Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/4265)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (2/4265)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (3/4265)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

A novel plasmid recombination mechanism of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. (4/4265)

We describe a novel mechanism of site-specific recombination in the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. The specific recombination sites on the smallest plasmid pAQ1 were localized by studying the properties of pAQ1-derived shuttle-vectors. We found that a palindromic element, the core sequence of which is G(G/A)CGATCGCC, functions as a resolution site for site-specific plasmid recombination. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the element show that the site-specific recombination in the cyanobacterium requires sequence specificity, symmetry in the core sequence and, in part, the spacing between the elements. Interestingly, this element is over-represented not only in pAQ1 and in the genome of the cyanobacterium, but also in the accumulated cyanobacterial sequences from Synechococcus sp. PCC6301, PCC7942, vulcanus and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 within GenBank and EMBL databases. Thus, these findings strongly suggest that the site-specific recombination mechanism based on the palindromic element should be common in these cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Role of ribosome release in regulation of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli. (5/4265)

Expression of the degradative tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. In cultures growing in the absence of added tryptophan, transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon is limited by Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction prevents this Rho-dependent termination, and requires in-frame translation of a 24-residue leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial, Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the spacer region between tnaC and the first major structural gene, tnaA, suggested that tryptophan induction might involve cis action by the TnaC leader peptide on the ribosome translating the tnaC coding region. The leader peptide was hypothesized to inhibit ribosome release at the tnaC stop codon, thereby blocking Rho's access to the transcript. Regulatory studies with deletion constructs of the tna operon of Proteus vulgaris supported this interpretation. In the present study the putative role of the tnaC stop codon in tna operon regulation in E. coli was examined further by replacing the natural tnaC stop codon, UGA, with UAG or UAA in a tnaC-stop codon-tnaA'-'lacZ reporter construct. Basal level expression was reduced to 20 and 50% when the UGA stop codon was replaced by UAG or UAA, respectively, consistent with the finding that in E. coli translation terminates more efficiently at UAG and UAA than at UGA. Tryptophan induction was observed in strains with any of the stop codons. However, when UAG or UAA replaced UGA, the induced level of expression was also reduced to 15 and 50% of that obtained with UGA as the tnaC stop codon, respectively. Introduction of a mutant allele encoding a temperature-sensitive release factor 1, prfA1, increased basal level expression 60-fold when the tnaC stop codon was UAG and 3-fold when this stop codon was UAA; basal level expression was reduced by 50% in the construct with the natural stop codon, UGA. In strains with any of the three stop codons and the prfA1 mutation, the induced levels of tna operon expression were virtually identical. The effects of tnaC stop codon identity on expression were also examined in the absence of Rho action, using tnaC-stop codon-'lacZ constructs that lack the tnaC-tnaA spacer region. Expression was low in the absence of tnaC stop codon suppression. In most cases, tryptophan addition resulted in about 50% inhibition of expression when UGA was replaced by UAG or UAA and the appropriate suppressor was present. Introduction of the prfA1 mutant allele increased expression of the suppressed construct with the UAG stop codon; tryptophan addition also resulted in ca. 50% inhibition. These findings provide additional evidence implicating the behavior of the ribosome translating tnaC in the regulation of tna operon expression.  (+info)

Secretion, localization, and antibacterial activity of TasA, a Bacillus subtilis spore-associated protein. (6/4265)

The synthesis and subcellular localization of the proteins that comprise the Bacillus subtilis spore are under a variety of complex controls. To better understand these controls, we have identified and characterized a 31-kDa sporulation protein, called TasA, which is secreted into the culture medium early in sporulation and is also incorporated into the spore. TasA synthesis begins approximately 30 min after the onset of sporulation and requires the sporulation transcription factor genes spo0H and spo0A. The first 81 nucleotides of tasA encode a 27-amino-acid sequence that resembles a signal peptide and which is missing from TasA isolated from a sporulating cell lysate. In B. subtilis cells unable to synthesize the signal peptidase SipW, TasA is not secreted, nor is it incorporated into spores. Cells unable to produce SipW produce a 34-kDa form of TasA, consistent with a failure to remove the N-terminal 27 amino acids. In cells engineered to express sipW and tasA during exponential growth, TasA migrates as a 31-kDa species and is secreted into the culture medium. These results indicate that SipW plays a crucial role in the export of TasA out of the cell and its incorporation into spores. Although TasA is dispensable for sporulation under laboratory conditions, we find that TasA has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. We discuss the possibility that during the beginning of sporulation as well as later, during germination, TasA inhibits other organisms in the environment, thus conferring a competitive advantage to the spore.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of drosocrystallin, a lens crystallin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (7/4265)

We have cloned the drosocrystallin gene (dcy) of Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a major protein of the corneal lens, previously described in part by Komori et al. (1992, J. Cell Sci. 102, 191-201). Synthesis of the DCY protein starts weakly in 2-day-old pupae, reaches a peak at day 3 and day 4 of pupal development, and decreases very fast in young adults. The dcy mRNA is detected in the compound eyes as well as in the ocelli. The presence of a putative signal peptide and the extracellular location of DCY suggest that DCY is a secreted protein. Interestingly, the dcy gene shows sequence similarities to some insect cuticular proteins and is detected as well in two closely related Drosophila species, D. sechellia and D. simulans, and in one more distantly related species, D. virilis. This finding supports the hypothesis that Drosophila used the same strategy as vertebrates and mollusks, namely, recruiting a multifunctional protein for refraction in the lens, by a gene-sharing mechanism. Furthermore, it supports our intercalary evolution hypothesis, which suggests that the development of an elaborate structure (for example, a compound eye) from an original primitive form (an ancestral photoreceptor organ) can be achieved by recruiting novel genes into the original developmental pathway.  (+info)

Nuclear export of LIM-kinase 1, mediated by two leucine-rich nuclear-export signals within the PDZ domain. (8/4265)

LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates cofilin and regulates actin-filament dynamics. LIMK1, which contains two LIM domains and a single PDZ domain, localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm, but its mutant, deleted with the PDZ domain, localizes mainly in the nucleus, thereby indicating that the PDZ domain plays a role in the cytoplasmic localization of LIMK1. Here we provide evidence that the PDZ domain of LIMK1 contains two functional leucine-rich nuclear-export signals (NESs). The PDZ domain of LIMK1 fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST-PDZ), when injected into the nucleus, was rapidly excluded from the nucleus, but its mutant with replacements of conserved hydrophobic residues in two putative NESs by alanines remained in the nucleus. The nuclear export of GST-PDZ was sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of nuclear export mediated by leucine-rich NESs. Malfunctional mutation of two NESs or LMB treatment prevented the nuclear export of full-length LIMK1 and induced its nuclear accumulation. These results suggest that the predominant localization of LIMK1 in the cytoplasm is supported by two NESs within the PDZ domain and that LIMK1 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also provide evidence that a short basic cluster sequence within the protein-kinase domain is involved in the nuclear import of LIMK1.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic processing of Escherichia coli twin-arginine signal peptides by LepB. AU - Luke,Iris. AU - Handford,Jennifer I.. AU - Palmer,Tracy. AU - Sargent,Frank. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) apparatus is a protein targeting system found in the cytoplasmic membranes of many prokaryotes. Substrate proteins of the Tat pathway are synthesised with signal peptides bearing SRRxFLK twin-arginine amino acid motifs. All Tat signal peptides have a common tripartite structure comprising a polar N-terminal region, followed by a hydrophobic region of variable length and a polar C-terminal region. In Escherichia coli, Tat signal peptides are proteolytically cleaved after translocation. The signal peptide C-terminal regions contain conserved AxA motifs, which are possible recognition sequences for leader peptidase I (LepB). In this work, the role of LepB in Tat signal peptide processing was addressed directly. Deliberate repression of lepB ...
The signal peptide of the outer membrane lipoprotein (OMLP) of Escherichia coli was shown to be capable of promoting protein translocation across mammalian microsomal membranes in vitro. We assayed translocation of a fusion protein containing the OMLP signal peptide and nine amino acids of OMLP fused in frame to beta-lactamase. The efficiency with which the mammalian translocation machinery recognizes and accepts the OMLP signal peptide as substrate is indistinguishable from that of mammalian secretory proteins. Upon translocation mammalian signal peptidase processes the pre-OMLP-beta-lactamase protein at different sites than are utilized in vivo by E. coli OMLP signal peptidase (signal peptidase II) but that can be predicted as mammalian signal peptidase cleavage sites. Mutants in the OMLP signal peptide were tested for their ability to promote translocation of the fusion protein in this assay system. It has been shown previously that mutants in the positively charged amino acids at the amino ...
Signal sequences are the addresses of proteins destined for secretion. In eukaryotic cells, they mediate targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and insertion into the translocon. Thereafter, signal sequences are cleaved from the pre-protein and liberated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We have recently reported that some liberated signal peptides are further processed by the intramembrane-cleaving aspartic protease signal peptide peptidase. Cleavage in the membrane-spanning portion of the signal peptide promotes the release of signal peptide fragments from the lipid bilayer. Typical processes that include intramembrane proteolysis is the regulatory or signalling function of cleavage products. Likewise, signal peptide fragments liberated upon intramembrane cleavage may promote such post-targeting functions in the cell.. ...
The Tat system is a protein export system dedicated to the transport of folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Proteins are targeted for export by the Tat system via N-terminal signal peptides harbouring an S-R-R-x-F-L-K twin-arginine motif. In this chapter qualitative and quantitative assays for native Tat substrates in the model organism Escherichia coli are described. Genetic screening methods designed to allow the rapid positive selection of Tat signal peptide activity and the first positive selection for mutations that inactivate the Tat pathway are also presented. Finally isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods for measuring the affinity of twin-arginine signal peptide-chaperone interactions are discussed.
Plastids are considered promising bioreactors for the production of recombinant proteins, but the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating foreign protein folding, targeting, and accumulation in these organelles is still incomplete. Here we demonstrate that a plant secretory signal peptide is able to target a plastome-encoded recombinant protein to the thylakoid membrane. The fusion protein zeolin with its native signal peptide expressed by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transplastomic plants was directed into the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, whereas the zeolin mutant devoid of the signal peptide, Dzeolin, is instead accumulated in the stroma. We also show that zeolin folds in the thylakoid membrane where it accumulates as trimers able to form disulphide bonds. Disulphide bonds contribute to protein accumulation since zeolin shows a higher accumulation level with respect to stromal Dzeolin, whose folding is hampered as the protein accumulates at low amounts in a monomeric form and it is not ...
`Unlike other secretory proteins, Esterase I of Pseudomonas fluorescens cloned into E. coli is secreted to the periplasmic space without typical hydrophobic $NH_2$-terminal signal sequence. It contains an internal hydrophobic $\alpha$-helical structure ($^{178}$QTLQIALLASLKA$^{190}$) deduced by computer using the method of Chou and Fasman and it was supposed to function as internal signal sequence. To confirm this region is really responsible for the translocation of the enzyme, 5 substitution mutations and 1 deletion mutation (184 to 190) were performed on this region. All the mutations reduced the translocation of esterase I. When Leu188 was replaced to Asp, Leu184 to Glu, Leu185 to Pro, respectively, and residues 184 to 190 were deleted, the translocation was completely inhibited. When Ile182 was replaced to Asn, and Leu180 to Arg, respectively, secretion of Asn mutant (7\%) and Arg, mutant (15\%) was also reduced compared to wild-type (34\%). The mutations also affected the activity of esterase. The
N-terminal signal sequences mediate targeting of nascent secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent manner. Signal sequences have a tripartite structure, consisting of a hydrophobic core region (h-region) flanked by an n- and c-region. The latter contains the signal peptidase (SPase) consensus cleavage site. Usually, signal sequences are cleaved off co-translationally so that signal peptides and mature proteins are generated. Signal sequences are extremely variable in length and amino acid composition. This variability suggests that ER targeting and the steps beyond like protein insertion and SPase cleavage are affected by the signal sequence ...
New prediction server avaliable: Sigfind - Signal Peptide Prediction Server (Human) at (C)opyright 2001 by Martin Reczko (martin at This software (SIGFIND) predicts signal peptides at the start of protein sequences. A novel neural network learning algorithm is used for prediction. It is trained on the human protein data used for the SIGNALP system described in H.Nielsen, J.Engelbrecht, S.Brunak, and G.von Heijne: Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites Protein Engineering, vol. 10 no. 1 pp. 1-6, 1997 The SIGNALP data is derived from A.Bairoch and B.Boeckmann: The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status, Nucleic Acids Res. 22:3578-3580 (1994). Using the same fivefold crossvalidation as SIGNALP, the 5 networks of SIGFIND (avgerage Mathews correlation coefficiant 0.98) perform better than SIGNALP (avgerage Mathews correlation coefficiant 0.96). It should be noted that ...
To achieve synthetic control over how a cell responds to other cells or the extracellular environment, it is important to reliably engineer proteins that can traffic and span the plasma membrane. Using a modular approach to assemble proteins, we identified the minimum necessary components required to engineer such membrane-spanning proteins with predictable orientation in mammalian cells. While a transmembrane domain (TM) fused to the N-terminus of a protein is sufficient to traffic it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an additional signal peptidase cleavage site downstream of this TM enhanced sorting out of the ER. Next, a second TM in the synthetic protein helped anchor and accumulate the membrane-spanning protein on the plasma membrane. The orientation of the components of the synthetic protein were determined through measuring intracellular Ca2+ signaling using the R-GECO biosensor and through measuring extracellular quenching of yellow fluorescent protein variants by saturating acidic and salt
Background and aims: Signal peptides are central to biological processes in that they direct proteins to their proper destination after synthesis. If the signal sequence in a nascent was changed, the protein could end up in a wrong cellular location. Some proteins known to be secreted have had their signal peptides unpredicted by existing signal peptide prediction tools. The aim of this study is to pre-process these proteins in order to optimize their start sites and apply a combined set of tools to finding their signal peptides ...
PelB Leader Sequence Cleavage - posted in Protein and Proteomics: I have designed a fusion peptide that is being inserted into pET22b at the MscI restriction site. It would appear that the PelB signal peptide cleavage site has been removed in my design process. What is the consequence of not removing the leader sequence in protein expression? If it is to be a problem then I would like to know as soon as possible so I can by a new primer and add the necessary sequence bac...
Exported prokaryotic proteins typically contain an amino-terminal extension called the signal peptide. Although signal sequences display little primary sequence homology, they share features which promote secretion through the same pathway. These characteristics include a net positive charge in the amino-teminus, a hydrophobic core with $\alpha$-helical propensity, and a cleavage region which contains small side chain residues in the $-$1 and $-$3 positions. The goals of this research are to further analyze the requirement for each property, to determine whether the different features operate at concurrent steps and, ultimately, to correlate the physical features with their functional role(s).^ The alkaline phosphatase signal sequence represents a typical signal peptide and serves as a prototype for designing mutants with simplified sequences that facilitate the delineation of the required physical features. A series of signal sequences varying in amino terminal charge and core region hydrophobicity
TatP 1.0 server predicts the presence and location of Twin-arginine signal peptide cleavage sites in bacteria. The method incorporates a prediction of cleavage sites and a signal peptide/non-signal peptide prediction based on a combination of two artificial neural networks. A postfiltering of the output based on regular expressions is possible. View the version history of this server. All the previous versions are available on line, for comparison and reference ...
