Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.PhosphoproteinsRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
... s participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade, also referred to as the mitogen-activated protein ... Weston CR, Lambright DG, Davis RJ (2002). "Signal transduction. MAP kinase signaling specificity". Science. 296 (5577): 2345-7 ... a major tyrosine kinase target protein, is a mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinase". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 86 (18 ... "Direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1 by the Ste20p homologue GCK and the adapter protein ...
Birnbaumer L (1990). "G proteins in signal transduction". Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 30: 675-705. doi:10.1146/annurev.pa. ... all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their ... Rhodopsin-like receptors are a family of proteins that comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors. G-protein- ... Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1994). "Fingerprinting G-protein-coupled receptors". Protein Eng. 7 (2): 195-203. doi:10.1093/protein/ ...
Brady-Kalnay SM, Tonks NK (1994). "Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, cell adhesion and signal transduction". Advances in ... Some of these signals are proteins that interact with, or bind, to PTPmu, whereas, others may be dephosphorylated by PTPmu. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. Protein tyrosine phosphatases ... To support this assertion, PTPmu has been shown to interact with and/or dephosphorylate many signaling proteins involved in ...
"Signal transduction through decay-accelerating factor. Interaction of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor and protein tyrosine ... Lck is a tyrosine kinase, which phosphorylates tyrosine residues of certain proteins involved in the intracellular signaling ... Lck is a 56-kilodalton protein. The N-terminal tail of Lck is myristoylated and palmitoylated, which tethers the protein to the ... Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune ...
"Signals from Eph and ephrin proteins: a developmental tool kit". Science's STKE : Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment. ... in signal transduction". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 902 (1): 201-5; discussion 205-7. doi:10.1111/j.1749- ... Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLT1 gene. Oncogene FLT belongs to ... Petrova TV, Makinen T, Alitalo K (Nov 1999). "Signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor receptors". Experimental Cell ...
Neel BG, Tonks NK (1997). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases in signal transduction". Curr Opin Cell Biol. 9 (2): 193-204. doi: ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... This suggests that these proteins are PTPrho substrates. PTPrho also dephosphorylates BCR protein. The ability of PTPrho to ... which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. The first isoform encodes the larger version of the protein. The second ...
Lowell CA, Berton G (Mar 1999). "Integrin signal transduction in myeloid leukocytes". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 65 (3): 313 ... Snapper SB, Rosen FS (1999). "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling and cytoskeletal organization". ... This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for ... and functions as a negative regulator of cell migration and adhesion triggered by the beta-2 integrin signal transduction ...
Second messenger system Birnbaumer L (April 2007). "Expansion of signal transduction by G proteins. The second 15 years or so: ... GeneGlobe -> GHRH Signaling[permanent dead link] Retrieved on May 31, 2009 Gi alpha Subunit at the US National Library of ... Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ... Therefore, the ultimate effect of Gi is the opposite of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. It is also attributed a minor role in ...
Simon MI, Strathmann MP, Gautam N (1991). "Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction". Science. 252 (5007): 802-8. doi: ... Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors belong to a class of metabotropic receptors that use G proteins as their signalling ... There are four broad classes of form of G-protein: Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12/13. Muscarinic receptors vary in the G protein to which ... This receptor is bound to intracellular proteins, known as G proteins, which begin the information cascade within the cell. By ...
... signal transduction, G protein-coupled receptor, endocytosis, and gene expression. NDPK are homo hexameric proteins made up of ... This increase in GTP concentration near G protein α-subunits causes activation of G protein α-subunits for G-protein signaling ... UTP for polysaccharide synthesis while GTP is used for protein elongation and signal transduction. During cAMP-mediated signal ... Furthermore, NDPK is involved with the signal transduction processes and G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis as it transfers ...
