A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Serine-threonine protein kinases that relay signals from CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and are involved in control of CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; and APOPTOSIS.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Aurora kinase C is a chromosomal passenger protein that interacts with aurora kinase B in the regulation of MITOSIS. It is found primarily in GERM CELLS in the TESTIS, and may mediate CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION during SPERMATOGENESIS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Amino acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (1/27527)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (2/27527)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (3/27527)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (4/27527)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Differential stability of the DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit mRNA in human glioma cells. (5/27527)

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions in double-strand break repair and immunoglobulin [V(D)J] recombination. We previously established a radiation-sensitive human cell line, M059J, derived from a malignant glioma, which lacks the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) of the DNA-PK multiprotein complex. Although previous Northern blot analysis failed to detect the DNA-PKcs transcript in these cells, we show here through quantitative studies that the transcript is present, albeit at greatly reduced (approximately 20x) levels. Sequencing revealed no genetic alteration in either the promoter region, the kinase domain, or the 3' untranslated region of the DNA-PKcs gene to account for the reduced transcript levels. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the rate of DNA-PKcs transcription in M059J and DNA-PKcs proficient cell lines was similar, but the stability of the DNA-PKcs message in the M059J cell line was drastically (approximately 20x) reduced. Furthermore, M059J cells lack an alternately spliced DNA-PKcs transcript that accounts for a minor (5-20%) proportion of the DNA-PKcs message in all other cell lines tested. Thus, alterations in DNA-PKcs mRNA stability and/or the lack of the alternate mRNA may result in the loss of DNA-PKcs activity. This finding has important implications as DNA-PKcs activity is essential to cells repairing damage induced by radiation or radiomimetric agents.  (+info)

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (6/27527)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (7/27527)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

Signals from the Ras, Rac, and Rho GTPases converge on the Pak protein kinase in Rat-1 fibroblasts. (8/27527)

Ras plays a key role in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Raf is the major effector of Ras in the Ras > Raf > Mek > extracellular signal-activated kinase (ERK) cascade. A second effector is phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase), which, in turn, activates the small G protein Rac. Rac also has multiple effectors, one of which is the serine threonine kinase Pak (p65(Pak)). Here we show that Ras, but not Raf, activates Pak1 in cotransfection assays of Rat-1 cells but not NIH 3T3 cells. We tested agents that activate or block specific components downstream of Ras and demonstrate a Ras > PI 3-kinase > Rac/Cdc42 > Pak signal. Although these studies suggest that the signal from Ras through PI 3-kinase is sufficient to activate Pak, additional studies suggested that other effectors contribute to Pak activation. RasV12S35 and RasV12G37, two effector mutant proteins which fail to activate PI 3-kinase, did not activate Pak when tested alone but activated Pak when they were cotransfected. Similarly, RacV12H40, an effector mutant that does not bind Pak, and Rho both cooperated with Raf to activate Pak. A dominant negative Rho mutant also inhibited Ras activation of Pak. All combinations of Rac/Raf and Ras/Raf and Rho/Raf effector mutants that transform cells cooperatively stimulated ERK. Cooperation was Pak dependent, since all combinations were inhibited by kinase-deficient Pak mutants in both transformation assays and ERK activation assays. These data suggest that other Ras effectors can collaborate with PI 3-kinase and with each other to activate Pak. Furthermore, the strong correlation between Pak activation and cooperative transformation suggests that Pak activation is necessary, although not sufficient, for cooperative transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts by Ras, Rac, and Rho.  (+info)

Serine/threonine-protein kinase (By similarity). Phosphorylates the microtubule-associated protein MAPT/TAU (By similarity). Also phosphorylates the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and MAP4 (By similarity). Involved in regulation of the microtubule network, causing reorganization of microtubules into bundles (By similarity). Required for the initiation of axoneme extension during cilium assembly (By similarity). Regulates the centrosomal location of ODF2 and phosphorylates ODF2 in vitro (By similarity). Plays a role in cell cycle progression, specifically in the G1/S checkpoint (By similarity). Reduces neuronal cell survival (By similarity). Plays a role in energy homeostasis by regulating satiety and metabolic rate (PubMed:22992738). Promotes adipogenesis by activating JNK1 and inhibiting the p38MAPK pathway, and triggers apoptosis by activating the JNK1 pathway (PubMed:24989893). Phosphorylates mTORC1 complex member RPTOR and acts as a negative regulator of the mTORC1 complex, probably due to
Salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) represent a subfamily of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family kinases. Initially named because SIK1 (the founding member of this kinase family) expression is regulated by dietary salt intake in the adrenal gland, it is now apparent that a major biological role of …
Dual Specificity Protein Kinase TTK (TTK Protein Kinase or Cancer/Testis Antigen 96 or Monopolar Spindle 1-Like 1 or EC - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10249099
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and
Alcohol-mediated cancers represent more than 3.5% of cancer-related deaths, yet how alcohol promotes cancer is a major open question. Using Drosophila, we identified novel interactions between dietary ethanol and loss of tumor suppressor components of the Hippo Pathway. The Hippo Pathway suppresses tumors in flies and mammals by inactivating transcriptional co-activator Yorkie, and the spectrum of cancers associated with impaired Hippo signaling overlaps strikingly with those associated with alcohol. Therefore, our findings may implicate loss of Hippo Pathway tumor suppression in alcohol-mediated cancers. Ethanol enhanced overgrowth from loss of the expanded, hippo, or warts tumor suppressors but, surprisingly, not from over-expressing the yorkie oncogene. We propose that in parallel to Yorkie-dependent overgrowth, impairing Hippo signaling in the presence of alcohol may promote overgrowth via additional alcohol-relevant targets. We also identified interactions between alcohol and Hippo Pathway over
Ischemic injury to white matter tracts is increasingly recognized to play a key role in age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimers disease. Knowledge of the effects of ischemic axonal injury on cortical neurons is limited yet critical to identifying molecular pathways that link neurodegeneration and ischemia. Using a mouse model of subcortical white matter ischemic injury coupled with retrograde neuronal tracing, we employed magnetic affinity cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorting to capture layer-specific cortical neurons and performed RNA-sequencing. With this approach, we identified a role for microtubule reorganization within stroke-injured neurons acting through the regulation of tau. We find that subcortical stroke-injured Layer 5 cortical neurons up-regulate the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase, Mark4, in response to axonal injury. Stroke-induced up-regulation of Mark4 is associated with selective remodeling of the apical dendrite after stroke and the
Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase DCLK1 (Doublecortin Domain Containing Protein 3A or Doublecortin Like And CAM Kinase Like 1 or Doublecortin Like Kinase 1 or DCLK1 or EC - Drugs in Development, 2021 provides in depth analysis on Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase DCLK1 (Doublecortin Domain Containing Protein 3A or Doublecortin Like And CAM Kinase Like 1 or Doublecortin Like Kinase 1 or DCLK1 or EC targeted pipeline therapeutics. The report provides comprehensive information complete with Analysis by Indications, Stage of Development, Mechanism of Action (MoA), Route of Administration (RoA) and Molecule Type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase DCLK1 (Doublecortin Domain Containing Protein 3A or Doublecortin Like And CAM Kinase Like 1 or Doublecortin ...
MARK1 - MARK1 (GFP-tagged) - Human MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (MARK1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Mark3 - Mark3 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 (cDNA clone MGC:31426 IMAGE:4459439) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Market research report presents an all-inclusive study of the global RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market. The report includes all the major trends and technologies performing a major role in the RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market development during forecast period. The key players in the market are Almac Discovery Ltd, ArQule Inc, AstraZeneca Plc, Bayer AG, Critical Outcome Technologies Inc, Merck & Co Inc, Novartis AG. An attractiveness study has been presented for each geographic area in the report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall competitive scenario of the RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market globally.. Apply here for the SAMPLE copy of the report @: https://www.promarketresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=24915. Furthermore, the report comprises an outline of the diverse tactics used by the key players in the market. It also details the competitive scenario of the RAC Beta ...
p,Collective cell migration is emerging as a major contributor to normal development and disease. Collective movement of border cells in the Drosophila ovary requires cooperation between two distinct cell types: four to six migratory cells surrounding two immotile cells called polar cells. Polar cells secrete a cytokine, Unpaired (Upd), which activates JAK/STAT signaling in neighboring cells, stimulating their motility. Without Upd, migration fails, causing sterility. Ectopic Upd expression is sufficient to stimulate motility in otherwise immobile cells. Thus regulation of Upd is key. Here we report a limited RNAi screen for nuclear proteins required for border cell migration, which revealed that the gene encoding Tousled-like kinase (Tlk) is required in polar cells for Upd expression without affecting polar cell fate. In the absence of Tlk, fewer border cells are recruited and motility is impaired, similar to inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling. We further show that Tlk in polar cells is required ...
Strong epidemiologic evidence documents the protective effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. Using human exercise-conditioned serum for breast cancer cell incubation studies and murine exercise interventions, we aimed to identify exercise factors and signaling pathways involved in the exercise-dependent suppression of breast cancer. Exercise-conditioned serum from both women with breast cancer (n = 20) and healthy women (n = 7) decreased MCF-7 (hormone-sensitive) and MDA-MB-231 (hormone-insensitive) breast cancer cell viability in vitro by 11% to 19% and reduced tumorigenesis by 50% when preincubated MCF-7 breast cancer cells were inoculated into NMRI-Foxn1nu mice. This exercise-mediated suppression of cell viability and tumor formation was completely blunted by blockade of β-adrenergic signaling in MCF-7 cells, indicating that catecholamines were the responsible exercise factors. Both epinephrine ...
Several protein kinases have been shown to be involved in spermatogenesis. Recently, a novel subfamily of serine/threonine kinases has been isolated whose expression is limited to testis. Here, we report the fifth family member, named TSSK5, which encodes a 328 amino acid protein. RT-PCR analysis sh …
Researchers from around the world met for two days in April this year in Rome, Italy, to discuss progress in the rapidly developing field of Hippo signaling, which is relevant to cancer and the control of organ size. Most of the participants presented data related to previously uncharacterized proteins that physically and functionally interact with known components of the Hippo pathway and regulate its biological output.. ...
Protein kinase B (PKB) isoforms became activated [and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) became inhibited] when mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were exposed to oxidative stress (H2O2) or heat shock, but not when they were exposed to osmotic shock (0.5 M sorbitol or 0.7 M NaCl), chemical stress (sodium arsenite), the protein-synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, or UV radiation. In contrast, all seven stimuli activated mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2). The activation of MAPKAP-K2 was suppressed by the drug SB 203580, but not by inhibitors of phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositide, PI) 3-kinase. In contrast, the activation of PKB isoforms and the inhibition of GSK3 by oxidative stress or heat shock were prevented by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase, but not by SB 203580. Thus the activation of PKB by oxidative stress or heat shock is mediated by PI 3-kinase and not by MAPKAP-K2. PKBα and PKBγ were also activated by heat shock and oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney ...