Translocation of a nascent protein from the cytosol into the ER mediated by its signal peptide is a critical step in protein secretion. The aim of this work was to develop a platform technology to optimize the signal peptides for high level production of therapeutic antibodies in CHO cells. A database of signal peptides from a large number of human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (HC) and kappa light chain (LC) was generated. Most of the HC signal peptides contain 19 amino acids which can be divided into three domains and the LC signal peptides contain 22 amino acids. The signal peptides were then clustered according to sequence similarity. Based on the clustering, 8 HC and 2 LC signal peptides were analyzed for their impacts on the production of 5-top selling antibody therapeutics, namely, Herceptin, Avastin, Remicade, Rituxan, and Humira. The best HC and LC signal peptides for producing these 5 antibodies were identified. The optimized signal peptides for Rituxan is 2-fold better compared to its
The cleavage site of a signal peptide located in the C-region can be recognized by the signal peptidase in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the signal peptides are typically cleaved off during or after the translocation of the target protein. The identification of cleavage sites remains challenging because of
PPIA-like Cyps with signal peptide. Domain architecture and genomic organization of Cyps with signal peptide are shown. Species are abbreviated as in Fig. 1. Cy
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nascent carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is directed into the endoplasmic reticulum by an NH2-terminal signal peptide that is removed befor
Long Exam Room Signs by Kull Industries are used to indicate to personnel an exam rooms status at a glance. Long Signal Flags are offered in several numerical sets and colors.
SET OF SEQUENCES FOR TARGETING EXPRESSION AND CONTROL OF THE POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF A RECOMBINANT POLYPEPTIDE - The present invention provides new tools useful for controlling the post-translational modifications of recombinant polypeptides. These tools are particular signal peptides allowing the targeting of recombinant polypeptides during their synthesis in a host cell to specific sub-cellular compartments and a specific designing of said recombinant polypeptides within said sub-cellular compartments. These signal peptides are SEQ ID no 1 to SEQ ID no 31 disclosed herein. The present invention relates therefore also to a process for producing a recombinant polypeptide, in particular to a post-translationally modified polypeptide comprising the steps of transfecting or transforming a cell with at least one numleic acid vector encoding a recombinant protein which is the polypeptide before being post-translationally modified or a recombinant protein different to said polypeptide, said ...
Optical mapping of the internal signal is a unique method of studying the brain and makes it possible to investigate the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex with high spatial resolution. Modern modifications of this method make it possible to shorten the time to obtain individual functional maps, and this opens up new prospects of using the given approach in neurophysiological experiments. It is shown to be possible in principle to use optical mapping of the internal signal to objectively test the visual function: As the contrast of the visual stimulus changes, changes have been observed in both the amplitude of the metabolic response in the cortex and in the structure of the functional maps.. © 2011 OSA. PDF Article ...
A chimeric mammalian globular cytochrome b(5) fused to Escherichia coil alkaline phosphatase signal sequence (SS) was used as a model probe to investigate the influence of substituting each one of the standard 20 amino ...
Concept and experimental design We hypothesized that fusing address tags from proteins that are naturally sent to the granule may work to send GFP to the granule as well. 1. N-terminal signal peptides Proteins should be translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) first in order to be further sorted to granule. Since it is not sure whether the signal sequence would play some role in the granule sorting, we decided to use the signal sequences from the granzymes. Each Granzyme has an individual signal peptide sequence that delivers it to the Endo Reticulum. Every signal sequence is distinct in size and amino acid content. 2. C-terminal address tag sequences We have two strategies to send our cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the granule: 1. Directly fuse our cargo to the granule specific transporters. 2. Fuse our cargo to some address tag which can bind to the transporter. Strategy 1 The proteins listed below all have granule localization motif on their cytoplasmic tails. Y-motif: ...
0024] (12) According to an aspect of the embodiments, a medium includes a computer-readable recording medium storing a signal processing program for causing, in a signal processing apparatus for predicting a value of an input time series signal after predetermined time, a computer to implement a prediction function is recorded, the signal processing program causing the computer to implement a cycle fluctuation analysis function for assuming a certain component of an input time series signal as a time series signal whose cycle varies with respect to time to carry out a correlation analysis between part of the input time series signal and the input time series signal, estimating a cycle fluctuation of the input time series signal and reliability of the cycle fluctuation using a result of the correlation analysis, predicting a cycle of the input time series signal after predetermined time using the cycle fluctuation and the reliability of the cycle fluctuation and calculating, using the result of ...
A method for classifying a signal is disclosed. The method can be used by a station or stations within a network to classify the signal as non-cooperative (NC) or a target signal. The method performs classification over channels within a frequency spectrum. The percentage of power above a first threshold is computed for a channel. Based on the percentage, a signal is classified as a narrowband signal. If the percentage indicates the absence of a narrowband signal, then a lower second threshold is applied to confirm the absence according to the percentage of power above the second threshold. The signal is classified as a narrowband signal or pre-classified as a wideband signal based on the percentage. Pre-classified wideband signals are classified as a wideband NC signal or target signal using spectrum masks.
Find Periodicity Using Frequency Analysis. Spectral analysis helps characterize oscillatory behavior in data and measure the different cycles.. Detect a Distorted Signal in Noise. Use frequency analysis to characterize a signal embedded in noise.. Measure the Power of a Signal. Estimate the width of the frequency band that contains most of the power of a signal. For distorted signals, determine the power stored in the fundamental and the harmonics.. Compare the Frequency Content of Two Signals. Identify similarity between signals in the frequency domain.. Detect Periodicity in a Signal with Missing Samples. Use the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to study the periodicity of an irregularly sampled signal.. ...
NT3 Protein, 5 µg. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), also known as nerve growth factor-2 (NGF2) or hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor (HDNF), is a 257 amino acid precursor protein with a secretory signal sequence of 16 amino acids, a pro-peptide of 122 amino Forex Pips Signal is a best forex signals provider in world. If any new trader cant get profit in his trading, Forex pips signal is best solution for him. Because only forex pips signal give a best guideline for forex trading. You can see forex pips signal performance page for results on old trading day. You can see 99% off success now you can ask how can forex pips signal give 99% successful trading signals .You dont know only forex pips signal give best trading guideline for use our signals. When you fully follow our guide line after understand signals guide And use our signals then you can success on your trading. Only Forex Pips Signal has super faster signals service. Also you can get sms forex signals. Our SMS forex signals service start with 60$. If its costly for you can get our signals on your email with only 10$ . Buy our supper faster forex signals service can use our any package subscribers. Our faster forex signals you will be need log in ...
gets the internal signal or creates and sets the internal signal for the given name and calls the observe method of that signal with the given callback ...
The Seeing Eye. The most recent recommendations for accessible pedestrian signals (APS) are based on an entirely different type of device and installation than the overhead cuckoo-chirp type signals that have been installed in many parts of the US. You may be more familiar with the cuckoo-chirp type signals, but they are no longer the recommended standard in the US. This is based on research completed since 1988, including an ACB survey in 1998, evaluating different types of APS systems. First, we learned that the cuckoo-chirp signals resulted in incorrect decisions about which street had the walk signal. People had difficulty remembering which tone was for which direction, often didnt know which direction they were traveling, and birds sometimes mimicked the chirp sound. In general, this was found to be true for two-tone systems of signals; people made incorrect decisions. There was no advantage to overhead mounted signals, in terms of providing directional guidance for crossing, and they ...
A system of coding moving image signals produces a predictive error signal by a predictive coding based on inter-frame correlation and quantizing the predictive error signal for each block of a picture frame constituted by N lines of M pixels. The system includes a block coding/non-coding decision unit for calculating a first evaluation value Sm of the predictive error signal for each block of the picture frame. This unit decides that block non-coding is applicable when the first evaluation value Sm is less than a first threshold value T.sub.1 and that block coding is applicable when the first evaluation value Sm is greater than the first threshold value T.sub.1. The predictive error signal is not transmitted when the result of the decision is for block non-coding, and the predictive error signal is quantized and transmitted when the result of the decision is for block coding.
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Ive been fighting with this for a while, too. However, its not as simple as using sigaction (or sigvec) in place of signal where possible. Some systems dont return EINTR from select even when a signal is set with the SA_RESTART (or SA_INTERRUPT) flag set in these two calls. The issue is that some systems set the signal, and the first thread to notice the signal will service it. If the thread that has called select is not the thread to pick up the signal, the select call will not return with EINTR ...
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Signal weights corresponding to an initial system of equations with a block coefficient matrix T|sub|0 |/sub|can be obtained from the solution to a system of equations with a block coefficient matrix
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We investigated the metabolic stability of four cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), namely SAP, hCT(9-32)-br, [Palpha] and [Pbeta], when in contact with either subconfluent HeLa, confluent MDCK or Calu-3 epithelial cell cultures. Additionally, through analysis of their cellular translocation efficiency, we evaluated possible relations between metabolic stability and translocation efficiency. Metabolic degradation kinetics and resulting metabolites were assessed using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Translocation efficiencies were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Between HeLa, MDCK and Calu-3 we found the levels of proteolytic activities to be highly variable. However, for each peptide, the individual degradation patterns were quite similar. The metabolic stability of the investigated CPPs was in the order of CF-SAP = CF-hCT(9-32)-br , [Pbeta]-IAF , [Palpha] and we identified specific cleavage sites for each of the ...
In the process of protein secretion, amino-terminal signal sequences are key recognition elements; however, the relation between the primary sequence of an amino-terminal peptide and its ability to function as an export signal remains obscure. The limits of variation permitted for functional signal sequences were determined by replacement of the normal signal sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase with essentially random peptide sequences. Since about one-fifth of these sequences can function as an export signal the specificity with which signal sequences are recognized must be very low.. ...
The signal recognition particle (SRP) recognizes and binds the signal sequence of nascent proteins as they emerge from the ribosome. We present here the 3.0-Å structure of a signal sequence bound to the Methanococcus jannaschii SRP core. Structural comparison with the free SRP core shows that signal-sequence binding induces formation of the GM-linker helix and a 180° flip of the NG domain-structural changes that ensure a hierarchical succession of events during protein targeting.. ...
To generate a simplified signal sequence, we substituted a part of the yGLuc hydrophobic core with repeats of a single amino acid. The VLFALICI sequence was initially substituted to contain an eight residue repeat of a single amino acid (Figure 3). L8, M8, W8, and F8 increased secreted protein activity but repeats containing other residues (I, T, S, Q, Y, A, V, and C) did not. This result indicated that a complex amino acid sequence such as VLFALICI can be substituted with a repeat of select, single amino acids. Furthermore, although eight residue repeats of the residues I, T, S, Q, Y, A, V, and C, appeared not to be suitable, or too weak for a hydrophobic core; in fact, a hydrophobic core consisting of I12 and I13 was able to function as a signal sequence (Figure 5a). Therefore, the hydrophobic core in a signal sequence can be determined by the number of hydrophobic amino acids without including charged amino acids such as E, D, R, and K. Moreover, the efficiency of secretory production can be ...
Mouse mammary tumour virus-like (MMTV-like) is suspected to be involved in human breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that companion animals might have a role in viral transmission. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of MMTV-like nucleotide sequences and viral protein in a la …
The utilization of highly heterologous secreted lactoprotein signal peptides to guide the recombinant proteins to translocation and secretion in mammary gland bioreactors has rarely been reported. The first step in the synthesis of secretory proteins is generation of a signal peptide containing 15-30 hydrophobic amino acid residues in the cell matrix. When the polypeptide chain extends to approximately 80 amino acids, the signal peptide directs the synthesizing polypeptide chain into the lumen of the ER. The signal peptidase on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) then cleaves the signal peptide and continues to extend the polypeptide chain until synthesis of the entire polypeptide chain is completed [33-35]. The translocation of secretory proteins into the lumen of the ER constitutes the limiting step within the classical secretory pathway [36]. The secretion of t-PA from vascular endothelial cells to blood is mediated by its native signal peptide at a low yield [37,38]. However, we report here the ...
The service provides predictions of genetic structures based on neural network algorithms and Markov statistical models. It analyzes data about the frequency of amino acid sequences for various organisms and generates likely existence and locations of signal peptide cleavage sites to be expected in their genetic structures. Organism groups covered include gram-positive and gram-negative prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. The same provider maintains an [[ alternative service]], as well. API methods support submission of the amino acid sequence to be analyzed along with an organism type, preferred prediction method, and desired statistical prediction certainty threshold. Methods also support monitoring the service processing queue and retrieving the completed analytical result ...
Intramembrane proteases cleave peptide bonds within cellular membranes and thereby control important processes ranging from transcription regulation to growth factor secretion (Lemberg, 2011). The largest and most diverse group of these unusual enzymes is formed by the GxGD aspartyl proteases including presenilin/γ‐secretase as well as signal peptide peptidase (SPP) (Wolfe, 2009; Lichtenthaler et al, 2011). SPP localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it cleaves signal peptides that have been removed from precursors of secretory and membrane proteins (Weihofen et al, 2002). Like for most characterized intramembrane proteases, this release is part of a two‐step mechanism: First signal peptidase cleaves off the substrate proteins ectodomains, which enables the subsequent SPP‐catalyzed intramembrane cut (Lemberg & Martoglio, 2002). So far, known functions of SPP include generation of signal peptide‐derived bioactive peptides in immune surveillance and proteolytic maturation of ...
Signal recognition particle (SRP) consists of a 7SL RNA molecule and 6 protein subunits. We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones from human liver which encode the 19kDa protein subunit (SRP19). This subunit binds to the RNA directly and mediates binding of a second polypeptide, the 54kDa subunit which is involved in signal sequence recognition. Amino acid sequences deduced from the human cDNA sequence were identical to amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides from canine pancreatic SRP19. In vitro transcription and translation of the human cDNA resulted in a protein product the same size as canine SRP19 which could be immunoprecipitated by an antiserum raised against canine SRP19. SRP19 synthesized in a cell-free system specifically bound to 7SL RNA. The sequence of SRP19 is discussed with respect to its binding to 7SL RNA.. ...
Cells need powerhouses known as mitochondria to utilize the energy stored in our food. Most of the proteins required for this powerhouse function are encoded in the nucleus and transported into the mitochondria after they have been synthesized in the cytosol. Signal sequences are needed to allow the protein to enter the mitochondria. Once the protein has arrived there, the signal sequences are, however, removed. Up until now, researchers did not fully understand the importance of this removal of signal sequences. It was also unclear why flawed removal leads to a number of illnesses, such as diseases of the heart or brain. Together with her working group, Dr. Nora Vögtle of the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Freiburg has discovered that errors in the removal of signal sequences lead to an aggregation of these proteins so that they clump together inside the mitochondria. They have presented their findings in the current issue of the scientific journal ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [John M Harrington, Tuiumkan Nishanova, Savannah Rose Pena, Matthew Hess, Chris L Scelsi, Justin Widener, Stephen L Hajduk].
The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has been genetically engineered to produce many heterologous proteins for industrial and research purposes. In order to secrete proteins for easier purification from the extracellular medium, the coding sequence of recombinant proteins is initially fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor secretion signal leader. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis of the prepro-region of the α-mating factor secretion signal sequence was performed in order to determine the effects of various deletions and substitutions on expression. Though some mutations clearly dampened protein expression, deletion of amino acids 57-70, corresponding to the predicted 3rd alpha helix of α-mating factor secretion signal, increased secretion of reporter proteins horseradish peroxidase and lipase at least 50% in small-scale cultures. These findings raise the possibility that the secretory efficiency of the leader can be further enhanced in the future.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An in vitro assay using overexpressed yeast SRP demonstrates that cotranslational translocation is dependent upon the J-domain of Sec63p. AU - Willer, Martin. AU - Jermy, Andrew J.. AU - Steel, Gregor J.. AU - Garside, Helen J.. AU - Carter, Stephanie. AU - Stirling, Colin J.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - The signal recognition particle (SRP) is required for co-translational targeting of polypeptides to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Once at the membrane, the precursor interacts with a complex proteinaceous machinery that mediates its translocation across the bilayer. Genetic studies in yeast have identified a number of genes whose products are involved in this complex process. These mutants offer a potentially valuable resource with which to analyze the biochemical role played by each component in the pathway. However, such analyses have been hampered by the failure to reconstitute an efficient in vitro assay for SRP-dependent translocation. We report the construction of two ...
