecular chaperones are the proteins which bind and stabilize unfolded or partially folded proteins, thereby preventing them from being degraded [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • These results demonstrate that cornichons are intrinsic auxiliary subunits of native AMPARs and provide previously unknown molecular determinants for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. (
  • Molecular chaperones are a class of proteins responsible for proper folding of a large number of polypeptides in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (
  • Both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells possess a family of proteins responsible for binding to nascent polypeptide chains and help them fold into biologically functional three-dimensional structures, they are known as molecular chaperones, and they vary in size and complexity [ 2 - 6 ]. (
  • Many of the molecular chaperones are induced in response to stress or heat, and so they got the name Hsp (heat shock protein). (
  • Molecular chaperones like Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40, and Hsp104 bind to nascent polypeptide chain at hydrophobic regions which are exposed to the crowded environment otherwise buried inside in a completely folded protein [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • Molecular chaperones have developed multiple and diverse tertiary and quaternary structures to bind nonnative protein substrates. (
  • It is therefore important to identify the molecular properties of the G-protein-gated Kir (K G ) channel in dopaminergic neurons in SN. (
  • The PFDN2 protein is one of 6 subunits of prefoldin, which is a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly synthesized polypeptides, thus allowing them to fold correctly. (
  • These results appear to provide a molecular explanation for inhibition by chlorpromazine of fast axonal transport of proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerve, and provide a fresh clue as to the primary mechanism for the psychotropic effect of this drug. (
  • Upon receiving a molecular signal, typically transduced by a transmembrane protein (e.g. a G protein-coupled receptor), Gα exchanges GDP for GTP and dissociates from the Gβγ dimer. (
  • Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations studies were carried out to confirm the stable affinity between the vaccine protein (3D) and TLR3 receptor. (
  • Atrial G protein-activated K+ channel: expression cloning and molecular properties. (
  • Considering the topographical location of S20 in complete 30S subunits, the molecular mechanism by which it affects mRNA binding and subunit docking is not entirely obvious. (
  • Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. (
  • We report the partial complementation and subsequent comparative molecular analysis of two nonviable mutants impaired in chloroplast translation, one ( emb2394 ) lacking the RPL6 protein, and the other ( emb2654 ) carrying a mutation in a gene encoding a P-class pentatricopeptide repeat protein. (
  • At the cell surface, the binding of ligands such as hormones and neurotransmitters to a GPCR activates the receptor by causing a conformational change, which in turn activates the bound G protein on the intracellular-side of the membrane. (
  • The activated receptor promotes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit. (
  • GTP binding changes the conformation of switch regions within the alpha subunit, which allows the bound trimeric G protein (inactive) to be released from the receptor, and to dissociate into active alpha subunit (GTP-bound) and beta/gamma dimer. (
  • The cycle is completed by the hydrolysis of alpha subunit-bound GTP to GDP, resulting in the re-association of the alpha and beta/gamma subunits and their binding to the receptor, which terminates the signal [ PMID: 15119945 ]. (
  • The specific combination of subunits in heterotrimeric G proteins affects not only which receptor it can bind to, but also which downstream target is affected, providing the means to target specific physiological processes in response to specific external stimuli [ PMID: 9278091 , PMID: 11882385 ]. (
  • Recombinant Gβγ subunits bound to purified soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex, a protein assembly that is involved in the fusion step of vesicle exocytosis. (
  • Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP binding to specific receptor proteins in rat ovarian follicles. (
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), recognized as an important stress factor, binds to a CRF receptor and a CRF-binding protein (CRFBP) that represents a reservoir of endogenous CRF. (
  • G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways mediate the transmission of signals from the extracellular environment to the generation of cellular responses, a process that is critically important for neurons and neurotransmitter action. (