RAC Gamma Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase (Protein Kinase Akt 3 or Protein Kinase B Gamma or RAC PK Gamma or STK 2 or AKT3 or EC - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
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[92 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC - Pipeli report by Global Markets Direct. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit...
Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of extracellular ligands such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones to their cell-surface receptors activates RAS and this initiates RAF1 activation. RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 function specifically in the MAPK/ERK cascade, and catalyze the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2, leading to their activation and further transduction of the signal within the MAPK/ERK cascade. Depending on the cellular context, this pathway mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation, predominantly through the regulation of transcription, metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangements. One target of the MAPK/ERK cascade
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LATS1/LATS2 are primarily considered as central players in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway, however they also participate in a range of other signalling pathways. (Zhao,2010). The core of the Hippo pathway consists of Hpo, Wts, Sav and Mats. Hippo (Hpo) is a Ste20 family protein kinase that complexes with the regulatory scaffold protein Salvador (Sav). The Hpo/Sav complex then phosphorylates and activates Warts (Wts). Wts has an activating subunit Mats. The active Wts/Mats complex then in turn phosphorylates the transcriptional co-activators Yorkie (Yki) in flies, and YAP and TAZ in mammals. Phosphorylation of these transcriptional co-activators leads to their association with 14-3-3 family proteins, cytoplasmic retention and inactivation (Zhao,2007). In the presence of active CK1 kinase, LATS1/2 mediated phosphorylation of YAP also leads to the recruitment of the beta-TRCP SCF E3 ligase thereby triggering the subsequent proteasomal degradation of YAP (Zhao,2010). The LATS kinases prefer to ...
Author(s): Mo, Jung-Soon; Meng, Zhipeng; Kim, Young Chul; Park, Hyun Woo; Hansen, Carsten Gram; Kim, Soohyun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Guan, Kun-Liang | Abstract: YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a transcription co-activator in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis and organ size. YAP is inhibited by the kinase Lats, which phosphorylates YAP to induce its cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation. YAP induces gene expression by binding to the TEAD family transcription factors. Dysregulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway is frequently observed in human cancers. Here we show that cellular energy stress induces YAP phosphorylation, in part due to AMPK-dependent Lats activation, thereby inhibiting YAP activity. Moreover, AMPK directly phosphorylates YAP Ser 94, a residue essential for the interaction with TEAD, thus disrupting the YAP-TEAD interaction. AMPK-induced YAP inhibition can suppress oncogenic transformation of Lats-null cells with high YAP activity. Our study
[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 6 (Cell Division Protein Kinase 6 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PLSTIRE or CDK6 or EC - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 6 (Cell Division Protein Kinase 6 or...
MEKK3 is a conserved Ser/Thr proteins kinase belonging to the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family members. the T-cKO rodents (23). Identical phenotype in peripheral Capital t cells homeostasis was also reported by another group with individually produced T-cKO rodents (24). To understand Talampanel supplier additional the physical part of MEKK3 in Capital t cell-mediated adaptive defenses, we researched the function of T-cKO rodents had been referred to previously (23). All rodents had been on C57BD/6 history and utilized between 6 and 12 wk of age group. Our rodents had been encased in a pathogen-free pet treatment service at Meters.D. Anderson Cancers Middle (Houston, Texas) or Yale School (New Dreamland, CT). All mouse trials were approved by the Institutional Pet Use and Treatment Committees of the School of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancers Yale and Middle School. Immunization Eight-week-old rodents had been utilized for the immunization. A mix of 1 mg/ml Ovum (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and 1 ...
BioBlocks and Visionary Pharmaceuticals are collaborating to develop small molecule protein serine threonine kinase inhibitors, specifically serum- and
Catalytic domain of STE family Protein Kinases. Protein Kinases (PKs), STE family, catalytic (c) domain. PKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine or tyrosine residues on protein substrates. The STE family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein serine/threonine kinases (STKs), protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). This family is composed of STKs, and some dual-specificity PKs that phosphorylate both threonine and tyrosine residues of target proteins. Most members are kinases involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, acting as MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), or MAPK kinase kinase kinases (MAP4Ks). The MAPK signaling pathways are important mediators of cellular responses to extracellular signals. The pathways involve a triple kinase core cascade comprising of the ...
The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological ...
Combining with a signal and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity by catalysis of the reaction: ATP protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + pro…
NDR kinases are essential for growth, cardiac development and blood vessel remodeling from about embryonic day 8 onward in mouse embryos.(A, B) Bright field ima
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development ...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, DMPK-related cell division control protein 42 binding kinase alpha. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), DMPK-like subfamily, DMPK-related cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) binding kinase (MRCK) alpha isoform, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The DMPK-like subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. MRCK is activated via interaction with the small GTPase Cdc42. MRCK/Cdc42 signaling mediates myosin-dependent cell motility. MRCKalpha is expressed ubiquitously in many tissues. It plays a role in the regulation of peripheral actin reorganization and neurite outgrowth. It may also play a role in the transferrin iron uptake pathway. ...
ILK has a low basal kinase activity, which is stimulated transiently by cell-ECM interactions and by certain growth factors (Dedhar, 2000). The activity is stimulated in a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent manner and likely involves binding of the phosphoinositide phospholipid product of PI 3-kinase, PI 3,4,5-triphosphate, to the PH-like domain of ILK (Dedhar, 2000). ILK activity is regulated negatively by two phosphatases: PTEN, a tumor suppressor lipid phosphatase, which dephosphorylates PI 3,4,5-triphosphate to PI 4,5-bisphosphate, and a PP2C protein phosphatase, ILKAP (Morimoto et al., 2000; Persad et al., 2000; 2001b; Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 2001). ILK activity is activated constitutively in PTEN-null tumor cells (Persad et al., 2000, 2001b). Both PI 3,4,5-triphosphate binding and (auto)phosphorylation appear to be crucial for ILK activation, since mutations in the PH domain (Arg 211) or in the activation loop serine (ser) 343 render the kinase inactive and unable to ...
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) detect invading micro-organisms which triggers the production of pro-inflammatory mediators needed to combat infection. Although these signalling networks are required to protect the host against invading pathogens, dysregulation of TLR pathways contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders. Molecular mechanisms have therefore evolved to restrict the strength of TLR signalling. In the present review, I highlight recent advances in our understanding of the protein kinase networks required to suppress the innate immune response by negatively regulating TLR signalling and/or promoting the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. I present my discoveries on the key roles of the IKK (inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase)-related kinases and the SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) in limiting innate immunity within the greater context of the field.. ...
Zallen JA, Peckol EL, Tobin DM, Bargmann CI. Neuronal cell shape and neurite initiation are regulated by the Ndr kinase SAX-1, a member of the Orb6/COT-1/warts serine/threonine kinase family. Mol Biol Cell. 2000 Sep;11(9):3177-90 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the transcription activity of NF-kappaB mediated by Rho family GTPases and CDC42. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
MP2K1_HUMAN] Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of extracellular ligands such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones to their cell-surface receptors activates RAS and this initiates RAF1 activation. RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 function specifically in the MAPK/ERK cascade, and catalyze the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2, leading to their activation and further transduction of the signal within the MAPK/ERK cascade. Depending on the cellular context, this pathway mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation, predominantly through the regulation of transcription, metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangements. One target of ...
Recombinant human HIPK1 (156-555) was expressed in Sf9 cells using an N-terminal GST tag. HIPK1 or homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 is a ser/thr protein kinase and a member of the HIPK family.
RAC Gamma Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Market Forecast To 2026 | Covid-19 Impact And Global Analysis By Type, Application, And End User
Recombinant human CLK1 (129-end) was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CLK1, also known as STY, is a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases.
ID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1196 Type: http://bio2vec.net/ontology/gene Label: CLK2 Synonyms: CLK2, CDC like kinase 2, dual specificity protein kinase CLK2, CLK kinase Alternative IDs: als API: GO SPARQL: GO ...
Pre-mRNA splicing occurs in two sequential transesterification steps, and the protein encoded by this gene is thought to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and in signal transduction. This protein belongs to a kinase family that includes serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinases and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). This protein is regarded as a CDK-like kinase (Clk) with homology to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
This gene is the human homolog of mouse BMP-2-inducible kinase. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is increased during BMP-2 induced differentiation and the gene product is a putative serine/threonine protein kinase containing a nuclear localization signal. Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in attenuating the program of osteoblast differentiation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
A-674563 is a potent and selective Akt1 inhibitor with IC50 value of 14 nM. A-67453 also inhibited PKA and Cdk2 with IC50 value of 16 nM and 46 nM. Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK10 gene.[1][2] This gene encodes a member of the Ste20 family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and is similar to several known polo-like kinase kinases. The protein can associate with and phosphorylate polo-like kinase 1, and overexpression of a kinase-dead version of the protein interferes with normal cell cycle progression. The kinase can also negatively regulate interleukin 2 expression in T-cells via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1 pathway.[2] ...
The Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as a critical regulator for organ size control. The serine/threonine protein kinases Mst1 and Mst2, mammalian homologs of the Hippo kinase from Drosophila, play the cent... Authors: Funiu Qin, Jing Tian, Dawang Zhou and Lanfen Chen. ...
The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of: (1) MK5 alone; (2) MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3) MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α
immune Uncategorized 546141-08-6 IC50, Rabbit polyclonal to annexinA5. Cyclin-dependent kinase-like kinases (CLKs) are dual specificity protein kinases that phosphorylate Serine/Arginine-rich (SR) proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing. cases caused by the tropical disease malaria per annum [1]. During life cycle progression from humans to mosquitoes, switches between stages with high replication rates and ones arrested in their cell cycle and also passes through a phase of sexual reproduction. These rapid transformations require fine-tuned mechanisms of gene expression, and the importance of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression Rabbit polyclonal to annexinA5 in parasites has previously been highlighted [2]. These include the alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA, enabling the parasite to express functionally different protein isoforms. Two genome-wide studies implied that more than 200 AS events occur during blood stage replication of encodes four members of the CLK family, ...
Protein kinases have become central in the efforts to understand the nature of various diseases, and a lot is invested into creating effective therapeutic strategies and finding effective and selective protein kinase inhibitors. In order to succeed it is also important to focus on the structure of the kinases, their exact biological role, and how they interact and cooperate in the signaling. The exact structure of MAPKAPK5 is still unknown, and selective inhibitors are yet to be identified. Even though some of its biological roles are starting to emerge more work is required, including searching for selective inhibitors, analyzing its structure and interactions with its interaction partners. In order to analyze the structure of MAPKAPK5, homology models were generated and their ability to discriminate between binders and non-binders were analyzed. Based on the results, one model was found satisfactory and may be used as a working tool for further experimental studies and possibly structure aided ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Basis for the Substrate Specificity of a Serine/Threonine-Specific Protein Kinase. AU - Lee, Tae Ryong. AU - Mendelow, Marianne. AU - Srinivasan, Jaya. AU - Kwon, Young Guen. AU - Lawrence, David S.. PY - 1993/11/1. Y1 - 1993/11/1. N2 - Protein kinases typically phosphorylate the aliphatic alcohols of serine/threonine residues or the aromatic alcohol of tyrosine residues but not both. We report herein the first example of aromatic alcohol phosphorylation by a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal aromatic alcohol in the active site-directed peptide Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Arg-Asn-(o-aminophenol). In contrast, corresponding peptides containing m- and p-aminophenols failed to serve as protein kinase substrates. These results indicate that the orientation of the aromatic hydroxyl group relative to the adjacent peptide backbone bond is a critical structural motif employed in substrate recognition by the enzyme. ...