The signal recognition particle (SRP) targets nascent proteins to cellular membranes for insertion or secretion by recognizing polypeptides containing an N-terminal signal sequence as they emerge from the ribosome. GTP-dependent binding of SRP to its receptor protein leads to controlled release of t …
The ER-resident MHC class I PLC forms a key target for viral immune evasion. When analyzing the subcellular distribution of BNLF2a, we observed strict membrane association and colocalization with TAP and the ER markers calnexin and PDI (Figs. 1⇑, 2⇑, 6⇑D, and 7B), reminiscent of two other TAP inhibitors, HCMV US6 (35, 36) and BHV-1 UL49.5 (33). The latter two represent integral type I membrane proteins with cleavable signal sequences at their N termini for cotranslational membrane insertion, as well as transmembrane domains toward their C termini. In contrast, BNLF2a lacks an obvious N-terminal signal sequence (Fig. 1⇑A). Still, the EBV-encoded TAP inhibitor is membrane associated and, even in the absence of TAP, localizes to the ER (Fig. 6⇑D). In this respect, BNLF2a differs from HSV ICP47, which also lacks a signal sequence but has been detected primarily as a cytosolic protein with small amounts associating with membranes (26, 31). ICP47 is unstructured in aqueous solutions but ...
In eukaryotic cells, most mRNAs are exported from the nucleus by the transcription export (TREX) complex, which is loaded onto mRNAs after their splicing and capping. We have studied in mammalian cells the nuclear export of mRNAs that code for secretory proteins, which are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by hydrophobic signal sequences. The mRNAs were injected into the nucleus or synthesized from injected or transfected DNA, and their export was followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We made the surprising observation that the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can serve as a nuclear export signal of an mRNA that lacks an intron or functional cap. Even the export of an intron-containing natural mRNA was enhanced by its SSCR. Like conventional export, the SSCR-dependent pathway required the factor TAP, but depletion of the TREX components had only moderate effects. The SSCR export signal appears to be characterized in vertebrates by a low content of adenines, as ...
The Twin Arginate Translocation pathway(Tat) is one of the secretion systems E.coli originally has. This system can carry proteins that have TorA signal anino acid sequences at N terminal. TatA, TatB and TatC compose Tat complex on inner membrane. Tat complex recognizes TorA signal peptide and then it transports proteins (with TorA) from cytoplasm to periplasm with maintaining their folding. In short, proteins secreted via Tat pathway can keep active. In this experiment, we wanted to design a applicable TorA signal device to meet various needs and to check the function of signal sequence. TorA signal was, actually,submitted by Canbrige 2011(BBa_K233307). These signals, however, doesnt contain RBS so that you need to make RBS by yourself. In addition, old TorA signal cause a stop codon between signal peptide and target coding sequence(CDS) when you assemble them by standard or 3A assembly. For these reasons, all of other teams make an effort to combine TorA signal to targets, such as using ...
The Twin Arginate Translocation pathway(Tat) is one of the secretion systems E.coli originally has. This system can carry proteins that have TorA signal anino acid sequences at N terminal. TatA, TatB and TatC compose Tat complex on inner membrane. Tat complex recognizes TorA signal peptide and then it transports proteins (with TorA) from cytoplasm to periplasm with maintaining their folding. In short, proteins secreted via Tat pathway can keep active. In this experiment, we wanted to design a applicable TorA signal device to meet various needs and to check the function of signal sequence. TorA signal was, actually,submitted by Canbrige 2011(BBa_K233307). These signals, however, doesnt contain RBS so that you need to make RBS by yourself. In addition, old TorA signal cause a stop codon between signal peptide and target coding sequence(CDS) when you assemble them by standard or 3A assembly. For these reasons, all of other teams make an effort to combine TorA signal to targets, such as using ...
A multi-speed jittered signal generator (216, 400) that generates a full-speed jittered signal (404) by scaling a low-speed jittered signal (420) using a frequency scaler (428). The low-speed jittered signal is created by injecting a modulation signal (416) into a reference signal (412) using a jitter injector (432). Injecting jitter into a low-speed reference signal allows the full-speed jittered signal to be of higher quality than conventional jitter signals created by injecting jitter information into a full-speed reference signal. The multi-speed jittered signal generator may be used as part of a testing system (208) for testing various circuitry, such as high-speed serializer/deserializer circuitry (220).
Bacterial secretory signal peptide expression plasmid with the T7 promoter upstream to drive gene expression (Frame 1 - NcoI site aligned).
Fang P et al. (2006) A mutant signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, associated with growth hormone insensitivity and insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency, cannot function as a signal transducer or transcription factor.. [^] ...
A method for designing an integrated circuit such as a VLSI circuit, in particular optimizing delay of a signal transmitting through signal lines connecting a signal supplying source to each of elements, whereby skew can be decreased. The method can include determining whether the signal source satisfies a fan-out restriction if the signal source supplies a signal to all of the driven elements which are directly connected to the signal source, dividing the elements into groups so that the fan-out restriction is satisfied in each of the groups and each of the groups has the same or substantially same load capacity, when the signal source does not satisfy the fan-out restriction, and inserting into each group, a buffer having a size which makes the groups of elements satisfy the fan-out restriction. The dividing and the buffer inserting are repeated until a positive determination is delivered on the fan-out restriction.
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This disclosure describes methods and systems for encoding and decoding signals from a host signal such as audio, video or imagery. One claim recites a method comprising: receiving a host signal carrying an auxiliary signal; extracting data representing at least some features of the host signal, said extracting utilizes one or more processors; using the data representing at least some features of the host signal to determine a key; and detecting the auxiliary signal in a transform domain associated with the key, the detecting utilizes one or more processors. Other claims and combinations are provided as well.
A low cost, high frequency isolation amplifier includes a first voltage-to-frequency converter producing a first pair of complementary pulses in response to an analog input signal and applying them to a pair of low capacitance capacitors constituting the isolation barrier. The isolation barrier differentiates edges of the first pair of pulse signals and applies the resulting signals to inputs of a sense amplifier including a differential amplifier, a pair of comparators, and a flip-flop to precisely reconstruct the first pair of complementary pulse signals, which then are fed into a decoder circuit including a phase locked loop. The phase locked loop includes a phase detector receiving the reconstructed pair of complementary pulse signals and a second pair of complementary pulse signals produced by a second voltage-to-frequency converter. The output of the phase detector is integrated by a filter circuit, the output of which produces a voltage that
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingTat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway signal sequence (TIGR01409; HMM-score: 25.5) ...
Sometimes a component wants to send notifications via DCOP to other components but does not know which components will be interested in these notifications. One could use a broadcast in such a case but this is a very crude method. For a more sophisticated method DCOP signals have been invented. DCOP signals are very similair to Qt signals, there are some differences though. A DCOP signal can be connected to a DCOP function. Whenever the DCOP signal gets emitted, the DCOP functions to which the signal is connected are being called. DCOP signals are, just like Qt signals, one way. They do not provide a return value. A DCOP signal originates from a DCOP Object/DCOP Client combination (sender). It can be connected to a function of another DCOP Object/DCOP Client combination (receiver). There are two major differences between connections of Qt signals and connections of DCOP signals. In DCOP, unlike Qt, a signal connections can have an anonymous sender and, unlike Qt, a DCOP signal connection can be ...
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9780815345343: Cellular Signal Processing: An Introduction to the Molecular Mechanisms of Signal Transduction, Friedrich Marks, Ursula Klingmüller, Karin Müller-Decker - Cellular Signal Processing offers a unifying view of cell signaling based on the conc
Statistical and adaptive signal processing pdf - Request PDF | On Jan 1, , D G Manolakis and others published Statistical and Adaptive Signal Processing | Find, read and cite all the research you need. Corpus ID: Statistical and Adaptive Signal Processing: Spectral Estimation, Signal Modeling, Adaptive Filtering and Array Processing.
Bilinear synthesis of nonstationary signals impinging on a multiantenna receiver has been recently introduced. The distinction in the spatial signatures of the sources provides a vehicle to reduce noise and source signal interactions in the time-frequency domain, and hence improves signal synthesis..... Full description. ...
Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. ...
A method for processing a multichannel audio signal may be configured to control the amplitude of one channel of the signal relative to another based on the levels of the two channels. One such example uses a bias factor, which is based on a standard orientation of an audio sensing device relative to a directional acoustic information source, for amplitude control of information segments of the signal.
Use the docid:simrf_ref.bveln7s-1 block to shift the phase of a sine wave to 180 degrees.Use Repeating Sequence Stair block as a Simulink control signal to control the phase of the signal. To see the variation in phase to 180 degrees, first open and run the model. During simulation, change the value of the Simulink control signal to 90 degrees and see a change in phase in the Output Scope.. ...
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Emergent CAS agents can use the ability to respond differently to different signal strengths to create models of their local environments. In effect when the signals vary with range across the local environment they provide the coordinates of a map. This can be used to coordinate the responses of neighboring cells, via the schematic models that associate particular cascades with the local environmental state ...
Histogram of log2 average C3B signal. Histogram of log2 average C3B signal for the Stratagene Total Human RNA using the 1,288 genes in common among the three pl
Methods 60 sensitive and 60 non-sensitive users were exposed to three 50 min conditions: a signal with a 16 Hz component, a continuous wave condition and a sham condition. The mean radiated power for the 16 Hz and continuous wave conditions was 250 mW. The order of conditions was randomised and testing was conducted double-blind. Participants reported the severity of eight symptoms during and after each exposure, their mood state at the end of each exposure, and whether they could tell which sessions involved active signals. The study was registered in advance with the ISRCTN register. ...
RF Signal Detector is a miniature radio transmission detector hidden in a pen. The device is able to idnetify radio and video signal transmitters as well as different types of mobile networks.
"Extensive feature detection of N-terminal protein sorting signals". Bioinformatics. 18 (2): 298-305. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics ... encodes a protein which contains a ring finger motif found in several proteins which mediate protein-DNA and protein-protein ... FITM1 is a protein involved in fat storage. DCAF11 is a protein that is known to interact with COP9 and has several alternative ... UPF0172 protein FAM158A, also known as c14orf122 or CGI112, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM158A gene located ...
"Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The ... "The HIV-1 Nef protein acts as a connector with sorting pathways in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane". Immunity. 6 (1): 67- ... "Nef interacts with the mu subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes and reveals a cryptic sorting signal in MHC I molecules". ...
"Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... Functional importance of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals and interaction with the AP-2 adaptor medium chain subunit". The ... The encoded protein may also play an important role in regulating the intracellular trafficking and function of CTLA-4 protein ... The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the ...
"Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... "Influences of the lysosomal associated membrane proteins (Lamp-1, Lamp-2) and Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2-BP) on the prognosis ... LAMP1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PDBe-KB provides an overview of all ... The LAMP-1 glycoprotein is a type I transmembrane protein which is expressed at high or medium levels in at least 76 different ...
Bonifacino JS, Traub LM (2003). "Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes". Annual Review of ... and an F-box protein, which varies. Around 70 human F-box proteins have been identified. F-box proteins contain an F-box, which ... Ubiquitin signaling relies on the diversity of ubiquitin tags for the specificity of its message. A protein can be tagged with ... The ligases must simultaneously distinguish their protein substrate from thousands of other proteins in the cell, and from ...
This protein is capable of interacting with tyrosine-based sorting signals. AP1M2 has been shown to interact with AP2B1. GRCh38 ... "Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. Bibcode:1995Sci ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M2 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of the ...
1995). "Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins". Science. 269 (5232): 1872-5. doi: ... 2004). "Protein kinase D regulates basolateral membrane protein exit from trans-Golgi network". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (2): 106-12. ... 2005). "Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate regulates sorting signal recognition by the clathrin-associated adaptor complex ... Trans-Golgi network integral membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGOLN2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular ... There are no signal peptides present in this sequence. Due to the nuclear localization signal at the end of the protein ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2018-04-26. EMBL-EBI. "SAPS ... There is also a bipartite nuclear localization signal at the end of the protein sequence. There is no trans-membrane domain ...
Mu recognises tyrosine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane cargo proteins. One function of ... AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ...
Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular ... proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be ... and with moderate confidence that the proteins in green interact with MEGF8. The confidence level for the proteins in blue is ... is a protein coding gene that encodes a single pass membrane protein, known to participate in developmental regulation and ...
Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular ... "NCBI CDD Conserved Protein Domain DUF4694". Retrieved 2018-02-19. "Protein BLAST: search protein ... A bipartite nuclear localization signal can be found starting at Arg107. The human C16orf82 protein has been predicted to be ... "protein TNT [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2018-02-19. group, NIH/NLM/NCBI/IEB/CDD. " ...
A program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization". Trends in Biochemical ... Furthermore, multiple proteins were involved in ubiquitination. Some of the interacting yeast proteins with the higher ... I2D Protein Interaction Database [5] STRING 9.0 Protein Interaction Predictor Miyamoto-Sato E, Fujimori S, Ishizaka M, Hirai N ... The yeast protein RPN11, which interacts with YPL225W, has a homolog in humans that is a metalloprotease component of 26S ...
doi:10.1093/protein/gzh062. PMID 15314210. Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in ... This protein is an integral membrane protein found most commonly in the synapses of neurons. Neither of these proteins is well ... The protein has a predicted weight of 147.8 kDal. It does not contain a known nuclear localization signal but does contain a ... Analysis of protein composition also suggests that the protein has relatively low levels of glycine. This could suggest a ...
... a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization". Trends Biochem. Sci. 24 (1 ... The protein does not contain a peptide signal protein. The protein structure contains a similar proportion of alpha-helix and ... "Entrez Gene: TMEM106A transmembrane protein 106A". "Genecards: TMEM106A transmembrane protein 106A". Nakai K, Horton P (January ... Protein Eng. 10 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1093/protein/10.1.1. PMID 9051728. Garnier J, Osguthorpe DJ, Robson B (March 1978). "Analysis ...
Nakai, K; Horton, P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their ... FAM237A is a protein coding gene which encodes a protein of the same name. Within Homo sapiens, FAM237A is believed to be ... "protein FAM237A [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2020-12-19. Kelley, Lawrence A; Mezulis, ... Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS. 24 (3): 255-260. doi:10.1093/protein/gzq094. ISSN 1741-0134. PMID 21062758. Wang ...
Then it analyses the input sequence by applying the stored rules for various sequence features of known protein sorting signals ... PSORT website Nakai K, Horton P (January 1999). "PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting ... This is because proteins are localised by cell machinery that recognises signal peptide sequences (similar to a postal address ... The signal peptide is often cleaved off after the destination is reached. PSORT uses known signal peptide sequences to analyse ...
... a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization". Trends in Biochemical ... to profile protein interactions in the Hippo signaling pathway identified C7orf43 as one of the interacting proteins. C7orf43 ... MAP11 (Microtubule-associated protein 11) is a protein that in human is encoded by the gene MAP11. It was previously referred ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
"A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and translocation". Nature. 370 (6489): 434-40. doi:10.1038/ ... Transcription factor BTF3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTF3 gene. This gene encodes the basic transcription ... Grein S, Pyerin W (1999). "BTF3 is a potential new substrate of protein kinase CK2". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 191 (1-2): 121-8. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: BTF3 basic transcription factor 3". Grein S, Pyerin W (Jan 1999). "BTF3 is a potential new substrate of protein ...