  • A distinctive family of proteins involved in the assembly of the most common excitatory brain receptor has been discovered. (
  • α2/β subunits have also been identified as the receptor for gabapentin and pregabalin, drugs clinically used in the treatment of several neuropathic disorders. (
  • It is proximal to LRP5 (LDL receptor related protein 5) gene. (
  • G protein βγ subunits are central participants in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways. (
  • Numerous studies have attested to the importance of the extreme C terminus of G protein α subunits in determining their selectivity of receptor recognition. (
  • We have previously reported that a highly conserved glycine residue within linker I is important for constraining the fidelity of receptor recognition by Gα q proteins. (
  • Understanding the structural requirements that determine the exquisite selectivity of receptor-G protein recognition will clarify how specificity is maintained in living cells. (
  • On the receptor side, various intracellular portions are involved in selective recognition of G proteins. (
  • On agonist binding to the receptor, a greater proportion of the receptor is associated with G iα than with G oα , G iα1 dissociates from the receptor and G iα2 associates with the receptor, whereas G iα3 and the G β subunits remain coupled to the delta receptor. (
  • These findings reveal dynamic changes in the G proteins associated with the receptor after agonist binding that may be linked to the activation of the delta receptor. (
  • In addition to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, the delta receptor physically interacts with the pertussis toxn-insensitive G proteins G qα and G zα . (
  • Protein phosphatase 6 regulatory subunit 3 (PPP6R3) is a regulatory subunit of the PP6 holoenzyme complex involved in the turnover of serine and threonine phosphorylation events during mitosis. (
  • Glc7, the type1 serine/threonine phosphatase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is targeted by auxiliary subunits to numerous locations in the cell, where it regulates a range of physiological pathways. (
  • Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R12C gene. (
  • Component of the coatomer, a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. (
  • Additionally, how all these interactions are coordinated to mediate various G protein signaling processes in cells and tissues is not entirely clear. (
  • Specific sequences in the fragile X syndrome protein FMR1 and the FXR proteins mediate their binding to 60S ribosomal subunits and the interactions among them. (
  • We delineated the regions of FMR1 that mediate its binding to 60S ribosomal subunits and the interactions among the FMR1-FXR family members. (
  • Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adensoine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in rat testis. (
  • In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of the subunit knocked-down and compensates for its loss. (
  • In vitro , a significant increase in ferritin subunits at mRNA level was detected after irradiation which was further induced with a combination treatment of irradiation and acute phase cytokine. (
  • PPP6R3 shows abundant mRNA splicing variants and numerous functional protein isoforms. (
  • Both of these impairments were partially relieved by an extended incubation time with mRNA, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and initiation factors, indicating that absence of S20 disturbs the structural integrity of 30S subunits. (
  • The association of the FMR1, FXR1, and FXR2 proteins with ribosomes suggests they have functions in translation or mRNA stability. (
  • 76 Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa (NCBP1) Antibodies from 20 manufacturers are available on (
  • The alpha subunit and the beta/gamma dimer go on to activate distinct downstream effectors, such as adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterases, phospholipase C, and ion channels. (
  • Seventeen distinct types of alpha subunit have been identified in mammals. (
  • Three distinct phosphorylation sites were inferred from the different ATP concentrations required for phosphorylation and from the presence of two discrete mobility shifts in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the R subunit on phosphorylation. (
  • Baker lab scientists and collaborators have taken this work to an exciting new level by engineering 120-subunit icosahedral nanocages that self-assemble from not one, but two distinct protein components. (
  • Moreover, the various glycogen-targeting subunits have distinct tissue expression patterns and can influence regulation of glycogen metabolism in response to glycogenic and glycogenolytic signals. (