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been ...
(2005) Del Carratore et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research. Human myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), the product of the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus, is a member of a novel class of multidomain serine-threonine protein kinases, which interacts with members of the ...
The metabolic programs of functionally distinct T cell subsets are tailored to their immunologic activities. While quiescent T cells use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production, and effector T cells (Teffs) rely on glycolysis for proliferation, the distinct metabolic features of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are less well established. Here we show that the metabolic sensor LKB1 is critical to maintain cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis in Tregs. Treg-specific deletion of Lkb1 in mice causes loss of Treg number and function, leading to a fatal, early-onset autoimmune disorder. Tregs lacking Lkb1 have defective mitochondria, compromised OXPHOS, depleted cellular ATP, and altered cellular metabolism pathways that compromise their survival and function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the function of LKB1 in Tregs is largely independent of the AMP-activated protein kinase, but is mediated by the MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinases and salt-inducible kinases. Our ...
Citron is a 183 kDa protein that contains a C6H2 zinc finger, a PH domain, and a long coiled-coil forming region including 4 leucine zippers and a rho / rac binding site. It was discovered as a rho/rac effector in 1995, interacting only with the GTP bound forms of rho and rac 1. Displaying a distinctive protein organization, this protein defines a separate class of rho partners.[7] Using a cloning approach based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a splice variant of citron, citron kinase (citron-K) has been identified with an alternative amino terminus. This N-terminal extension contains a protein kinase domain that has approximately 50% sequence identity to the sequences of ROCK, ROK, myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (MDPK) and the CDC42 effector known as MRCK or GEK.[8] Citron kinase, which resembles the ROCK family of kinases and by comparison to it, is therefore a multiple domain protein containing an N-terminal kinase domain, an internal coiled-coil (CC) domain with Rho/Rac ...
Myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) also known as myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (MDPK) or dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMK) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DMPK gene. The dmpk gene product is a Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to the MRCK p21-activated kinases and the Rho family of kinases. Data obtained by using antibodies that detect specific isoforms of DMPK indicate that the most abundant isoform of DMPK is an 80-kDa protein expressed almost exclusively in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. This kinase exists both as a membrane-associated and as a soluble form in human left ventricular samples. The different C termini of DMPK that arise from alternative splicing determine its localization to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, or cytosol in transfected COS-1 cells. Among the substrates for DMPK proposed by in vitro studies are phospholemman, the dihydropyridine receptor, and the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit. However, an in vivo demonstration of the ...
Materials. CEP-1347, also known as KT7515, is a semisynthetic derivative of K-252a provided by Kyowa-Hakko Kogyo (Tokyo, Japan) (Kaneko et al., 1997). CEP-1347 was dissolved in cell culture grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and stored in the dark at 4°C. All dilutions of CEP-1347 were made in DMEM containing 1% bovine serum albumin. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) antibody (catalog #sc-474-G) was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). ERK1 antibody (catalog #06-182), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP2) antibody (catalog #06-534), and MAPKAP2 peptide substrate (catalog #12-240) were purchased from Upstate Biotechnology (Lake Placid, NY). HA antibody was purchased from Babco (Richmond, CA). AP-1 (c-jun) substrate was purchased from Promega (Madison, WI). Myelin basic protein substrate, Hoechst dye, and tunicamycin were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). SB203580 was custom-synthesized by RIT International Technology (Snellville, GA). ...
Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by hormones insulin and glucagon is central to glucose homeostasis. Recent work has proposed that amongst the salt inducible kinase isoforms (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SIK2 isoform may play a role as signalling mediator in the control of insulin- and glucagon-regulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the mechanisms of the hormonal-regulation of SIK2 in liver remain controversial, with much of the data based on the studies in non-hepatic tissues/cells. Therefore, the exact molecular regulation of SIK2 by these hormones in the liver required robust and intensive molecular/biochemical research coupled to physiological readout (e.g. gluconeogenesis). My studies with phosphopeptide mapping by mass spectrometry followed by verification with well-characterised phospho-specific antibodies revealed that SIK2 was phosphorylated on Ser343, Ser358, Thr484 and Ser587 in response to glucagon and fasting but not following insulin ...
PRAK antibody [N3C3] (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-PRAK pAb (GTX107938) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Protein target information for Chain A, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Protein target information for Chain A, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
HIV replication in macrophages contributes to the latent viral reservoirs, which are considered the main barrier to HIV eradication. Few cellular factors that facilitate HIV replication in latently infected cells are known. We previously identified cyclin L2 as a critical factor required by HIV-1 and found that depletion of cyclin L2 attenuates HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Here we demonstrate that cyclin L2 promotes HIV-1 replication through interactions with the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). Cyclin L2 and DYRK1A were colocalized in the nucleus and were found together in immunoprecipitation experiments. Knockdown or inhibition of DYRK1A increased HIV-1 replication in macrophages, while depletion of cyclin L2 decreased HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, depletion of DYRK1A increased expression levels of cyclin L2. DYRK1A is a proline-directed kinase that phosphorylates cyclin L2 at serine residues. Mutations of cyclin L2 at serine residues preceding ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK and MKK4/SEK1, and this kinase itself can be phoshorylated, and thus activated by JNK kinases. This kinase functions preferentially on the JNK signaling pathway, and is reported to be involved in nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Looking for online definition of serine/threonine kinase 12 in the Medical Dictionary? serine/threonine kinase 12 explanation free. What is serine/threonine kinase 12? Meaning of serine/threonine kinase 12 medical term. What does serine/threonine kinase 12 mean?
Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinsons disease (PD). FAK activation through different mechanisms that are the advertising of autoinhibition and/or the recruitment of phosphatases, such as for example SHP-2. continues to be connected with an autosomal dominant, late-onset type of familial Parkinsons disease (PD). The encoded proteins, LRRK2, is approximately 280 kDa in proportions and contains many useful domains, including a serine/threonine kinase area [1]. Among the PD-related pathogenic mutations discovered throughout the whole gene [2], the G2019S mutation, which enhances kinase activity [3], continues to be within both familial and sporadic PD [4,5]. Many reports have sought to recognize the kinase substrates of LRRK2 to boost our knowledge of LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis, and LRRK2 provides been proven to govern different biological features, including neurite outgrowth, cell MEK162 inhibitor database migration, ...
We isolated cDNA clones containing the entire coding region of the putative oncogene AKT2. Sequence analysis and in vitro translation demonstrated that AKT2 encodes a 56-kDa protein with homology to serine/threonine kinases; moreover, this protein contains a Src homology 2-like domain. AKT2 was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. AKT2 was mapped to chromosome region 19q13.1-q13.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the two ovarian carcinoma cell lines exhibiting amplification of AKT2, the amplified sequences were localized within homogeneously staining regions. We conclude that AKT2 belongs to a distinct subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases containing Src homology 2-like domains and that alterations of AKT2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas.. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically interacts with and activates MAPK7/ERK5. This kinase itself can be phosphorylated and activated by MAP3K3/MEKK3, as well as by atypical protein kinase C isoforms (aPKCs). The signal cascade mediated by this kinase is involved in growth factor stimulated cell proliferation and muscle cell differentiation. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011 ...
Raw data for figures from Alsaeedi et al. Expression of serine/threonine protein kinase SGK1F promotes an hepatoblast state in stem cells directed to differentiate into hepatocytes PLOS ONE 2019 (PLOS2019 data file)
The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of innate immunity, stress responses, inflammation, and the inhibition of apoptosis 1,2. The activity of NF-κB is tightly regulated by cytokines and other external stimuli. In most cell types, NF-κB is present as a heterodimer comprising 50-kD (p50) and 65-kD (p65) subunits and is sequestered in the cytoplasm by a member of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) family of inhibitory proteins. NF-κB activation requires the degradation of IκB proteins, and the mechanisms of IκB degradation and subsequent NF-κB activation have been the subject of intense investigation 3. Those studies have revealed two important classes of kinase involved in this pathway: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) and its downstream target, IκB kinase (IKK) 4,5. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is structurally related to MAP3K and has been identified as a TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2-interacting protein 6. On the basis of ...
Locale, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Research Topics, Species about Experts and Doctors on protein serine threonine kinases in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2) is originally identified by its phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at serine-7 and the corresponding serine in a peptide (GS peptide-1) modelled after the N-terminus of glycogen synthase.. MAPKAP kinase-2 is a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, is distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence.. ...
The splicing factor Sf3b is an integral part of U2 snRNP and plays an essential role during spliceosome assembly and recognition of the introns branch point. One of the components of SF3b, SF3b1, is known to be reversibly phosphorylated during splicing catalysis [3], suggesting that protein kinases play a role in the regulation of splicing. Previous studies have shown that cyclin E/CDK2 complexes associate with spliceosomal proteins in vivo, and that CDK2 phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro [12, 22]. Here we provide evidence that the protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro and in vivo.. The N-terminal part of Sf3b1 harbours a large number of Thr/Pro dipeptide motifs within a 240-amino acid region preceding the carboxyterminal repeat domain (Fig. 1). Both DYRK1A and CDK2 are proline-directed kinases, i.e. they phosphorylate serine or threonine residues followed by a proline residue [15, 23]. It has been shown that cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro at multiple sites within the ...
View mouse Mapkapk5 Chr5:121525038-121545905 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells requires communication with the lymphoid organ microenvironment. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional intracellular adaptor protein that transmits extracellular signals to regulate malignant cell motility, metastasis, and cell cycle progression, but is poorly characterized in hematological malignancies. In this study, we investigated the role of ILK in the context of CLL and observed high ILK expression in patient samples, particularly in tumor cells harboring prognostic high risk markers such as unmutated IGHV genes, high Zap70 or CD38 expression, or a signature of recent proliferation. We also found increased numbers of Ki67 (MKI67)-positive cells in regions of enhanced ILK expression in lymph nodes (LNs) from CLL patients. Using co-culture conditions mimicking the proliferative LN microenvironment, we detected a parallel induction of ILK and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression in CLL cells that was dependent on the activation ...