Wiedmann B, Sakai H, Davis TA, Wiedmann M (1994). "A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and ... "A protein complex required for signal-sequence-specific sorting and translocation". Nature. 370 (6489): 434-40. Bibcode: ... proteins lacking signal peptides can be mis-translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum. The NACA protein is expressed in bone ... Nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide, also known as NACA, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ...
"Structural requirements for interactions between leucine-sorting signals and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex AP3". ... Lysosomal integral membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB2 gene. LIMP-2 is expressed ... Studies of the similar protein in mice and rat suggested that this protein may participate in membrane transportation and the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ...
"Structural requirements for interactions between leucine-sorting signals and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex AP3". ... AP-3 complex subunit sigma-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3S1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... "Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ...
"Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum contain a conserved epitope". EMBO ... The soluble resident protein will remain in the ER as long as it contains a KDEL signal sequence on the C-terminal end of the ... These proteins were originally from the ER and they escaped into the cis-Golgi. Once the KDEL signal sequence is recognized by ... It also targets proteins from other locations (such as the cytoplasm) to the ER. Proteins can only leave the ER after this ...
"Basolateral sorting signals differ in their ability to redirect apical proteins to the basolateral cell surface". The Journal ... In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins ...
Denecke J.; De Rycke R.; Botterman J. (Jun 1992). "Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic ... Denecke J.; De Rycke R.; Botterman J. (Jun 1992). "Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic ... HDEL is a target peptide sequence in plants and yeasts located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. ... The HDEL sequence prevents a protein from being secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitates its return if it ...
Huang L, Kirschke CP (2007). "A di-leucine sorting signal in ZIP1 (SLC39A1) mediates endocytosis of the protein". FEBS J. 274 ( ... Zinc transporter ZIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC39A1 gene. The protein ZIP1 is responsible for the ... "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins ...
The protein interacts with and phosphorylates a subunit of the AP-2 complex, which promotes binding of AP-2 to sorting signals ... "Phosphorylation of the AP2 mu subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals". The Journal ... Adaptor-associated protein kinase 1 also known as AP2-associated protein kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2 complexes) functions during receptor-mediated endocytosis to trigger clathrin assembly ...
... s recognize and remove carboxyl-terminal protein sorting signals about 25 amino acids long from secreted proteins ... Archaeosortases fall into a number of distinct subtypes, each responsible for recognizing sorting signals with a different ... blocks attachment of the lipid moiety as well as blocking removal of the PGF-CTERM protein-sorting domain. Thus archaeosortase ... The names of both families of proteins reflect roles analogous to sortases in Gram-positive bacteria, with which they share no ...
K. Nakai, P. Horton, PSORT: A program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization. ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2019-02-28. "C1orf198 Gene - ... Multiple protein interactions with C1orf198 were found using text mining. One protein interaction involved SART1, which is also ... GeneCards , CA198 Protein , CA198 Antibody". Retrieved 2019-02-28. S. Navani, The human protein atlas. J. ...
The COP1 proteins recognize the proper cargo by interacting with sorting signals on the cytoplasmic domains of the protein. The ... KKXX signals are associated with transmembrane ER domains and KDEL signals are associated with proteins in the ER lumen. COP1 ... The coatomer protein complex is made up of seven nonidentical protein subunits. These seven nonidentical protein subunits are ... Sato, Ken; Nakano, Akihiko (2007-05-22). "Mechanisms of COPII vesicle formation and protein sorting". FEBS Letters. Membrane ...
Tyrosine-based Membrane Protein Sorting Signals Are Differentially Interpreted by Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney and LLC- ... Measles virus matrix protein specifies apical virus release and glycoprotein sorting in epithelial cells. EMBO J. 19, 3576-3585 ... His research was instrumental towards understanding the intracellular mechanisms of viral and membrane protein sorting in ... membrane protein sorting and internalization) and virology (measles, SARS, HIV and Influenza). He has held several leading ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... There are restrictions on what sorts of food may be eaten concurrently with the unboosted indinavir treatment. Furthermore, it ...
"A transit peptide-like sorting signal at the C terminus directs the Bienertia sinuspersici preprotein receptor Toc159 to the ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... both for camouflage and for signalling, in his Historia animalium: "The octopus ... seeks its prey by so changing its colour as ... a caecum where the now sludgy food is sorted into fluids and particles and which plays an important role in absorption, the ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ...
... s emit two distinct kinds of acoustic signals, which are called whistles and clicks:[59] Clicks are quick broadband burst ... However, some toothed whales have preferences between different kinds of fish, indicating some sort of attachment to taste. The ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ... Whistles are narrow-band frequency modulated (FM) signals, used for communicative purposes, such as contact calls. ...
Nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen are ultimately derived from dietary protein, while carbon can be contributed by protein, ... Harris lines form before adulthood, when bone growth is temporarily halted or slowed down due to some sort of stress (either ... Four individuals were buried with no grave goods, in accordance with Muslim tradition, facing Signal Hill, which is a point of ... "Preservation of Isotopic Signals (13c, 15n) in Pleistocene Mammals." Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis. Ed. ...
Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor activation is capable of triggering ... It binds carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and the disruption of this binding has been proposed to cause the loss of sorting of BDNF ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • peripheral nervous system development. • memory. • nerve ... neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ...
R. L. Wysong (1976). "5: Origin of Proteins". The Creation-evolution Controversy (implications, Methodology and Survey of ... He is best known for coining the term purinergic signaling, which he discovered in the 1970s. He played a key role in the ... Bohr's sort of humor, use of parables and stories, tolerance, dependence on family, feelings of indebtedness, obligation, and ... But it was a narrow sort, mainly dismissive of religious orthodoxy. In notes he wrote in 1933, he embraces another creed: "[T] ...
Two examples of adaptor proteins are AP180[3] and epsin.[4][5][6] AP180 is used in synaptic vesicle formation. It recruits ... Certain signalling molecules open the nutrients pathway. Two chemical compounds called Pitstop 1 and Pitstop 2, selective ... Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for ... Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ...
E. Y. Chan, 'Regulation and Function of Uncoordinated-51 Like Kinase Proteins', Antioxid Redox Signal, 17 (2012), 775-85 ... mechanically damaged cytoskeleton components and directs these components through a ubiquitin-dependent autophagic sorting ... WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle ... These questions include how signals are processed by neurites - thin extensions from a neuronal cell body, consisting of ... Molecular neuroscience studies the nervous system with molecular biology, molecular genetics, protein chemistry, and related ... The fundamental questions addressed in cellular neuroscience include the mechanisms of how neurons process signals ...
positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... sequences are localized in the mature chain of TNF and that the cytoplasmic tail is expendable for endocytotic sorting of this ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of immunoglobulin secretion ...
... acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity of the protein ... mechanically damaged cytoskeleton components and directs these components through a ubiquitin-dependent autophagic sorting ... WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
A tomato is 95% water, contains 4% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). In a 100 gram amount, raw ... California is a center of this sort of commercial tomato production and produces about a third of the processed tomatoes ... Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Orozco-Cardenas, M. L. (2008). "15 Systemins and AtPeps: Defense-related Peptide Signals". In Schaller, A ... The hormone was first identified in tomatoes, but similar proteins have been identified in other species since.[54] ...
If the target cell was pre-loaded with a label of some sort, that label is released in proportion to the amount of cell lysis. ... Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as ... Subsequently, interaction between FcεRI and the Fc portion of helminth-bound IgE signals the eosinophil to degranulate. ... During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ...
... contains the signal for sorting into the regulated secretory pathway". Mol. Biol. Cell. 3 (3): 309-21. doi:10.1091/mbc.3.3.309 ... protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • inflammatory response. • calcium-mediated signaling using ... an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short ...
Using machine learning methods, data from bulk RNA-Seq has been used to increase the signal/noise ratio in scRNA-Seq. ... Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a widely used approach. Individual cells can also be collected by ... October 2017). "Multiplexed quantification of proteins and transcripts in single cells". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (10): 936-939 ... In 2017, two approaches were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through ...
The control center responds to the signal by determining an appropriate response and sending signals to an effector, which can ... The abnormally high plasma ionized calcium concentrations cause conformational changes in many cell-surface proteins ( ... Whether this sort of system is present on Earth is open to debate. However, some relatively simple homeostatic mechanisms are ... Homeostasis does not govern every activity in the body.[19][20] For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from ...
... binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the exosome complex, ... It was recently shown that bacteria also have a sort of 5' cap consisting of a triphosphate on the 5' end.[24] Removal of two ... Translation may occur at ribosomes free-floating in the cytoplasm, or directed to the endoplasmic reticulum by the signal ... Proteins that are needed in a particular region of the cell can also be translated there; in such a case, the 3' UTR may ...
"Sorting Out Chocolate". Taunton. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.. ... It is 59% carbohydrates (52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fiber), 30% fat and 8% protein (table). Approximately 65% of the fat in ... Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15(10):2779-2811. doi:10.1089/ars.2010.3697. ... They say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some cold, and some temperate, and put therein much of that 'chili'; yea, ...
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... The list, sorted in alphabetical order of common names, is not exhaustive. ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva.[14] In food and wine pairing, ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ...
"Plants: the potentials for extracting protein, medicines, and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). DIANE Publishing. ... The measurement is technically difficult owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the physical structure of vegetation; but ... Chemical elements (sorted alphabetically). *. Chemical elements (sorted by number). Portals. Access related topics. *. ... This class of compounds includes the heme proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.[115] An exotic and unusual reaction occurs with ...
The brain sends signals through the spinal cord and nerves to regulate activity in the rest of the body. The pineal body, known ... It contains no detergents but is created by whipping up proteins and lectins secreted by the female.[81][82] ... Often the male collects and retains the egg mass, forming a sort of basket with the hind feet. An exception is the granular ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow. Retrieved August 24, 2012.. ...
The signals are processed in these layers. First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then ... This causes the receptor to activate multiple G-proteins. This in turn causes the Ga-subunit of the protein to activate a ... Though the rod and cones are a mosaic of sorts, transmission from receptors, to bipolars, to ganglion cells is not direct. ... A chemical change in the rods and cones send a signal back to the nerves. The signal goes first to the bipolar and horizontal ...
Mares signal estrus and ovulation by urination in the presence of a stallion, raising the tail and revealing the vulva. A ... True implantation - invasion into the endometrium of any sort - does not occur until about day 35 of pregnancy with the ... Many feeds designed for pregnant and lactating mares provide the careful balance required of increased protein, increased ...
The back and forth relationship of plant defense and herbivore offense can be seen as a sort of "adaptation dance" in which one ... These compounds are often bitter and can inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis or block nervous system signal transmission. Cyanogens ... which have a bitter taste and bind to proteins making them indigestible; and furanocumerins, which produce free radicals ... Origin of dental occlusion in tetrapods: signal for terrestrial vertebrate evolution? Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: ...
"Multiple Distinct Targeting Signals in Integral Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins". J. Cell Biol. 153 (6): 1141-50. doi:10.1083/jcb ... "Human Pex19p Binds Peroxisomal Integral Membrane Proteins at Regions Distinct from Their Sorting Sequences". Mol. Cell. Biol. ... protein import into peroxisome matrix, docking. • neuron migration. • نقل. • protein targeting to peroxisome. • protein ... "Involvement of Pex13p in Pex14p Localization and Peroxisomal Targeting Signal 2-dependent Protein Import into Peroxisomes". J. ...
A number of proteins and signalling pathways show behaviour that can be considered paradoxical compared to their function in ... Age distribution and relation to breastfeeding duration is suggestive of some sort of involvement of hormones in the aetiology ... EGFR pathway is commonly active in inflammatory breast cancer and this has shown some clinical signal that EGFR targeting ...
"Coordinated protein sorting, targeting and distribution in polarized cells". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 9 (11): ... where proteins and signals are received, would be the acceptor. In order for the transport vesicle to accurately undergo a ... Rab proteins on the surface of the transport vesicle are responsible for aligning with the complementary tethering proteins ... These endocytosed molecules are sorted into early endosomes within the cell, which serves to further sort these substances to ...
To combat this effect, female insects appear to be able to sort out the sperm of relatives from the sperm of non-relatives to ... In some cases, sperm storage sites can produce proteases that break down various proteins in male seminal fluid resulting in ... The nervous system may signal for muscular contractions, fluid absorption, and hormone release, all of which aid in moving the ... Annexins are candidate oviductal receptors for bovine sperm surface proteins and thus may serve to hold bovine sperm in the ...
CooA is a carbon monoxide sensor protein.[45] The scope of its biological role is still unknown; it may be part of a signaling ... See also: Gaseous signaling molecules. Carbon monoxide is produced naturally by the human body as a signaling molecule. Thus, ... CO functions as an endogenous signaling molecule, modulates functions of the cardiovascular system, inhibits blood platelet ...
... perhaps through defects in Golgi SNARE assembly and protein retrieval [Kama et al 2011]. We now find that the btn1Δ genotype ... phenocopies nutrient-limiting conditions, whereby functional Golgi proteins are ... specific trans Golgi membrane proteins re-localize to the endolysosomal pathway and undergo degradation in cells lacking BTN1, ... TOR signaling links Golgi quality control and vacuolar protein sorting. Research. TOR signaling links Golgi quality control and ...
Cell Signalling And Protein Sorting Flashcards Preview MIMS , Cell Signalling And Protein Sorting , Flashcards ... A hydrophobic signal sequence at the N terminal (for luminal proteins) or internally (for integral membrane proteins) is ... A lumen where proteins mature and Ca2+ is stored The ER also contributes to lipid and steroid synthesis ... When the protein has been fully translated but doesnt fully fold until it has crossed the membrane Mitochondria and ...
We attempted to identify sorting determinants for this protein sorting event in the ER. We found that mutant Gas1 proteins that ... The presence of an ER exit signal determines the protein sorting upon ER exit in yeast. Reika Watanabe, Guillaume A. Castillon ... The presence of an ER exit signal determines the protein sorting upon ER exit in yeast ... The presence of an ER exit signal determines the protein sorting upon ER exit in yeast ...
Signals, Sorting, Targeting, Processing and Regulation, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... processing peptidase, protein processing, protein sorting, regulation of protein import, signal peptides ... Signals, Sorting, Targeting, Processing and Regulation. Mitochondrial protein import in plants - Signals, Sorting, Targeting, ... of targeting peptides, sorting of precursor proteins between mitochondria and chloroplasts, signal recognition, ...
Bor, L.T., Teng, F.Y.H. (2005). Concepts of protein sorting or targeting signals and membrane topology in undergraduate ... Concepts of protein sorting or targeting signals and membrane topology in undergraduate teaching. ...
Retromer sorts diverse membrane proteins into recycling tubules/vesicles from the endosome. How it precisely selects its cargos ... A bipartite sorting signal ensures specificity of retromer complex in membrane protein recycling Sho W. Suzuki, Sho W. Suzuki * ... A sorting nexin-1 homologue, Vps5p, forms a complex with Vps17p and is required for recycling the vacuolar protein-sorting ... A sorting nexin-1 homologue, Vps5p, forms a complex with Vps17p and is required for recycling the vacuolar protein-sorting ...
"Protein Sorting Signals" by people in this website by year, and whether "Protein Sorting Signals" was a major or minor topic of ... "Protein Sorting Signals" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Protein Sorting Signals*Protein Sorting Signals. *Protein Sorting Signal. *Signal, Protein Sorting ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Protein Sorting Signals" by people in Profiles. ...