  • Each ring is composed of eight different but similar subunits and each subunit has three distinct domains. (
  • The PP2A scaffold subunit is encoded by two distinct genes, Ppp2r1a and Ppp2r1b, resulting in two isoforms, Aα and A β, which are 87% identical. (
  • Drosophila and organisms other than vertebrates have single genes encoding capping protein α (cpa) or β (cpb) . (
  • We found that the family of genes that encode the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins is much larger than had previously been supposed. (
  • The majority of the protein-coding genes encode primary components of the photosynthetic apparatus, including major subunits of photosystems I and II, cytochrome b 6 f , the NDH complex, and ATP synthase. (
  • Assembly of proteins produced by both plastid and nuclear genes are necessary for the biogenesis and function of the chloroplast apparatus, requiring some degree of coordination between the protein synthesis machineries in the cytosol and plastids ( Tiller and Bock, 2014 ). (
  • Although the amino acid sequences of the α and β subunits are not more similar to each other than they are to other ABPs, nor they share common sequences with other proteins, they have extremely similar secondary and tertiary structures [18] . (
  • Recently, a polymorphism in the gene for the PP1 G subunit, causing an amino acid substitution at codon 905 of Asp to Tyr (Asp905Tyr), was identified. (
  • called Gln 49 or Ser 49, respectively) has been studied by the scanning microcalorimetric method at various pH, in an attempt to elucidate the role of individual amino acid residues in the conformational stability of a protein. (
  • Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha ( IPR001019 ), beta ( IPR001632 ) and gamma ( IPR001770 ) [ PMID: 14762218 ]. (
  • The beta subunit forms a stable dimer with the gamma subunit. (
  • The alpha subunit only contacts the beta subunit in the dimer, lying on the opposite face from the gamma subunit. (
  • RGS proteins that contain GGL (G protein gamma-like) domains can interact with beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent gamma subunit binding, and may prevent heterotrimer formation by inhibiting alpha subunit binding. (
  • The exchange of GDP for GTP on Gpa1 alters its interaction with the G protein beta subunit Ste4, leading to dissociation of the G protein beta-gamma dimer Ste4-Ste18. (
  • By contrast, genetic evidence in yeast and studies in mammalian cells suggest that beta gamma subunits of G proteins may also regulate effector pathways. (
  • Experiments using pertussis toxin and a putative scavenger of beta gamma, the alpha subunit of transducin, suggest that beta gamma subunits of the Gi proteins mediated this stimulation. (
  • These findings assign a new signalling function to beta gamma subunits of Gi proteins, the conditional stimulation of cAMP synthesis by adenylyl cyclase II. (
  • Your search returned 47 G protein subunit gamma 8 Antibodies across 16 suppliers. (
  • Purified bovine brain beta gamma subunits bound to calmodulin-Sepharose in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. (
  • On the contrary, beta gamma subunits produced in an activated Go/Gi preparation did not bind to calmodulin-Sepharose. (
  • To distinguish whether the binding of purified beta gamma subunits to calmodulin was unique to brain beta gamma or to the method of purification, similar experiments were performed using transducin. (
  • In contrast to bovine brain G proteins, both purified transducin beta gamma subunits and beta gamma released from rhodopsin-activated transducin bound to calmodulin-Sepharose in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. (
  • To assess the functional significance of the binding of bovine brain beta gamma subunits to calmodulin, the ability of purified beta gamma and of beta gamma in unactivated and activated Go/Gi to inhibit partially purified calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase was determined. (
  • These results demonstrate: (1) that beta gamma subunits may not be completely released upon G protein activation, and (2) that inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated adenylate cyclase by beta gamma subunits does not appear to be mediated by a direct beta gamma-calmodulin interaction. (
  • Differences in the binding properties of activated bovine brain G proteins versus those of transducin could be explained by differences in the gamma subunit between the proteins, or by differences in affinities of the alpha and beta gamma subunits for each other and for calmodulin. (
  • The different functional properties of purified beta gamma subunits and beta gamma subunits produced in situ by activation of G proteins indicates that extrapolation from the effects of purified subunits to events occurring in membranes should be done with caution. (
