Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/4265)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (2/4265)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (3/4265)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

A novel plasmid recombination mechanism of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. (4/4265)

We describe a novel mechanism of site-specific recombination in the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. The specific recombination sites on the smallest plasmid pAQ1 were localized by studying the properties of pAQ1-derived shuttle-vectors. We found that a palindromic element, the core sequence of which is G(G/A)CGATCGCC, functions as a resolution site for site-specific plasmid recombination. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the element show that the site-specific recombination in the cyanobacterium requires sequence specificity, symmetry in the core sequence and, in part, the spacing between the elements. Interestingly, this element is over-represented not only in pAQ1 and in the genome of the cyanobacterium, but also in the accumulated cyanobacterial sequences from Synechococcus sp. PCC6301, PCC7942, vulcanus and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 within GenBank and EMBL databases. Thus, these findings strongly suggest that the site-specific recombination mechanism based on the palindromic element should be common in these cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Role of ribosome release in regulation of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli. (5/4265)

Expression of the degradative tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. In cultures growing in the absence of added tryptophan, transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon is limited by Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction prevents this Rho-dependent termination, and requires in-frame translation of a 24-residue leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial, Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the spacer region between tnaC and the first major structural gene, tnaA, suggested that tryptophan induction might involve cis action by the TnaC leader peptide on the ribosome translating the tnaC coding region. The leader peptide was hypothesized to inhibit ribosome release at the tnaC stop codon, thereby blocking Rho's access to the transcript. Regulatory studies with deletion constructs of the tna operon of Proteus vulgaris supported this interpretation. In the present study the putative role of the tnaC stop codon in tna operon regulation in E. coli was examined further by replacing the natural tnaC stop codon, UGA, with UAG or UAA in a tnaC-stop codon-tnaA'-'lacZ reporter construct. Basal level expression was reduced to 20 and 50% when the UGA stop codon was replaced by UAG or UAA, respectively, consistent with the finding that in E. coli translation terminates more efficiently at UAG and UAA than at UGA. Tryptophan induction was observed in strains with any of the stop codons. However, when UAG or UAA replaced UGA, the induced level of expression was also reduced to 15 and 50% of that obtained with UGA as the tnaC stop codon, respectively. Introduction of a mutant allele encoding a temperature-sensitive release factor 1, prfA1, increased basal level expression 60-fold when the tnaC stop codon was UAG and 3-fold when this stop codon was UAA; basal level expression was reduced by 50% in the construct with the natural stop codon, UGA. In strains with any of the three stop codons and the prfA1 mutation, the induced levels of tna operon expression were virtually identical. The effects of tnaC stop codon identity on expression were also examined in the absence of Rho action, using tnaC-stop codon-'lacZ constructs that lack the tnaC-tnaA spacer region. Expression was low in the absence of tnaC stop codon suppression. In most cases, tryptophan addition resulted in about 50% inhibition of expression when UGA was replaced by UAG or UAA and the appropriate suppressor was present. Introduction of the prfA1 mutant allele increased expression of the suppressed construct with the UAG stop codon; tryptophan addition also resulted in ca. 50% inhibition. These findings provide additional evidence implicating the behavior of the ribosome translating tnaC in the regulation of tna operon expression.  (+info)

Secretion, localization, and antibacterial activity of TasA, a Bacillus subtilis spore-associated protein. (6/4265)

The synthesis and subcellular localization of the proteins that comprise the Bacillus subtilis spore are under a variety of complex controls. To better understand these controls, we have identified and characterized a 31-kDa sporulation protein, called TasA, which is secreted into the culture medium early in sporulation and is also incorporated into the spore. TasA synthesis begins approximately 30 min after the onset of sporulation and requires the sporulation transcription factor genes spo0H and spo0A. The first 81 nucleotides of tasA encode a 27-amino-acid sequence that resembles a signal peptide and which is missing from TasA isolated from a sporulating cell lysate. In B. subtilis cells unable to synthesize the signal peptidase SipW, TasA is not secreted, nor is it incorporated into spores. Cells unable to produce SipW produce a 34-kDa form of TasA, consistent with a failure to remove the N-terminal 27 amino acids. In cells engineered to express sipW and tasA during exponential growth, TasA migrates as a 31-kDa species and is secreted into the culture medium. These results indicate that SipW plays a crucial role in the export of TasA out of the cell and its incorporation into spores. Although TasA is dispensable for sporulation under laboratory conditions, we find that TasA has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. We discuss the possibility that during the beginning of sporulation as well as later, during germination, TasA inhibits other organisms in the environment, thus conferring a competitive advantage to the spore.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of drosocrystallin, a lens crystallin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (7/4265)

We have cloned the drosocrystallin gene (dcy) of Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a major protein of the corneal lens, previously described in part by Komori et al. (1992, J. Cell Sci. 102, 191-201). Synthesis of the DCY protein starts weakly in 2-day-old pupae, reaches a peak at day 3 and day 4 of pupal development, and decreases very fast in young adults. The dcy mRNA is detected in the compound eyes as well as in the ocelli. The presence of a putative signal peptide and the extracellular location of DCY suggest that DCY is a secreted protein. Interestingly, the dcy gene shows sequence similarities to some insect cuticular proteins and is detected as well in two closely related Drosophila species, D. sechellia and D. simulans, and in one more distantly related species, D. virilis. This finding supports the hypothesis that Drosophila used the same strategy as vertebrates and mollusks, namely, recruiting a multifunctional protein for refraction in the lens, by a gene-sharing mechanism. Furthermore, it supports our intercalary evolution hypothesis, which suggests that the development of an elaborate structure (for example, a compound eye) from an original primitive form (an ancestral photoreceptor organ) can be achieved by recruiting novel genes into the original developmental pathway.  (+info)

Nuclear export of LIM-kinase 1, mediated by two leucine-rich nuclear-export signals within the PDZ domain. (8/4265)

LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates cofilin and regulates actin-filament dynamics. LIMK1, which contains two LIM domains and a single PDZ domain, localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm, but its mutant, deleted with the PDZ domain, localizes mainly in the nucleus, thereby indicating that the PDZ domain plays a role in the cytoplasmic localization of LIMK1. Here we provide evidence that the PDZ domain of LIMK1 contains two functional leucine-rich nuclear-export signals (NESs). The PDZ domain of LIMK1 fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST-PDZ), when injected into the nucleus, was rapidly excluded from the nucleus, but its mutant with replacements of conserved hydrophobic residues in two putative NESs by alanines remained in the nucleus. The nuclear export of GST-PDZ was sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of nuclear export mediated by leucine-rich NESs. Malfunctional mutation of two NESs or LMB treatment prevented the nuclear export of full-length LIMK1 and induced its nuclear accumulation. These results suggest that the predominant localization of LIMK1 in the cytoplasm is supported by two NESs within the PDZ domain and that LIMK1 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also provide evidence that a short basic cluster sequence within the protein-kinase domain is involved in the nuclear import of LIMK1.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic processing of Escherichia coli twin-arginine signal peptides by LepB. AU - Luke,Iris. AU - Handford,Jennifer I.. AU - Palmer,Tracy. AU - Sargent,Frank. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) apparatus is a protein targeting system found in the cytoplasmic membranes of many prokaryotes. Substrate proteins of the Tat pathway are synthesised with signal peptides bearing SRRxFLK twin-arginine amino acid motifs. All Tat signal peptides have a common tripartite structure comprising a polar N-terminal region, followed by a hydrophobic region of variable length and a polar C-terminal region. In Escherichia coli, Tat signal peptides are proteolytically cleaved after translocation. The signal peptide C-terminal regions contain conserved AxA motifs, which are possible recognition sequences for leader peptidase I (LepB). In this work, the role of LepB in Tat signal peptide processing was addressed directly. Deliberate repression of lepB ...
The signal peptide of the outer membrane lipoprotein (OMLP) of Escherichia coli was shown to be capable of promoting protein translocation across mammalian microsomal membranes in vitro. We assayed translocation of a fusion protein containing the OMLP signal peptide and nine amino acids of OMLP fused in frame to beta-lactamase. The efficiency with which the mammalian translocation machinery recognizes and accepts the OMLP signal peptide as substrate is indistinguishable from that of mammalian secretory proteins. Upon translocation mammalian signal peptidase processes the pre-OMLP-beta-lactamase protein at different sites than are utilized in vivo by E. coli OMLP signal peptidase (signal peptidase II) but that can be predicted as mammalian signal peptidase cleavage sites. Mutants in the OMLP signal peptide were tested for their ability to promote translocation of the fusion protein in this assay system. It has been shown previously that mutants in the positively charged amino acids at the amino ...
Signal sequences are the addresses of proteins destined for secretion. In eukaryotic cells, they mediate targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and insertion into the translocon. Thereafter, signal sequences are cleaved from the pre-protein and liberated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We have recently reported that some liberated signal peptides are further processed by the intramembrane-cleaving aspartic protease signal peptide peptidase. Cleavage in the membrane-spanning portion of the signal peptide promotes the release of signal peptide fragments from the lipid bilayer. Typical processes that include intramembrane proteolysis is the regulatory or signalling function of cleavage products. Likewise, signal peptide fragments liberated upon intramembrane cleavage may promote such post-targeting functions in the cell.. ...
The Tat system is a protein export system dedicated to the transport of folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Proteins are targeted for export by the Tat system via N-terminal signal peptides harbouring an S-R-R-x-F-L-K twin-arginine motif. In this chapter qualitative and quantitative assays for native Tat substrates in the model organism Escherichia coli are described. Genetic screening methods designed to allow the rapid positive selection of Tat signal peptide activity and the first positive selection for mutations that inactivate the Tat pathway are also presented. Finally isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods for measuring the affinity of twin-arginine signal peptide-chaperone interactions are discussed.
Plastids are considered promising bioreactors for the production of recombinant proteins, but the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating foreign protein folding, targeting, and accumulation in these organelles is still incomplete. Here we demonstrate that a plant secretory signal peptide is able to target a plastome-encoded recombinant protein to the thylakoid membrane. The fusion protein zeolin with its native signal peptide expressed by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transplastomic plants was directed into the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, whereas the zeolin mutant devoid of the signal peptide, Dzeolin, is instead accumulated in the stroma. We also show that zeolin folds in the thylakoid membrane where it accumulates as trimers able to form disulphide bonds. Disulphide bonds contribute to protein accumulation since zeolin shows a higher accumulation level with respect to stromal Dzeolin, whose folding is hampered as the protein accumulates at low amounts in a monomeric form and it is not ...
`Unlike other secretory proteins, Esterase I of Pseudomonas fluorescens cloned into E. coli is secreted to the periplasmic space without typical hydrophobic $NH_2$-terminal signal sequence. It contains an internal hydrophobic $\alpha$-helical structure ($^{178}$QTLQIALLASLKA$^{190}$) deduced by computer using the method of Chou and Fasman and it was supposed to function as internal signal sequence. To confirm this region is really responsible for the translocation of the enzyme, 5 substitution mutations and 1 deletion mutation (184 to 190) were performed on this region. All the mutations reduced the translocation of esterase I. When Leu188 was replaced to Asp, Leu184 to Glu, Leu185 to Pro, respectively, and residues 184 to 190 were deleted, the translocation was completely inhibited. When Ile182 was replaced to Asn, and Leu180 to Arg, respectively, secretion of Asn mutant (7\%) and Arg, mutant (15\%) was also reduced compared to wild-type (34\%). The mutations also affected the activity of esterase. The
N-terminal signal sequences mediate targeting of nascent secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent manner. Signal sequences have a tripartite structure, consisting of a hydrophobic core region (h-region) flanked by an n- and c-region. The latter contains the signal peptidase (SPase) consensus cleavage site. Usually, signal sequences are cleaved off co-translationally so that signal peptides and mature proteins are generated. Signal sequences are extremely variable in length and amino acid composition. This variability suggests that ER targeting and the steps beyond like protein insertion and SPase cleavage are affected by the signal sequence ...
New prediction server avaliable: Sigfind - Signal Peptide Prediction Server (Human) at (C)opyright 2001 by Martin Reczko (martin at This software (SIGFIND) predicts signal peptides at the start of protein sequences. A novel neural network learning algorithm is used for prediction. It is trained on the human protein data used for the SIGNALP system described in H.Nielsen, J.Engelbrecht, S.Brunak, and G.von Heijne: Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites Protein Engineering, vol. 10 no. 1 pp. 1-6, 1997 The SIGNALP data is derived from A.Bairoch and B.Boeckmann: The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status, Nucleic Acids Res. 22:3578-3580 (1994). Using the same fivefold crossvalidation as SIGNALP, the 5 networks of SIGFIND (avgerage Mathews correlation coefficiant 0.98) perform better than SIGNALP (avgerage Mathews correlation coefficiant 0.96). It should be noted that ...