The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and ... Engagement of CD81 lowers the signaling threshold required to trigger T-Cell\CD3 mediated proviral DNA in CD4+ T cells. CD81 ... It forms a signal transduction complex with CD19, CD21 and Leu-13 (CD225) on the surface of the B cell. On T cells CD81 ... This protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance. Also it may be involved in signal ...
Jenkins GI (2009). "Signal transduction in responses to UV-B radiation". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 60: 407-31. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... "C-terminal region of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with the COP1 protein". Proc. Natl. ... Kliebenstein DJ, Lim JE, Landry LG, Last RL (September 2002). "Arabidopsis UVR8 regulates ultraviolet-B signal transduction and ... UVR8 is a β-propeller protein with 7 blade-shaped β-sheets. It shares sequence homology with mammalian proteins involved in ...
"LDL-receptor-related proteins in Wnt signal transduction". Nature. 407 (6803): 530-535. doi:10.1038/35035117. PMID 11029007. ... seven-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for the Wingless type MMTV integration site family of signaling proteins ... Frizzled-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZD8 gene. This intronless gene is a member of the frizzled gene ... Dann CE, Hsieh JC, Rattner A, Sharma D, Nathans J, Leahy DJ (2001). "Insights into Wnt binding and signalling from the ...
Walsh DA, Van Patten SM (December 1994). "Multiple pathway signal transduction by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase". FASEB J. ... is a G protein-coupled receptor-triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication. cAMP was discovered by Earl Sutherland ... "Signal transduction through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 127-128: 179-86. doi:10.1007/BF01076769. ... and the effector protein. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the ...
2002). "Regulation of immune responses by E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases". In Altman A. Signal Transduction Pathways in ... 2002). "Differential expression and signaling of CBL and CBL-B in BCR/ABL transformed cells". Oncogene. 21 (9): 1423-33. doi: ... "The CBL-related protein CBLB participates in FLT3 and interleukin-7 receptor signal transduction in pro-B cells". J. Biol. Chem ... "The CBL-related protein CBLB participates in FLT3 and interleukin-7 receptor signal transduction in pro-B cells". J. Biol. Chem ...
Alex LA, Simon MI (Apr 1994). "Protein histidine kinases and signal transduction in prokaryotes and eukaryotes". Trends in ... Hoch JA, Varughese KI (Sep 2001). "Keeping signals straight in phosphorelay signal transduction". Journal of Bacteriology. 183 ... Perego M, Hoch JA (Mar 1996). "Protein aspartate phosphatases control the output of two-component signal transduction systems ... Signal transducing histidine kinases are the key elements in two-component signal transduction systems. Examples of histidine ...
... also functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and calcium signaling. In humans, the CD38 protein is encoded by the ... The CD38 protein is a marker of cell activation. It has been connected to HIV infection, leukemias, myelomas, solid tumors, ... Signal. 11 (5): 309-16. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(99)00004-2. PMID 10376802. Funaro A, Malavasi F (1999). "Human CD38, a surface ...
"Smad regulation in TGF-beta signal transduction". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 24): 4359-69. PMID 11792802. R-Smad Proteins at the US ... In response to signals by the TGF-β superfamily of ligands these proteins associate with receptor kinases and are ... SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD8 are activated in response to BMPs bone morphogenetic protein or GDP signals. SMAD6 and SMAD7 may be ... TGF beta signaling pathway Wharton K, Derynck R (November 2009). "TGFbeta family signaling: novel insights in development and ...
2000). "LDL-receptor-related proteins in Wnt signal transduction". Nature. 407 (6803): 530-5. doi:10.1038/35035117. PMID ... gene family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for Wnt signaling proteins. The FZD5 protein is believed ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... Yao R, Maeda T, Takada S, Noda T (2001). "Identification of a PDZ domain containing Golgi protein, GOPC, as an interaction ...