  • A region of the muscarinic-gated atrial K+ channel critical for activation by G protein beta gamma subunits. (
  • Increasing evidence suggests that the beta gamma-subunit dimers of heterotrimeric G proteins play a pivotal role in transducing extracellular signals. (
  • The yeast R subunit is therefore similar to the type II R subunit of mammalian origin, although it has a larger Mr (64,000 vs. 58,000) and is multiply phosphorylated. (
  • When purified from mammalian tissue, the PKA catalytic subunit is always phosphorylated at T197, essential for catalysis. (
  • Mammalian RGS proteins: Barbarians at the gate. (
  • Recently, four cDNAs of Kir subunits encoding mammalian K G channels have been isolated. (
  • Biochemistry of transmembrane signaling mediated by trimeric G proteins. (
  • G proteins: critical control points for transmembrane signals. (
  • G-proteins as transducers in transmembrane signalling. (
  • Here, we show by proteomic analysis that the majority of AMPARs in the rat brain are coassembled with two members of the cornichon family of transmembrane proteins, rather than with the TARPs. (
  • The L and M subunits each contain five transmembrane helices and several helices that do not span the membrane. (
  • The H subunit has one transmembrane helix and a globular domain on the cytoplasmic side, which contains a helix that does not span the membrane and several β-sheets. (
  • Isolated from a strain of E. coli that carries a clone expressing the murine PKA catalytic subunit (α isoform) under control of a T7 expression system (2,3) (cDNA kindly provided by Dr. G.S. McKnight). (
  • A Drosophila gene ( G-oalpha47A ) encoding a G protein alpha subunit has been isolated by screening genomic and adult head cDNA libraries using bovine transducin alpha subunit cDNA as probe. (
  • Drosophila cDNA clones coding for the alpha subunit of a Go-like G protein have been isolated. (
  • We have now obtained cDNA clones encoding two murine alpha subunits, G alpha q and G alpha 11, that are 88% identical. (
  • In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex. (
  • It has been discovered that the protein folding process is guided by additional molecules directing the structural changes toward the correct native form. (
  • Structure of PP2A: C is the catalytic subunit, A is the second regulatory or structural subunit, and B/B'/B/B are the third variable subunits, which are structurally unrelated. (
  • Among these subunits, PP2A-A acts as a structural assembly base to escort the catalytic subunit and to facilitate interaction with the regulatory subunit and other substrates, which is essential for the activity of the holoenzyme. (
  • In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. (
  • Although RNA constitutes the major structural and functional component, ribosomes from all kingdoms contain an extensive array of proteins with largely undefined functional roles. (
  • Here we describe a recombinant, bacterially expressed antigen equivalent to structural domain III of the WNV envelope protein that has allowed clear discrimination of antibody responses to WNV from those against other related flaviviruses in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using standardized control antisera and field-collected samples. (
  • Structural requirements for the intracellular subunit polymerization of the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein. (
  • Assembly of subunit d (Vma6p) and G (Vma10p) and the NMR solution structure of subunit G (G(1-59)) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae V(1)V(O) ATPase. (
  • We demonstrate that the XLGs can bind Gβγ dimers (AGB1 plus a Gγ subunit: AGG1, AGG2, or AGG3) with differing specificity in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) three-hybrid assays. (
  • The distribution and dissociation of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in adipose, cardiac, and other tissues. (
  • An 11S protein component obtained from specific dissociation of bacteriophage f 2 underwent a change in the state of association when dialyzed to p H 4. (
  • At low temperatures a dissociation to 5.5 S subunits was observed, while at 24° to 34°C a 37 S particle was formed. (
  • In the classical model for G protein signaling, binding of GTP results in activation of the G protein and dissociation of the Gα subunit from the Gβγ subunits ( Fig. 1A ). (
  • We aimed in this report to understand how both subunits regulate each other in vivo . (
  • Both subunits regulate each other's protein levels. (
  • Amândio AR, Gaspar P, Whited JL, Janody F (2014) Subunits of the Drosophila Actin-Capping Protein Heterodimer Regulate Each Other at Multiple Levels. (
  • In higher plants, heterotrimeric G proteins regulate plant architecture. (
  • The arrangement of two different 5'-noncoding regions on the gene suggests that two different promoters regulate the expression of the transcripts encoding the two proteins. (