We have identified a novel serine/threonine kinase, NIK, that interacts with the SH3 domains of Nck. Overexpression of NIK constitutively activated the JNK/SAPK pathway. NIK interacts with MEKK1 in cells and likely signals through MEKK1 to activate JNK, suggesting that NIK directly regulates MEKK1 activity. We found that NIK contains a regulatory domain in its C‐terminus that is conserved in two other members of this kinase family. This domain mediates the association of NIK with MEKK1 and is critical for NIK activation of the SAPK pathway, suggesting that the C‐terminal domain of these proteins encodes a new protein domain family that couples these kinases to the SAPK pathway, possibly by interacting with MEKK1. Our finding that NIK also interacts with Nck suggests that SH2/SH3 adaptor proteins couple NIK and related kinases to activation of the SAPK/JNK pathway by different receptors.. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that a serine/threonine kinase, Ste20, acts upstream of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - LKB1 is a master kinase that activates 13 kinases of the AMPK subfamily, including MARK/PAR-1. AU - Lizcano, Jose M.. AU - Goransson, Olga. AU - Toth, Rachel. AU - Deak, Maria. AU - Morrice, Nick A.. AU - Boudeau, Jerome. AU - Hawley, Simon. AU - Udd, Lina. AU - Makela, Tomi P.. AU - Hardie, D. Grahame. AU - Alessi, Dario R.. N1 - dc.publisher: Nature Publishing Group PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - We recently demonstrated that the LKB1 tumour suppressor kinase, in complex with the pseudokinase STRAD and the scaffolding protein MO25, phosphorylates and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A total of 12 human kinases (NUAK1, NUAK2, BRSK1, BRSK2, QIK, QSK, SIK, MARK1, MARK2, MARK3, MARK4 and MELK) are related to AMPK. Here we demonstrate that LKB1 can phosphorylate the T-loop of all the members of this subfamily, apart from MELK, increasing their activity ,50-fold. LKB1 catalytic activity and the presence of MO25 and STRAD are required for activation. Mutation of the ...
NAC, a common dietary supplement and an antioxidant membrane-permeable metal-binding compound, has been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses, tumor growth including lung cancer [13, 14]. However, the mechanisms by which this reagent in control of NSCLC cell growth has not been well elucidated. We have found that NAC inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation through reduction of PDK1, a kinase and master regulator of a number of downstream signal cascades that are involved in suppression of apoptosis and promotion of tumor growth including lung cancer [4, 15]. High expression of PDK1 has been detected in invasive cancers including lung [5] and inhibition of PDK1 in several cancer cells results in significant cell growth inhibition [6]. These observations suggest that PDK1 can be considered as a target for therapies. This result, together with the finding that exogenous PDK1 diminishes the inhibitory effect of NAC on cell growth, indicates an important role of targeting PDK1 in mediating the ...
Since the publication of Protein Kinases in 1994 many novel protein kinases have been discovered, but perhaps more importantly there have been dramatic advances in our understanding of the cellular functions of this remarkably diverse class of proteins. Protein Kinase Functions is not just an update of the previous edition but provides a new focus on the context and function of protein kinases, thus reflecting the recent advances in kinase biology.
Predicted to have cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. Predicted to be involved in mitotic cell cycle phase transition and regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Predicted to localize to cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex; cytoplasm; and nucleus. Orthologous to human CCNJL (cyclin J like ...
Signaling through the Hippo-Salvador-Warts (Wts) kinase cascade inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by preventing nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki in the fruit fly) or Yap (in vertebrates). Hippo-dependent phosphorylation of Yki by Wts prevents nuclear accumulation of Yki. In the nucleus, Yki cooperates with its partner Scalloped to promote expression of several target genes that inhibit apoptosis and promote mitosis. Two studies report that the serine-threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) promotes Yki activity. Studies by Chen and Verheyen and by Poon et al. both demonstrate that, like overexpresison of yki or knockdown of wts, overexpresison of hipk in fly imaginal discs caused excessive cell proliferation, leading to tissue overgrowth, and stimulation of endogenous Yki transcriptional targets and reporter constructs. Reducing Hipk activity by mutation or RNA interference (RNAi) reduced both tissue size and expression ...
The Hippo pathway component WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (TAZ) is a transcriptional co-activator and an oncogene in breast and lung cancer. Transcriptional targets of TAZ that modulate immune cell function in the tumour microenvironment are poorly understood. Here, we perform a comprehensive screen for immune-related genes regulated by TAZ and its paralog YAP using NanoString gene expression profiling. We identify the immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 as a target of Hippo signaling. The upstream kinases of the Hippo pathway, mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 and 2 (MST1/2) and large tumour suppressor 1 and 2 (LATS1/2), suppress PD-L1 expression while TAZ and YAP enhance PD-L1 levels in breast and lung cancer cell lines ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renal function of gene-targeted mice lacking both SGK1 and SGK3. AU - Grahammer, Florian. AU - Artunc, Ferruh. AU - Sandulache, Diana. AU - Rexhepaj, Rexhep. AU - Friedrich, Björn. AU - Risler, Teut. AU - McCormick, James A.. AU - Dawson, Kevin. AU - Wang, Jian. AU - Pearce, David. AU - Wulff, Peer. AU - Kuhl, Dietmar. AU - Lang, Florian. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) 1 and SGK3 share the ability to upregulate several ion channels, including the epithelial Na + channel. Whereas SGK1 is under genomic control of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, SGK3 is constitutively expressed. The SKG1-knockout (sgk1-/-) mouse is seemingly normal when it is fed a standard diet, but its ability to retain NaCl is impaired when it is fed a salt-deficient diet. In the SGK3-knockout (sgk3-/-) mouse fed standard and salt-deficient diets, hair growth is strikingly delayed but NaCl excretion is normal. Thus the possibility was considered that SGK1 ...
Hz2V110 is homologous to serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TPK). S_TPK catalyzes phosphorylation of serine and threonine ... Edelman AM, Blumenthal DK, Krebs EG (June 1987). "Protein serine/threonine kinases". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 56 (1): 567 ... "Choristoneura fumiferana Granulovirus p74 protein, a highly conserved baculoviral envelope protein". Journal of Biochemistry ... Of the 113 ORFs that are likely to encode proteins, 66 are on the forward strand of DNA, the other 47 on the reverse. All of ...
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). They are protein serine/threonine kinases. The ... Many PI3Ks appear to have a serine/threonine kinase activity in vitro; however, it is unclear whether this has any role in vivo ... Full activation of AKT occurs upon phosphorylation of serine 473 by the TORC2 complex of the mTOR protein kinase. The PI3K/AKT ... "Cannabinoids protect astrocytes from ceramide-induced apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...
... a major tyrosine kinase target protein, is a mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinase". Proceedings of the National ... RAF kinases are a family of three serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that are related to retroviral oncogenes. The mouse ... "Direct activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1 by the Ste20p homologue GCK and the adapter protein ... Roskoski R (August 2010). "RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: structure and regulation". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) is an enzyme with kinase activity. Specifically, it is a serine / threonine protein kinase. It is ... The Nck adaptor protein binds to a serine/threonine kinase via an SH3 domain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (13): ... The Nck adaptor protein binds to a serine/threonine kinase via an SH3 domain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (13): ... Phosphorylation of serine residues on the IKB proteins by IKB kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway ...
"Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek4". Uniprot. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11. "SNW domain-containing protein 1". ... "Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1". Uniprot. Archived from the original on 2009-09-25. " ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-07-31. Koonin EV (August ... The coded protein is 419 amino acids long and weighs 48.3 kDa. As described in the name, the protein contains a leucine-zipper ...
Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STRAP gene. STRAP has been ... "Entrez Gene: STRAP serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein". Datta PK, Moses HL (May 2000). "STRAP and Smad7 ... signaling and PDK1 kinase activity by physical interaction between PDK1 and serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein ... "NM23-H1 tumor suppressor physically interacts with serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein, a transforming growth ...
"Regulation of glycolysis by Raf protein serine/threonine kinases". Advances in Enzyme Regulation. 42: 317-32. doi:10.1016/S0065 ... Gupta V, Bamezai RN (November 2010). "Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein". Protein Science. 19 (11): 2031-44. ... Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM1/M2), also known as pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM), pyruvate kinase type K, cytosolic ... "Use of a novel method to find substrates of protein kinase C delta identifies M2 pyruvate kinase". The International Journal of ...
"Phosphorylation of Smad signaling proteins by receptor serine/threonine kinases". Protein Kinase Protocols. Methods in ... It lacks an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase domain and hence is a pseudoreceptor. It binds to the type I receptor ... These receptors are serine/threonine kinase receptors. They have a cysteine rich extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, ... The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. Each ...
"Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24444-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "HIV-1 incorporates and proteolytically processes human NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". Virology. 331 (1): 181-9. doi: ... The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic protein that may play a role in neurite outgrowth. This gene may be involved ... Protein NDRG2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDRG2 gene (NMYC downstream-regulated gene 2). This gene is a ...
"Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24444-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the yeast Mob1 protein. Yeast Mob1 binds Mps1p, a protein kinase essential for ... protein kinase by the hMOB1 protein". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (34): 35228-35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M404542200. PMID 15197186. Strausberg ... Mps one binder kinase activator-like 1A, also known as Mob1 homolog 1A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MOBKL1A ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 38-like is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK38L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24444-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Entrez Gene: STK38L serine/threonine kinase 38 like". Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, et al. (2003). "Construction of ... 2004). "Regulation of NDR2 protein kinase by multi-site phosphorylation and the S100B calcium-binding protein". J. Biol. Chem. ...
They signal through receptor tyrosine kinases and serine/threonine protein kinases. Several other biomolecules that have ... Whereas neurotrophic factors within the neurotrophin family commonly have a protein tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk), ... Most NTFs exert their trophic effects on neurons by signaling through tyrosine kinases, usually a receptor tyrosine kinase. In ... The NT-3 protein is found within the thymus, spleen, intestinal epithelium but its role in the function of each organ is still ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SGK2 gene. This gene encodes a serine/ ... threonine protein kinase. Although this gene product is similar to serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK), this ... 2003). "The serine/threonine kinases SGK2 and SGK3 are potent stimulators of the epithelial Na+ channel alpha,beta,gamma-ENaC ... 2003). "K+ channel activation by all three isoforms of serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent protein kinase SGK". Pflügers Arch. ...
This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein contains a Cdc42/Rac-binding p21 ... The kinase domain of this protein is most closely related to that of myotonic dystrophy kinase-related ROK. Studies of the ... CDC42 binding protein kinase beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC42BPB gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CDC42 binding protein kinase beta". Retrieved 2017-05-31. Choi SH, Czifra G, Kedei N, Lewin NE, Lazar J, Pu Y, ...
MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MKNK2 gene. MKNK2 has ... Waskiewicz AJ, Flynn A, Proud CG, Cooper JA (1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: MKNK2 MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2". Scheper, Gert C; Parra Josep L; Wilson Mary; Van ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi:10.1093/ ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal- ... The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to ...
MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MKNK1 gene. MKNK1 has ... Waskiewicz AJ, Flynn A, Proud CG, Cooper JA (1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi: ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ...
... s are serine-threonine kinase receptors. Transforming growth factor beta family proteins ... Additionally, both types have a cysteine-rich extracellular domain and a cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase domain. Type 1 ... Bone morphogenetic protein Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptors and signal ... There are four bone morphogenetic protein receptors: Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1: ACVR1 BMPR1A BMPR1B Bone ...