To achieve synthetic control over how a cell responds to other cells or the extracellular environment, it is important to reliably engineer proteins that can traffic and span the plasma membrane. Using a modular approach to assemble proteins, we identified the minimum necessary components required to engineer such membrane-spanning proteins with predictable orientation in mammalian cells. While a transmembrane domain (TM) fused to the N-terminus of a protein is sufficient to traffic it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an additional signal peptidase cleavage site downstream of this TM enhanced sorting out of the ER. Next, a second TM in the synthetic protein helped anchor and accumulate the membrane-spanning protein on the plasma membrane. The orientation of the components of the synthetic protein were determined through measuring intracellular Ca2+ signaling using the R-GECO biosensor and through measuring extracellular quenching of yellow fluorescent protein variants by saturating acidic and salt
Background and aims: Signal peptides are central to biological processes in that they direct proteins to their proper destination after synthesis. If the signal sequence in a nascent was changed, the protein could end up in a wrong cellular location. Some proteins known to be secreted have had their signal peptides unpredicted by existing signal peptide prediction tools. The aim of this study is to pre-process these proteins in order to optimize their start sites and apply a combined set of tools to finding their signal peptides ...
PelB Leader Sequence Cleavage - posted in Protein and Proteomics: I have designed a fusion peptide that is being inserted into pET22b at the MscI restriction site. It would appear that the PelB signal peptide cleavage site has been removed in my design process. What is the consequence of not removing the leader sequence in protein expression? If it is to be a problem then I would like to know as soon as possible so I can by a new primer and add the necessary sequence bac...
Exported prokaryotic proteins typically contain an amino-terminal extension called the signal peptide. Although signal sequences display little primary sequence homology, they share features which promote secretion through the same pathway. These characteristics include a net positive charge in the amino-teminus, a hydrophobic core with $\alpha$-helical propensity, and a cleavage region which contains small side chain residues in the $-$1 and $-$3 positions. The goals of this research are to further analyze the requirement for each property, to determine whether the different features operate at concurrent steps and, ultimately, to correlate the physical features with their functional role(s).^ The alkaline phosphatase signal sequence represents a typical signal peptide and serves as a prototype for designing mutants with simplified sequences that facilitate the delineation of the required physical features. A series of signal sequences varying in amino terminal charge and core region hydrophobicity
TatP 1.0 server predicts the presence and location of Twin-arginine signal peptide cleavage sites in bacteria. The method incorporates a prediction of cleavage sites and a signal peptide/non-signal peptide prediction based on a combination of two artificial neural networks. A postfiltering of the output based on regular expressions is possible. View the version history of this server. All the previous versions are available on line, for comparison and reference ...
Translocation of a nascent protein from the cytosol into the ER mediated by its signal peptide is a critical step in protein secretion. The aim of this work was to develop a platform technology to optimize the signal peptides for high level production of therapeutic antibodies in CHO cells. A database of signal peptides from a large number of human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (HC) and kappa light chain (LC) was generated. Most of the HC signal peptides contain 19 amino acids which can be divided into three domains and the LC signal peptides contain 22 amino acids. The signal peptides were then clustered according to sequence similarity. Based on the clustering, 8 HC and 2 LC signal peptides were analyzed for their impacts on the production of 5-top selling antibody therapeutics, namely, Herceptin, Avastin, Remicade, Rituxan, and Humira. The best HC and LC signal peptides for producing these 5 antibodies were identified. The optimized signal peptides for Rituxan is 2-fold better compared to its
The cleavage site of a signal peptide located in the C-region can be recognized by the signal peptidase in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the signal peptides are typically cleaved off during or after the translocation of the target protein. The identification of cleavage sites remains challenging because of
PPIA-like Cyps with signal peptide. Domain architecture and genomic organization of Cyps with signal peptide are shown. Species are abbreviated as in Fig. 1. Cy
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nascent carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is directed into the endoplasmic reticulum by an NH2-terminal signal peptide that is removed befor
Long Exam Room Signs by Kull Industries are used to indicate to personnel an exam rooms status at a glance. Long Signal Flags are offered in several numerical sets and colors.
SET OF SEQUENCES FOR TARGETING EXPRESSION AND CONTROL OF THE POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF A RECOMBINANT POLYPEPTIDE - The present invention provides new tools useful for controlling the post-translational modifications of recombinant polypeptides. These tools are particular signal peptides allowing the targeting of recombinant polypeptides during their synthesis in a host cell to specific sub-cellular compartments and a specific designing of said recombinant polypeptides within said sub-cellular compartments. These signal peptides are SEQ ID no 1 to SEQ ID no 31 disclosed herein. The present invention relates therefore also to a process for producing a recombinant polypeptide, in particular to a post-translationally modified polypeptide comprising the steps of transfecting or transforming a cell with at least one numleic acid vector encoding a recombinant protein which is the polypeptide before being post-translationally modified or a recombinant protein different to said polypeptide, said ...
Optical mapping of the internal signal is a unique method of studying the brain and makes it possible to investigate the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex with high spatial resolution. Modern modifications of this method make it possible to shorten the time to obtain individual functional maps, and this opens up new prospects of using the given approach in neurophysiological experiments. It is shown to be possible in principle to use optical mapping of the internal signal to objectively test the visual function: As the contrast of the visual stimulus changes, changes have been observed in both the amplitude of the metabolic response in the cortex and in the structure of the functional maps.. © 2011 OSA. PDF Article ...
A chimeric mammalian globular cytochrome b(5) fused to Escherichia coil alkaline phosphatase signal sequence (SS) was used as a model probe to investigate the influence of substituting each one of the standard 20 amino ...
Concept and experimental design We hypothesized that fusing address tags from proteins that are naturally sent to the granule may work to send GFP to the granule as well. 1. N-terminal signal peptides Proteins should be translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) first in order to be further sorted to granule. Since it is not sure whether the signal sequence would play some role in the granule sorting, we decided to use the signal sequences from the granzymes. Each Granzyme has an individual signal peptide sequence that delivers it to the Endo Reticulum. Every signal sequence is distinct in size and amino acid content. 2. C-terminal address tag sequences We have two strategies to send our cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the granule: 1. Directly fuse our cargo to the granule specific transporters. 2. Fuse our cargo to some address tag which can bind to the transporter. Strategy 1 The proteins listed below all have granule localization motif on their cytoplasmic tails. Y-motif: ...
0024] (12) According to an aspect of the embodiments, a medium includes a computer-readable recording medium storing a signal processing program for causing, in a signal processing apparatus for predicting a value of an input time series signal after predetermined time, a computer to implement a prediction function is recorded, the signal processing program causing the computer to implement a cycle fluctuation analysis function for assuming a certain component of an input time series signal as a time series signal whose cycle varies with respect to time to carry out a correlation analysis between part of the input time series signal and the input time series signal, estimating a cycle fluctuation of the input time series signal and reliability of the cycle fluctuation using a result of the correlation analysis, predicting a cycle of the input time series signal after predetermined time using the cycle fluctuation and the reliability of the cycle fluctuation and calculating, using the result of ...
A method for classifying a signal is disclosed. The method can be used by a station or stations within a network to classify the signal as non-cooperative (NC) or a target signal. The method performs classification over channels within a frequency spectrum. The percentage of power above a first threshold is computed for a channel. Based on the percentage, a signal is classified as a narrowband signal. If the percentage indicates the absence of a narrowband signal, then a lower second threshold is applied to confirm the absence according to the percentage of power above the second threshold. The signal is classified as a narrowband signal or pre-classified as a wideband signal based on the percentage. Pre-classified wideband signals are classified as a wideband NC signal or target signal using spectrum masks.
Find Periodicity Using Frequency Analysis. Spectral analysis helps characterize oscillatory behavior in data and measure the different cycles.. Detect a Distorted Signal in Noise. Use frequency analysis to characterize a signal embedded in noise.. Measure the Power of a Signal. Estimate the width of the frequency band that contains most of the power of a signal. For distorted signals, determine the power stored in the fundamental and the harmonics.. Compare the Frequency Content of Two Signals. Identify similarity between signals in the frequency domain.. Detect Periodicity in a Signal with Missing Samples. Use the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to study the periodicity of an irregularly sampled signal.. ...
NT3 Protein, 5 µg. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), also known as nerve growth factor-2 (NGF2) or hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor (HDNF), is a 257 amino acid precursor protein with a secretory signal sequence of 16 amino acids, a pro-peptide of 122 amino Forex Pips Signal is a best forex signals provider in world. If any new trader cant get profit in his trading, Forex pips signal is best solution for him. Because only forex pips signal give a best guideline for forex trading. You can see forex pips signal performance page for results on old trading day. You can see 99% off success now you can ask how can forex pips signal give 99% successful trading signals .You dont know only forex pips signal give best trading guideline for use our signals. When you fully follow our guide line after understand signals guide And use our signals then you can success on your trading. Only Forex Pips Signal has super faster signals service. Also you can get sms forex signals. Our SMS forex signals service start with 60$. If its costly for you can get our signals on your email with only 10$ . Buy our supper faster forex signals service can use our any package subscribers. Our faster forex signals you will be need log in ...
gets the internal signal or creates and sets the internal signal for the given name and calls the observe method of that signal with the given callback ...
The Seeing Eye. The most recent recommendations for accessible pedestrian signals (APS) are based on an entirely different type of device and installation than the overhead cuckoo-chirp type signals that have been installed in many parts of the US. You may be more familiar with the cuckoo-chirp type signals, but they are no longer the recommended standard in the US. This is based on research completed since 1988, including an ACB survey in 1998, evaluating different types of APS systems. First, we learned that the cuckoo-chirp signals resulted in incorrect decisions about which street had the walk signal. People had difficulty remembering which tone was for which direction, often didnt know which direction they were traveling, and birds sometimes mimicked the chirp sound. In general, this was found to be true for two-tone systems of signals; people made incorrect decisions. There was no advantage to overhead mounted signals, in terms of providing directional guidance for crossing, and they ...
A system of coding moving image signals produces a predictive error signal by a predictive coding based on inter-frame correlation and quantizing the predictive error signal for each block of a picture frame constituted by N lines of M pixels. The system includes a block coding/non-coding decision unit for calculating a first evaluation value Sm of the predictive error signal for each block of the picture frame. This unit decides that block non-coding is applicable when the first evaluation value Sm is less than a first threshold value T.sub.1 and that block coding is applicable when the first evaluation value Sm is greater than the first threshold value T.sub.1. The predictive error signal is not transmitted when the result of the decision is for block non-coding, and the predictive error signal is quantized and transmitted when the result of the decision is for block coding.
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Ive been fighting with this for a while, too. However, its not as simple as using sigaction (or sigvec) in place of signal where possible. Some systems dont return EINTR from select even when a signal is set with the SA_RESTART (or SA_INTERRUPT) flag set in these two calls. The issue is that some systems set the signal, and the first thread to notice the signal will service it. If the thread that has called select is not the thread to pick up the signal, the select call will not return with EINTR ...
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Signal weights corresponding to an initial system of equations with a block coefficient matrix T|sub|0 |/sub|can be obtained from the solution to a system of equations with a block coefficient matrix
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We investigated the metabolic stability of four cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), namely SAP, hCT(9-32)-br, [Palpha] and [Pbeta], when in contact with either subconfluent HeLa, confluent MDCK or Calu-3 epithelial cell cultures. Additionally, through analysis of their cellular translocation efficiency, we evaluated possible relations between metabolic stability and translocation efficiency. Metabolic degradation kinetics and resulting metabolites were assessed using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Translocation efficiencies were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Between HeLa, MDCK and Calu-3 we found the levels of proteolytic activities to be highly variable. However, for each peptide, the individual degradation patterns were quite similar. The metabolic stability of the investigated CPPs was in the order of CF-SAP = CF-hCT(9-32)-br , [Pbeta]-IAF , [Palpha] and we identified specific cleavage sites for each of the ...
In the process of protein secretion, amino-terminal signal sequences are key recognition elements; however, the relation between the primary sequence of an amino-terminal peptide and its ability to function as an export signal remains obscure. The limits of variation permitted for functional signal sequences were determined by replacement of the normal signal sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase with essentially random peptide sequences. Since about one-fifth of these sequences can function as an export signal the specificity with which signal sequences are recognized must be very low.. ...