  • More strikingly, most of the α 1 -subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. (
  • Here, we summarize the structure-function relationship of a set of proteins that interact with and regulate the pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels. (
  • These so called tip proteins are surface exposed and regulate the secretion of other effector proteins. (
  • Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. (
  • Here, we examined the role of small subunit protein S20 in translation using both in vivo and in vitro techniques. (
  • The functional significance of ribosomal proteins is still relatively unclear. (
  • Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis is a complex process occurring largely in the nucleolus, where rRNA is transcribed, modified, and processed during assembly with approximately 80 ribosomal proteins into mature ribosomal subunits. (
  • Observation of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins and their posttranslational modifications by mass spectrometry. (
  • Here we describe a version of this assay that does not require alcohol and use it to show, both crystallographically and biochemically, that crystals of the large ribosomal subunits from Haloarcula marismortui are enzymatically active. (
  • Here, we report that the FMR1 and FXR proteins are associated with ribosomes, predominantly with 60S large ribosomal subunits. (
  • Replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryote single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), is a heterotrimer. (
  • Thus, XLG-Gβγ heterotrimers provide additional signaling modalities for tuning plant G protein responses and increase the repertoire of G protein heterotrimer combinations from three to 12. (
  • The numbers of each subunit encoded within genomes, and therefore the potential for combinatorial complexity within the heterotrimer, is one of the most striking differences between plants and animals. (
  • The complex of the two smaller subunits, RPA32 and RPA14, has weak DNA-binding activity but the mechanism of DNA binding is unknown. (
  • When in complex, the heterodimer resembles a mushroom with the C-terminus of each subunit forming tentacles located on the top surface of the heterodimer [19] , [20] . (
  • The advantage of a multi-component protein complex is the ability to control assembly by mixing individually prepared subunits. (
  • The coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. (
  • Because nociception is subject to complex spinal and supraspinal modulation, however, the relevant locations of G-protein-gated K + channels are unknown. (
  • ATP Synthase H+ Transporting, Mitochondrial Fo Complex Subunit D, ATP Synthase D Chain Mitochondrial, ATP Synthase H+ Transporting Mitochondrial F1F0 Subunit D, ATPase Subunit D, My032 Protein, ATPQ. (
  • It appears that for such events a supramolecular complex is required that comprises of the appropriate effector system together with signal termination enzymes such as PDEs and phosphatases that are sequestered by scaffolding proteins ( 4 ). (
  • 171 Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) Antibodies from 23 manufacturers are available on (
  • Auf finden Sie aktuell 17 Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) ELISA Kits von 5 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit Antikörper (150) und Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit Proteine (16) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 191 Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit Produkte verfügbar. (
  • Protein synthesis is a complex process performed by sophisticated cellular particles known as ribosomes. (
  • Altered patterns in nuclease-protected small RNA fragments in emb2654 show that EMB2654 binding must be an early step in, or prior to, the formation of a large protein-RNA complex covering the free ends of the two rps12 intron halves. (
  • Others may consist of a very large number of subunits and therefore described as multimeric, for example microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins. (
  • The encoded protein regulates the catalytic activity of protein phosphatase 1 delta and assembly of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • ion channels , microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins. (
  • Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are the molecule switch that transmits information from external signals to intracellular target proteins in mammals and yeast cells. (
  • The PR65 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. (
  • The report assesses Polymerase Basic Protein 2 (RNA Directed RNA Polymerase Subunit P3 or PB2) targeted therapeutics based on Mechanism of Action (MoA), Route of Administration (RoA) and Molecule Type. (