... by overexpression of Nkd mimicking loss of Wnt signaling, and by the binding of Nkd protein to the Wnt signal transducing ... Naked cuticle targets dishevelled to antagonize Wnt signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2001 Mar 15;15(6):658-71.PMID 11274052 ... Vertebrate proteins related to Drosophila Naked Cuticle bind Dishevelled and antagonize Wnt signaling. Dev Biol. 2001 Jun 1;234 ... In zebrafish, Nkd genes regulate Wnt signaling. The mRNA transcription of Nkd genes is inducible by Wnt signaling in diverse ...
2000). "Dual signaling of human Mel1a melatonin receptors via G(i2), G(i3), and G(q/11) proteins". Mol. Endocrinol. 13 (12): ... 1996). "Ras involvement in signal transduction by the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (6): 3141-7. doi:10.1074/ ... 1999). "RGS3 inhibits G protein-mediated signaling via translocation to the membrane and binding to Galpha11". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA11 gene. Together with ...
Collum RG, Brutsaert S, Lee G, Schindler C (August 2000). "A Stat3-interacting protein (StIP1) regulates cytokine signal ... "Cross-talk between signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and androgen receptor signaling in prostate carcinoma ... "Activation of the androgen receptor N-terminal domain by interleukin-6 via MAPK and STAT3 signal transduction pathways". The ... It is a member of the STAT protein family. STAT3 is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth ...
Wells L, Vosseller K, Hart GW (Mar 2001). "Glycosylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins: signal transduction and O-GlcNAc". ... Burgoyne RD (Mar 2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating diversity in neuronal Ca2+ signalling". Nature Reviews. ... The protein contains a conserved proline-rich motif, suggesting that it may participate in protein-protein interactions via an ... and STRING also yielded zero predicted protein-protein interactions. There is a potential that the protein is secreted via a ...
2000). "LDL-receptor-related proteins in Wnt signal transduction". Nature. 407 (6803): 530-535. doi:10.1038/35035117. PMID ... The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been ... 2001). "Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". ... It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein ...
Wu D, LaRosa GJ, Simon MI (Jul 1993). "G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways for interleukin-8". Science. 261 (5117): ... "The inducible G protein-coupled receptor edg-1 signals via the G(i)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". The Journal of ... Beals CR, Wilson CB, Perlmutter RM (Nov 1987). "A small multigene family encodes Gi signal-transduction proteins". Proceedings ... "The inducible G protein-coupled receptor edg-1 signals via the G(i)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". The Journal of ...
signal transduction. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of membrane potential. • nervous system process. • synaptic ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Receptor/signaling modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ...
... including signal transduction events. Caveolin-1 contains a scaffolding region that contributes to the binding of the protein ... Interaction of many signaling molecules with the scaffolding domain sequesters them into caveolae and inhibits or suppresses ... including signal transduction events. Caveolin-1 contains a scaffolding region that contributes to the binding of the protein ... Caveolin-interacting proteins usually have a typical sequence motif, also present in all the LMW-PTPs, which is characterized ...
A possible model for an intracellular signalling system related to actin filaments. Physiological Chemistry Physics & Medical ... The protein model of signal transduction system based on actin cytoskeleton. V.V.Matveev. Evidence of a new type of protein- ... The protein model of signal transduction. Vladimir Matveev vm_spb at my-deja.com Mon Dec 4 03:21:37 EST 2000 *Previous message ... protein interaction: desensitized actomyosin blocks Ca2+-sensitivity of the natural one. ...
Specific GSLs, indeed, interface with specific protein domains that are found in signalling molecules and which act as GSL ... sensors to modify signalling responses. The regulation exerted by GSLs on signal transduction is orthogonal to the ligand- ... Here, we review the available literature on GSL-protein interactions and their effects on cell signalling and development. ... Several reports have described how cell surface receptors can be kept in a resting state or activate alternative signalling ...