Serine/threonine protein kinase MST4, also known as mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 4 (MST-4), is a protein that in humans ... "Entrez Gene: RP6-213H19.1 serine/threonine protein kinase MST4". Goudreault M, D'Ambrosio LM, Kean MJ, Mullin MJ, Larsen BG, ... The protein kinase localizes to the Golgi apparatus and is specifically activated by binding to the Golgi matrix protein GM130 ... which are a subset of the Ste20-like kinases. The encoded protein contains an amino-terminal kinase domain, and a carboxy- ...
The encoded protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Loeys-Dietz aortic ... Kawabata M, Chytil A, Moses HL (March 1995). "Cloning of a novel type II serine/threonine kinase receptor through interaction ... The protein encoded by this gene forms a heteromeric complex with type II TGF-β receptors when bound to TGF-β, transducing the ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (July 1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4 also known as polo-like kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLK4 gene. ... PLK4 encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to centrioles-complex ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00444 (Human Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4 ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q64702 (Mouse Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4 ...
The protein encoded by the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase ... CK1ε is a serine/threonine protein kinase and is very highly conserved; therefore, this kinase is very similar to other members ... After priming through phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase LATS, both casein kinase 1 epsilon and casein kinase 1 ... and inhibits kinase activity. The Casein kinase 1 epsilon protein is part of the mammalian oscillator, a group of proteins that ...
Pom1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that localizes to the cell tips. It is a partial mechanism for the formation of the ... Cdr2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase mitotic regulator in the fission yeast S. pombe. It is encoded by the P87050 2247 bp ... The N-terminus contains a sequence characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinase activity. The C-terminus, while non- ... The protein is 775 amino acids in length. Cdr2 is a member of the GIN4 family of kinases, which prevent progression of mitosis ...
... belongs to the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase family and therefore has the protein kinase domain in positions ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase RIO1 is an enzyme that in humans is encode by the RIOK1 gene. RIOK1 is an atypical protein, ... "Serine/threonine-protein kinase RIO1". Target Report Card. Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SD, UK: EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Genome ... It belongs to the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase family. It has been intensely studied to understand the maturation ...
Sanjo H, Kawai T, Akira S (October 1998). "DRAKs, novel serine/threonine kinases related to death-associated protein kinase ... kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase family and encodes an autophosphorylated nuclear protein with a protein kinase ... Serine/threonine kinase 17a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STK17A gene. This gene is a member of the death- ... "Entrez Gene: Serine/threonine kinase 17a". Garagnani P, Marquis J, Delledonne M, Pirazzini C, Marasco E, Kwiatkowska KM, et al ...
PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activated kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. These proteins serve as ... "The adaptor protein Nck links receptor tyrosine kinases with the serine-threonine kinase Pak1". The Journal of Biological ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK1 gene. PAK1 is one of six members of ... Manser E, Leung T, Salihuddin H, Zhao ZS, Lim L (January 1994). "A brain serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Cdc42 and ...
RIP kinases (receptor-interacting protein kinases) are a class of serine/threonine protein kinases. In humans, five different ... Portal: Biology \ v t e (EC 2.7.11, Human proteins, Protein kinases, All stub articles, EC 2.7 stubs). ... "Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family". Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 7 (4): 243-249. doi:10.1038/cmi.2010.10. ... RIP kinases are known: RIPK1 RIPK2 RIPK3 RIPK4 RIPK5 Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai (July 2010). " ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family. It is the catalytic subunit of the 5'- ... 1996). "Characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase from rat liver and identification of threonine 172 as the ... 2001). "Phosphorylation of elongation factor-2 kinase on serine 499 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces Ca2+/calmodulin- ... "Stimulation of glucose transport by AMP-activated protein kinase via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. ...
The protein undergoes phosphorylation by a serine/threonine kinase, 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase. Interactions of this protein ... "A serine/threonine kinase p90rsk1 phosphorylates the anti-proliferative protein Tob". Genes to Cells. 6 (2): 131-8. doi:10.1046 ... "A serine/threonine kinase p90rsk1 phosphorylates the anti-proliferative protein Tob". Genes to Cells. 6 (2): 131-8. doi:10.1046 ... Protein Tob1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TOB1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the tob/btg1 family of anti ...
"Regulation of Neuronal Survival by the Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase Akt". Science. 275 (5300): 661-665. doi:10.1126/science. ... Segal defined the motif within Hedgehog proteins critical for binding to proteoglycans, defined the nature of the proteoglycan ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3). Neault et al. recently identified miR-137 as a senescence effector miRNA induced by ... Testis-Specific Serine Kinase 6), NT5DC2 (Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase), PITPNM2 (Membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol ... By suppressing Jarid1b protein level, miR-137 is believed to play a role in modulating the differentiated state of mouse ESCs. ... miR-137 is located on chromosome 1p22 within the non-protein-coding RNA gene AK094607. It is transcribed as a non-coding ...
"The receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 is constitutively associated with a 64-kDa protein serine/threonine kinase ... Ren Y, Busch RK, Perlaky L, Busch H (May 1998). "The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58), a nucleolar protein, interacts with ... Ren Y, Busch RK, Perlaky L, Busch H (1998). "The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58), a nucleolar protein, interacts with ... "Identification of the nuclear and nucleolar localization signals of the protein p120. Interaction with translocation protein ...
When a cell experiences metabolic stress, an AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates the lysine at position 36 in histone ... In histone H2B, a phosphorylated serine or threonine residue activates transcription. ... If cells receive multiple apoptotic stimuli, caspase-3 activates the Mst1 kinase, which phosphorylates the serine at position ... Histone H2B proteins found both in the promoter and coding regions of genes contain specific patterns of hyperacetylation and ...
The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... "Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: identification of threonine-286 as the autophosphorylation site in the alpha ... "KN-93 inhibition of G protein signaling is independent of the ability of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to ...
The first step in desensitization is phosphorylation of the receptor by a class of serine/threonine kinases called G protein ... Arrestins (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... such as protein kinase JNK3 or the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, from the nucleus. Arrestins also modify gene expression by enhancing ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ...
"Interactions between beta 2-syntrophin and a family of microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinases". Nat. Neurosci. 2 (7): ... Hasegawa M, Cuenda A, Spillantini MG, Thomas GM, Buée-Scherrer V, Cohen P, Goedert M (1999). "Stress-activated protein kinase-3 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ...
... protein and ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) serine/threonine kinase weakens with age in oocytes of numerous species ...
... belongs to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase protein family. The DNA-Pkcs protein is a serine/threonine ... DNA-PKcs is the catalytic subunit of a nuclear DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase called DNA-PK. The second ... Gell D, Jackson SP (September 1999). "Mapping of protein-protein interactions within the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex ... "Regulatory interactions between the checkpoint kinase Chk1 and the proteins of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex". J. ...
Protein kinases can also be inhibited by competition at the binding sites where the kinases interact with their substrate ... these include the amino acids serine (that reacts with DFP, see the "DFP reaction" diagram), and also cysteine, threonine, or ... "Peptide inhibitors of protein kinases-discovery, characterisation and use". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and ... For example, some protein kinase inhibitors have chemical structures that are similar to ATP, one of the substrates of these ...
NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ... which are associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an ... In mammals, PRRs can also associate with members of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, distant relatives to ... December 1995). "A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa21". Science. 270 (5243): 1804- ...
... is serine-threonine protein kinase and part of the "with no lysine/K" kinase WNK family. The predominant role of WNK1 is ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9H4A3 (Serine/threonine-protein kinase WNK1) at ... The kinase domain has some similarity to the MEKK protein kinase family. As a member of the WNK family, the kinase's catalytic ... The WNK1 gene encodes a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase expressed in the distal nephron. Studies have shown that WNK1 can ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase WNK3, also known as protein kinase lysine-deficient 3, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... WNK3 is a protein belonging to the 'with no lysine' family of serine-threonine protein kinases. These family members lack the ... Veríssimo F, Jordan P (2001). "WNK kinases, a novel protein kinase subfamily in multi-cellular organisms". Oncogene. 20 (39): ... 2006). "Protein kinase WNK3 increases cell survival in a caspase-3-dependent pathway". Oncogene. 25 (30): 4172-82. doi:10.1038/ ...
... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... serine - serotonin - serotonin receptor - serpin - sexual reproduction - SH3 domain - SI - sigma factor - signal peptide - ... threonine - thrombin - thrombin receptor - thrombomodulin - thromboxane receptor - thylakoid - thyroid hormone receptor - ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ...
They are G protein coupled receptors. TGF-beta receptor family, which are Serine/threonine kinase receptors. Includes the TGF ... STAT protein Brooks, Andrew J.; Dehkhoda, Farhad; Kragelund, Birthe B. (2017). "Cytokine Receptors". Principles of ... two of which acting as binding proteins for HIV (CXCR4 and CCR5). ...
Furthermore, SNX8 C-terminus contains a threonine in position 452 and a serine in position 456 which can go through post- ... SNX8 acts as an adaptor or scaffolding protein by permitting the recruitment of the inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa-B kinase ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... SNX8 protein regulates cholesterol levels as an activator of the SREBPs (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins), which is ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 25 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK25 gene. STK25 has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: STK25 serine/threonine kinase 25 (STE20 homolog, yeast)". Goudreault M, D'Ambrosio LM, Kean MJ, Mullin MJ, Larsen ... Osada S, Izawa M, Saito R, Mizuno K, Suzuki A, Hirai S, Ohno S (Jun 1997). "YSK1, a novel mammalian protein kinase structurally ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
... encoding Serine/threonine-protein kinase TAO2 TBC1D24: encoding protein TBC1 domain family, member 24 TEDC2: encoding protein ... encoding protein NIP30 protein NOB1: encoding protein RNA-binding protein NOB1 NOMO1: encoding protein Nodal modulator 1 NPW: ... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 23 ZNF200: encoding protein Zinc finger protein 200 ZNF263: encoding protein Zinc finger ... encoding protein Neuropeptide W NUBP2: encoding protein Nucleotide-binding protein 2 NUPR1: encoding protein Nuclear protein 1 ...
"The receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 is constitutively associated with a 64-kDa protein serine/threonine kinase ... Geetha T, Wooten MW (February 2003). "Association of the atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein p62/ZIP with nerve ... Also known as the ubiquitin-binding protein p62, it is an autophagosome cargo protein that targets other proteins that bind to ... "The atypical protein kinase C-interacting protein p62 is a scaffold for NF-kappaB activation by nerve growth factor". J. Biol. ...
As with ST turns, a significant proportion of ST motifs occur at the N-terminus of an alpha helix with the serine or threonine ... SPXX or STXX are frequently found at DNA-binding sites and also that they are recognized as substrates by some protein kinases ... It consists of four or five amino acid residues with either serine or threonine as the first residue (residue i). It is defined ... Wan, WY; Milner-White EJ (1999). "A recurring two-hydrogen bond motif incorporating a serine or threonine residue is found both ...