  • To elucidate the roles of protein phosphatases type 1 (PP1) and type 2A (PP2A) in 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ]-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells into monocytes, we examined the enzyme activity and the protein and gene expressions of PP1 and PP2A in these cells. (
  • Deficiency of this heterocomplex, which contains 4 alpha and 4 beta subunits, causes sudden unexplained infant death, a Reye-like syndrome, cardiomyopathy, or skeletal myopathy. (
  • These were associated with allelic losses of the mouse chromosome 11 Prkar1a locus, an increase in total type II PKA activity, and higher RIIβ protein levels. (
  • GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins. (
  • Slowed recovery of rod photoresponse in mice lacking the GTPase accelerating protein RGS9-1. (
  • The most significant SNP was an intronic variant within the RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1(RAB3GAP1) gene (rs6730157, P =1.22x10- 14 , OR=1.60). (
  • Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α 1 -subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. (
  • In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. (
  • Only a certain subset of cellular proteins undergo the folding process accompanied by the chaperonins, which are large protein constructs which directly facilitate the protein folding process with participation of ATP molecules. (
  • CCT assists folding of actin, tubulin, and numerous other cellular proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. (
  • However, in a normal cellular condition, a nascent polypeptide chain faces a crowded environment and there is a good possibility that protein will be misfolded and will form aggregates that make the protein inactive, and in certain cases it becomes toxic for the cell. (
  • Western blot analysis with antibodies specific for PP1 catalytic subunit isozymes (PP1α, PP1γ, and PP1δ) showed that all three PP1 isozymes were expressed but were differentially distributed in each cellular fraction. (
  • The lysoPLD activity of the Gα subunit is strictly dependent on its subfamily and might be important for cellular responses. (
  • Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens employ type III secretion systems (TTSS) to transport effector proteins into eukaryotic host cell membranes and cytoplasms to subvert normal cellular functions. (
  • The length of the G protein signal is controlled by the duration of the GTP-bound alpha subunit, which can be regulated by RGS (regulator of G protein signalling) proteins or by covalent modifications [ PMID: 11313912 ]. (
  • The Gα subunit bound to GDP interacts with the Gβ subunit with two contacts involving the N-terminal domain and the GTP binding domain. (
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (
  • Although telomerase has telomerase reverse transcriptase as a catalytic subunit, regulation is accomplished by factors outside the protein. (
  • Regulation of G proteins by covalent modification. (
  • The R7 group of RGS proteins (R7 RGS) has received special attention due to their pivotal roles in the regulation of a range of crucial neuronal processes such as vision, motor control, reward behavior, and nociception in mammals. (
  • 2003). Insights into G protein structure, function, and regulation. (
  • The current study aimed to investigate radiation-induced regulation of iron proteins including ferritin subunits in rats. (
  • The purpose of this article is to summarize new insights into the structure, function, regulation, and metabolic effects of the glycogen-targeting subunits of PP1 and to evaluate the possibility that these molecules could serve as therapeutic targets for lowering of blood glucose in diabetes. (
  • The regulatory G subunit of the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 G subunit) is a key protein in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin and thus regulation of nonoxidative glucose disposal. (
  • Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α 1 -subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. (
  • Anti-Protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit Bdelta antibodies are available from several suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 66 protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit Bdelta Antibodies across 15 suppliers. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • For example, neutralizing antibodies against the H1N1 hemagglutinin protein (HA) of influenza are sufficient to attenuate pathogenicity, and improve survival after virus exposure. (
  • The ability to design, with atomic-level precision, these large protein nanostructures that can encapsulate biologically relevant cargo and that can be genetically modified with various functionalities opens up exciting new opportunities for targeted drug delivery and vaccine design. (