Most signals consist of short, linear sequences of amino acid residues. Some signals are referred to as tyrosine-based sorting ... transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes is mediated by signals present within the cytosolic domains of the proteins. ... Some signals are referred to as tyrosine-based sorting signals and conform to the NPXY or YXXO consensus motifs. Other signals ... Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes Annu Rev Biochem. 2003;72:395-447. doi: 10.1146/ ...
A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. ... Miyano S: Extensive feature detection of N-terminal protein sorting signals by Hideo Bannai, Yoshinori Tamada, Osamu Maruyama, ... This large-scale study provides an overall picture of the relative numbers of proteins that include a signal-peptide and/or one ... 2000) is a neural network based system which is currently the best predictor in the literature for N-terminal sorting signals. ...
Protein targeting pathways and sorting signals in epithelial cells. Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan, Geri Kreitzer, David Cohen, Vera ... Protein targeting pathways and sorting signals in epithelial cells. / Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Kreitzer, Geri; Cohen, David; ... title = "Protein targeting pathways and sorting signals in epithelial cells",. abstract = "A large body of knowledge has been ... Rodriguez-Boulan, E., Kreitzer, G., Cohen, D., Bonilha, V., & Muesch, A. (2001). Protein targeting pathways and sorting signals ...
Recently, the growth of protein databases, combined with machine learning approaches, such as neural networks and hidden Markov ... Prediction of protein sorting signals from the sequence of amino acids has great importance in the field of proteomics today. ... Machine learning approaches for the prediction of signal peptides and other protein sorting signals Protein Eng. 1999 Jan;12(1 ... Finally, we briefly review a few methods for predicting other protein sorting signals and discuss the future of protein sorting ...
The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not ... AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by PACS-1 (Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1), a cytosolic protein ... The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not ... AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by PACS-1 (Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1), a cytosolic protein ...
Protein Sorting Signals. *Retroviridae/genetics*. *Structure-Activity Relationship. *Virus Assembly. Substance. *Protein ...
Protein Sorting Signals*. *Software*. Substance. *Protein Sorting Signals. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Nature ... SignalP 4.0: discriminating signal peptides from transmembrane regions.. Petersen TN, Brunak S, von Heijne G, Nielsen H. ...
Nakai K (2000). "Protein sorting signals and prediction of subcellular localization". Advances in Protein Chemistry. 54: 277- ... Nakai, K. Protein sorting signals and prediction of subcellular localization. Adv. Protein Chem., 2000, 54, 277-344. ... Some are specialized for eukaryotic proteins,[4] some for human proteins,[5] and some for plant proteins.[6] Methods for the ... Schneider G, Fechner U (Jun 2004). "Advances in the prediction of protein targeting signals". Proteomics. 4 (6): 1571-80. doi: ...
Phosphorylation of the AP2 μ subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals. In: Journal of ... Phosphorylation of the AP2 μ subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals. / Ricotta, ... title = "Phosphorylation of the AP2 μ subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals", ... T1 - Phosphorylation of the AP2 μ subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals ...
Protein sorting signals‎ (1 К, 27 В). *. ► Spectrometric identification of proteins‎ (24 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Intracellular signaling pathways that are participating in protein sorting and membrane traffic. Hi!I am studying biotechnology ... Do chaperone proteins misfold?. If molecular chaperone proteins assist in the folding process of other proteins and misfolded ... Why do neurones use chemical signalling at synaptic junctions?. When a neurone fires, it sends an electrical signal that jumps ... Biochemistry Cell Biology Biology Genetics Microbiology Dna Molecular Genetics Human Biology Proteins Rna ... Botany Plant ...
... pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the ... Membrane Transport Proteins / chemistry*, metabolism. Models, Molecular*. Protein Binding. Protein Sorting Signals. Protein ... TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active ... The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be ...
Membrane protein biogenesis, sorting and targeting. Signal transduction across membranes. The cell surface in immune responses ... protein anatomy; prediction of protein structure; intermolecular interactions and protein-protein association; effects of ... CHEM*7300 Proteins and Nucleic Acids U [0.50]. Determination of protein sequence and 3-dimensional structure, ... Membrane proteins and lipids - structure and function; dynamics; techniques for their study; model membrane systems. Membrane ...
Interaction of a sorting signal with its receptor results in sorting of the signal-bearing protein into a specific population ... The best-characterized sorting signal is the tyrosine-based sorting motif that is involved in various sorting events by ... Various protein-sorting events have been attributed to the tyrosine-based sorting signals, which include clathrin-mediated ... The cytoplasmic domain of some integral membrane proteins contains tyrosine-based sorting signals that mediate sorting to the ...
Protein Targeting Pathways and Sorting Signals in Epithelial Cells. Biogenesis of Epithelial Polarity and Tight Junctions. ... The Cytoplasmic Plaque Proteins of the Tight Junction. Organization and Regulation of the Tight Junction by the Actin-Myosin ... Intracellular Signaling in Classical and New Tight Junction Functions. Regulation of Tight Junction Permeability in the Mammary ... Interactions between Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin and Tight Junction Proteins. Ischemia Induced Tight Junction ...
Lipid-Based Signaling in Endosomal Protein Sorting. Rutilio A. Fratti, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Short ... Poster Session 2: Mechanisms of Protein/Lipid Sorting by Lipid Domains/Role of Lipids in Protein Sorting/Intracellular Traffic ... signal transduction from lipid domains; mechanisms of protein/lipid sorting by lipid domains; lipid traffic through lipid ... The Golgi Apparatus: A Two Phase Membrane System for Protein Processing, Sorting and Secretory Transport. ...
Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics, Microscopy; Fluorescence, Protein Sorting Signals, Protein Transport, Transfection ... Most chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported with the help of sorting signals that are intrinsic ... proteins) back to the organelle. The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing ... Targeting and function of CAH1: Characterization of a novel protein pathway to the plant cell chloroplast. Burén, Stefan Umeå ...
Study Protein Sorting using smart web & mobile flashcards created by top students, teachers, and professors. Prep for a quiz or ... Top Protein Sorting Flashcards Ranked by Quality. * MIMS- protein sorting and cell signalling ... Sample Decks: Protein Folding, Protein secretion and sorting, Protein phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc signals ... Sample Decks: Biological Membranes and Membrane proteins, Protein Sorting, Protein Sorting II ...
Protein Sorting Signals. 1. 2005. 299. 0.020. Why? Th2 Cells. 1. 2010. 1032. 0.020. Why? ...
A fast acquisition scheme of the spread spectrum signals for satellite communications. Rao, H., Liang, X., Shen, M. & An, J-S ... A Fast Approach for Battery Impedance Identification Using Pseudo Random Sequence (PRS) Signals. Sihvo, J., Stroe, D-I., Messo ... and Signal Processing.. Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceeding › Article in proceeding › ...
Chemical Approaches to Sorting out Protein Signaling Pathways. 19:15-20:15 ... in understanding the evolution of the protein kinases and phosphatases and other signaling proteins involved in protein ... Causality and Contingency in Protein Interaction (Signaling) Networks. Michael Tyers, University of Montreal, Canada Kinase/ ... In addition to these topics, the meeting will cover the evolution of protein kinases and phosphatases and key signaling modules ...
A Bipartite Sorting Signal Ensures Specificity of Retromer Complex in Membrane Protein Recycling  Chuang, Ya-Shan (2019-08-30) ... In the endosomal network, membrane proteins are either sorted into intraluminal vesicles for the lysosomal degradative pathway ... A CHEMOPROTEOMIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEINS REGULATED BY COENZYME A  Nelson, Ornella Daisha (2018-12-30) ... Mismatch repair (MMR) proteins act to correct DNA polymerase errors that arise during DNA replication. They also play vital ...
The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 ... suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. The expressions of ZmCHC1 ... and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. ... ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, ...
  • In the yeast model for Batten disease, specific trans Golgi membrane proteins re-localize to the endolysosomal pathway and undergo degradation in cells lacking BTN1, perhaps through defects in Golgi SNARE assembly and protein retrieval [ Kama et al 2011 ]. (
  • Both GPI-anchored proteins similarly partitioned into the DRM (detergent-resistant membrane) in the ER. (
  • Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex, which sorts functionally diverse membrane proteins into recycling tubules/vesicles from the endosome. (
  • Strikingly, Vps26 utilizes different binding sites depending on the cargo, allowing retromer to recycle different membrane proteins. (
  • The production of mature SGs requires concentrating newly synthesized soluble content proteins in granules whose membranes contain the appropriate integral membrane proteins. (
  • The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not yet well understood. (
  • The trafficking of granule membrane proteins can be controlled by both luminal and cytosolic factors. (
  • Cytosolic adaptor proteins (APs), which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to play essential roles in the assembly of functional SGs. (
  • For example, secreted proteins and plasma membrane proteins are easily accessible by drug molecules due to their localization in the extracellular space or on the cell surface. (
  • During receptor-mediated endocytosis, AP2 complexes act as a bridge between the cargo membrane proteins and the clathrin coat by binding to sorting signals via the μ2 subunit and to clathrin via the β subunit. (
  • We propose that phosphorylation of the AP2 μ2 subunit by AAK1 ensures high affinity binding of AP2 to sorting signals of cargo membrane proteins during the initial steps of receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • The resulting sequence of Y RS L E conforms to a tyrosine-based consensus motif (YxxL) for sorting of integral membrane proteins into specific cellular compartments. (
  • The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. (
  • The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. (
  • The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. (
  • Lipid domains are a class of membrane domains that compartmentalize signaling modules, regulate the transport of ions, molecules and macromolecular complexes to specific cellular sites, and spatially organize signal transduction in polarized cells. (
  • In the endosomal network, membrane proteins are either sorted into intraluminal vesicles for the lysosomal degradative pathway or exported from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) via retrograde transport. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, endocytosis is essential for regulation of the protein and lipid compositions of the plasma membrane and for acquisition or removal of material from the extracellular medium [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The CCVs are uncoated in seconds to form uncoated vesicles that fuse with the early endosome (EE) where the cargo is further sorted, either for recycling back to the plasma membrane, or kept in the endocytic pathway to later endosomes, lysosomes and vacuoles for degradation [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • The somatodendritic and axonal regions in a neuron display distinct spectra of membrane proteins that serve specialized functions in each compartment. (
  • Cleavage by PCs, occasionally in concert with other endoproteases, enables conformational changes in the viral membrane proteins needed for correct oligomerization of glycoprotein spikes and their effective incorporation into virions. (
  • Cells transport integral membrane proteins between organelles by sorting them into vesicles. (
  • No coat proteins have yet been identified that generate secretory vesicles from the trans -Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane, but the exomer complex has been identified as a cargo adaptor complex that mediates transport of several proteins in this pathway. (
  • Chs3, the most well-studied exomer cargo, cycles between the TGN and the plasma membrane in synchrony with the cell cycle, providing an opportunity to study regulation of proteins that cycle in response to signaling. (
  • Integral membrane proteins destined for this organelle must therefore make complex targeting decisions. (
  • They are thought to perform their sorting function by directly interacting with the medium chains of the assembly or adapter proteins AP-1 and AP-2-two heterotetrameric protein complexes associated, respectively, with the TGN or the plasma membrane ( 55 )-and AP-3, a new adapter-related protein complex of unknown function ( 16 , 68 ). (
  • The assembly proteins AP-1 and AP-2 can be recruited onto the TGN and the plasma membrane, respectively, where they interact with transmembrane proteins containing tyrosine-based motifs ( 57 , 67 ). (
  • In contrast, only a limited number of examples have illustrated the role of acidic stretches of amino acids in regulating the intracellular traffic of membrane proteins. (
  • Recent studies suggest that dynamin-1, a presumed neuron-specific isoform of the large, membrane fission GTPase, can be activated in nonneuronal cells downstream of cancer-relevant signaling pathways and thereby function as a nexus between signaling and early endocytic trafficking. (
  • 1997 ). Multiple sorting signals determine apical localization of a nonglycosylated integral membrane protein. (
  • Transfection with AP1 isoforms (μ1A or μ1B) showed two distinct distribution patterns that involved Pmel17, and only μ1B was able to restore the sorting of Pmel17 to the plasma membrane in cells lacking μ1B expression. (
  • These results show that Pmel17 is sorted to melanosomes by various intracellular routes, directly or indirectly through the plasma membrane, and the presence of basolateral elements in melanocytes suggests their polarized nature. (
  • Thus, this particular polytopic model protein shows that glycosylation-independent apical pathways exist for endogenous membrane proteins in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (
  • Apical sorting signals can reside in extracellular, membrane-anchoring, and/or cytosolic domains of the transported proteins, and can be encoded or functionally depend on glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors, N- and O-glycans, and proteinaceous patches ( 1 , 5 - 8 ). (
  • Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids that serve as platforms or converging centers for decoding apical sorting information ( 1 , 11 ). (
  • Apical sorting information also is found in the cytosolic domain of polytopic proteins ( 7 , 8 , 12 ), suggesting decoding mechanisms similar to those of basolateral membrane proteins. (
  • The high-conductance, voltage-dependent, Ca 2+ -sensitive potassium channel (K V,Ca ) expressed in a variety of epithelial cells and neurons ( 19 ) is an interesting model system to address yet poorly understood aspects of polarized protein sorting, including the role of N-glycans in polytopic membrane proteins. (
  • One of the members of this gene family, tpr K, codes for a protein that is predicted to have a cleavable signal peptide and be located in the outer membrane of the bacterium. (
  • A novel Ca 2+ -binding protein, p22, is required for constitutive membrane traffic. (
  • The encoded protein is localized to the cell membrane and acts as a zinc uptake transporter. (
  • The matrix-targeted p b 2 Δ19(220)-DHFR was photocrosslinked to Tom40 in the outer membrane, Tim44 in the inner membrane, and Ssc1p in the matrix, suggesting that the protein has an extended conformation in the import channels. (
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the TOM (the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, consisting of Tom proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane, mediates recognition, insertion, and translocation of precursor proteins at the outer membrane. (
  • The TIM (the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane) complex, consisting of Tim17, Tim23, and Tim44, constitutes a putative import channel in the inner membrane and provides a protein transport pathway to the matrix ( 5 ). (
  • Tim44 and Ssc1p, a member of heat shock proteins of 70 kDa (hsp70) in the matrix, interact with each other and drive the inward movement of precursor proteins through the inner membrane ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Photocrosslinking has proven a powerful tool for analyzing interactions of precursor proteins during membrane translocation ( 10 ). (
  • We have particular interest in a specific integral membrane protein, TGN38 , which cycles between the TGN and the cell surface. (
  • The demonstration that nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the number of coated pits at the plasma membrane of sympathetic neurons ( 9 ) and that NGF signaled through tyrosine kinase receptor A to increase clathrin at the plasma membrane and in this way enhanced clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking ( 2 ) could argue that NGF would induce formation of new clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane. (
  • While the yeast-to-hyphal transition has been extensively studied, with many sensing and signaling pathways described, how membrane trafficking pathways are integrated to regulate surface composition and facilitate morphological changes is still not well understood. (
  • Proteins required for nutrient uptake or cell wall biosynthesis in the new environment are incorporated into the plasma membrane via the secretory pathway. (
  • Analysis of the E. coli protein DolP reveals the first dual BON-domain structure and identifies phospholipid binding as a new mechanism for protein localisation to the outer membrane division site. (
  • Two domains of the peripheral membrane protein Tim44 interact with two different sectors of a translocase to coordinate the translocation of proteins across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (
  • Clustering the B cell receptor generates a membrane domain analogous to the liquid-ordered phase, localizing proteins involved in early receptor activation. (
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that gB derivatives lacking at least the last 29 amino acids (aa) localize close to the plasma membrane, while the full-length protein accumulates in intracellular aggregations. (