"The 2.2 A crystal structure of the Ras-binding domain of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf1 in complex with Rap1A and a GTP ... Ras-related protein Rap-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAP1A gene. The product of this gene belongs to the ... These proteins share approximately 50% amino acid identity with the classical RAS proteins and have numerous structural ... The most striking difference between RAP proteins and RAS proteins resides in their 61st amino acid: glutamine in RAS is ...
... is activated via phosphorylation, by tyrosine kinases or serine/threonine kinases, in response to extracellular ... Cortactin (from "cortical actin binding protein") is a monomeric protein located in the cytoplasm of cells that can be ... Certain serine/threonine kinases, such as ERK, can phosphorylate cortactin on Ser405 and Ser418 in the SH3 domain. Activated ... The SH3 domain of certain tyrosine kinases, such as the oncogene Src kinase, binds to cortactin's proline-rich region and ...
Hutchcroft JE, Harrison ML, Geahlen RL (Apr 1992). "Association of the 72-kDa protein-tyrosine kinase PTK72 with the B cell ... Müller R, Wienands J, Reth M (Jul 2000). "The serine and threonine residues in the Ig-alpha cytoplasmic tail negatively ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD79A gene. The CD79a protein together with the related CD79b protein, forms a ... CD79a ITAM tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling is negatively regulated by serine and threonine residues in direct proximity ...
... was later shown to encode a protein phosphatase. Cdc14 is dual-specificity, which means it has serine/threonine and ... "A global protein kinase and phosphatase interaction network in yeast". Science. 328 (5981): 1043-1046. Bibcode:2010Sci... ... a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. Cdc14 antagonizes Cdk1 by stimulating proteolysis of its cyclin partner (cyclin ... "The structure of the cell cycle protein Cdc14 reveals a proline-directed protein phosphatase". EMBO J. 22 (14): 3524-3535. doi: ...
"The structural requirements for ceramide activation of serine-threonine protein phosphatases". J. Lipid Res. 45 (3): 496-506. ... Sph is also known to interact with protein targets such as the protein kinase H homologue (PKH) and the yeast protein kinase ( ... A specific protein kinase phosphorylates 14-3-3, otherwise known as sphingosine-dependent protein kinase 1 (SDK1), only in the ... 1997). "Kinase suppressor of Ras is ceramide-activated protein kinase". Cell. 89 (1): 63-72. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80183-X ...
... protein-serine/threonine kinases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:dephospho-{[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA ... AMP-activated protein kinase kinase, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase kinase kinase, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A ... reductase kinase kinase, (phosphorylating), reductase kinase, reductase kinase kinase, and STK30. Beg ZH, Stonik JA, Brewer HB ... specifically those transferring a phosphate group to the sidechain oxygen atom of serine or threonine residues in proteins ( ...
... (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase ... "Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108-11. ... and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase). It activates the T cells of the immune system and can be blocked by drugs ... Giri PR, Higuchi S, Kincaid RL (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of the human genes for the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase ...
The RCCX abbreviation composed of the names of the genes RP (a former name for STK19 serine/threonine kinase 19), C4, CYP21 and ... In a monomodular structure, all of the genes are functional i.e. protein-coding, but if a module count is two or more, there is ...
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-alpha catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1CA gene. The ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ... protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 is a serine/threonine ... Helps NR, Luo X, Barker HM, Cohen PT (2001). "NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to ...
This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 non- ... is a CREB kinase under dominant control of p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38alphaMAPK)". J Biol Chem. 273 (45): ... Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KA4 gene. ... Du K, Montminy M (1999). "CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (49): 32377-32379. ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_011499.3 → NP_035629.2 serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein ... serine/threonine kinase receptor associated proteinprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1329037 See related. Ensembl: ... Serine threonine kinase receptor associated protein regulates early follicle development in the mouse ovary. Sharum IB, et al. ...
Timeline for Protein Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 from d.144.1.7: Protein kinases, catalytic subunit: *Protein Serine/ ... Protein Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 [143893] (1 species). NIMA subfamily (NimA-related protein kinase 2). ... Protein Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 from d.144.1.7: Protein kinases, catalytic subunit appears in SCOPe 2.07. ... More info for Protein Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 from d.144.1.7: Protein kinases, catalytic subunit. ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 24. Details. Name. Serine/threonine-protein kinase 24. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Protein ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase 24. Q9Y6E0. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ...
Recombinant Proteins* Close. *. Image. ALiCE® is a radically different approach to cell-free expression and a kit unlike any ... Purified Natural Proteins* Close. *. Image. ALiCE® is a radically different approach to cell-free expression and a kit unlike ... Magnetic Beads for Protein Applications* Close. *. Image. ALiCE® is a radically different approach to cell-free expression and ... Protein Kits* Close. *. Image. AMSBIO offers one of the largest selection of active recombinant enzymes and enzyme activity ...
Two structurally unrelated but functionally similar protein serine/threonine kinases, checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1; EC ... 1] Differential roles of checkpoint kinase 1, checkpoint kinase 2, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein ... CHK1 is a checkpoint kinase in mammals and regulates G2-M and S-phase cell-cycle checkpoints. It is expressed in the S and G2 ... 2] Targeting the checkpoint kinases: chemosensitization versus chemoprotection. B.B.S. Zhou, J. Bartek. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2004, ...
... Diedhiou CJ, Popova OV ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase SAPK4 (UNIPROT: Q5N942). Organism: Oryza sativa subsp. japonica. Download in FASTA format ... "The SNF1-type serine-threonine protein kinase SAPK4 regulates stress-responsive gene expression in rice". BMC PLANT BIOLOGY 8 ( ... The SNF1-type serine-threonine protein kinase SAPK4 regulates stress-responsive gene expression in rice. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, 8(1 ...
Protein target information for Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase (chicken). Find diseases associated with this ...
Striated muscle-specific serine/threonine-protein kinase beta (SPEGβ) exhibited the greatest difference in abundance and was ... Striated muscle-specific serine/threonine-protein kinase beta (SPEGβ) segregates with high- versus low-responsiveness to ... Striated muscle-specific serine/threonine-protein kinase beta (SPEGβ) segregates with high- versus low-responsiveness to ... Early responses of stress-sensing proteins, muscle LIM protein (MLP), ankyrin repeat proteins (Ankrd1/CARP and Ankrd2/Arpp) and ...
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors of Ripk2 attenuate bacterial cell wall-mediated lipolysis, inflammation and dysglycemia Academic ... RIPK2 Dictates Insulin Responses to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Obese Male Mice Academic Article ...
Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST) is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in Jurkat cells. In response to ... We have identified a serine/threonine kinase that is rapidly activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis. ... Protein Processing, Post-Translational* * Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / isolation & purification * Protein Serine- ... Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST) is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in Jurkat cells. In response to ...
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases * CDKL5 protein, human * GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go ...
... for information about a given query protein. Data relevant to the protein like an alignment of homologues, linear motifs, post ... ProViz is an interactive protein exploration tool, which searches several databases ... relative to their position in the protein. ...
Protein target information for Receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (zebrafish). Find diseases associated with this ...
Human RIPK2 Protein is a recombinant Human protein produced in E. coli using Prokaryotic expression. ... Human Receptor Interacting Serine Threonine Kinase 2 (RIPK2) Protein. Human Receptor Interacting Serine Threonine Kinase 2 ( ... CCK protein, Protein CCK, Human CCK Protein, Human CCK, Human protein CCK, CARD3 protein, Protein CARD3, Human CARD3 Protein, ... CCK protein, Protein CCK, Human CCK Protein, Human CCK, Human protein CCK, CARD3 protein, Protein CARD3, Human CARD3 Protein, ...
Type II receptor serine/threonine kinases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and ... bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) Rat. -. 1038. 9q31. Bmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein ... bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) , bone morphogenetic protein receptor ... Type II receptor serine/threonine kinases: bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2. Last modified on 22/07/2019. Accessed on ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Compound: Serine/threonine-protein kinase STE11. Species: ... Compound: Serine/threonine-protein kinase STE11. Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene: STE11. Database cross-references and ... Keywords: SAM domain, MAP kinase, Ste11. Deposited on 2004-08-24, released 2005-08-30. The last revision prior to the SCOP 1.73 ... SCOP: Structural Classification of Proteins and ASTRAL. Release 1.73 (November 2007) Copyright © 1994-2009 The SCOP and Astral ...
Serine protease, D- or L-serine arginine rich enzyme of serine threonine kinase with serine that is encoded by the codons UCU, ... The product Assay kit for RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase(RAF1) (ELISA) is intended to be used for research ... The product Assay kit for RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase(RAF1) (ELISA)should be kept between two and eight ... Assay kit for RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase(RAF1) (ELISA). ...
RAC alpha serine/threonine protein kinase, RAC PK alpha, RAC protein kinase alpha, RAC serine/threonine protein kinase. Related ... Human AKT1 (RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) recombinant protein 6xHis-GST tagged. €97,00. - €1.615,00. ... Protein accession: NP_001014432.1. OMIM ID: 164730. Molecular class: Serine/threonine-protein kinase ... Human AKT1 (RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) recombinant protein 6xHis-GST tagged quantity. ...
Rock and roll proteins are Rho GTPase-dependent serine/threonine kinases with essential. * Post author By insulinreceptor ... Rock and roll proteins are Rho GTPase-dependent serine/threonine kinases with essential jobs in F-actin dynamics and cell ... Furthermore, they claim that the main focus on of the serine/threonine kinases may be the phosphoproteome rather than the ... Much like additional serine/threonine kinases involved with transmission transduction (i.e., Erk, p38MAPK), Raf265 derivative ...
Crystal structure of human Pim-1 kinase in complex with a consensuspeptide and fragment like molekule 2-cyclopropyl-4,5- ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase pim-1: A. Pimtide: B. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... Siefker, C. et al., A crystallographic fragment study with human Pim-1 kinase. to be published Release Date. 2018-02-28. ... Crystal structure of human Pim-1 kinase in complex with a consensuspeptide and fragment like molekule 2-cyclopropyl-4,5- ...
Crystal structure of the Cbk1-Mob2 kinase-coactivator complex ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase CBK1. A. 508. Saccharomyces ... CBK1 kinase activator protein MOB2. B. 244. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: MOB2, YFL034C-B, YFL035C ... the NDR/LATS family protein kinases, which associate with "Mob" coactivator proteins, are central but incompletely understood ... Eukaryotic cells commonly use protein kinases in signaling systems that relay information and control a wide range of processes ...
The WNK4 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a role in blood pressure regulation by helping control the ... protein kinase lysine-deficient 4. *protein kinase with no lysine 4. *serine/threonine-protein kinase WNK4 ... The WNK4 protein acts as a kinase, which is an enzyme that changes the activity of other proteins by adding a cluster of oxygen ... The alterations to the WNK4 protein impair its breakdown, resulting in higher than normal levels of WNK4 protein and elevated ...