The signal recognition particle (SRP) recognizes and binds the signal sequence of nascent proteins as they emerge from the ribosome. We present here the 3.0-Å structure of a signal sequence bound to the Methanococcus jannaschii SRP core. Structural comparison with the free SRP core shows that signal-sequence binding induces formation of the GM-linker helix and a 180° flip of the NG domain-structural changes that ensure a hierarchical succession of events during protein targeting.. ...
To generate a simplified signal sequence, we substituted a part of the yGLuc hydrophobic core with repeats of a single amino acid. The VLFALICI sequence was initially substituted to contain an eight residue repeat of a single amino acid (Figure 3). L8, M8, W8, and F8 increased secreted protein activity but repeats containing other residues (I, T, S, Q, Y, A, V, and C) did not. This result indicated that a complex amino acid sequence such as VLFALICI can be substituted with a repeat of select, single amino acids. Furthermore, although eight residue repeats of the residues I, T, S, Q, Y, A, V, and C, appeared not to be suitable, or too weak for a hydrophobic core; in fact, a hydrophobic core consisting of I12 and I13 was able to function as a signal sequence (Figure 5a). Therefore, the hydrophobic core in a signal sequence can be determined by the number of hydrophobic amino acids without including charged amino acids such as E, D, R, and K. Moreover, the efficiency of secretory production can be ...
Mouse mammary tumour virus-like (MMTV-like) is suspected to be involved in human breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that companion animals might have a role in viral transmission. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of MMTV-like nucleotide sequences and viral protein in a la …
The utilization of highly heterologous secreted lactoprotein signal peptides to guide the recombinant proteins to translocation and secretion in mammary gland bioreactors has rarely been reported. The first step in the synthesis of secretory proteins is generation of a signal peptide containing 15-30 hydrophobic amino acid residues in the cell matrix. When the polypeptide chain extends to approximately 80 amino acids, the signal peptide directs the synthesizing polypeptide chain into the lumen of the ER. The signal peptidase on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) then cleaves the signal peptide and continues to extend the polypeptide chain until synthesis of the entire polypeptide chain is completed [33-35]. The translocation of secretory proteins into the lumen of the ER constitutes the limiting step within the classical secretory pathway [36]. The secretion of t-PA from vascular endothelial cells to blood is mediated by its native signal peptide at a low yield [37,38]. However, we report here the ...
The service provides predictions of genetic structures based on neural network algorithms and Markov statistical models. It analyzes data about the frequency of amino acid sequences for various organisms and generates likely existence and locations of signal peptide cleavage sites to be expected in their genetic structures. Organism groups covered include gram-positive and gram-negative prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. The same provider maintains an [[ alternative service]], as well. API methods support submission of the amino acid sequence to be analyzed along with an organism type, preferred prediction method, and desired statistical prediction certainty threshold. Methods also support monitoring the service processing queue and retrieving the completed analytical result ...
Intramembrane proteases cleave peptide bonds within cellular membranes and thereby control important processes ranging from transcription regulation to growth factor secretion (Lemberg, 2011). The largest and most diverse group of these unusual enzymes is formed by the GxGD aspartyl proteases including presenilin/γ‐secretase as well as signal peptide peptidase (SPP) (Wolfe, 2009; Lichtenthaler et al, 2011). SPP localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it cleaves signal peptides that have been removed from precursors of secretory and membrane proteins (Weihofen et al, 2002). Like for most characterized intramembrane proteases, this release is part of a two‐step mechanism: First signal peptidase cleaves off the substrate proteins ectodomains, which enables the subsequent SPP‐catalyzed intramembrane cut (Lemberg & Martoglio, 2002). So far, known functions of SPP include generation of signal peptide‐derived bioactive peptides in immune surveillance and proteolytic maturation of ...
Signal recognition particle (SRP) consists of a 7SL RNA molecule and 6 protein subunits. We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones from human liver which encode the 19kDa protein subunit (SRP19). This subunit binds to the RNA directly and mediates binding of a second polypeptide, the 54kDa subunit which is involved in signal sequence recognition. Amino acid sequences deduced from the human cDNA sequence were identical to amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides from canine pancreatic SRP19. In vitro transcription and translation of the human cDNA resulted in a protein product the same size as canine SRP19 which could be immunoprecipitated by an antiserum raised against canine SRP19. SRP19 synthesized in a cell-free system specifically bound to 7SL RNA. The sequence of SRP19 is discussed with respect to its binding to 7SL RNA.. ...
Cells need powerhouses known as mitochondria to utilize the energy stored in our food. Most of the proteins required for this powerhouse function are encoded in the nucleus and transported into the mitochondria after they have been synthesized in the cytosol. Signal sequences are needed to allow the protein to enter the mitochondria. Once the protein has arrived there, the signal sequences are, however, removed. Up until now, researchers did not fully understand the importance of this removal of signal sequences. It was also unclear why flawed removal leads to a number of illnesses, such as diseases of the heart or brain. Together with her working group, Dr. Nora Vögtle of the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Freiburg has discovered that errors in the removal of signal sequences lead to an aggregation of these proteins so that they clump together inside the mitochondria. They have presented their findings in the current issue of the scientific journal ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [John M Harrington, Tuiumkan Nishanova, Savannah Rose Pena, Matthew Hess, Chris L Scelsi, Justin Widener, Stephen L Hajduk].
The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has been genetically engineered to produce many heterologous proteins for industrial and research purposes. In order to secrete proteins for easier purification from the extracellular medium, the coding sequence of recombinant proteins is initially fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor secretion signal leader. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis of the prepro-region of the α-mating factor secretion signal sequence was performed in order to determine the effects of various deletions and substitutions on expression. Though some mutations clearly dampened protein expression, deletion of amino acids 57-70, corresponding to the predicted 3rd alpha helix of α-mating factor secretion signal, increased secretion of reporter proteins horseradish peroxidase and lipase at least 50% in small-scale cultures. These findings raise the possibility that the secretory efficiency of the leader can be further enhanced in the future.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An in vitro assay using overexpressed yeast SRP demonstrates that cotranslational translocation is dependent upon the J-domain of Sec63p. AU - Willer, Martin. AU - Jermy, Andrew J.. AU - Steel, Gregor J.. AU - Garside, Helen J.. AU - Carter, Stephanie. AU - Stirling, Colin J.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - The signal recognition particle (SRP) is required for co-translational targeting of polypeptides to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Once at the membrane, the precursor interacts with a complex proteinaceous machinery that mediates its translocation across the bilayer. Genetic studies in yeast have identified a number of genes whose products are involved in this complex process. These mutants offer a potentially valuable resource with which to analyze the biochemical role played by each component in the pathway. However, such analyses have been hampered by the failure to reconstitute an efficient in vitro assay for SRP-dependent translocation. We report the construction of two ...
The signal recognition particle (SRP) targets nascent proteins to cellular membranes for insertion or secretion by recognizing polypeptides containing an N-terminal signal sequence as they emerge from the ribosome. GTP-dependent binding of SRP to its receptor protein leads to controlled release of t …
The ER-resident MHC class I PLC forms a key target for viral immune evasion. When analyzing the subcellular distribution of BNLF2a, we observed strict membrane association and colocalization with TAP and the ER markers calnexin and PDI (Figs. 1⇑, 2⇑, 6⇑D, and 7B), reminiscent of two other TAP inhibitors, HCMV US6 (35, 36) and BHV-1 UL49.5 (33). The latter two represent integral type I membrane proteins with cleavable signal sequences at their N termini for cotranslational membrane insertion, as well as transmembrane domains toward their C termini. In contrast, BNLF2a lacks an obvious N-terminal signal sequence (Fig. 1⇑A). Still, the EBV-encoded TAP inhibitor is membrane associated and, even in the absence of TAP, localizes to the ER (Fig. 6⇑D). In this respect, BNLF2a differs from HSV ICP47, which also lacks a signal sequence but has been detected primarily as a cytosolic protein with small amounts associating with membranes (26, 31). ICP47 is unstructured in aqueous solutions but ...
In eukaryotic cells, most mRNAs are exported from the nucleus by the transcription export (TREX) complex, which is loaded onto mRNAs after their splicing and capping. We have studied in mammalian cells the nuclear export of mRNAs that code for secretory proteins, which are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by hydrophobic signal sequences. The mRNAs were injected into the nucleus or synthesized from injected or transfected DNA, and their export was followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We made the surprising observation that the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can serve as a nuclear export signal of an mRNA that lacks an intron or functional cap. Even the export of an intron-containing natural mRNA was enhanced by its SSCR. Like conventional export, the SSCR-dependent pathway required the factor TAP, but depletion of the TREX components had only moderate effects. The SSCR export signal appears to be characterized in vertebrates by a low content of adenines, as ...
The Twin Arginate Translocation pathway(Tat) is one of the secretion systems E.coli originally has. This system can carry proteins that have TorA signal anino acid sequences at N terminal. TatA, TatB and TatC compose Tat complex on inner membrane. Tat complex recognizes TorA signal peptide and then it transports proteins (with TorA) from cytoplasm to periplasm with maintaining their folding. In short, proteins secreted via Tat pathway can keep active. In this experiment, we wanted to design a applicable TorA signal device to meet various needs and to check the function of signal sequence. TorA signal was, actually,submitted by Canbrige 2011(BBa_K233307). These signals, however, doesnt contain RBS so that you need to make RBS by yourself. In addition, old TorA signal cause a stop codon between signal peptide and target coding sequence(CDS) when you assemble them by standard or 3A assembly. For these reasons, all of other teams make an effort to combine TorA signal to targets, such as using ...
The Twin Arginate Translocation pathway(Tat) is one of the secretion systems E.coli originally has. This system can carry proteins that have TorA signal anino acid sequences at N terminal. TatA, TatB and TatC compose Tat complex on inner membrane. Tat complex recognizes TorA signal peptide and then it transports proteins (with TorA) from cytoplasm to periplasm with maintaining their folding. In short, proteins secreted via Tat pathway can keep active. In this experiment, we wanted to design a applicable TorA signal device to meet various needs and to check the function of signal sequence. TorA signal was, actually,submitted by Canbrige 2011(BBa_K233307). These signals, however, doesnt contain RBS so that you need to make RBS by yourself. In addition, old TorA signal cause a stop codon between signal peptide and target coding sequence(CDS) when you assemble them by standard or 3A assembly. For these reasons, all of other teams make an effort to combine TorA signal to targets, such as using ...
A multi-speed jittered signal generator (216, 400) that generates a full-speed jittered signal (404) by scaling a low-speed jittered signal (420) using a frequency scaler (428). The low-speed jittered signal is created by injecting a modulation signal (416) into a reference signal (412) using a jitter injector (432). Injecting jitter into a low-speed reference signal allows the full-speed jittered signal to be of higher quality than conventional jitter signals created by injecting jitter information into a full-speed reference signal. The multi-speed jittered signal generator may be used as part of a testing system (208) for testing various circuitry, such as high-speed serializer/deserializer circuitry (220).
Bacterial secretory signal peptide expression plasmid with the T7 promoter upstream to drive gene expression (Frame 1 - NcoI site aligned).
Fang P et al. (2006) A mutant signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, associated with growth hormone insensitivity and insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency, cannot function as a signal transducer or transcription factor.. [^] ...
A method for designing an integrated circuit such as a VLSI circuit, in particular optimizing delay of a signal transmitting through signal lines connecting a signal supplying source to each of elements, whereby skew can be decreased. The method can include determining whether the signal source satisfies a fan-out restriction if the signal source supplies a signal to all of the driven elements which are directly connected to the signal source, dividing the elements into groups so that the fan-out restriction is satisfied in each of the groups and each of the groups has the same or substantially same load capacity, when the signal source does not satisfy the fan-out restriction, and inserting into each group, a buffer having a size which makes the groups of elements satisfy the fan-out restriction. The dividing and the buffer inserting are repeated until a positive determination is delivered on the fan-out restriction.
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This disclosure describes methods and systems for encoding and decoding signals from a host signal such as audio, video or imagery. One claim recites a method comprising: receiving a host signal carrying an auxiliary signal; extracting data representing at least some features of the host signal, said extracting utilizes one or more processors; using the data representing at least some features of the host signal to determine a key; and detecting the auxiliary signal in a transform domain associated with the key, the detecting utilizes one or more processors. Other claims and combinations are provided as well.