The importance of small G proteins in Ang II signaling is becoming clearer. Through activation of small G proteins, such as Ras ... Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are monomeric G proteins with a low molecular weight of 20 to 40 kDa. A small G protein ... Angiotensin II Signal Transduction Through Small GTP-Binding Proteins. Haruhiko Ohtsu, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hidekatsu Nakashima, ... Angiotensin II Signal Transduction Through Small GTP-Binding Proteins. Haruhiko Ohtsu, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hidekatsu Nakashima, ...
Conserved Metazoan Protein Kinase Signaling Transduction Pathways.. Worms provide an elegant model system for studying signal ... protein-tyrosine kinase;. RTK,. receptor protein-tyrosine kinases;. CTK,. cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases;. STAT,. signal ... The protein kinases of Caenorhabditis elegans: A model for signal transduction in multicellular organisms. Gregory D. Plowman, ... Protein Phosphatases.. Because of their important role in signal transduction, it is not surprising that the activity of ...
Imaging Signal Transduction in Living Cells with Fluorescent Proteins Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Science Signaling web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling. ...
LYST appears to function as an adapter protein that may juxtapose proteins that mediate intracellular membrane fusion reactions ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * LYST protein, human * Lyst protein, mouse * Macromolecular Substances ... The Chediak-Higashi protein interacts with SNARE complex and signal transduction proteins Mol Med. 2002 Jan;8(1):56-64. ... were with proteins important in vesicular transport and signal transduction (the SNARE-complex protein HRS, 14-3-3, and casein ...
New roles for G-protein fry-dimers in transmembrane signalling. Nature 1993; 365: 403-406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Rodbell M. The role of GTP-binding proteins in signal transduction: from the sublimely simple to the conceptually complex. Curr ... Isoprenylation in regulation of signal transduction by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases. Nature 1992; 359 (6391): 147-150. ... Evidence for the Role of Membrane Receptor Lateral Movement in GTP-Binding Protein-Mediated Signal Transduction. ...
PRDM proteins therefore have a pivotal role in the transduction of signals that control cell proliferation and differentiation ... PRDM proteins have a dual action: they mediate the effect induced by different cell signals like steroid hormones and control ... In this review, we describe pathways in which PRDM proteins are involved and the molecular mechanism of their transcriptional ... Experimental evidence has shown that the PRDM proteins play an important role in gene expression regulation, modifying the ...
Thus, the control of the phosphorylation state of cell signaling components by the ABI1 product could mediate pleiotropic ... A protein phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana ... A protein phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana ... A protein phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
ProSci has a wide range of antibodies that bind to signal transduction proteins for your research. Order diverse research ...
Moreover, the signaling activity of PrPc occurred mainly at neurites. Thus, PrPc may be a signal transduction protein. ... Signal Transduction Through Prion Protein. By S. Mouillet-Richard, M. Ermonval, C. Chebassier, J. L. Laplanche, S. Lehmann, J. ... Signal Transduction Through Prion Protein. By S. Mouillet-Richard, M. Ermonval, C. Chebassier, J. L. Laplanche, S. Lehmann, J. ... We used the murine 1C11 neuronal differentiation model to search for PrPc-dependent signal transduction through antibody- ...
... molecule to which the receptor binds Signal transduction- the interaction of ligand and receptor... ... Ligand- signaling molecule like calcium. Receptor protein- molecule to which the receptor binds. Signal transduction- the ... Myostatin: Muscle and Signal Transduction Essay. family of signal transduction proteins that regulate the differentiation and ... Cells also signal through gap junctions.. 2. Paracrine signaling- signals with short lived local effects. Plays an important ...
In plants, protein phosphorylation has been implicated in responses to many signals, including light, pathogen invasion, ... Plant Protein Kinase Families and Signal Transduction. J. M. Stone, J. C. Walker ... Protein kinase function can be counteracted by the action of phosphoprotein phosphatases. Phosphorylation status of a protein ... Purification of protein kinases and their subsequent cloning, facilitated by the PCR and advances in homology-based cloning ...