Cdc42 complexed with the GTPase binding domain of p21 activated kinase ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1. B. 46. Rattus norvegicus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: Pak1. EC: ... Cell division control protein 42 homolog. A. 184. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: CDC42. EC: ... The structure is compared with those of Cdc42 bound to similar fragments of ACK and WASP, two effector proteins that bind only ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a ubiquitous and abundant serine-threonine kinase, has emerged as an ... AKT1, RACα serine-threonine protein kinase; BKCa, large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel; FGF2, fibroblast ... H2S-induced cardiac protection was mediated via increased phosphorylation of RACα serine-threonine-protein kinase (AKT1; also ... phosphodiesterase-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG; also known as cGMP-dependent protein kinase) vascular relaxation signalling ...
Anti-Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4/MST-1 antibody [EP1465Y] (ab51134) Specific References (21) ... DNA PKcs+mTOR+PLK1+PI3 Kinase p110 beta+PI 3 Kinase p110 delta+PI 3 Kinase p85 alpha+GSK3 beta+PIK3C (1). ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ... CDK1+Cyclin B1+Liver Arginase+Acetylcholinesterase+GSK3 beta+Cdk6+p35+GSK3 alpha+Casein Kinase 2 al (1). ...
non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase. > Bulb-type lectin domain * Occurring in:. *non-specific serine/threonine ... non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase. > S-locus-specific glycoprotein/EP1 * Occurring in:. *non-specific serine/ ... non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase Chains: A, B Molecule details › Chains: A, B. Length: 405 amino acids. Theoretical ... non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase. > Bulb-type lectin domain superfamily * Occurring in:. * ...
Cyclin-dependent Kinase 16, Division Protein Kinase 16, PCTAIRE-motif Protein Kinase 1, Serine/Threonine-protein Kinase PCTAIRE ... Order PCTK1 CDK16 Cyclin-dependent Kinase 16 Cell Division Protein Kinase 16 PCTAIRE-motif Protein Kinase 1 Serine Threonine- ... protein Kinase PCTAIRE-1 FLJ16665 PCTAIRE PCTAIRE1 PCTGAIRE Antibody 01012527420 at Gentaur PCTK1 (CDK16, ... cyclin-dependent kinase 16; PCTAIRE-motif protein kinase 1; cell division protein kinase 16; serine/threonine-protein kinase ...
IPR000719 Protein kinase domain. IPR011009 Protein kinase-like domain superfamily. IPR008271 Serine/threonine-protein kinase, ... protein coding gene. Chr1:74640583-74676053 (+). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0016158. protein coding gene. Chr1:75215357- ... protein coding gene. Chr1:68159506-68190835 (+). CAST/EiJ MGP_CASTEiJ_G0015511. protein coding gene. Chr1:74255242-74291095 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr1:74929690-74964427 (+). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0016549. protein coding gene. Chr1:78132418-78169987 ...
2.7.11 Protein-serine/threonine kinases. mitogen-activated protein kinase. 1432 (MAPK14). Protein kinases [BR: ... 2.7.11 Protein-serine/threonine kinases. mitogen-activated protein kinase. 5600 (MAPK11). Protein kinases [BR: ... 2.7.11 Protein-serine/threonine kinases. mitogen-activated protein kinase. 5603 (MAPK13). Protein kinases [BR: ... 2.7.11 Protein-serine/threonine kinases. mitogen-activated protein kinase. 6300 (MAPK12). Protein kinases [BR: ...
... regulatory phosphorylation of proteins at serine and/or threonine residues by serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) is an ... Characterization of the phosphorylation sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine protein kinases, PknA, PknD, PknE ... MS studies of the entire intracellular regions of recombinant protein kinases PknA, PknD, PknE, and PknH from Mtb. The on- ... seven and nine phosphorylated serine and/or threonine residues wereidentified as phosphorylation sites in the recombinant ...
  • Whereas the phosphorylation of MLC and its own phosphatase by Rock and roll proteins promotes the forming of F-actin fibres, the phosphorylation of additional protein classes seems to induce neurofilament disassembly also to halt microtubule polymerisation. (insulin-receptor.info)
  • It shows a novel coactivator-organized activation region that may be unique to NDR/LATS kinases, in which a key regulatory motif apparently shifts from an inactive binding mode to an active one upon phosphorylation. (rcsb.org)
  • Co-evolution of docking motifs and phosphorylation consensus sites strongly indicates that a protein is an in vivo regulatory target of this hippo pathway, and predicts a new group of high-confidence Cbk1 substrates that function at sites of cytokinesis and cell growth. (rcsb.org)
  • Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to SWCNT resulted in the phosphorylation of protein p42/44 (p42/44) and protein p38 (p38). (cdc.gov)
  • SWCNT did not induce protein serine-threonine kinase (AKT) phosphorylation. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterization of the phosphorylation sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine protein kinases, PknA, PknD, PknE, and PknH by mass spectrometry. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • Evidence is provided for a signal-induced phosphorylation-dependent alteration of the IKK complex emphasizing the dynamic nature of this multisubunit kinase complex and that the protein phosphatase PP2A is involved in the regulation of the Ser68-based mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro, in vitro, IKKα and IKKβ are two independent kinases of IκBα, a large multiprotein complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The rest of the article focuses on two proteins in particular that could get disrupted through glyphosate substitution, and I will explain how this disruption can lead to a runaway phosphorylation cascade resulting in cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Rochat-Steiner V, Becker K, Micheau O, Schneider P, Burns K, Tschopp J: FIST/HIPK3: a Fas/FADD-interacting serine/threonine kinase that induces FADD phosphorylation and inhibits fas-mediated Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. (smpdb.ca)
  • Particularly, AZD8055 fully inhibited multisite eIF4E-binding protein 1 phosphorylation, subsequently blocking protein translation, which was in contrast to the effects of rapamycin. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Network pharmacology studies revealed that BDNF, GCs and GC-responsive or down-stream genes such as GC-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ), glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 1, protein kinase B (PKB), etc. were intensively involved into anti-inflammation and glucose intolerance. (researchsquare.com)
  • IGF-I circulates primarily in a high molecular weight tertiary complex with IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid-labile subunit. (unitslab.com)
  • Moreover, docking peptides arise in unstructured regions of proteins that are probably already kinase substrates, suggesting a broad sequential model for adaptive acquisition of kinase docking in rapidly evolving intrinsically disordered polypeptides. (rcsb.org)
  • Peptides and proteins are guaranteed for 3 months from date of receipt. (novusbio.com)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-* is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK* genes. (pctaire.com)
  • Finally, real time PCR confirmed that hepatic GC-target genes, such as G6Pase, GILZ, SGK1, PKB were up-regulated, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) expression were decreased by PE administration. (researchsquare.com)
  • The present study aimed to detect differentially expressed protein‑coding genes to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for lung adenocarcinoma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks and statistical analysis were used to identify the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In conclusion, TOP2A, CDC20, BUB1 and MAD2L1 may be key protein‑coding genes that may serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung adenocarcinomas. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • With the aim of improving the diagnosis and treatment of lung adenocarcinomas, in the present study, data mining of the public Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed protein-coding genes between lung cancer and normal tissue samples. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was also constructed to identify hub genes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The UPR is an ER stress response that is conserved from yeast to mammals and activates genes involved in degrading misfolded proteins, regulating protein synthesis and activating molecular chaperones. (genscript.com)
  • Changes in the expression level of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins possibly reflect metabolic reprogramming of mitochondria by hypoxia and IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and correlate with suppression of glioma cell proliferation under inhibition of the IRE1 enzyme function. (genscript.com)
  • Title: Effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells. (genscript.com)
  • This domain occurred 318 times on human genes ( 726 proteins). (umbc.edu)
  • Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase Genes in the Pakistani Schizophrenic Population: A Study with Special Emphasis on Cannabis and Smokeless Tobacco. (cdc.gov)
  • We performed correlation analyses between expression levels of kinase genes and response for capecitabine plus RAD001. (jcancer.org)
  • In subgroups with response for capecitabine plus RAD001, there is significant overexpression of 6 genes among 519 kinase gene such as EPHA2 (P = 0.0025), PIM1 (P = 0.0031), KSR1 (P = 0.0033), and EIF2AK4 (P = 0.0046) that are related to the activation of mTOR signalling. (jcancer.org)
  • Diedhiou CJ, Popova OV, Dietz K-J, Golldack D. The SNF1-type serine-threonine protein kinase SAPK4 regulates stress-responsive gene expression in rice. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The WNK4 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a role in blood pressure regulation by helping control the amount of sodium and potassium in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One gene named ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 (AHT1) was upregulated more than 2.5 times by ABA, and its coding region possessed a BTB/POZ domain, which is the common feature of CRL3 substrate receptors. (usda.gov)
  • This gene encodes the transmembrane protein kinase inositol-requiring enzyme 1. (genscript.com)
  • Sequencing of mutations in the serine/threonine kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene causing pulmonary arterial hypertension. (edu.au)
  • Decrease of interleukin (IL)17a gene expression in leucocytes and in the amount of IL-17a protein in CD4+ T cells in children with Down syndrome. (edu.pl)
  • Thus, our results suggest that the kinase domain deleted by gene targeting plays a suppressive role for the development of renal fibrosis through inhibition of the tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a mouse model of COU. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (eneuro.org)
  • The WNK4 protein acts as a kinase, which is an enzyme that changes the activity of other proteins by adding a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms (a phosphate group) at specific positions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serine protease, D- or L-serine arginine rich enzyme of serine threonine kinase with serine that is encoded by the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (rnagrade.com)
  • For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency.Serine protease, D- or L-serine arginine rich enzyme of serine threonine kinase with serine that is encoded by the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (pctaire.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Aurora Kinase B(AURKB), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (afsbio.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (1elisakits.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (1elisakits.com)
  • The aPKC subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (umbc.edu)
  • 1] Differential roles of checkpoint kinase 1, checkpoint kinase 2, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 in mediatingDNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest: implications for cancer therapy. (axonmedchem.com)
  • SWCNT induced a significant activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), and the effect was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. (cdc.gov)
  • In fungi homologous to P. carinii, pheromone mating factors signal through a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascade, resulting in mitotic cell cycle arrest and entry into a pathway of conjugation, cellular differentiation, and proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • The product Assay kit for RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase(RAF1) (ELISA) is intended to be used for research purposes only. (rnagrade.com)
  • The product Assay kit for RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase(RAF1) (ELISA)should be kept between two and eight degrees Celsius to ensure the retention of the stability and reactivity of the reagents included in the kit. (rnagrade.com)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits. (embl.de)
  • Several Rock and roll downstream targets have already been determined, including regulators from the F-actin cytoskeleton (myosin light string (MLC), the MLC phosphatase, Lim kinases 1 and 2), intermediate filament elements (vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic proteins and neurofilaments) and microtubule-associated protein (Tau, microtubule-associated proteins 2) [16, 17]. (insulin-receptor.info)