A low cost, high frequency isolation amplifier includes a first voltage-to-frequency converter producing a first pair of complementary pulses in response to an analog input signal and applying them to a pair of low capacitance capacitors constituting the isolation barrier. The isolation barrier differentiates edges of the first pair of pulse signals and applies the resulting signals to inputs of a sense amplifier including a differential amplifier, a pair of comparators, and a flip-flop to precisely reconstruct the first pair of complementary pulse signals, which then are fed into a decoder circuit including a phase locked loop. The phase locked loop includes a phase detector receiving the reconstructed pair of complementary pulse signals and a second pair of complementary pulse signals produced by a second voltage-to-frequency converter. The output of the phase detector is integrated by a filter circuit, the output of which produces a voltage that
Slow-Stoch_HTF_Signal shows information about trend direction based on the data of the Slow-Stoch indicator on a selected bar as a graphic object with a colored indication of trend or deal direction and generates alerts or audio signals and sends push notifications on the smartphone if signal to conduct a deal appears.. MT5 Indicator - Download Instructions. Slow-Stoch HTF Signal is a Metatrader 5 (MT5) indicator and the essence of the forex indicator is to transform the accumulated history data.. Slow-Stoch HTF Signal provides for an opportunity to detect various peculiarities and patterns in price dynamics which are invisible to the naked eye.. Based on this information, traders can assume further price movement and adjust their strategy accordingly.. How to install Slow-Stoch HTF Signal.mq5?. ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingTat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway signal sequence (TIGR01409; HMM-score: 25.5) ...
Sometimes a component wants to send notifications via DCOP to other components but does not know which components will be interested in these notifications. One could use a broadcast in such a case but this is a very crude method. For a more sophisticated method DCOP signals have been invented. DCOP signals are very similair to Qt signals, there are some differences though. A DCOP signal can be connected to a DCOP function. Whenever the DCOP signal gets emitted, the DCOP functions to which the signal is connected are being called. DCOP signals are, just like Qt signals, one way. They do not provide a return value. A DCOP signal originates from a DCOP Object/DCOP Client combination (sender). It can be connected to a function of another DCOP Object/DCOP Client combination (receiver). There are two major differences between connections of Qt signals and connections of DCOP signals. In DCOP, unlike Qt, a signal connections can have an anonymous sender and, unlike Qt, a DCOP signal connection can be ...
Well! all signals in this world are made up of sum of different rotations(sinusoidals) - different in three senses:. a. how big is the amplitude (A). b. how fast is the rotation ($\omega$). c. where is the starting point of the rotation (phase $\phi$). Fourier made this very clear. How do we measure rapidness of the rotating signals(sinusoidals) : by their angular velocity $\omega$ which is given in radians/seconds. This is the correct and most appropriate unit for measuring rotations - how much of angle is being covered per unit time! If a constituent signal is rotating by $200\pi$ radians in 1 second, we say $\omega = 200\pi$ rad/sec.. But we can also measure the rapidness of these rotating signals as number of rotations per unit time. That is $f$ expressed in $Hertz$ : number of rotations per second.. How are $f$ and $\omega$ related? One complete rotation covers a full circle meaning an angle of $360^o = 2\pi \ radians$. That means if the signal is making $200$ rotations per second then it ...
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9780815345343: Cellular Signal Processing: An Introduction to the Molecular Mechanisms of Signal Transduction, Friedrich Marks, Ursula Klingmüller, Karin Müller-Decker - Cellular Signal Processing offers a unifying view of cell signaling based on the conc
Statistical and adaptive signal processing pdf - Request PDF | On Jan 1, , D G Manolakis and others published Statistical and Adaptive Signal Processing | Find, read and cite all the research you need. Corpus ID: Statistical and Adaptive Signal Processing: Spectral Estimation, Signal Modeling, Adaptive Filtering and Array Processing.
Bilinear synthesis of nonstationary signals impinging on a multiantenna receiver has been recently introduced. The distinction in the spatial signatures of the sources provides a vehicle to reduce noise and source signal interactions in the time-frequency domain, and hence improves signal synthesis..... Full description. ...
Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. ...
A method for processing a multichannel audio signal may be configured to control the amplitude of one channel of the signal relative to another based on the levels of the two channels. One such example uses a bias factor, which is based on a standard orientation of an audio sensing device relative to a directional acoustic information source, for amplitude control of information segments of the signal.
Binary options signals are delivered in three main ways depending on the signals service provider and the broker you use: Manual - You are sent a communication with details of the signal. This could be through a notification on your trading platform, an email, an SMS message, or another communication method.
Use the docid:simrf_ref.bveln7s-1 block to shift the phase of a sine wave to 180 degrees.Use Repeating Sequence Stair block as a Simulink control signal to control the phase of the signal. To see the variation in phase to 180 degrees, first open and run the model. During simulation, change the value of the Simulink control signal to 90 degrees and see a change in phase in the Output Scope.. ...
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Emergent CAS agents can use the ability to respond differently to different signal strengths to create models of their local environments. In effect when the signals vary with range across the local environment they provide the coordinates of a map. This can be used to coordinate the responses of neighboring cells, via the schematic models that associate particular cascades with the local environmental state ...
Histogram of log2 average C3B signal. Histogram of log2 average C3B signal for the Stratagene Total Human RNA using the 1,288 genes in common among the three pl
Methods 60 sensitive and 60 non-sensitive users were exposed to three 50 min conditions: a signal with a 16 Hz component, a continuous wave condition and a sham condition. The mean radiated power for the 16 Hz and continuous wave conditions was 250 mW. The order of conditions was randomised and testing was conducted double-blind. Participants reported the severity of eight symptoms during and after each exposure, their mood state at the end of each exposure, and whether they could tell which sessions involved active signals. The study was registered in advance with the ISRCTN register. ...
Nakai, K. Protein sorting signals and prediction of subcellular localization. Adv. Protein Chem., 2000, 54, 277-344. Chou, K. C ... Nakai K (2000). "Protein sorting signals and prediction of subcellular localization". Advances in Protein Chemistry. 54: 277- ... Some are specialized for eukaryotic proteins, some for human proteins, and some for plant proteins. Methods for the prediction ... Schneider G, Fechner U (Jun 2004). "Advances in the prediction of protein targeting signals". Proteomics. 4 (6): 1571-80. doi: ...
"Extensive feature detection of N-terminal protein sorting signals". Bioinformatics. 18 (2): 298-305. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics ... encodes a protein which contains a ring finger motif found in several proteins which mediate protein-DNA and protein-protein ... FITM1 is a protein involved in fat storage. DCAF11 is a protein that is known to interact with COP9 and has several alternative ... UPF0172 protein FAM158A, also known as c14orf122 or CGI112, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM158A gene located ...
"Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The ... "The HIV-1 Nef protein acts as a connector with sorting pathways in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane". Immunity. 6 (1): 67- ... "Nef interacts with the mu subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes and reveals a cryptic sorting signal in MHC I molecules". ...
"Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... Functional importance of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals and interaction with the AP-2 adaptor medium chain subunit". The ... The encoded protein may also play an important role in regulating the intracellular trafficking and function of CTLA-4 protein ... The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the ...
"Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... "Influences of the lysosomal associated membrane proteins (Lamp-1, Lamp-2) and Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2-BP) on the prognosis ... LAMP1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PDBe-KB provides an overview of all ... The LAMP-1 glycoprotein is a type I transmembrane protein which is expressed at high or medium levels in at least 76 different ...
Bonifacino JS, Traub LM (2003). "Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes". Annual Review of ... and an F-box protein, which varies. Around 70 human F-box proteins have been identified. F-box proteins contain an F-box, which ... Ubiquitin signaling relies on the diversity of ubiquitin tags for the specificity of its message. A protein can be tagged with ... The ligases must simultaneously distinguish their protein substrate from thousands of other proteins in the cell, and from ...
This protein is capable of interacting with tyrosine-based sorting signals. AP1M2 has been shown to interact with AP2B1. GRCh38 ... "Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M2 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of the ...
"A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and translocation". Nature. 370 (6489): 434-40. Bibcode: ... Transcription factor BTF3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTF3 gene. This gene encodes the basic transcription ... Grein S, Pyerin W (1999). "BTF3 is a potential new substrate of protein kinase CK2". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 191 (1-2): 121-8. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: BTF3 basic transcription factor 3". Grein S, Pyerin W (Jan 1999). "BTF3 is a potential new substrate of protein ...
Wiedmann B, Sakai H, Davis TA, Wiedmann M (1994). "A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and ... "A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and translocation". Nature. 370 (6489): 434-40. Bibcode: ... proteins lacking signal peptides can be mis-translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum. The NACA protein is expressed in bone ... Nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide, also known as NACA, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ...
1995). "Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode: ... 2004). "Protein kinase D regulates basolateral membrane protein exit from trans-Golgi network". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (2): 106-12. ... 2005). "Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate regulates sorting signal recognition by the clathrin-associated adaptor complex ... Trans-Golgi network integral membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGOLN2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Huang L, Kirschke CP (2007). "A di-leucine sorting signal in ZIP1 (SLC39A1) mediates endocytosis of the protein". FEBS J. 274 ( ... Zinc transporter ZIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC39A1 gene. The protein ZIP1 is responsible for the ... "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 1, Solute carrier family, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ...
"Prediction of Protein sorting Signals and Localization Sites in Amino Acid Sequences(PSORT)". "The Human Protein Atlas profile ... The more enriched protein compared to other human proteins was serine(12.9%) and the pattern of serine then threonine was also ... FOPV has been found to interact with 3 other proteins: BTF3, CUL4A, and KRAS. This protein may have lethal interactions with ... C4orf54 human protein is made up up 1793 amino acids. This unmodified form has a predicted molecular weight of approximately ...
Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular ... There are no signal peptides present in this sequence. Due to the nuclear localization signal at the end of the protein ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2018-04-26. EMBL-EBI. "SAPS ... There is also a bipartite nuclear localization signal at the end of the protein sequence. There is no trans-membrane domain ...
Mu recognises tyrosine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane cargo proteins. One function of ... AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ...
Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular ... "NCBI CDD Conserved Protein Domain DUF4694". Retrieved 2018-02-19. "Protein BLAST: search protein ... A bipartite nuclear localization signal can be found starting at Arg107. The human C16orf82 protein has been predicted to be ... "protein TNT [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2018-02-19. group, NIH/NLM/NCBI/IEB/CDD. " ...
A program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization". Trends in Biochemical ... Furthermore, multiple proteins were involved in ubiquitination. Some of the interacting yeast proteins with the higher ... I2D Protein Interaction Database [5] STRING 9.0 Protein Interaction Predictor Miyamoto-Sato E, Fujimori S, Ishizaka M, Hirai N ... The yeast protein RPN11, which interacts with YPL225W, has a homolog in humans that is a metalloprotease component of 26S ...
Nakai, Kenta; Horton, Paul (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their ... The binding sites of LHFPL family members bind other proteins, but no functional protein-protein interactions have been ... This phosphorylation site could be part of a signal pathway that the protein conducts. DiANNA also finds results, highlighting ... This MW is smaller than the average human protein, while the pI is far higher than the average pI of human proteins (6.5), but ...
doi:10.1093/protein/gzh062. PMID 15314210. Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in ... This protein is an integral membrane protein found most commonly in the synapses of neurons. Neither of these proteins is well ... The protein has a predicted weight of 147.8 kDal. It does not contain a known nuclear localization signal but does contain a ... Analysis of protein composition also suggests that the protein has relatively low levels of glycine. This could suggest a ...
... a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization". Trends Biochem. Sci. 24 (1 ... The protein does not contain a peptide signal protein. The protein structure contains a similar proportion of alpha-helix and ... "Entrez Gene: TMEM106A transmembrane protein 106A". "Genecards: TMEM106A transmembrane protein 106A". Nakai K, Horton P (January ... Protein Eng. 10 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1093/protein/10.1.1. PMID 9051728. Garnier J, Osguthorpe DJ, Robson B (March 1978). "Analysis ...
Nakai, K; Horton, P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their ... FAM237A is a protein coding gene which encodes a protein of the same name. Within Homo sapiens, FAM237A is believed to be ... "protein FAM237A [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2020-12-19. Kelley, Lawrence A; Mezulis, ... Protein Engineering, Design & Selection. 24 (3): 255-260. doi:10.1093/protein/gzq094. ISSN 1741-0134. PMID 21062758. Wang, ...
Then it analyses the input sequence by applying the stored rules for various sequence features of known protein sorting signals ... PSORT website Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting ... This is because proteins are localised by cell machinery that recognises signal peptide sequences (similar to a postal address ... The signal peptide is often cleaved off after the destination is reached. PSORT uses known signal peptide sequences to analyse ...
Mu recognises tyrosine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane cargo proteins. One function of ... Protein pages needing a picture, Peripheral membrane proteins, Protein families). ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to ...
Nakai, K; Horton, P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their ... to profile protein interactions in the Hippo signaling pathway identified C7orf43 as one of the interacting proteins. C7orf43 ... MAP11 (Microtubule-associated protein 11) is a protein that in human is encoded by the gene MAP11. It was previously referred ... "Uncharacterized protein C7orf43 [Homo sapiens]". NCBI Protein. Retrieved 8 May 2015. Brendel, V.; Bucher, P.; Nourbakhsh, I.R ...
Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular ... proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be ... and with moderate confidence that the proteins in green interact with MEGF8. The confidence level for the proteins in blue is ... is a protein coding gene that encodes a single pass membrane protein, known to participate in developmental regulation and ...
"Structural requirements for interactions between leucine-sorting signals and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex AP3". ... Lysosomal integral membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB2 gene. LIMP-2 is expressed ... Studies of the similar protein in mice and rat suggested that this protein may participate in membrane transportation and the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ...
"Structural requirements for interactions between leucine-sorting signals and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex AP3". ... AP-3 complex subunit sigma-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3S1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... "Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ...
"Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum contain a conserved epitope". EMBO ... The soluble resident protein will remain in the ER as long as it contains a KDEL signal sequence on the C-terminal end of the ... These proteins were originally from the ER and they escaped into the cis-Golgi. The KDEL signal sequence is recognized by KDEL ... It also targets proteins from other locations (such as the cytoplasm) to the ER. Proteins can only leave the ER after this ...
"Basolateral sorting signals differ in their ability to redirect apical proteins to the basolateral cell surface". The Journal ... In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins ...
Denecke J.; De Rycke R.; Botterman J. (Jun 1992). "Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic ... Denecke J.; De Rycke R.; Botterman J. (Jun 1992). "Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic ... HDEL is a target peptide sequence in plants and yeasts located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. ... The HDEL sequence prevents a protein from being secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitates its return if it ...
The protein interacts with and phosphorylates a subunit of the AP-2 complex, which promotes binding of AP-2 to sorting signals ... "Phosphorylation of the AP2 mu subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals". The Journal ... Adaptor-associated protein kinase 1 also known as AP2-associated protein kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2 complexes) functions during receptor-mediated endocytosis to trigger clathrin assembly ...
PelB (an amino acid signal sequence that targets the protein to the periplasm where a signal peptidase then cleaves off PelB) ... US patent 5866363, Pieczenik G, "Method and means for sorting and identifying biological information", published 1999-02-02 ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ...
2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... 2004). "Clathrin adaptor epsinR is required for retrograde sorting on early endosomal membranes". Dev. Cell. 6 (4): 525-38. doi ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ...
Components of such vectors are called features, factors or ranking signals. They may be divided into three groups (features ... Leonardo Rigutini, Tiziano Papini, Marco Maggini, Franco Scarselli, "SortNet: learning to rank by a neural-based sorting ... In computational biology for ranking candidate 3-D structures in protein structure prediction problem. In recommender systems ... Scalable Learning To Rank via Differentiable Sorting". Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34 Pre-proceedings. ...
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal ... Leren TP (November 2014). "Sorting an LDL receptor with bound PCSK9 to intracellular degradation". Atherosclerosis. 237 (1): 76 ... This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like ... e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being ...
2004). "Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... WD repeat-containing protein 44 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WDR44 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
... and protein folding and sorting. These processes play into the larger part of cell structure and metabolism. Magnesium is the ... Modern advancements in analytical technology have made it clear the importance of biometals in signalling pathways and the ... Both proteins are tetramer complexes with iron protein complexes called hemes built into each subunit of the tetramer. The ... The calcium bound proteins usually play an important role in cell-cell adhesion, hydrolytic processes (such as hydrolytic ...
The protein has been localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of T-cells and is a candidate linker protein in T-cell signal ... Puertollano R, Alonso MA (Oct 1999). "MAL, an integral element of the apical sorting machinery, is an itinerant protein that ... Myelin and lymphocyte protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAL gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... The MAL protein is also thought to interact with the protein encoded by LSMEM1 based on two-hybrid screening. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
They signal yielding in a hierarchy conflict or a need for help. Low mood or extreme low mood (also known as depression) can ... This study also found that COMT protein levels decreased in mice that did not produce estrogen and increased in the ... be more properly regarded as non-adaptive behaviors due to some sort of a cognitive disability, emotional impairment or ... The idea was to let him know that the behavior was not wanted by signaling to him that Connie was about to leave the room. ... ...
... of transport proteins clearing out the neurotransmitters from the synapse and recycling them in order to allow for a new signal ... properties can cause synaptic fatigue to occur from much more or less activation that could potentially lead to some sort of ... Once neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft and a signal is relayed, re-uptake begins which is the process ... synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synapse that bind with post-synaptic membrane proteins to pass a signal, ...
Often the raw data will conceal all sorts of interesting facts that the headlines have missed. "2001 National Drug Strategy ... Like most other neurological processes, the effects of cannabis on the brain follow the standard protocol of signal ... changed blood proteins associated with heart disease and stroke. A 2000 study by researchers at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess ... and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa at the protein kinase A site in striatal projection neurons". The Journal of ...
... and RGS domain-containing protein that belongs to the sorting nexin (SNX) family and the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS ... Because of its bifunctional role, this protein may link heterotrimeric G protein signaling and vesicular trafficking. GRCm38: ... "Entrez Gene: SNX13 sorting nexin 13". Worby CA, Dixon JE (December 2002). "Sorting out the cellular functions of sorting nexins ... Sorting nexin-13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNX13 gene. This gene encodes a PHOX domain- ...
... s emit two distinct kinds of acoustic signals, which are called whistles and clicks: Clicks are quick broadband burst ... However, some toothed whales have preferences between different kinds of fish, indicating some sort of attachment to taste. The ... the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 537-543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals ... Whistles are narrow-band frequency modulated (FM) signals, used for communicative purposes, such as contact calls. Whales are ...
If the fluorescent signal is weak, amplification of the signal may be necessary in order to exceed the detection threshold of ... which correlate with their associated proteins. Starfish is a set of software tools developed in 2019 by a consortium of ... "In-solution fluorescence in situ hybridization and fluorescence-activated cell sorting for single cell and population genome ... Separate but compatible signal amplification systems enable the multiplex assay (up to two targets per assay). Signal ...
The ribosomal protein S19 has been suggested as a possible find me signal. Apoptosis causes a dimerization of S19, inducing a ... In this case, a dying cell needs to be able to send out an advertisement of sorts to declare its state of death in order to ... Find-me signals Cells destined for apoptosis release molecules referred to as find me signals. These signal molecules are used ... They sense the find-me signal gradient and migrate to the vicinity of the signaling cell. Using the presented find-me signal ...
Nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen are ultimately derived from dietary protein, while carbon can be contributed by protein, ... Harris lines form before adulthood, when bone growth is temporarily halted or slowed down due to some sort of stress (either ... Four individuals were buried with no grave goods, in accordance with Muslim tradition, facing Signal Hill, which is a point of ... Animal proteins sourced from marine ecosystems tend to have δ34S values between +16 and +17‰, terrestrial plants range from -7 ...
... , also known as vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13B, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VPS13B ... A deletion in the VPS13B gene causes a premature stop signal in the instructions for making the VPS13B protein, causing the ... CHS1 COH1 Cohen syndrome 1 DKFZp313I0811 KIAA0532 vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog B (yeast) vacuolar protein sorting 13B ... They are also responsible for sorting and transporting of proteins inside of the cell. The VPS13B protein is important because ...
... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... participating in endocytosis and endosomal sorting and signaling. It downregulates retrograde transport of intracellular ... "SNX8 - Sorting nexin-8 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SNX8 gene & protein". Retrieved 25 October 2019. Muirhead, ... The SNX8 is a sorting nexin protein involved in intracellular molecular traffic from the early endosomes to the TGN. It is ...
... so that the same sorts of cases and the same sorts of circumstances are treated equally. Otherwise one would be accused of ... In biology, protein complexes with multiple structural forms are called fuzzy complexes. The different conformations can result ... In response to the somewhat confusing signals she gets, the awareness of the subject spontaneously tends to withdraw inward, in ... The suggestion could be very clear to the recipient (perhaps a sort of code), but it could also be vague or fuzzy. Even using ...
... encoding protein VPS35 Endosomal Protein Sorting Factor Like WFDC1: encoding protein WAP four-disulfide core domain protein 1 ... "Altered TAOK2 activity causes autism-related neurodevelopmental and cognitive abnormalities through RhoA signaling". Molecular ... encoding protein NIP30 protein NOB1: encoding protein RNA-binding protein NOB1 NOMO1: encoding protein Nodal modulator 1 NPW: ... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 200 ZNF263: encoding protein Zinc finger protein 263 ZNF629: encoding protein Zinc finger ...
... to a group of prokaryotic enzymes that modify surface proteins by recognizing and cleaving a carboxyl-terminal sorting signal. ... Sortase acts on surface proteins that are initiated into the secretion (Sec) pathway and have their signal peptide removed by ... Ton-That H, Marraffini LA, Schneewind O (November 2004). "Protein sorting to the cell wall envelope of Gram-positive bacteria ... These proteins often play important roles in virulence, infection, and colonization by pathogens. Surface proteins not only ...
October 2012). "In vivo, Pikfyve generates PI(3,5)P2, which serves as both a signaling lipid and the major precursor for PI5P ... By directly binding membrane PtdIns(3)P, the FYVE finger domain of PIKfyve is essential in localizing the protein to the ... "PIKfyve controls fluid phase endocytosis but not recycling/degradation of endocytosed receptors or sorting of procathepsin D by ... December 2008). "VAC14 nucleates a protein complex essential for the acute interconversion of PI3P and PI(3,5)P(2) in yeast and ...
Protein folding in vivo is also important and is related to protein synthesis. For finding the location of the ribosomal pause ... This sort, usually described as a slowdown, is usually caused by polyproline stretches (resolved by EFP or eIF5A) and uncharged ... Translational frameshift HIV Ribosomal frameshift signal Coronavirus frameshifting stimulation element Ribosomal frameshift ... The advantage of ribosomal pause sites that are located at protein domain boundaries are aiding the folding of a protein. There ...
Biochemical cascades consisting of signaling proteins occur in the ECM and play an important role to the regulation of many ... It has been proposed that mutations in gatekeeper genes could, to an extent, offer a sort of selective advantage to the ... Some key caretaker proteins that contribute to cell survival by acting in DNA repair processes when the level of damage is ... Bernstein C, Bernstein H, Payne CM, Garewal H. DNA repair/pro-apoptotic dual-role proteins in five major DNA repair pathways: ...
Mukaetova-Ladinska EB, Hurt J, Honer WG, Harrington CR, Wischik CM (2002). "Loss of synaptic but not cytoskeletal proteins in ... 2015). "Novel Findings from CNVs Implicate Inhibitory and Excitatory Signaling Complexes in Schizophrenia". Neuron. 86 (5): ... and that children attending psychiatric clinics often presented with illnesses or perinatal complications of a sort known to be ... Studies have found evidence that the protein phosphatase 3 known as calcineurin might be involved in susceptibility to ...
A nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the C-terminus of the protein from 173-197 supports the subcellular localization ... The orthologs are sorted by increasing date of divergence and sequence similarity. C16orf90 is limited to mammals but is found ... These helices are approximately equally spaced across the protein. A nuclear localization signal was identified as well as four ... They are uncharacterized protein C16orf90 isoform a (197aa) producing all 3 exons, uncharacterized protein C16orf90 isoform b ( ...
Also, a mitochondrial sorting signal was identified at the beginning of one of the protein isoforms using MitoProt II (located ... The protein contains a conserved proline-rich motif, suggesting that it may participate in protein-protein interactions via an ... and STRING also yielded zero predicted protein-protein interactions. There is a potential that the protein is secreted via a ... These domains have been shown to participate in protein-protein binding interactions, specifically via the SH3 protein binding ...
Pagano A, Letourneur F, Garcia-Estefania D, Carpentier JL, Orci L, Paccaud JP (Apr 1999). "Sec24 proteins and sorting at the ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... Protein transport protein Sec24B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEC24B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... The encoded protein has similarity to yeast Sec24p component of COPII. COPII is the coat protein complex responsible for ...
2016). "The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal ... However, a growing number of additional protein sorting systems has been described in prokaryotes, involving sorting enzymes ... as part of a specialized pathway of protein targeting. The typical prokaryotic protein-sorting transpeptidase is characterized ... A protein-sorting transpeptidase is an enzyme, such as the sortase SrtA of Staphylococcus aureus, that cleaves one or more ...