Protein kinase C isoenzymes: divergence in signal transduction? H Hug H Hug ... H Hug, T F Sarre; Protein kinase C isoenzymes: divergence in signal transduction?. Biochem J 15 April 1993; 291 (2): 329-343. ... Cell Signalling Biology. *Wenner-Gren International Series. *Authors*Why publish with us? ... The Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein bound at a single target can activate transcription initiation at divergent ...
... and transduce signals through Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways. Recent findings have revealed that BMP signalling is ... Perturbations of BMP signalling pathways are linked to a wide variety of clinical disorders, including vascular diseases, ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) exhibit broad spectra of biological activities in various tissues, including bone, cartilage ... of BMP receptor inhibitors may also prove useful for some clinical diseases induced by hyperactivation of the BMP signalling ...
... we performed phenotypic analyses of the d1 mutant to investigate GA signal transduction and found that GA signaling was ... The α-subunits of heterotrimeric G (Gα) proteins transduce signals from G protein-coupled receptors to effector proteins, ... This is the first evidence for the involvement of the Gα proteins in GA signal transduction in plants. However, because Mas7 is ... Thus mammals contain multiforms of the G proteins that are probably involved in separate systems of signal transduction. ...
Anchoring, scaffolding and adapter proteins function to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events by ... A fundamental role for protein-protein interactions in the organization of signal transduction pathways is evident. ... A fundamental role for protein-protein interactions in the organization of signal transduction pathways is evident. Anchoring, ... The cAMP signaling pathway is organized by A-kinase anchoring proteins. This family of proteins assembles enzyme complexes ...
... tested with real data taken from published experiments that describe redox signaling mediated by the oxidation of two protein ... H2O2-sensing mediated by the oxidation of a protein target and the switch-off of this sensor, by being converted back to its ... H2O2-sensing mediated by the oxidation of a protein target and the switch-off of this sensor, by being converted back to its ... The experimental data required to apply the equations deduced is the fraction of the H2O2 sensor protein in the reduced or in ...
One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays ... Adaptor proteins in protein kinase C-mediated signal transduction. Schechtman, Deborah; Mochly-Rosen, Daria // Oncogene;10/1/ ... Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are serine/threonine kinases involved in signal transduction pathways that govern a wide range ... Cell signal transduction through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Schnaper, H. William // Pediatric Nephrology; ...
G-protein coupled signal transduction systems in the Alzheimers disease brain Cora ONeill; Cora ONeill ‡ ... Cora ONeill, Christopher J. Fowler, Bengt Winblad, Richard F. Cowburn; G-protein coupled signal transduction systems in the ... Neuronal Signaling. *Biochemical Society Transactions. *Essays in Biochemistry. *Emerging Topics in Life Sciences ... Aluminium and Alzheimers disease: electrophoresis of proteins from aluminium-treated human neuroblastoma cells Biochem Soc ...
Birnbaumer L (1992) Receptor-to-effector signaling through G proteins: roles for lay dimers as well as a subunits. Cell 71: ... Wu D, LaRosa GJ, Simon MI (1993) G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways for interleukin-8. Science 261: 101-103PubMed ... Ui M (1990) Pertussis toxin as a valuable probe for G-protein involvement in signal transduction. In Moss J. Vaughn M (eds) ADP ... Simon MI, Strathmann MP, Gautam N (1991) Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction. Science 252: 802808Google Scholar ...
TGFβ regulates gene transcription through Smad proteins and signals via non-Smad pathways. The TGFβ pathway is strictly ... Key role for ubiquitin protein modification in TGFβ signal transduction. De Boeck, Miriam Department of Molecular Cell Biology ... Ubiquitin modifications thus play a key role in TGFβ signal transduction, and in this review we provide an overview of known ... The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signal transduction molecules plays crucial roles in the regulation of ...