  • These proteins are also required for cell-to-cell spread of most alphaherpesviruses, indicating a close relationship between the membrane fusion processes during entry and cell-to-cell spread. (
  • Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily have proved to be essential in maintaining adequate ion homeostasis, signaling, and membrane trafficking in the endosomal pathway. (
  • The endosomal pathway is recognized as a key regulator of endocytic membrane traffic, protein sorting, and signaling. (
  • In addition to its role in signaling, PIP 2 also regulates cytoskeletal dynamics as well as numerous steps in membrane traffic ( 14 , 50 ). (
  • We previously found that increases in cellular PIP 2 mediated by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type Iβ (PI5KIβ) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stimulated delivery kinetics of a subset of apical membrane proteins ( 18 ). (
  • The 64th Annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposium was therefore a particularly imaginative meeting, intended to provoke a dialogue on the nature of the membrane signals and intracytoplasmic events that provoke the generation of immunity. (
  • Yeast permeases, that act as transporters for nutrients including amino acids, nucleobases and metals, provide a powerful model system for dissecting the physiological control of membrane protein trafficking. (
  • A subset of these mutants, required for ER retrieval, included the GET complex and two novel proteins that likely function similarly in membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins. (
  • THE endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central organelle in the biogenesis of secretory and membrane proteins. (
  • In addition to these protein-oriented events, the ER is also an important site of lipid biosynthesis, housing a suite of enzymes that function in various steps of fatty acid elongation and desaturation, ergosterol synthesis, and attachment of glycosylphospho-inositol (GPI) lipids to a class of lipid-tethered membrane proteins. (
  • Khorana 1992), these proteins are predicted to contain seven transmembrane helical domains that anchor them to the plasma membrane. (
  • Blumer KJ, Thorner J (1990) ß and y subunits of a yeast guanine nucleotide-binding protein are not essential for membrane association of the a subunit but are required for receptor coupling. (
  • Lipid rafts are cholesterol rich membrane microdomains important for protein sorting, signal transduction, and endocytosis. (
  • Using hierarchical clustering of the protein expression patterns in five subcellular fractions (cytosol, light membrane, heavy membrane, mitochondria, and nuclei), the primary subcellular localization of 2241 proteins was assigned with high confidence including 792 previously uncharacterized proteins. (
  • Further study of CAH1 will not only be important to reveal its role in photosynthesis, but characterization of this novel protein pathway to the chloroplast can also shed light on how the plant cell evolved and clarify the purpose of keeping several chloroplast import pathways working in parallel. (
  • Major progress has been made in defining the basis of signaling in eukaryotic cells both with respect to the function and structure of protein modules that are involved in signaling and how these proteins are organized into pathways and networks that are used to regulate cellular responses to extracellular and intracellular stimuli. (
  • Most of what has been learned has been derived from studies of a few model organisms, which have taught us that several major signal transduction pathways are conserved in evolution. (
  • The chimera recycled in parallel with synaptic vesicle proteins demonstrating that the nerve terminal efficiently sorts transmembrane proteins into different pathways. (
  • however, the signals that direct these transport steps and the organelle pathways leading to the synaptic vesicle in neurons remain ill defined. (
  • In this study we examined the mechanisms and pathways of synaptic vesicle biogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons by following the sorting of a chimera of two proteins with distinct intracellular localizations. (
  • These results show that VZV-gE and HSV-gE have similar intracellular trafficking pathways, probably reflecting the presence of similar sorting signals in the cytoplasmic domains of both molecules, and suggest that the respective viruses, VZV and HSV, could use the same subcellular organelle, the TGN, for their envelopment. (
  • Differential effects of protein synthesis arrest on transport of glycosaminoglycan chains to the two secretory pathways. (
  • organelles involved in protein sorting to the endocytic and secretory pathways, respectively. (
  • To further understand apical sorting mechanisms it is important to find and characterize apical pathways not mediated by glycans, especially in transmembrane proteins endogenous to epithelial cells. (
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. (
  • The pathways for directing proteins, including cytochromes b 2 and c 1 , to the intermembrane space are in dispute ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (
  • Hh controls cell growth and differentiation through a conserved signal transduction pathway that culminates in the activation of latent transcription factors Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and Gli proteins ( 1 , 2 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) initiates signal transduction important for gene expression. (
  • Ca 2+ efflux is also important for signal transduction, organelle homeostasis, and endosomal acidification ( 31 ). (
  • It covers major advances in signal transduction, intracellular protein sorting, gene regulation, control of cell division, and developmental biology. (
  • Beals CR, Wilson CB, Perlmutter RM (1987) A small multigene family encodes G i -signal transduction proteins. (
  • Human Jurkat T leukemic cells are one of the most popular model systems for studying signal transduction because many key advances in the field of T cell receptor signaling were made using Jurkat T cells ( 16 ). (
  • Therefore, a global survey of human Jurkat T cells can serve as a platform for many in-depth characterizations of cellular function and signaling transduction. (
  • Vps10, the first member of the Sortilin receptor family, is a transmembrane (TM) protein receptor for carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), which sorts CPY into vesicles at the Golgi ( Fig. 1 A ). After CPY-containing vesicles are transported to the endosome, the endosome matures and fuses with the vacuole, delivering soluble CPY to the vacuole lumen. (
  • At a synaptic junction, chemical Brownian diffusion signalling with receptor. (
  • It influences the lysosomal targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor, suggesting a role both in cell signaling and receptor trafficking [ PMID: 15469987 ]. (
  • Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor degradation by heterotrimeric Galphas protein. (
  • The receptor is mainly located in vesicles, suggesting a function in protein sorting and transport. (
  • Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged in retraction of the receptor from endosomes. (
  • It is a mosaic protein and has also been designated LR11, due to distinct structural similarities to the classical members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family ( 38 ). (
  • Similar β-propeller domains and clusters of LA-repeats constitute characteristic structural elements in members of the LDL receptor family and account for the binding of a broad variety of ligands to classical family members such as LDL-related protein (LRP)/LR1 and megalin ( 14 , 23 ). (
  • Accordingly, many of these ligands, including receptor-associated protein (RAP), platelet-derived growth factor-bb (PDGF-bb), lipoprotein lipase, apolipoprotein E, and elements of the plasminogen activator system, also bind to SorLA ( 10 , 15 , 34 ). (
  • Abe Y et al (2000) Structural basis of presequence recognition by the mitochondrial protein import receptor Tom20. (
  • Capitani M, Sallese M (2009) The KDEL receptor: new functions for an old protein. (
  • Scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein have become increasingly attractive for their critical functions in innate inflammatory reactions and disorders. (
  • Among the immune-evasion strategies used by the lymphocryptovirus (γ 1 -herpesvirus) EBV is the downregulation of surface HLA class I expression by the virally encoded G protein-coupled receptor BILF1, thereby impeding presentation of viral Ags and cytotoxic T cell recognition of the infected cell. (
  • To identify synaptic vesicle targeting sequences and to follow the path that proteins travel en route to the synaptic vesicle, we have used a defective herpes virus amplicon expression system to study the targeting of a synaptobrevin-transferrin receptor (SB-TfR) chimera in cultured hippocampal neurons. (
  • The ability of Smurf to bind to and ubiquitylate Smo depended on phosphorylation of Smurf by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) and was inhibited by Hh-induced phosphorylation of Smo. (
  • Hedgehog (Hh) induces signaling by promoting the reciprocal trafficking of its receptor Patched (Ptc) and the signal transducer Smoothened (Smo), which is inhibited by Ptc, at the cell surface. (
  • G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2)-mediated phosphorylation of Smurf promoted Smo ubiquitylation by increasing the recruitment of Smurf to Smo, whereas protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo caused Smurf to dissociate from Smo, thereby inhibiting Smo ubiquitylation. (
  • Our study identifies the E3 ubiquitin ligases that target Smo and provides insight into how Hh regulates the reciprocal trafficking of its receptor and signal transducer. (
  • The core reception system for Hh signaling comprises two multispan transmembrane proteins: the 12-transmembrane protein Patched (Ptc) and the 7-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), which is a member of the G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. (
  • Cell surface receptor uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and subsequent intracellular sorting for degradation or recycling regulates the strength and specificity of downstream signaling. (
  • Cell surface signaling receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytokine receptors, are activated by binding to their ligands (e.g., growth hormones, peptide agonists, and cytokines). (
  • Although endocytosis is a mechanism well known to terminate receptor signaling ( Grandal and Madshus, 2008 ), it has also become clear that endocytosis is required for the initiation of some signaling cascades ( Platta and Stenmark, 2011 ). (
  • Recent findings, however, suggest that by taking advantage of the reciprocal cross talk between signaling and endocytosis, cancer cells elaborate mechanisms to enhance endocytosis and recycling, potentially in receptor-selective manners. (
  • Mutational and secondary structural analysis of the basolateral sorting signal of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity . (
  • This gene encodes a member of the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor family. (
  • This process is mediated by a receptor that recognizes, and binds the tetrapeptide-containing protein, and returns it to the ER. (
  • In yeast, the sorting receptor encoded by a single gene, ERD2, is a seven-transmembrane protein. (
  • KDELR3 (KDEL Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Retention Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Receptor for the C-terminal sequence motif K-D-E-L that is present on endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins and that mediates their recycling from the Golgi back to the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • In HeLa cells depleted of adaptor protein 2 complex (AP2) by small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the μ2 or α subunit or by transient overexpression of an AP2 sequestering mutant of Eps15, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor (TfR) was strongly inhibited. (
  • Dynamics of virus-receptor interactions in virus binding, signaling, and endocytosis. (
  • The defect in protein reabsorption has been suggested to result from improper function or trafficking of the cell surface receptor megalin ( 30 , 37 ). (
  • Megalin, a member of the LDL receptor family, is a 600-kDa transmembrane protein that recycles at the apical domain of polarized epithelial cells ( 10 ). (
  • Megalin binds to numerous protein ligands that dissociate from the receptor after internalization and are targeted to lysosomes for degradation. (
  • Birnbaumer L (1992) Receptor-to-effector signaling through G proteins: roles for lay dimers as well as a subunits. (
  • Birnbaumer L, Abramowitz J. Brown AM (1990) Receptor-effector coupling by G proteins. (
  • This is also the case for the localization of the Fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP (also known as FMR1) and for glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), which are both reported to occur in a KLC-independent manner ( Rice and Gelfand, 2006 ). (
  • Protein subcellular localization prediction (or just protein localization prediction) involves the prediction of where a protein resides in a cell , its subcellular localization . (
  • Prediction of protein subcellular localization is an important component of bioinformatics based prediction of protein function and genome annotation , and it can aid the identification of drug targets. (
  • Experimentally determining the subcellular localization of a protein can be a laborious and time consuming task. (
  • Immunolabeling or tagging (such as with a green fluorescent protein ) to view localization using fluorescence microscope are often used. (
  • Through the development of new approaches in computer science, coupled with an increased dataset of proteins of known localization, computational tools can now provide fast and accurate localization predictions for many organisms. (
  • Many prediction methods now exceed the accuracy of some high-throughput laboratory methods for the identification of protein subcellular localization. (
  • Knowledge of the subcellular localization of a protein can significantly improve target identification during the drug discovery process. (
  • Aberrant subcellular localization of proteins has been observed in the cells of several diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease . (
  • However, the chimera could be shifted to synaptic vesicles by deletion of amino acids 61-70 in synaptobrevin, suggesting that separate signals encode the localization of synaptobrevin to the synapse and to the synaptic vesicle. (
  • We now find that a cluster of acidic residues including two serines phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 is required for the localization of VMAT2 to LDCVs.The motif thus acts as a signal for retention on LDCVs.Phosphorylation of the acidic cluster thus appears to reduce the localization of VMAT2 to LDCVs by inactivating a retention mechanism. (
  • Identification of Plasmodesmal Localization Sequences in Proteins In Planta Cheng Yuan 1 , Sondra G. Lazarowitz 2 , Vitaly Citovsky 1 1 Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, State University of New York, 2 Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University Plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata (Pd), play central roles in plant physiology and plant-virus interactions. (
  • We describe a strategy to identify Pd localization signals in Pd-targeted proteins. (
  • Are the interacting proteins encoded by genes with similar expression profiles and localization? (
  • We developed CORNET (for CORrelation NETworks) as an access point to transcriptome, protein interactome, and localization data and functional information on Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). (
  • Localization is visualized in pie charts, thereby allowing multiple localizations per protein. (
  • Moreover, green fluorescent protein cellular localization experiments suggested a mitochondrial location for this protein. (
  • Determining the subcellular localization of a protein is an important first step toward understanding its function. (
  • Here, we describe the properties of three well-known N-terminal sequence motifs directing proteins to the secretory pathway, mitochondria and chloroplasts, and sketch a brief history of methods to predict subcellular localization based on these sorting signals and other sequence properties. (
  • We then outline how to use a number of internet-accessible tools to arrive at a reliable subcellular localization prediction for eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins. (
  • Predicting the subcellular localization of proteins is important for determining the function of proteins. (
  • Previous works focused on predicting protein localization in Gram-negative bacteria obtained good results. (
  • However, these methods had relatively low accuracies for the localization of extracellular proteins. (
  • We have developed a system for predicting the subcellular localization of proteins for Gram-negative bacteria based on amino acid subalphabets and a combination of multiple support vector machines. (
  • Subcellular localization is a key functional attribute of a protein. (
  • Since cellular functions are often localized in specific compartments, predicting the subcellular localization of unknown proteins may be used to obtain useful information about their functions and to select proteins for further study. (
  • Moreover, studying the subcellular localization of proteins is also helpful in understanding disease mechanisms and for developing novel drugs. (
  • It is desirable to have an automated and reliable system for predicting subcellular localization of proteins from amino acid sequences. (
  • A number of efforts [ 1 - 21 ] have been made to predict protein subcellular localization. (
  • Previous works have been focused on protein localization prediction for Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • It uses biological knowledge represented by "if-then" rules for predicting protein localization sites. (
  • 24 ] presented PSORT-B to improve the prediction performance of PSORT I. PSORT-B combines information of the amino acid composition, similarity to proteins of known localization, presence of a signal peptide, transmembrane alpha-helices and motifs corresponding to specific localizations for a given protein sequence, through a probabilistic approach. (
  • PMCA2 regulates HER2 protein kinase localization and signaling and promotes HER2-mediated breast cancer. (
  • Imported proteins require a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) which generally consists of a short region of basic amino acids or 2 such regions spaced about 10 amino acids apart. (
  • Scm3, an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere protein required for G2/M progression and Cse4 localization. (
  • Furthermore we applied similar methods to analyze mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space proteins extracted from the same mitochondrial source, providing evidence for the submitochondrial localization of a number of proteins in skeletal muscle and liver. (
  • An important goal in functional genomics is to globally profile protein expression and localization in biological systems. (
  • Furthermore subcellular localization of proteins cannot be accurately predicted based on mRNA expression. (
  • Essential role of RGS-PX1/sorting nexin 13 in mouse development and regulation of endocytosis dynamics. (