Fölsch H, Guiard B, Neupert W, Stuart RA (February 1996). "Internal targeting signal of the BCS1 protein: a novel mechanism of ... A conserved domain at the N-terminus of BCS1L is responsible for the import and intramitochondrial sorting. Associating to the ... These mutations tend to affect the protein-protein interactions of BCS1L. BCS1L has 11 protein-protein interactions with 8 of ... The BCS1L gene produces a 47.5 kDa protein composed of 419 amino acids. The protein encoded by BCS1L belongs to the AAA ATPase ...
... which may contribute to the conformational flexibility seen both with and without other bound proteins or protein complexes. A ... TGFβ signaling at the cell membrane results in 2 different intracellular pathways. One of them depends on MED15, while the ... Note that Med 17 (shown in blue) also has that sort of spline These non-coding activating RNAs have not been mentioned yet in ... Fungal-specific Protein-name in Sch. pombe Kelleher RJ, Flanagan PM, Kornberg RD (June 1990). "A novel mediator between ...
The signals for postsynthetic protein sorting again resemble mitochondrial sorting signals. Together these findings support the ... The encoded proteins traffic back to the organelles, directed by short peptides that resemble mitochondrial trafficking signals ... provided the encoded protein acquires the signal needed to traffic it back to the organelle. Over eons, the process has reduced ... Some of these proteins have been shown to be localized in the mitosomes of other parasites, G. intestinalis and ...
Protein Sorting Signals 21% * Proteins 10% * Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12% * Respiratory System 9% ...
Protein Sorting Signals 41% * Thermotoga maritima 32% * Cellobiose 29% * Escherichia coli 27% ...
In general, how are proteins targeted to specific destinations?. *. A. Sorting signals is located on the gene ... The RER segregates secreotry, lysosomal and plant-cell vacuclar proteins from toher newly made proteins, allowing their ... Proteins that normally reside int he ER lumen have short amino acid sequences at their C-terminus that serve as retrieval ... Proteins that normally reside int he ER lumen have short amino acid sequences at their N-terminus that serve as retrieval ...
A bipartite sorting signal ensures specificity of retromer complex in membrane protein recycling ... a mechanistic view of transmembrane protein sorting centered around active sorting towards degradation emerged. The ESCRT ... In addition to potential changes in the recycling-degradation complex balance on endosomes, the sorting signals on the receptor ... Cargo sorting on endosomes. The distinguishing feature of the sorting endosome is its ability to direct cargo towards recycling ...
Merozoite Surface Protein 1 Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Protein Sorting Signals Medicine & Life Sciences 72% ... While the polypeptide expressed from the cDNA containing both the signal peptide and GPI anchor signal was truncated by ~14 kDa ... While the polypeptide expressed from the cDNA containing both the signal peptide and GPI anchor signal was truncated by ~14 kDa ... While the polypeptide expressed from the cDNA containing both the signal peptide and GPI anchor signal was truncated by ~14 kDa ...
Protein Sorting Signals 5% * Proteins 1% * Recombinant Proteins 5% * Rhamnose 7% * Sucrose 53% ...
Proteins 17% * Protein Sorting Signals 16% * Proline 16% * Genetic Promoter Regions 15% ...
Protein Sorting Signals Medicine & Life Sciences 34% * Peptidyl Transferases Medicine & Life Sciences 23% ... We altered transfer-messenger RNA, a key component of this rescue system, to direct the completion of a necessary protein if ... We altered transfer-messenger RNA, a key component of this rescue system, to direct the completion of a necessary protein if ... We altered transfer-messenger RNA, a key component of this rescue system, to direct the completion of a necessary protein if ...
Erythrocyte membrane lipid rafts proteins regulate membrane sorting and signaling processes and hence lipid raft proteins (Gαs ... In the erythrocytes, malaria parasite entry and infection is mediated through complex membrane sorting and signaling processes ... by activation of the G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway mediated by the β2-adrenoreceptor as one of the proteins on ... caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.Malaria infection is the results of complex membrane sorting and signaling ...
Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 23% * Lipolysis Medicine & Life Sciences 22% * Protein Sorting Signals Medicine & Life ... Proteins fused to the signal-anchor sequence from neuraminidase are also present on the surface of budded virus. Fused proteins ... Proteins fused to the signal-anchor sequence from neuraminidase are also present on the surface of budded virus. Fused proteins ... Proteins fused to the signal-anchor sequence from neuraminidase are also present on the surface of budded virus. Fused proteins ...
Novel targeting signals mediate the sorting of different isoforms of the tail-anchored membrane protein cytochrome b5 to either ... Title: NOVEL TARGETING SIGNALS MEDIATE THE SORTING OF DIFFERENT ISOFORMS OF THE TAIL-ANCHORED MEMBRANE PROTEIN CYTOCHROME B5 TO ... the molecular targeting signals responsible for sorting these proteins are not well defined. Here we describe the biogenesis of ... Technical Abstract: Tail-anchored membrane proteins are a class of proteins that are targeted post-translationally to various ...
... signal recognition particle protein 72; VPS13, vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein.. †f, forward; r, reverse. ... molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein; PCS, peroxisomal-coenzyme A synthetase; POB3, FACT complex subunit; SRP72, ...
Novel Regulation of Ski Protein Stability and Endosomal Sorting by Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Hepatocytes. Journal of ... Gβγ signaling to the chemotactic effector P-REX1 and mammalian cell migration is directly regulated by Gαq and Gα13 proteins. ... Cell adhesion controlled by adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR124/ADGRA2 is mediated by a protein complex comprising ... which triggers downstream signals. However, whether additional Gα proteins might directly regulate the RH-RhoGEFs was not known ...
Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. ... Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. ... Recognition of dileucine-based sorting signals from HIV-1 Nef and LIMP-II by the AP-1 γ-σ1 and AP-3 δ-σ3 hemicomplexes ... b. Recognition of dileucine-based sorting signals from HIV-1 Nef and LIMP-II by the AP-1 γ-sigma1 and AP-3 Δ-sigma3 ...
... module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and ... Conserved Protein Domain Family PX_IRAS, The PX domain is a phosphoinositide binding (PI) ... module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and ... They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. SNXs differ from each other in PI ...
... abnormal endosomal sorting and signaling, aberrant proteasome/protein aggregation, and myelin assembly abnormalities), ... S. Saraç, A. Hegele et al., "Large-scale de novo prediction of physical protein-protein association.," Molecular & Cellular ... In the current study, we first identified the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network relationships of the CMT-related genes ... M. Kotlyar, C. Pastrello, Z. Malik, and I. Jurisica, "IID 2018 update: context-specific physical protein-protein interactions ...
Protein Sorting Signals Medicine & Life Sciences 83% * Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Medicine & Life Sciences 63% ... Signal peptide-CUB-EGF-like repeat-containing protein 1-promoted FLT3 signaling is critical for the initiation and maintenance ... Hedgehog signaling reprograms hair follicle niche fibroblasts to a hyper-activated state. Liu, Y., Guerrero-Juarez, C. F., Xiao ... Zebrafish Scube1 and Scube2 cooperate in promoting Vegfa signalling during embryonic vascularization. Tsao, K. C., Lin, Y. C., ...
Protein Sorting Signals 24% 33 Citations (Scopus) * A phylum level perspective on bacterial cell envelope architecture. ... Sutcliffe, I., Harrington, D. & Hutchings, M., Mar 2012, In: Protein & Cell. 3, 3, p. 163-170. Research output: Contribution to ... A patch of surface-exposed residues mediates negative regulation of immune signaling by tomato Pto kinase. Wu, A-J., Durrant, M ...
2017) Protein sorting by lipid phase-like domains supports emergent signaling function in B lymphocyte plasma membranes eLife 6 ... 1992) A 39-kDa protein on activated helper T cells binds CD40 and transduces the signal for cognate activation of B cells PNAS ... Mass Spectrometry (MS) of SEs reveals enrichment of ESCRT proteins and TCR signaling. TCR-enriched SE are released through a ... 2) In subsection "Mass Spectrometry (MS) of SEs reveals enrichment of ESCRT proteins and TCR signaling", the authors write "We ...
Protein Sorting Signals Medicine & Life Sciences 30% * Gene Library Medicine & Life Sciences 30% ... title = "Goofy coordinates the acuity of olfactory signaling",. abstract = "The basic scheme of odor perception and signaling ... Using signal sequence trap screening of a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library, we identified a novel molecule, Goofy, that ... Using signal sequence trap screening of a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library, we identified a novel molecule, Goofy, that ...
The adaptor protein-1 mu1B subunit expands the repertoire of basolateral sorting signal recognition in epithelial cells ... sorting signals, depending on the context of the signal (Mattera et al., 2011), suggesting distinct cargo recognition ... requires the recognition of sorting signals by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). Transmembrane ... non-specific protein bands. (B) The CD4 signal intensity is expressed as described for Fig. 2B. Bars represent the means±s.e.m ...
Mu recognises tyrosine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane cargo proteins [ (PUBMED:11080148 ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Alpha_adaptinC2 domain in ... AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to ...
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, a lipid that regulates membrane dynamics, protein sorting and cell signalling. Bioessays, 35 ... ErbB3 interacts with Hrs and is sorted to lysosomes for degradation. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res, 1864 (12), 2241-2252. ... Dual Targeting of BRAF and mTOR Signaling in Melanoma Cells with Pyridinyl Imidazole Compounds. Cancers (Basel), 12 (6). DOI ... A CEP104-CSPP1 Complex Is Required for Formation of Primary Cilia Competent in Hedgehog Signaling. Cell Rep, 28 (7), 1907-1922. ...
Research pages of Protein dynamics in tumor suppressor pathways (Raiborg) ... Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, a lipid that regulates membrane dynamics, protein sorting and cell signalling. Bioessays, 35 ... Hrs and endocytic sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. Cell Struct Funct, 27 (6), 403-8. DOI 10.1247/csf.27.403, PubMed ... Protein sorting into multivesicular endosomes. Curr Opin Cell Biol, 15 (4), 446-55. DOI 10.1016/s0955-0674(03)00080-2, PubMed ...
Protein Complexes, Protein Kinases, Protein Phosphatases, Protein Trafficking & Sorting, Signal Transduction, Trafficking, ... which recapitulate ion transport and signaling phenotypes of the in vivo distal nephron. As the lab serves as a national " ...
Visit to view our Proteomic Analysis Products materials including Protein Assays & more. CST - Customer ... Sort By:. Relevance. Newest. # of Applications. Product Name. Product No. # of Citations. ... Perform LC/MS screening and quantification of defined sets of thousands of protein sites in important signaling pathways. ... Products for Targeted Proteomics: Detect Specific Proteins of Interest in Your Sample. *SignalScan™ Peptide Mix (SARS-CoV-2) - ...
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rat Krtdap protein Medicine & Life Sciences 16% * Protein Sorting Signals Medicine & Life Sciences 13% ... N2 - Using a signal sequence-trap we identified a human gene encoding a polypeptide of 99 amino acids with a putative signal ... AB - Using a signal sequence-trap we identified a human gene encoding a polypeptide of 99 amino acids with a putative signal ... title = "Characterization of Kdap, a protein secreted by keratinocytes",. abstract = "Using a signal sequence-trap we ...