  • A second method of subunit vaccine is the ________ , which involves putting a protein gene from the targeted virus into another virus. (
  • This review will be divided into three sections: First, the theoretical benefits and limitations of subunit protein vaccine strategy will be presented. (
  • Vaccination and immunization strategies to design Aedes aegypti salivary protein based subunit vaccine tackling Flavivirus infection. (
  • This study was designed to develop a subunit vaccine using Aedes mosquito salivary proteins targeting the aforementioned Flaviviruses. (
  • Subunit vaccine was designed very precisely by combining the immunogenic B-cell epitope with CTL and HTL epitopes and also suitable adjuvant and linkers. (
  • At last, in silico cloning was executed to get the subunit vaccine restriction clone into pET28a vectro to express it in microbial expression system. (
  • Many HA protein vaccines have been successfully tested as candidate vaccine alternatives to attenuated or killed virus made in eggs. (
  • Our group has used conjugation of HA protein to plant-derived Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) as a novel method of antigen delivery that profoundly improves subunit vaccine potency. (
  • Additional studies are underway to determine if a TMV-HA formulation can improve the potency of a subunit vaccine derived from H5N1. (
  • Our strategy represents a significant advance in subunit vaccine formulation, and has the potential to expand the development of other subunit vaccines that currently lack single dose potency. (
  • Proteins located at the extracellular needle tip of TTSSs appear to be excellent candidates for a sub-unit vaccine approach. (
  • The other form possesses smaller subunits and is obtained from infected cells dispersed by trypsin. (
  • Several other proteins such as cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels ( 1 ), phosphodiesterases (PDE) ( 2 ), and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac) ( 3 ) bind cAMP. (
  • The interactions between guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins and the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin were studied using calmodulin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. (
  • Dually modified Gα proteins were also superior in conferring high-affinity agonist sites onto a coexpressed GPCR in the absence, but not in the presence, of guanine nucleotides. (
  • Whatever the mode of G protein activation, the Gα and Gβγ subunits both interact with effector molecules, such as phospholipases and ion channels, in a manner that leads to their activation. (
  • A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate PHOSPHOLIPASE C dependent signaling pathways. (
  • PFDN2 also binds to a nascent polypeptide chain and promotes folding in an setting in which there are many competing pathways for nonnative proteins. (
  • We suggest that these alpha subunits may be involved in pertussis toxin-insensitive pathways coupled to phospholipase C. (
  • Binds 2 calcium ions per subunit. (
  • PFDN2 binds specifically to cytosolic chaperonin (c-CPN) and transfers target proteins to it. (
  • Our designs thus appear to occupy new regions of the protein assembly universe, which either have not yet been explored by natural evolution or are undiscovered at present in natural systems. (
  • These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. (
  • L10 is thought to be an exchangeable ribosomal protein ( 34 ) that may be added to the large subunit in a late cytoplasmic assembly step ( 13 ). (
  • When substrates are diffused into large subunit crystals, the subsequent structure shows that products have formed. (
  • Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. (
  • This inhibition was alleviated by co-expression of proteins that bind the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gβγ). (
  • Kir3.2c, but not Kir3.2a, could bind a PDZ domain-containing protein, PSD-95. (
  • This entry consists of the G protein beta subunit, which assumes a barrel-shaped beta-propeller structure containing WD-40 repeats preceded by an N-terminal alpha helix. (
  • This family consists of the fungal class of G-protein alpha subunits. (
  • Two alpha subunit donor splice site mutations cause human trifunctional protein deficiency. (
  • Both allelic mutations apparently cause exon 3 skipping, resulting in undetectable levels of alpha subunit protein, and complete loss of trifunctional protein. (
  • A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLATE CYCLASE. (
  • 1995), Involvement of G-protein alpha il subunits in a. (
  • These novel alpha subunits could account for some of the diverse activities attributed to G proteins. (
  • This alpha subunit, DG alpha q, is 76% identical to G alpha q. (
  • The most highly conserved regions of the protein are the β sheets of the propeller and variable loops connect the β strands. (