  • This reciprocal regulation of signaling and endocytosis provides opportunities for the establishment of feedback loops to enhance or suppress surface-derived signals. (
  • Thus, endocytosis regulates signaling. (
  • The cross talk between signaling and endocytosis has implications for cancer progression, as alterations in survival, proliferative, and migratory signals are essential for metastasis. (
  • These signals mediate endocytosis and are implicated in basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells. (
  • This finding could potentially support the contention that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the EGFR is independent of adaptor protein 2 (AP2), in contrast to clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the TfR ( 8 , 22 ). (
  • The downregulation of transporters, cell wall synthesis enzymes, and signaling molecules from the C. albicans cell surface is achieved by endocytosis. (
  • The 'classical' budding reactions, such as those occurring during endocytosis or formation of exocytic vesicles, involve proteins that assemble on the cytosol-excluding face of the bud neck. (
  • APP is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is transported to the cell surface where it undergoes rapid endocytosis based upon a C-terminal tyrosine-based sorting signal. (
  • This process is ubiquitin- and multivesicular body (MVB) pathway-dependent, and we have identified the defective-for-SREBP-cleavage (DSC) complex as conferring this new type of protein quality control. (
  • Thus, TOR signaling controls DSC complex-mediated protein quality control via regulation of the MVB pathway, and may be implicated in Batten disease. (
  • A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. (
  • We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1, and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by APs. (
  • Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1 , the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA, suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. (
  • The C-terminus of prohormone convertase 2 is sufficient and necessary for Raft association and sorting to the regulated secretory pathway. (
  • FGF8 activates Ras-ERK signaling pathway to induce cerebellar development. (
  • Artificially aminoacylated suppressor tRNAs were used to introduce photoreactive amino acids into model mitochondrial precursor proteins to probe the environment along the protein import pathway. (
  • To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex processes of mitochondrial protein import, it is essential to characterize the environment of precursor proteins along the pathway to their destinations. (
  • These data demonstrate the involvement of a mitochondrial protein, ETFQO, in the catabolism of Leu and potentially of other amino acids in higher plants and also imply a novel role for this protein in the chlorophyll degradation pathway activated during dark-induced senescence and sugar starvation. (
  • This double-perturbation analysis (which does not necessarily involve lethality) revealed epistatic relationships - that is, which proteins are upstream and downstream in a pathway. (
  • Luminal acidification is essential for the delivery and degradation of internalized ligands in lysosomes and regulates posttranslational modification and sorting of proteins along the endosomal pathway ( 56 ). (
  • This encompasses properties of targeting peptides, sorting of precursor proteins between mitochondria and chloroplasts, signal recognition, mechanism of translocation across the mitochondrial membranes and the role of cytosolic and organellar molecular chaperones in this process. (
  • We report a relative improvement of 13 % over Phobius in full-topology prediction accuracy on transmembrane proteins, and a sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 in detecting signal peptides. (
  • As a step towards this goal, a hidden Markov model version of SignalP has been developed, making it possible to discriminate between cleaved signal peptides and uncleaved signal anchors. (
  • Furthermore, we show how SignalP can be used to characterize putative signal peptides from an archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii. (
  • SignalP 4.0: discriminating signal peptides from transmembrane regions. (
  • TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. (
  • Circumstantial evidence also suggested that similar dynamic mechanisms may be applicable to other promiscuous recognitions of signal peptides by the SRP54/Ffh and SecA proteins. (
  • Fam158a does not have any predicted signal peptides or transmembrane regions. (
  • iPsortII predicts no signal peptides and localizes Fam158a to the cytoplasm- I-Tasser predicts several structures for Fam158a and the best prediction is shown. (
  • The MIR domain of protein- O -mannosyltransferases participates in glycosylation by binding mannosylated peptides and regulates enzyme processivity. (
  • Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. (
  • We have developed a new method for the identification of signal peptides and their cleavage sites based on neural networks trained on separate sets of prokaryotic and eukaryotic sequence. (
  • Discrimination between cleaved signal peptides and uncleaved N-terminal signal-anchor sequences is also possible, though with lower precision. (
  • Prediction of signal peptides and signal anchors by a hidden Markov model. (
  • A hidden Markov model of signal peptides has been developed. (
  • For known signal peptides, the model can be used to assign objective boundaries between these three regions. (
  • For instance, the assigned hydrophobic region is between 8 and 12 residues long in almost all eukaryotic signal peptides. (
  • The model can be used to predict the location of the cleavage site, which it finds correctly in nearly 70% of signal peptides in a cross-validated test - almost the same accuracy as the best previous method. (
  • One of the problems for existing prediction methods is the poor discrimination between signal peptides and uncleaved signal anchors, but this is substantially improved by the hidden Markov model when expanding it with a very simple signal anchor model. (
  • Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0. (
  • Aβ peptides are generated by the sequential proteolysis of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP). (
  • Owing to the similarities between polarized epithelial cells and melanocytes, we evaluated the expression of polarizing sorting elements in melanocytic cells and their relation to the sorting of melanosomal proteins. (
  • Polarized epithelial cells accomplish vectorial functions of transport, absorption, and secretion based on their morphologically and functionally distinct apical and basolateral cell surface domains that contain different protein and lipid compositions ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Ion channels of ubiquitous expression have remained relatively unexplored as substrates of the protein sorting machinery in polarized epithelial cells ( 16 - 18 ). (
  • What are the biochemical consequences of the integration of the MPP into an oligomeric protein complex and how are several hundred presequences of precursor proteins with no sequence similarities and no consensus for cleavage, specifically cleaved off by MPP? (
  • Many of the identified cargos possess a recycling signal sequence defined as ØX[L/M/V], where Ø is F/Y/W. However, this sequence is present in almost all proteins encoded in the genome. (
  • Signal sequence analysis of expressed sequence tags from the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and the evolution of secreted proteins in parasites. (
  • Prediction of protein sorting signals from the sequence of amino acids has great importance in the field of proteomics today. (
  • In general, prediction tools take as input information about a protein, such as a protein sequence of amino acid s, and produce a predicted location within the cell as output, such as the nucleus , Endoplasmic reticulum , Golgi apparatus , extracellular space , or other organelles . (
  • To study a possible role of the YRSLE sequence in L1 sorting, chick DRG neurons were transfected with human L1 cDNA that codes for full-length L1 (L1 FL ), a non-neuronal form of L1 that lacks the RSLE sequence (L1 ΔRSLE ), mutant L1 with a Y1176A substitution (L1 Y1176A ), or L1 truncated immediately after the RSLE sequence (L1 ΔC77 ). (
  • In general, the target signal is defined by a consensus sequence containing wild-characters, and hence represented by diverse amino acid sequences. (
  • The synaptobrevin sequence that controls targeting to the presynaptic endosome was not localized to a single, 10- amino acid region of the molecule, indicating that this targeting signal may be encoded by a more distributed structural conformation. (
  • Tyrosine-containing sorting motifs usually consist of a tetrapeptide bearing the sequence YXXØ (Y is tyrosine, X is any amino acid, and Ø represents any hydrophobic residue) ( 42 , 66 , 76 ). (
  • As shown in the alignment, the protein is highly conserved chemically, although the exact sequence varies. (
  • A total of 50 open reading frames were identified on the plasmid genome and, among these, 32 showed sequence similarity to known proteins. (
  • Sequence analysis of the unique Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of ETFQO revealed high similarity to the mammalian ETFQO protein. (
  • Half of the network's almost 60 proteins showed strong sequence conservation in humans, in whom TGF-β can play a tumorigenic role. (
  • Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. (
  • Rather, helicases are placed into families on the basis of more extensive sequence similarities that occur both within the helicase motifs and in other regions of the protein. (
  • the arrow indicates the predicted cleavage site for removing the mitochondrial signal sequence. (
  • Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments. (
  • Most signals consist of short, linear sequences of amino acid residues. (
  • In this series of projects of sequencing human cDNA clones which correspond to relatively long transcripts, we newly determined the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones which were screened on the basis of the potentiality of coding for large proteins in vitro. (
  • We discuss the problems associated with the use of SignalP on genomic sequences, showing that signal peptide prediction will improve further if integrated with predictions of start codons and transmembrane helices. (
  • The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1 , and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. (
  • Short amino acid sequences have been shown to act as targeting signals directing proteins to a variety of intracellular locations. (
  • Several melanosome-specific proteins, such as tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and Pmel17 have one or both of those sorting signals in their sequences (for a review, see Bonifacino and Traub, 2003 ). (
  • The four KATs are also predicted to have mitochondrial targeting sequences, but purified mitochondria were unable to import any of the proteins in vitro. (
  • Clustering 20 amino acids into a few groups by the proposed greedy algorithm provides a new way to extract features from protein sequences to cover more adjacent amino acids and hence reduce the dimensionality of the input vector of protein features. (
  • In an effort to identify new factors that may contribute to enterococcal pathogenesis, we derived and systematically panned a database of nucleotide sequences compiled from random sequencing of the genome of E. faecalis MMH594 ( 21 ), which caused multiple infections within a hospital ward, for sequences that appeared to encode surface proteins. (
  • SorLA/LR11 (250 kDa) is the largest and most composite member of the Vps10p-domain receptors, a family of type 1 proteins preferentially expressed in neuronal tissue. (
  • Here we report the structures of the VHS domain of human GGA3 complexed with signals from both mannose-6-phosphate receptors. (
  • Activated receptors then transmit messages across the PM by initiating signaling cascades in the cytosol that alter cell physiology and/or behavior. (
  • ESCRT proteins restrict constitutive NF-κB signaling by trafficking cytokine receptors. (
  • The activation of TRP channels may be directly mediated by physical or chemical stimuli or indirectly by second messengers generated by G protein-coupled or tyrosine kinase receptors. (
  • Receptors, enzymes and adapter molecules have been identified, signaling cascades and networks have been defined, and the complex regulation of gene expression has been explored. (
  • The two distinct motifs form a bipartite recycling signal recognized by the retromer subunits, Vps26 and Vps35. (
  • Some signals are referred to as tyrosine-based sorting signals and conform to the NPXY or YXXO consensus motifs. (
  • Other signals known as dileucine-based signals fit [DE]XXXL[LI] or DXXLL consensus motifs. (
  • In addition to peptide motifs, ubiquitination of cytosolic lysine residues also serves as a signal for sorting at various stages of the endosomal-lysosomal system. (
  • Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A) is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. (
  • Phosphorylation of μ2 enhances the binding affinity of AP2 for sorting motifs as much as 25-fold compared with dephosphorylated AP2. (
  • In living cells, many short, linear amino acid motifs function as targeting signals in proteins to specify the final destination of the protein transport. (
  • Because the seven helicase motifs are short and degenerate, their presence alone does not confer significant similarity upon two proteins that contain them. (
  • The recognition of sorting signals was not affected by the phosphorylation status of the α or β2 subunit, suggesting that phosphorylation of μ2 is critical for regulation of AP2 binding to sorting signals. (
  • I speculate that sustained up-regulation and/or acute activation of dynamin-1 in cancer cells contributes to a program of "adaptive" CME that alters signaling to enhance cancer cell survival, migration, and proliferation. (
  • Cloning, characterization and regulation of a protein disulfide isomerase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (
  • Indeed approximately one-third of the proteins identified in the soluble fractions are associated predominantly to one of the three tissues, indicating a tissue-dependent regulation of mitochondrial proteins. (
  • Multiple Domains in PEX16 Mediate Its Trafficking and Recruitment of Peroxisomal Proteins to the ER. (
  • Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. (
  • PSME2 is another subunit of the 11S regulator RNF31 encodes a protein which contains a ring finger motif found in several proteins which mediate protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. (
  • 1999 ). N-Glycans mediate the apical sorting of a GPI-anchored, raft associated protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (
  • Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesised as precursor proteins containing an N-terminal extension which functions as a targeting signal, which is proteolytically cleaved off after import into mitochondria. (
  • Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins, and cytosolic chaperones maintain them in transport-competent states ( 3 ). (
  • Tom20 and Tom22 function as the entry site for virtually all the mitochondrial proteins into the organelles, and Tom40 constitutes a putative protein translocation channel ( 4 ). (
  • The mammalian mitochondrial proteins, ETF and ETFQO, are essential for the catabolism of fatty acids, several amino acids, and choline and are important in supplying mitochondria with respiratory substrates auxiliary to those derived from sucrose. (
  • Here we used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze mitochondrial proteins extracted from rat skeletal muscle, heart, and liver tissues. (
  • Sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes is mediated by signals present within the cytosolic domains of the proteins. (
  • All of these signals are recognized by components of protein coats peripherally associated with the cytosolic face of membranes. (
  • AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1 (PACS-1), a cytosolic protein which interacts with both AP-1A and cargo that has been phosphorylated by casein kinase II. (
  • These coat complexes also contain or interact with adaptor proteins that recognize sorting signals in the cytosolic domains of cargo proteins to sort them into the vesicles. (
  • Basolateral sorting signals are confined to discrete cytosolic segments of transmembrane proteins, frequently involving critical tyrosine or dileucine residues and probably decoded by different cytosolic adaptors ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Expression in Arabidopsis cells of cDNAs encoding each of these KATs fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) at their C-termini showed that three are targeted to peroxisomes while the fourth is apparently cytosolic. (
  • We review our present knowledge on components and mechanisms involved in the mitochondrial protein import process in plants. (
  • and mechanisms in volv ed in the mitochondrial protein import process in plants. (
  • Through intensive studies over the past 40 years protein phosphorylation has become one of the best understood signaling mechanisms. (
  • Banfield DK (2011) Mechanisms of protein retention in the Golgi. (
  • S ince synaptic vesicles are found at presynaptic specializations in the distal axon, far from the site of protein synthesis in the cell body, neurons must have high fidelity mechanisms that regulate the trafficking of proteins to this organelle during synaptic vesicle biogenesis. (
  • however, the sorting mechanisms and proteins involved in this differentiated trafficking are not known. (
  • For apical destination, the mechanisms and the identification of sorting information have remained more elusive and controversial ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • We now find that the btn1Δ genotype phenocopies nutrient-limiting conditions, whereby functional Golgi proteins are recognized as Golgi quality control (GQC) substrates and redistribute to the vacuole in wild-type cells upon the turn-off of the TOR kinase signaling [ Dobzinski et al 2015 ]. (
  • Overexpression of Grb2 with inactivating point mutations in N- or C-terminal SH3 domains or in both SH3 domains inhibited EGF-induced formation of coated pits efficiently, even though Grb2 SH3 mutations did not block activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). (
  • Boulton TG, Yancopoulos GD, Gregory JS, Slaughter C. Moomaw C, Hsu J, Cobb MH (1990) An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control. (
  • Several proteins, including clathrin, AP-2, and Dab2, have been proposed to function as recognition proteins for NPXY signals. (
  • Phosphorylation events regulate signal recognition. (
  • This complex array of signals and recognition proteins ensures the dynamic but accurate distribution of transmembrane proteins to different compartments of the endosomal-lysosomal system. (
  • Promiscuous recognition of ligands by proteins is as important as strict recognition in numerous biological processes. (
  • The VHS (Vps27p, Hrs and STAM) domains of the GGA proteins are responsible for the highly specific recognition of these acidic-cluster-dileucine signals. (
  • 1987 ). Identification and synthesis of a recognition signal for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to proteins. (