  • Collectively, the results presented provide significant insight to the early biogenetic events required for entry of tail-anchored proteins into either the ER or mitochondrial targeting pathways. (
  • These Gα subunits might in turn favor Rho pathways by preventing Gβγ signaling to Rac. (
  • The ability of Nef to target MHC-I from the TGN to lysosomes is dependent on expression of the μ1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) AP-1A, a cellular protein complex implicated in TGN to endolysosomal pathways. (
  • PTMScan ® Pathway Based Enrichment Kits - Perform LC/MS screening and quantification of defined sets of thousands of protein sites in important signaling pathways. (
  • The research implicates pathways related to histone methylation (molecular changes affecting proteins associated with DNA molecules) and immune and neuronal signaling. (
  • Because these disorders overlap, the researchers also carried out analyses across disorders, sort of aggregating the signals across pathways, said Dr O'Dushlaine. (
  • And schizophrenia appeared to signal highly in the pathways related to postsynaptic density, B cell activation, and signal release. (
  • Viruses use a number of advanced and fewer understood mechanisms and pathways to ship their cargo (nucleocapsid and accent proteins) to the cytoplasm and or nucleus. (
  • The endocytic pathway contain the virus binding to the host cell receptors, activation of signaling pathways, formation of endocytic vesicles, supply of viral cargo to endosomal compartments, sorting, and eventually escaping into the cytosol (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (
  • One of the major pathways that controls aging is insulin signaling," Verdin said. (
  • It is, therefore, essential that we know the final fate of the different cell types in culture to be able to link these fates to specific signalling pathways and to understand their role in totipotency. (
  • Interferons are proteins made by host cells in response to pathogens such as viruses, acting as a signalling system to switch on pathways that can activate an immune response. (
  • In mammals, the signaling pathways which regulate the morphogenesis and neurogenesis of epibranchial placodes, localized dorsocaudally to the pharyngeal clefts, are poorly understood. (
  • The signaling pathways controlling cell growth and differentiation are almost invariably altered in cancer. (
  • These properties reflect alterations in the cellular signaling pathways that in normal cells control cell proliferation, motility, and survival. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α and GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, with crucial roles in coordinating fundamental biological processes during neural development. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α or GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, especially in the CNS but poorly described in the retina. (
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (
  • Furthermore, cannabinoids also modulate signal transduction pathways and exert profound effects at peripheral sites. (
  • We aim to define several potential roles of cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of signaling pathways and in association with several pathophysiological conditions. (
  • Subsequently, it has emerged that endocytosis is also required for the maintenance of cellular plasticity [ 2 ] and that endosomes can provide an important signalling platform, as activated receptors continue to signal and recruit downstream adapters to endosomal membranes [ 3 ]. (
  • G protein-coupled receptors stimulate Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors that promote mammalian cell migration. (
  • DURHAM, N.C. - A three-dimensional image of one of the proteins that serves as an on-off switch as it binds to receptors on the surface of a cell suggests there may be a sort of main power switch that could be tripped. (
  • Already, up to half of all drugs engage these receptors, including antihistamines and beta blockers, but many of the intricacies of how these important proteins work remain unknown. (
  • The two researchers - friends who first collaborated when Kobilka was a trainee in Lefkowitz's laboratory at Duke - shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries involving the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by signaling proteins to detect hormones, neurotransmitters, pain, light. (
  • VPS10P (vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein) domain receptors are neuronal sorting receptors that direct cargo proteins to their destined location in subcellular compartments of the soma, dendrites, and the axon. (
  • Protein sorting by receptors such as SORLA, sortilin, and SorCS2 controls functional integrity and viability of neurons, whereas sorting receptor dysfunctions are linked to acute, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • In the event the outbound signs and symptoms remain, antipsychotic Your endocannabinoid routine, which commonly be inclined regarding epileptogenesis, has 2 G-proteins bundled receptors (cannabinoid model 1 CB1 not to mention cannabinoid variety 2 CB2) and a pair of endogenously synthesized, lipid-signaling endocannabinoids (anandamide N-arachidonyl ethanolamide and even 2-arachidonoyl glycerol 2-AG) that may content that will CB1 as well as CB2. (
  • Cell surface receptors ( membrane receptors , transmembrane receptors ) are receptors at the surface of a cell (built into its cell membrane ) that act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules . (
  • while others, such as the G-protein coupled receptors , cross as many as seven times. (
  • [2] [3] Many membrane receptors include transmembrane proteins . (
  • In certain receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel . (
  • The biological effects of cannabinoids, the major constituents of the ancient medicinal plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana) are mediated by two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R) and 2. (
  • The encoded proteins traffic back to the organelles, directed by short peptides that resemble mitochondrial trafficking signals. (
  • Aqua Peptides - Validate and quantify protein markers and PTMs. (
  • Identified MWCNT-responsive peptides depicted a mechanism involving aberrant fibrinolysis (fibrinopeptide A), blood-brain barrier permeation (homeobox protein A4), neuroinflammation (transmembrane protein 131L) with reactivity by astrocytes and microglia, and a pro-degradative (signal transducing adapter molecule, phosphoglycerate kinase), anti-plastic (AF4/FMR2 family member 1, vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 18) state with the excitation-inhibition balance shifted to a hyperexcited (microtubule-associated protein 1B) phenotype. (
  • In the process of signal transduction , ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane. (
  • VPS13 , vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein. (
  • Both clathrin dependent and also clathrin-independent endocytosis mechanisms such as the CLIC-GEEC (clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-anchored enriched compartments) pathway or marcopinocytosis are thought to eventually merge with early sorting endosomes [ 11 ]. (
  • SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. (
  • and for MDD, protein phosphatase type 2A regulator activity was the top pathway. (
  • Though transcriptomic signatures of ATXN1L KO cell traces indicated upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, ERK exercise was discovered to contribute to CIC operate however not stability. (
  • The endocytic pathway is the most typical amongst enveloped and non-enveloped viruses for entry and launch of their nucleocapsid and accent proteins into the cytosol. (
  • The Protein kinase C (PKC) -associated sign pathway performs essential roles in regulation of cell development, differentiation and apoptosis. (
  • In laboratory tests on isolated tumor cells, temsirolimus effectively blocked the gene pathway known as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that is responsible for signaling the growth and division of all types of mesothelioma. (
  • Endocytosis occurs through a variety of clathrin dependent and independent mechanisms (discussed in detail in other reviews [ 4-6 ]), where lipids and transmembrane proteins are internalised from the plasma membrane into vesicular structures called early or sorting endosomes. (
  • The PX domain is a phosphoinositide binding (PI) module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. (
  • In the current work, the researchers used X-ray crystallography to develop an atom-scale image of one of the principal signaling molecules that regulate GPCRs. (
  • The secretion of biomolecules by fungal cells occurs via the conventional export of signal peptide-coupled soluble molecules, but it also results from transport within extracellular vesicles (EV). (
  • This particle belongs to a class of molecules that sort and secrete proteins made by the cell, a rather useful tool for viruses that might want to hijack the cellular machinery for its own end. (
  • All of these spike proteins then start clumping together to form molecules that look like viruses, according to the same June 2022 study. (
  • Which molecule below is a GTP-binding protein that is requred for the release of a clatherin-coated vesicle from the membrane on which it was formed? (
  • The plasma membrane of lymphocytes is highly compartmentalized in so-called nanodomains or protein islands. (
  • Endocytosis is an essential process where proteins and lipids are internalised from the plasma membrane in membrane-bound carriers, such as clathrin-coated vesicles. (
  • Internalised cargo from the plasma membrane reaches the sorting endosome stage from which it can be transported to one of three destinations. (
  • Tail-anchored membrane proteins are a class of proteins that are targeted post-translationally to various organelles and integrated by a single segment of hydrophobic amino acids located near the C terminus. (
  • They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. (
  • Goofy encodes an integral membrane protein with specific expression in the olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons and predominant localization to the Golgi compartment. (
  • Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. (
  • Proteins are transported across the bacterial plasma membrane and the chloroplast thylakoid membrane by means of protein translocases that recognize N-terminal targeting signals in their cognate substrates. (
  • Loading and unloading patterns are largely determined by the conductivity and number of plasmodesmata and the position-dependent function of solute -specific, plasma membrane transport proteins . (
  • 2015). This endosomal luminal low pH is vital for intracellular membrane site visitors, cytosolic pH upkeep, protein degradation and receptor-mediated endocytosis (Cotter et al. (
  • macromolecule that makes up muscle, skin, organs, hair: protein: carbohydrates are made up of monomers called : monosaccharides: a disaccharide contains: two monosaccarides: polysaccharide that plants use to store energy: starch: polysaccharide animals use to store energy: glycogen: this organ stores glucose in the form of glycogen: liver: polysaccharide used … Which macromolecule stores energy, insulates us, and makes up the cell membrane? (
  • The KASH domain directs the fused GFP protein to the outer nuclear membrane and enables identification of neurons transduced by AAV-SpGuide ( Supplementary Fig. 2a,b ). (
  • They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the outside world. (
  • A specific receptor may also be differently distributed on different membrane surfaces, depending on the membrane sort and cell function. (
  • Like any integral membrane protein, a transmembrane receptor may be divided into three domains. (
  • In the current manuscript, which is accepted for publication in the world's top plant research journal, scientist at ARS and collaborators at the University of Guelph and McMaster University describe in great detail the underlying mechanisms that are involved in the transport of proteins to two specific locations in plant cells. (
  • In particular, BLOC-2 controls the sorting and transport of proteins into LROs during their formation. (
  • They have been related to a variety of molecular pathological mechanisms, including either protein synthesis and posttranslational processing (dysfunction of mRNA processing, abnormal endosomal sorting and signaling, aberrant proteasome/protein aggregation, and myelin assembly abnormalities), dysfunction of ion channels (channelopathies), intracellular transportation (axonal transport/cytoskeletal abnormalities), or mitochondrial dysfunction [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • Its interaction with alpha5 integrin causes a redistribution of the receptor from the cell surface to endosomal structures, suggesting that IRAS may function as a sorting nexin (SNX) which regulates the endosomal trafficking of integrin. (
  • The endosomal-lysosomal system: from acidification and cargo sorting to neurodegeneration. (
  • Using signal sequence trap screening of a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library, we identified a novel molecule, Goofy, that is essential for olfactory acuity in mice. (
  • The free radical nitric oxide (‎NO)‎ has emerged in recent years as a fundamental signalling molecule for the maintenance of homeostasis, as well as a potent cytotoxic effector involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. (
  • Extracellular signaling molecule: an extracellular signaling molecule is produced by one cell and is at least capable of traveling to neighboring cells. (
  • The cDNAs that encode the 70 kDa C-terminal portion of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1), with or without an N-terminal signal peptide sequence and C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) signal sequence of MSP-1, were expressed in mammalian cell lines via recombinant vaccinia virus. (
  • The polypeptides derived from the cDNAs that contained the N-terminal signal peptide were modified with N-linked high mannose type structures and low levels of O-linked oligosaccharides, whereas the polypeptides from the cDNAs that lacked the signal peptide were not glycosylated. (
  • The GPI anchor moiety is either absent or present at a very low level in the polypeptide expressed from the cDNA that contained both the signal peptide and GPI signal sequences. (
  • Together, these data establish that whereas the signal peptide of MSP-1 is functional, the GPI anchor signal is either nonfunctional or poorly functional in mammalian cells. (
  • The polypeptides expressed from the cDNAs that contained the signal peptide were proteolytically cleaved at their C-termini, whereas the polypeptides expressed from the cDNAs that lacked the signal peptide were uncleaved. (
  • While the polypeptide expressed from the cDNA containing both the signal peptide and GPI anchor signal was truncated by ~14 kDa at the C-terminus, the polypeptide derived from the cDNA with only the signal peptide was processed to remove ~6 kDa, also from the C-terminus. (
  • Secretion of human myocilin is shown to be dependent on the signal peptide and independent of the extra 14 amino acids not found in rabbit myocilin. (
  • Deamidation of asparagine residue is a common post-translational modification of proteins that is detected and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based peptide mapping. (
  • Similar trends of increasing deamidation of AAV9 capsid proteins in stability samples were observed at the intact protein level and peptide level, indicating that the developed direct deamidation analysis of intact AAV9 capsid proteins is comparable to the peptide mapping-based deamidation analysis and both methods are suitable for deamidation monitoring of AAV9 capsid proteins. (
  • To explore how far into the Golgi stack the capacity to retrieve KDEL proteins extends, we have introduced an exogenous probe (the peptide YHPNSTCSEKDEL) into the TGN of living cells. (
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a protein on the surface of various cells that interacts with peptide hormones angiotensin I and II. (
  • In subgroups with response for capecitabine plus RAD001, there is significant overexpression of 6 genes among 519 kinase gene such as EPHA2 (P = 0.0025), PIM1 (P = 0.0031), KSR1 (P = 0.0033), and EIF2AK4 (P = 0.0046) that are related to the activation of mTOR signalling. (
  • Inhibition of the mTOR signaling as a new therapeutic target is an active area of research. (
  • Proteins such as Caveolin-1 (pink), tetraspanins (blue) or flotillins (violet) define these protein islands and thereby regulate the functioning of the immune system. (
  • However, whether additional Gα proteins might directly regulate the RH-RhoGEFs was not known. (