  • Predicted to enable protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Orthologous to human PHLPP2 (PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase 2). (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial Scaffolding Protein ENH (Enigma Homolog Protein) Promotes PHLPP2 (Pleckstrin Homology Domain and Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 2)-Mediated Dephosphorylation of AKT1 and eNOS (Endothelial NO Synthase) Promoting Vascular Remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is crucial for cell growth and proliferation, and is constitutively activated in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, therefore representing a major target for drug development in this disease. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Phphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are activated in 30% and 60% of human gastric carcinoma, respectively [ 5 , 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Orthologous to human STRAP (serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein). (nih.gov)
  • Serine threonine kinase receptor associated protein regulates early follicle development in the mouse ovary. (nih.gov)
  • Serine threonine receptor-associated protein (STRAP) plays a role in the maintenance of mesenchymal morphology. (nih.gov)
  • Serine-threonine Kinase Receptor-Associated Protein is a Critical Mediator of APC Mutation-Induced Intestinal Tumorigenesis Through a Feed-Forward Mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Serine-threonine kinase receptor associated protein (STRAP) is a scaffolding protein that has been implicated in tumor growth and metastasis. (eventscribe.net)
  • CHK1 is a checkpoint kinase in mammals and regulates G2-M and S-phase cell-cycle checkpoints. (axonmedchem.com)
  • The WNK4 protein regulates channels in the cell membrane that control the transport of sodium or potassium into and out of cells, which occurs primarily in the kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • H 2 S regulates various pathophysiological functions via interaction with nitric oxide, activation of molecular signalling cascades, post-translational modification of proteins and control of redox-dependent responses. (nature.com)
  • The mutations involved in this condition change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the WNK4 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • DAPK-mutant mice, generated by deletion of 74 amino acids from the catalytic kinase domain, were used to investigate the role of the DAPK kinase domain in renal fibrosis following COU. (elsevier.com)
  • Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is a large multidomain protein with an N-terminal serine/threonine protein kinase domain. (iucr.org)
  • Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is a Ca 2+ /calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine protein kinase (CaMK) composed of an N-terminal catalytic kinase domain, a Ca 2+ /calmodulin-binding domain, ankyrin repeats, an Roc/COR domain and a death domain. (iucr.org)
  • The kinase domain of death-associated protein kinase is inhibitory for tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic obstructive nephropathy. (elsevier.com)
  • Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase that is thought to mediate apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST) is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in Jurkat cells. (nih.gov)
  • STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. (umbc.edu)
  • The proteins encoded by members of the Dbl family share a common domain, presented in this entry, of about 200 residues (designated the Dbl homology or DH domain) that has been shown to encode a GEF activity specific for a number of Rho family members. (embl.de)
  • Human hypertension caused by mutations in WNK kinases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2.1 Combos with targeted therapy The introduction of molecular targeted therapy for melanoma stemmed through the 910462-43-0 IC50 observation that approximately 50% of most of cutaneous melanomas harbored activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • We show here that the specific mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in AML. (crick.ac.uk)
  • mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD2014 inhibits the activity of mTOR, which may result in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. (biochempartner.com)
  • Recombinant IKK1 or IKK2 forms homo- or heterodimers, suggesting the possibility that similar IKK complexes exist in vivo, and a novel component common to both complexes is identified, named IKK-associated protein 1 (IKKAP1). (semanticscholar.org)
  • protein_coding" "AAC76745","bglF","Escherichia coli","fused beta-glucoside-specific PTS enzymes: IIA component/IIB component/IIC component [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 2013) Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel and selective bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMP) inhibitor derived from the pyrazolo[1.5-a]pyrimidine scaffold of dorsomorphin: the discovery of ML347 as an ALK2 versus ALK3 selective MLPCN probe. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • To the end, we utilized microarray technology to measure the aftereffect of Y27632, a chemical substance inhibitor popular to block Rock and roll kinase activity [28], in the transcriptome of exponentially developing NIH3T3 cells. (insulin-receptor.info)
  • Y-27632 [(+)-( R )- trans -4-(1-aminoethyl)- N -(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride] is widely used as a specific inhibitor of the Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase (ROCK) family of protein kinases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • XIV" YNL224C 2 15 16 YNL224C "Ynl224cp,XIV" YNL238W 2 15 17 YNL238W "Ca2+-dependent serine protease,XIV" YNL240C 2 15 18 YNL240C "Nar1p,XIV" YNL242W 2 15 19 YNL242W "Required for sporulation. (davidson.edu)
  • protein_coding" "AAC73596","tesA","Escherichia coli","acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 and protease I and lysophospholipase L1 [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Quercetin Therapy for Selected Patients with PIM1 Kinase-Positive Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: A Pilot Study. (uchicago.edu)
  • Expression of PIM1 protein in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. (uchicago.edu)
  • Co-immunoprecipitation of SPEGβ in HRT muscle discovered putative interacting proteins that link with previously reported differences in transforming growth factor-β signalling in exercised muscle. (jyu.fi)
  • XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (davidson.edu)
  • Fas ligand is a transmembrane protein part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (smpdb.ca)
  • [2] [3] Many membrane receptors include transmembrane proteins . (ipfs.io)
  • Like any integral membrane protein, a transmembrane receptor may be divided into three domains. (ipfs.io)
  • In certain receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel . (ipfs.io)
  • mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase, is thought to play a central role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, cellular metabolism and angiogenesis [ 7 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The encoded protein contains two functional catalytic domains, a serine/threonine-protein kinase domain and an endoribonuclease domain. (genscript.com)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (Gsk3 β) was mildly increased. (researchsquare.com)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α and GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, with crucial roles in coordinating fundamental biological processes during neural development. (eneuro.org)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α or GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, especially in the CNS but poorly described in the retina. (eneuro.org)
  • DNA topoisomerase 2 α (TOP2A), cell division cycle protein homolog 20 (CDC20), mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine protein kinase BUB1 (BUB1) and mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A (MAD2L1) exhibited the highest degree of interaction in the PPI network. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results indicated that DNA topoisomerase 2α (TOP2A), cell division cycle protein 20 homolog (CDC20), mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase BUB1 (BUB1) and mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint MAD2A (MAD2L1) may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung adenocarcinomas. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Yip1 Interacting Factor Homolog B (YIF1B) is a membrane protein involved in serotonin receptor (HTR) membrane trafficking and signal transmission in neuropathy. (silverchair.com)
  • We have identified a serine/threonine kinase that is rapidly activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • In response to Fas ligation, it is rapidly dephosphorylated and concomitantly activated to phosphorylate TIA-1, a nuclear RNA-binding protein that has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • RNase L Induces Expression of A Novel Serine/ Threonine Protein Kinase, DRAK1, to Promote Apoptosis. (utoledo.edu)
  • Chinnaiyan AM, O'Rourke K, Tewari M, Dixit VM: FADD, a novel death domain-containing protein, interacts with the death domain of Fas and initiates apoptosis. (smpdb.ca)
  • An intracellular-signaling kinase that plays a role in regulating APOPTOSIS . (nih.gov)
  • We have shown that the kinase domain of DAPK is crucial for the induction of renal tubular cell apoptosis in chronic obstructive uropathy (COU) created by unilateral ureteral ligation. (elsevier.com)
  • Human RIPK2 Protein is a recombinant Human protein produced in E. coli using Prokaryotic expression. (abbexa.com)
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (berkeley.edu)
  • The Rho family GTPases, Cdc42, Rac and Rho, regulate signal transduction pathways via interactions with downstream effector proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure is compared with those of Cdc42 bound to similar fragments of ACK and WASP, two effector proteins that bind only to Cdc42. (rcsb.org)
  • The intracellular domain communicates via protein-protein interactions against effector proteins , which in turn pass a signal to the destination. (ipfs.io)
  • Protein kinases are major signal transduction factors that have a central role in mediating acclimation to environmental changes in eukaryotic organisms. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Like all members of the Ras superfamily, the Rho proteins cycle between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound conformational states. (embl.de)
  • Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. (yeastgenome.org)
  • The alterations to the WNK4 protein impair its breakdown, resulting in higher than normal levels of WNK4 protein and elevated WNK4 activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Moreover, the activity of the Nurr1 LBD was shown to correlate with a propensity for proteasome-dependent degradation revealing a close association between activity and Nurr1 protein turnover. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • While it is possible that this protein could display some level of activity, the functionality of this protein has not been explicitly measured or validated. (novusbio.com)
  • Y-27632 and Y-30141 inhibited the kinase activity of both ROCK-I and ROCK-II in vitro, and this inhibition was reversed by ATP in a competitive manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Y-30141 was 10 times more potent than Y-27632 in inhibiting the kinase activity and stress fiber formation, and it caused significant delay in the G 1 -S transition and inhibition of cytokinesis at 10 μM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Kinases activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which activate pro-apoptotic JNK activity. (smpdb.ca)
  • Often, this is tyrosine kinase activity. (ipfs.io)
  • Its activity is directed by intracellular signals mediated by various types of receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors. (embl.de)
  • Akt2 Colorimetric Cell-Based ELISA Kit is able to recognize, detecte and quantificate the endogenous levels of both recombinant and naturally produced Akt2 proteins, within any experimental sample including cell lysates, serum and plasma. (onebiotec.com)
  • Biosynthesis of threonine from homoserine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose biosynthesis protein BcsF [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • STRAP Acts as a Scaffolding Protein in Controlling the TLR2/4 Signaling Pathway. (nih.gov)
  • This protein functions as a sensor of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers an intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). (genscript.com)
  • mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in a variety of tumors, plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. (biochempartner.com)
  • We also provide a structural basis for a substrate docking mechanism previously unknown in AGC family kinases, and show that docking interaction provides robustness to Cbk1's regulation of its two known in vivo substrates. (rcsb.org)
  • We are a global provider of human and animal biospecimens: including frozen & FFPE tissue, DNA, RNA, total proteins, blood products and primary cells. (amsbio.com)
  • Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. (rnagrade.com)
  • A crystallographic fragment study with human Pim-1 kinase. (expasy.org)
  • FERM, RhoGEF and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 1 and 2 (FARP1, 2) are Cdc42/Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and are robust hits as RIPR-dependent PKCι interacting proteins. (bl.uk)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein. (yeastgenome.org)
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the ERN1 cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (genscript.com)
  • It does not share significant sequence homology with other subtypes of small G-protein GEF motifs such as the Cdc25 domain and the Sec7 domain, which specifically interact with Ras and ARF family small GTPases, respectively, nor with other Rho protein interactive motifs, indicating that the Dbl family proteins are evolutionarily unique. (embl.de)
  • It's also identified by the synonym '' Protein kinase Akt-2 '' that is able to recognize, detecte and quantificate the endogenous levels of both recombinant and naturally produced Akt2 proteins, within any experimental sample including cell lysates, serum and plasma. (onebiotec.com)
  • The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. (phosphosite.org)