  • 1997 ). Recognition of acceptor proteins by UDP-D-xylose proteoglycan core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase. (
  • Structure/function studies of a plant pathogen effector in complex with a host disease resistance protein domain reveal the molecular basis for recognition and underpin future engineering of immunity in crops. (
  • Plasticity of polyubiquitin recognition as lysosomal targeting signals by the endosomal sorting machinery. (
  • Human FAM158A and its paralogs in other species are part of the uncharacterized protein family UPF0172 family, which is a subset of the JAB1/Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 ubiquitin protease protein family. (
  • The function of TTC35 is unknown but it is also known to interact with Cox4NB and Ubiquitin C. Predicted Protein Structures using SwissModel Predicted Fam158a structure from I Tasser Fam158a is nearly ubiquitously expressed throughout the human body. (
  • Recent studies have uncovered the role of specific adaptors for recruiting the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase to these proteins. (
  • We found that mutant Gas1 proteins that lack a GPI anchor and/or S/T region (serine- and threonine-rich region), two common characteristic features conserved among yeast GPI-anchored proteins, were still sorted away from Gap1p-containing vesicles. (
  • Furthermore, a mutant glycosylated α-factor, gpαGPI, which contains both the GPI anchor and S/T region from Gas1p, still entered Gap1p-containing vesicles, demonstrating that these conserved characteristics do not prevent proteins from entering Gap1p-containing vesicles. (
  • These results suggest that the interaction of gpαF with Erv29p is essential for sorting into Gap1p-containing vesicles. (
  • Based on the fact that they entered different ER-derived vesicles, we conclude that DRM partitioning of GPI-anchored proteins is not the dominant determinant of protein sorting upon ER exit. (
  • This raises the question as to how L1 is sorted into a specific population of transport vesicles destined for the axonal growth cone. (
  • Synaptic vesicles are concentrated in the distal axon, far from the site of protein synthesis. (
  • 1995 ). Sorting and budding of cinstitutive secretory vesicles in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. (
  • 7 ), and it is becoming increasingly clear that specific interactions between recruited coat subunits and cargo proteins direct the incorporation of cargo into budding vesicles and that adaptor molecules other than AP2 can interact with phosphatidylinositol (PI) (4,5), P 2 and clathrin ( 1 ). (
  • Unchecked, this nonspecific ER egress could deplete the ER of relatively abundant proteins that would be packaged into transport vesicles at their prevailing concentrations. (
  • During the transition from endosymbiont to organelle most of the cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host cell, resulting in a chloroplast with a much reduced genome that requires massive import of gene products (proteins) back to the organelle. (
  • We also show that mutant plants with disrupted CAH1 gene expression have reduced rates of CO 2 uptake and accumulate lower amounts of starch compared to wild-type plants, indicating an important function of the CAH1 protein for the photosynthetic capacity of Arabidopsis. (
  • RNA polymerase II is a specific RNA polymerase that usually is the key part of the catalysis process that produces each RNA from the DNA gene or isoform to ultimately make a protein. (
  • UPF0172 protein FAM158A, also known as c14orf122 or CGI112, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM158A gene located on chromosome 14q11.2. (
  • Both approaches led to the identification of a polymorphic multicopy gene family with predicted amino acid homology to the major sheath protein of Treponema denticola. (
  • SLC39A1 (Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • We show for the first time that these signals work by influencing insect gene expression. (
  • While mutations throughout the 970 amino acid protein encoded by the OCRL1 gene can result in Lowe syndrome, cell extracts from fibroblasts cultured from Lowe syndrome patients universally exhibit a markedly reduced ability to dephosphorylate PIP 2 ( 29 , 44 ). (
  • What does this gene/protein do? (
  • Further characterization of the 73 nonessential Kar2p retention mutants revealed roles for a number of novel gene products in protein glycosylation, GPI-anchor attachment, ER quality control, and retrieval of escaped ER residents. (
  • Analysis of the structural gene among various E. faecalis isolates reveals the existence of alternate forms of expression of the Esp protein. (
  • The Drosophila Pat1 gene (CG10695) is located on the X chromosome and encodes a predicted protein of 686 amino acids that shows 42% identity and 55% similarity with its human homolog. (
  • Rigorous comparison of RNA and protein expression afforded removal of the false positive identifications and redundant entries but rescued the proteins identified by a single high scoring peptide, resulting in the final identification of 6471 unique gene products among which 98% of the corresponding transcripts were detected with high probability. (
  • The first part of the presequence directs the proteins to the mitochondria and the second part mediates sorting to the intermembrane space. (
  • Integrin beta1 mediates vaccinia virus entry through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. (
  • Specific sorting signals direct transmembrane proteins to the compartments of the endosomal-lysosomal system. (
  • Here we show that binding of AP2 to sorting signals in vitro is regulated by phosphorylation of the μ2 subunit of AP2. (
  • VPS13 , vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein. (
  • The vacuolar protein sorting 33B (VPS33B) was rarely reported in malignant tumors. (
  • Some are specialized for eukaryotic proteins, [4] some for human proteins, [5] and some for plant proteins. (
  • Eukaryotic cells must transport transmembrane proteins between different subcellular compartments, often in response to specific signals or conditions. (
  • The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing targeting information that directs them to a translocon complex in the chloroplast envelope, the Toc-Tic system, through which these proteins are transported. (
  • Signaling, in turn, modulates early endocytic trafficking. (
  • The study also highlights key distinctions between endocytic requirements of growth at yeast buds compared to that at hyphal tips and different requirements of AP-2 in maintaining the polarity of mannosylated proteins and ergosterol at hyphal tips. (
  • ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. (
  • Motivated by the idea that the cleavage site position and the amino acid composition of the signal peptide are correlated, new features have been included as input to the neural network. (
  • The evidence indicates that the h Slo protein possesses intrinsic information for transport to the apical cell surface through a mechanism that may involve association with lipid rafts and that is independent of glycosylation of the channel itself or an associated protein. (
  • GPI anchors ( 9 , 10 ) and certain transmembrane domains ( 6 ) seem to act as apical sorting signals through interaction with lipid rafts. (
  • It has also become evident that the lipid composition of the endosomal membranes (i.e., rafts, phosphoinositides) plays a central role in both trafficking and signaling events. (
  • In maintaining ER function and homeostasis, a central event is the efficient homeostasis of the resident proteins that perform the essential functions of protein and lipid biogenesis. (
  • YXXO and [DE]XXXL[LI] signals are recognized with characteristic fine specificity by the adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4, whereas DXXLL signals are recognized by another family of adaptors known as GGAs. (
  • Exomer consists of the core protein Chs5, and four paralagous adaptor proteins called Chs5-Arf1-binding Proteins (ChAPs): Chs6, Bud7, Bch1, and Bch2. (
  • Adaptor proteins (AP) play important roles in the sorting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network, but how they function in the sorting of various melanosome-specific proteins such as Pmel17, an essential structural component of melanosomes, in melanocytes is unknown. (
  • We characterized the processing and trafficking of Pmel17 via adaptor protein complexes within melanocytic cells. (
  • The TLR4 adaptor TRAM controls the phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by interacting with the Rab11-family interacting protein 2. (
  • In yeast, there are at least two vesicle populations upon ER (endoplasmic reticulum) exit, one containing Gap1p (general aminoacid permease) and a glycosylated α-factor, gpαF (glycosylated proα-factor), and the other containing GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored proteins, Gas1p (glycophospholipid-anchored surface protein) and Yps1p. (
  • In addition, we have made predictions on all 6.3 million proteins in the Yeast Resource Center (YRC) database. (
  • Crystal structure of the yeast Phox homology (PX) domain protein Grd19p complexed to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate. (
  • One of the many transmembrane proteins that follow this route of transport in yeast is the chitin synthase enzyme Chs3. (
  • Preparation of the Mgm101 Recombination Protein by MBP-based Tagging Strategy Xiaowen Wang 1 , MacMillan Mbantenkhu 1 , Sara Wierzbicki 1 , Xin Jie Chen 1 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University The yeast mitochondrial nucleoid protein, Mgm101, is a Rad52-type recombination protein that forms large oligomeric rings. (
  • Retention of resident soluble proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is achieved in both yeast and animal cells by their continual retrieval from the cis-Golgi, or a pre-Golgi compartment. (
  • Scientists in the 24-member team first conducted a yeast-two-hybrid screen to map protein interactions in the TGF-β network. (
  • Phospholipid flippases Lem3p-Dnf1p and Lem3p-Dnf2p are involved in the sorting of the tryptophan permease Tat2p in yeast. (
  • These include the Xenopus protein importin and its yeast homolog, SRP1 (a suppressor of certain temperature-sensitive mutations of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which bind to the NLS. (
  • To gain new mechanistic insight into ER homeostasis and the biogenesis of secretory proteins, we screened a genomewide collection of yeast mutants for defective intracellular retention of the ER chaperone, Kar2p. (
  • Broek D, Samiy N, Fasano O, Fujiyama A, Tamanoi F, Northrup J, Wigler M (1985) Differential activation of yeast adenylate cyclase by wild-type and mutant RAS proteins. (
  • These data demonstrate that the neuronal form of L1 carries the tyrosine-based sorting signal YRSLE, which is critical for sorting L1 to the axonal growth cone. (
  • 80 EBV-encoded proteins are expressed in a temporal cascade, with initial production of immediate early (IE) transactivators triggering induction of early genes, including enzymes required for viral replication ( 2 ). (
  • In our analysis of the genome, we identified a large number of new uncharacterized genes predicted to encode proteins that either reside on the surface of the cell or are secreted. (
  • Different search options are implemented to enable the construction of coexpression and/or protein-protein interaction networks centered around multiple input genes or proteins. (
  • They also include genes for a cell wall-anchoring surface protein and a phage resistance protein. (
  • Knockdowns of 16,606 genes yielded 61 whose protein products would be expected to protect the genome against mutations. (
  • Whelan, James 2004-10-06 00:00:00 Mitochondrial biogenesis requires a coordinated expression of both the nuclear and the organellar genomes and specific intracellular protein trafficking, processing and assembly machinery. (
  • The TGN is a major site of intracellular protein sorting at the exit site from the Golgi stack. (
  • For example, gathering and processing microarray data that are related to a particular biological process is not straightforward, nor is the compilation of protein-protein interactions from numerous partially overlapping databases identified through diverse approaches. (
  • The coexpression tool enables either the alternate or simultaneous use of diverse expression compendia, whereas the protein-protein interaction tool searches experimentally and computationally identified protein-protein interactions. (
  • The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) interactome systematically characterises high-confidence viral-viral and viral-host protein interactions in HCMV-infected cells, facilitating multiple novel insights into HCMV and herpesviral function. (
  • SorLA binds several ligands, including neurotensin, platelet-derived growth factor-bb, and lipoprotein lipase, and via complex-formation with the amyloid precursor protein it downregulates generation of Alzheimer's disease-associated Aβ-peptide. (
  • A central feature of Alzheimer's disease is the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) by the β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. (
  • During the last two decades, the characterization of the sorting machinery that regulates the trafficking of proteins between different endosomal compartments has been at the forefront of the study of endosomal biology ( 13 , 67 ). (
  • Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been successfully applied to the tasks of transmembrane protein topology prediction and signal peptide prediction. (
  • Hedgehog (Hh) stimulates intracellular signaling by binding to Patched (Ptc) at the cell surface, relieving Ptc-mediated repression of the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). (
  • These professional secretory cells devote as much as half of their total protein synthesis to the production of a single hormone ( 2 ). (
  • Fits nicely into a 90 min lecture including showing the 15 min movie clip on Protein Synthesis from the Prentice Hall Anatomy and Physiology video. (
  • The variability seen in glycosaminoglycan chain structure from cell type to cell type, which is acquired by use of particular Ser-Gly sites in the protein core, might therefore be important for post-synthesis sorting. (
  • While studies have identified changes in transcription leading to the synthesis and secretion of new proteins to facilitate hyphal growth, effective maintenance of hyphae also requires concomitant removal or relocalization of other cell surface molecules. (
  • However, despite the obvious dependence of protein synthesis on mRNA, many studies have reported that more than half of the total transcripts are non-coding RNA ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Jankowski A, Kim JH, Collins RF, Daneman R, Walton P, Grinstein S. In situ measurements of the pH of mammalian peroxisomes using the fluorescent protein pHluorin. (
  • A global protein survey is needed to gain systems-level insights into mammalian cell signaling and information flow. (
  • Braulke T, Bonifacino JS (2009) Sorting of lysosomal proteins. (
  • An aspect under intense scrutiny deals with the hypothesis that N-glycans are ubiquitous apical sorting signals presumably recognized by cellular lectins at the trans-Golgi network ( 1 , 13 - 15 ). (
  • Consequently, the growth cone is well positioned as the major site of action of L1, where in response to extracellular ligand binding, L1 generates intracellular signals and interacts with the cytoskeleton to regulate axonal growth ( Kamiguchi and Lemmon, 1997 ). (
  • found that Fam158a interacts with a protein called TTC35. (
  • KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of proteins. (
  • Using a combination of genetic, biochemical and motor-tracking studies, we show that PAT1, an APP-binding protein, interacts with Kinesin-1, functions in the transport of oskar mRNA and Dynein and is required for the efficient motility of KHC along microtubules. (
  • We have identified a protein in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , CAH1, that is trafficked via the endomembrane system (ER/Golgi apparatus) to the chloroplast instead of using the Toc-Tic machinery. (
  • Vi har identifierat ett protein i modellväxten Arabidopsis thaliana (CAH1) som istället för att använda Toc-Tic tranporteras via det endomembrana systemet (ER/Golgi). (
  • The unfolded protein response (UPR) controls the levels of molecular chaperones and enzymes involved in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • Different AtCKX-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were localized to the vacuoles or the endoplasmic reticulum and possibly to the extracellular space, indicating that subcellular compartmentation plays an important role in cytokinin biology. (
  • TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active translocation complex. (
  • The first is an energy-independent docking of the protein to the nuclear envelope and the second is an energy-dependent translocation through the nuclear pore complex. (
  • Our study is the first to demonstrate that VPS33B is negatively regulated by LMP-1 and nicotine and thus suppresses the proliferation of NPC cells by interacting with NESG1 to regulate EGFR/PI3K/AKT/c-Myc/P53/miR-133a-3p signaling in NPC cells. (
  • Since chloroplasts lack N-glycosylation machinery, we propose that a route for chloroplast proteins that require endomembrane-specific post-translational modifications for their functionality exists as a complement to the Toc-Tic system. (
  • Baker MJ, Frazier AE, Gulbis JM, Ryan MT (2007) Mitochondrial protein-import machinery: correlating structure with function. (
  • the intracellular machinery required to recognise these signals. (
  • Cargo adaptors act to recognize sorting signals in transmembrane cargos and to interact with coat complexes that aid in vesicle biogenesis. (
  • In this review, we concentrate on the present status and future perspectives of SignalP, our neural network-based method for prediction of the most well-known sorting signal: the secretory signal peptide. (
  • Finally, we briefly review a few methods for predicting other protein sorting signals and discuss the future of protein sorting prediction in general. (
  • The development of protein subcellular location prediction has been summarized in two comprehensive review articles. (
  • By using prediction a high number of proteins can be assessed in order to find candidates that are trafficked to the desired location. (
  • We describe improvements of the currently most popular method for prediction of classically secreted proteins, SignalP. (
  • The accuracy of cleavage site prediction has increased in the range from 6-17 % over the previous version, whereas the signal peptide discrimination improvement mainly is due to the elimination of false positive predictions, as well as the introduction of a new discrimination score for the neural network. (
  • Furthermore, a proper choice of a subset of complementary support vector machines constructed by different features of proteins maximizes the prediction accuracy. (
  • As a result of large-scale genome sequencing efforts in recent years, protein data has accumulated in public data banks at an increasing rate. (
  • Many studies have utilized genome-wide cDNA or oligonucleotide microarrays to measure mRNA expression level, deducing the corresponding protein expression ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • p130Cas scaffold protein regulates ErbB2 stability by altering breast cancer cell sensitivity to autophagy. (
  • Protein import into mitochondria is a central process in mitochondrial biogenesis. (