  • AP complexes connect cargo proteins and lipids to clathrin at vesicle budding sites, as well as binding accessory proteins that regulate coat assembly and disassembly (such as AP180, epsins and auxilin). (
  • These findings highlight important concepts in neuronal protein sorting and why aberrant sorting contributes to the progression of devastating diseases of the human brain, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and frontotemporal dementia. (
  • fragile X psychological retardation protein (FMRP), decreased in each cell our bodies and dendrites when neurons had been confronted with aberrant upregulation of ATX2. (
  • The carboxyl-terminal appendage of the alpha subunit regulates translocation of endocytic accessory proteins to the bud site. (
  • The translocase component is encoded in Escherichia coli by an unassigned reading frame, yigU, disruption of which blocks the export of at least five twin-Arg-containing precursor proteins that are predicted to bind redox cofactors, and hence fold, prior to translocation. (
  • These findings suggest a central role for TatC-type proteins in the translocation of tightly folded proteins across a spectrum of biological membranes. (
  • By utilizing the signal-anchor sequence of a class II transmembrane protein some of these problems can be overcome. (
  • We have demonstrated that the signal-anchor sequence from the class II transmembrane protein neuraminidase is capable of directing proteins to all membranes, including the cell surface. (
  • For this purpose, a CHO cell line expressing a c-myc-tagged version of the transmembrane protein TGN38--which cycles between the TGN and the cell surface--was generated. (
  • The researchers are now pursuing additional structural imaging of the signaling complex consisting of beta-arrestin1 and the entire receptor protein. (
  • Here, we discuss molecular mechanisms that define ligand repertoire and sorting path and that control plasticity of VPS10P domain receptor expression in the healthy brain and in response to injury. (
  • Herein, we demonstrate astrocytes express high levels of BDNF's receptor, TrkB (in the top 20 of protein-coding transcripts), with nearly exclusive expression of the truncated isoform, TrkB.T1 which peaks in expression during astrocyte morphological maturation. (
  • The intracellular (or cytoplasmic ) domain of the receptor interacts with the interior of the cell or organelle, relaying the signal. (
  • Fused proteins are displayed on the cell surface in an accessible manner, enabling selection for protein-protein interactions on a cellular level. (
  • Here we describe the biogenesis of four closely related tung (Aleurites fordii) cytochrome b5 isoforms (Cb5-A, -B, -C, and -D), which are small tail-anchored proteins that play an essential role in many cellular processes, including lipid biosynthesis. (
  • The spike protein portion of the Coronavirus genome is introduced into the plant so that the plant's cellular machinery can synthesize multiple spike proteins, according to an article from February 2022 in Cellular and Molecular Immunology . (
  • Instead, it makes polyproteins which are then cleaved by cellular or viral proteases at very specific spots so that the correct proteins are formed. (
  • While the localization of tail anchored proteins in specific subcellular compartments in plant cells is essential for their biological function, the molecular targeting signals responsible for sorting these proteins are not well defined. (
  • Transport of many of these proteins involves the well defined Sec apparatus that operates in both membranes. (
  • The intracellular domain communicates via protein-protein interactions against effector proteins , which in turn pass a signal to the destination. (
  • Here, we investigated whether Gβγ signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-REX1), a key Gβγ chemotactic effector, is directly controlled by Rho-activating Gα subunits. (
  • However, the IS is not only a platform for signal integration, but also enables polarized delivery of effector function. (
  • Here, we utilized bead supported lipid bilayers (BSLB) to capture SE from single immunological synapses (IS), determined SE composition by immunofluorescence flow cytometry and enriched SE for proteomic analysis by particle sorting. (
  • Eventually, personalized medicine will be further informed by detailed understanding of the body's distinct repertoire of proteins (proteomics) and complete catalog of biochemical reactions (metabolomics). (
  • Proteins synthesized on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. (
  • GGAs (Golgi-localising, Gamma-adaptin ear domain homology, ARF-binding proteins) are a family of monomeric clathrin adaptor proteins that are conserved from yeasts to humans. (
  • The capacity to retrieve escaped ER proteins extends to the trans-most cisterna of the Golgi stack. (
  • The KDEL-tagged glycopeptides (approximately 10% of the endocytosed load) behaved like endogenous ER residents: they stayed intracellular, and their oligosaccharide side chains remained sensitive to endoglycosidase H. An option thus exists to extract ER residents even at the most distant pole of the Golgi stack, suggesting that sorting of resident from exported ER proteins may occur in a multistage process akin to fractional distillation. (
  • Our studies indicate that human Kdap resembles rat Kdap with respect to tissue and cell expression at the mRNA level and that Kdap is a low-molecular-weight protein secreted by keratinocytes. (
  • Such changes suggest there may be a general molecular mechanism that activates the beta-arrestin1 - a sort of main switch that controls the multi-functional signaling proteins. (
  • While the time course of astrocyte morphogenesis is well defined, few studies have attempted to identify molecular signals guiding astrocyte morphogenesis and maturation. (
  • However, non-esterified fatty acids have also been shown to have a positive effect by taking part in the lipid-signaling needed for a normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. (
  • The modifications from early endosomes to late matured endosomes includes development of dimension because of acquired cargo on transit and newly synthesized elements and alter in pH, lipid and protein composition. (
  • Surface display in insect cells: Systems available for surface display that utilize bacterial phages are insufficient for displaying a number of eukaryotic proteins. (
  • By instead presenting proteins on the surface of eukaryotic cells or virus, some of these problems might be overcome. (
  • In this study we set out to determine the protein composition and mechanism of SE release in the synaptic cleft by helper T cells. (
  • In this study, the researchers showed how the cancer cells employed a signalling system to trigger the release of RNA that's normally hidden away. (
  • Other therapeutic targets could include the mechanism itself - a type of signal exposed on the outside of cancer cells called NOTCH. (
  • Differentiation-Associated Expression of Conventional Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Primary Cultures of Bone Marrow Cells Induced by M-CSF and G-CSF. (
  • The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas)9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) 1 can be used to edit single or multiple genes in replicating eukaryotic cells, resulting in frame-shifting insertion/deletion (indel) mutations and subsequent protein depletion. (
  • Temsirolimus is a kinase inhibitor that appears to work against mesothelioma, in part, by blocking the action of a protein that tells cancer cells to replicate. (
  • We previously showed that antibodies against DENV nonstructural protein 1 (‎NS1)‎ may cross-react with endothelial cells. (
  • For example, some-like the Johnson & Johnson vaccine-use a modified virus to introduce the spike protein to our cells, according to the CDC. (
  • This code acts like an instruction manual: the plant cells read it and then use the information to start pumping out spike proteins in surplus, Dr. Ward said. (
  • Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) can act as an immunological danger signal and stimulate the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (
  • Intracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) belongs to the stress response system and can protect cells from different apoptotic stimuli. (
  • For example, Gα 13 binding to the RGS-homology (RH) domains of several RH-RhoGEFs allosterically activates these proteins, causing them to expose their catalytic Dbl-homology (DH)/pleckstrin-homology (PH) regions, which triggers downstream signals. (
  • Lastly, we revealed that the PAM2 motif of ATX2, which mediates its interplay with poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), is probably mandatory for the lower of FMRP in sure neuronal stress situations. (
  • Once internalised into the cell these vesicles fuse with the endocytic network where their contents are sorted towards degradation in the lysosome or recycling to their origin. (
  • We altered transfer-messenger RNA, a key component of this rescue system, to direct the completion of a necessary protein if and only if stalling occurs. (
  • abstract = "The basic scheme of odor perception and signaling from olfactory cilia to the brain is well understood. (
  • This disruption of lysosomal function can involve either a specific lysosomal hydrolase deficiency, a defect in lysosomal protein processing, or impaired lysosomal biogenesis. (
  • Regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibit its kinase subunits. (
  • In addition, the expression of dominant-negative form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase results in shortening of olfactory cilia, implying a possible mechanistic link between cAMP and ciliogenesis in the olfactory sensory neurons. (
  • Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have lately been implicated as a adverse prognostic consider a mess of most cancers sorts by means of the derepression of targets downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, similar to oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription components. (
  • Similarly, genes needed for organellar function can become transferred to the nuclear genome and incorporated there, provided the encoded protein acquires the signal needed to traffic it back to the organelle. (
  • The genes that encode organelle proteins can be traced to mitochondrial relatives that now reside in the nuclear genome. (
  • Among the cereals most information on TSA and TSB homologs is available for maize: Two highly similar TSB genes ( ZmTSB1 and ZmTSB2 ) have been identified, sharing 96% identity on the mature protein level. (
  • The Ataxin -family protein ATXN1L has beforehand been reported to work together with CIC in each developmental and illness contexts to facilitate the repression of CIC goal genes and promote the post-translational stability of CIC. (
  • Now that we have the complete genome sequences of both (and other monkeys) it is possible to look for the protein coding genes which separate us. (
  • Deletion mutants of the transmembrane region were also made in order to enhance the likelihood for successful translation of cDNAs encoding proteins in all reading frames. (
  • To shorten turnaround time of deamidation results and to avoid artificial deamidation, we developed orthogonal RPLC-MS and RPLC-fluorescence detection methods for direct deamidation analysis at the intact AAV9 capsid protein level to routinely support downstream purification, formulation development, and stability testing. (
  • Anabolic agents are potent promoters of protein synthesis and thus are muscle building. (
  • Useful in vitro research using ATXN1L human cell traces revealed that lack of ATXN1L results in the buildup of polyubiquitinated CIC protein, selling its degradation by means of the proteasome. (
  • When you look at the 2020 Southshi're Protein unsealed a meat production focus in the Wilmington VT, and this is open to the community the animals production. (
  • The two independent mouse studies found that a ketogenic diet - high fat, low protein and extremely low carbohydrates - significantly improved memory in aging mice and increased the animals' chances of surviving to old age. (
  • Insulin is the hormone that one uses for metabolizing carbohydrates, so the idea was if the mice did not have any carbohydrates they would have low insulin signaling and therefore would age more slowly. (
  • Instead of letting yourself fall into this tired trap, Lockwood recommends focusing on filling your plate with more protein-rich foods (say, turkey, lentils or chickpeas) than carbohydrates (such as stuffing, mashed potatoes or corn pudding). (
  • Lipids contain about 9 kcal/g (kilocalories per gram) while proteins and carbohydrates each have about 4 kcal/g. (
  • Recent efforts have been devoted to developing model systems, including 3D bioprinted collecting ducts and human PSC-derived kidney organoids, which recapitulate ion transport and signaling phenotypes of the in vivo distal nephron. (
  • Previous studies have catalogued libraries of mutant mice that lack specific classes of proteins 3 or exhibit behavioural phenotypes 4 . (
  • AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. (
  • This course is a senior level course which exposes students to the principles and experimental techniques underlying common bioanalytical methods such as cell fractionation, radiolabeling, protein purification, protein and DNA sequencing, immunochemistry, and spectrophotometry, all of which are widely used in research pertaining to the biological and biochemical sciences. (
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (
  • Increased dengue virus-infected endothelial cell apoptosis caused by antibodies against nonstructural protein 1. (
  • Using a signal sequence-trap we identified a human gene encoding a polypeptide of 99 amino acids with a putative signal sequence. (
  • The gene was identical to keratinocyte differentiation-associated protein (Kdap), which was reported previously by Oomizu et al (Gene 256: 19-27, 2000) to be expressed in embryonal rat epidermis at the mRNA level. (
  • The 12.5 kDa protein was detected in culture supernatant of keratinocytes and those transfected adenovirally with the Kdap gene. (
  • Asparagine deamidation of AAV capsid proteins has been reported to reduce vector stability and potency of AAV gene therapy products. (
  • The HPS3 gene provides instructions for making a protein that forms part of a complex called biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 (BLOC-2). (
  • A gene is a strand of chemical code, a sort of blueprint for proteins and other substances necessary for life. (
  • First we targeted an X-chromosomal gene, Mecp2 (methyl CpG binding protein), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Rett syndrome 8 . (
  • Cloning and gene defects in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein associated with abetalipoproteinaemia. (
  • Abetalipoproteinemia is caused by defects of the gene encoding the 97 kDa subunit of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. (
  • Prior to ligand binding, the extracellular protein loses flexibility while the intracellular portion gains it. (
  • Sorting and averaging techniques, developed in the context of protein structure determination, were thus applied to vesicle micrographs. (
  • Others, like the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, carry a genetic code for the spike protein, which our bodies then make and destroy, kind of like a practice run, according to the CDC. (
  • Dendrites require exact and well timed supply of protein substrates to distal areas to make sure the proper morphology and performance of neurons. (
  • Adaptins recognise and bind to clathrin through their hinge region (clathrin box), and recruit accessory proteins that modulate AP function through their C-terminal ear (appendage) domains. (
  • Degradation of CIC protein following lack of ATXN1L was as an alternative noticed to be mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 which was additional validated utilizing glioma-derived cell traces and the TCGA breast carcinoma and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cohorts. (
  • We show that the polarized transfer of T cell derived SE is determined by selective sorting processes directly in the IS and depends on both the presence of ligands on the SLB and their segregation into the synaptic cleft, as shown for TCR complex:anti-CD3ε/pHLA-DR complexes, CD40L:CD40 and ICOS:ICOSL, but not LFA-1:ICAM-1 bound pairs. (
  • On this examine, we discovered a beforehand undetermined anti-protein aggregation exercise of LCC. (
  • You incubate liposomes with a series of purified proteins nomrally found in the coats of cell transport vesicles. (
  • SE are enriched in tetraspanins, BST-2, TCR signaling and ESCRT proteins. (