Putative Model for the Nod Factor Signal Transduction Pathway.. This model is based on analogies with known signal transduction ... G proteins) (Ross and Higashijima, 1994). Because G proteins are also believed to be key components of signal transduction ... Is Nod Factor Signal Transduction at the Root Epidermis Mediated by G Proteins?. Mastoparan and its more potent synthetic ... Although DAG is known to activate Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C in animal cells, a role for DAG in plant signal transduction ...
Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the proteins that mediate cellular response to such signals and in elucidating ... All cells have the capacity to evoke appropriate and measured responses to signal molecules (such as peptide hormones), ... Regulation of G protein-initiated signal transduction in yeast: paradigms and principles Annu Rev Biochem. 2001;70:703-54. doi ... Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the proteins that mediate cellular response to such signals and in elucidating ...
  • We have previously shown that IF2 targets lipid rafts called caveolae and interacts with caveolin-1, their major structural protein. (unifi.it)
  • Khorana 1992), these proteins are predicted to contain seven transmembrane helical domains that anchor them to the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • PDZ domains have recently emerged as central organizers of protein complexes at the plasma membrane. (jci.org)
  • Such a broad species distribution appears to be unique to this domain, but perhaps the most distinguishing feature of PDZ domains is the observation that the overwhelming majority of proteins containing them are associated with the plasma membrane. (jci.org)
  • Previously, we reported that the rice dwarf mutant, d1 , is defective in the α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein (Gα). (pnas.org)
  • In the innate antiviral system, IFN-α/β initiates a receptor-mediated signaling system that produces an activated STAT1-STAT2-IRF9 heterotrimeric transcription complex known as ISGF3 ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The recent development of BMP receptor inhibitors may also prove useful for some clinical diseases induced by hyperactivation of the BMP signalling pathways. (scialert.net)
  • This has led to current initiation of clinical trials in inflammatory disease states evaluating small molecule inhibitors of MAP kinase proteins and encouraging results have been obtained. (bmj.com)
  • Approach and Results MGP-deficient mice (MGP-/-) were treated with one of two BMP signaling inhibitors, LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc, beginning one day after birth. (harvard.edu)
  • Enzymes of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily catalyze the reversible transfer of the [gamma]-phosphate from ATP to amino acid side chains of proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Anchoring, scaffolding and adapter proteins function to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events by bringing enzymes together. (ovid.com)
  • This proposal is focused on the S. cerevisiae peroxiredoxins and their role in peroxide decomposition, signal transduction, circadian clocks, and aging as model enzymes for the study and comprehension of these biological processes in living organisms, including humans. (intechopen.com)
  • Buss JE, Mumby SE, Casey PJ, Gilman AG, Sefton BM (1987) Myristoylated a subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins. (springer.com)
  • GLP-1 is shown to stimulate cAMP production, and the action of cAMP is demonstrated to be mediated not only by PKA, but also by a newly recognized family of cAMP-binding proteins designated as cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMPGEFs, also known as Epac ) ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After confirming that HB could be selectively bred for, we correlated measurements of this behavior with protein expression over a period of three years, at two geographically distinct sites, using several hundred bee colonies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modulation of distinct signaling elements can generate plants with improved stress resistance. (oup.com)
  • Schematic diagram of a vertebrate polarized epithelial cell, showing the distinct subcellular localization of several epithelial PDZ proteins into the apical, basal-lateral, and junctional domains. (jci.org)
  • NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence analysis identified the 17-kD protein as nuclear core histone H3. (rupress.org)
  • Proteins are just long strings of amino acids folded up, so when something else fits into them, they change shape. (everything2.com)
  • These 80-90 amino acids sequences have now been identified in well over 75 proteins and are characteristically expressed in multiple copies within a single protein. (jci.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results indicate that occupancy of Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII on the monocytic cell line THP-I and on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) induces, transiently and with fast kinetics, MAPK phosphorylation, as indicated by decreased electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and increased amounts of the proteins in antiphosphotyrosine antibody immunoprecipitates. (rupress.org)