Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1: Serine-threonine protein kinases that relay signals from CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and are involved in control of CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; and APOPTOSIS.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.PhosphoproteinsPhosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Threonine Dehydratase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.16.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Aurora Kinase C: Aurora kinase C is a chromosomal passenger protein that interacts with aurora kinase B in the regulation of MITOSIS. It is found primarily in GERM CELLS in the TESTIS, and may mediate CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION during SPERMATOGENESIS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesStaurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phosphoamino Acids: Amino acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.PhosphopeptidesMitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.ChromonesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)MorpholinesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Mice, Inbred C57BLPyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Oncogene Protein v-akt: A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (1/27527)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (2/27527)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (3/27527)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (4/27527)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Differential stability of the DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit mRNA in human glioma cells. (5/27527)

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions in double-strand break repair and immunoglobulin [V(D)J] recombination. We previously established a radiation-sensitive human cell line, M059J, derived from a malignant glioma, which lacks the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) of the DNA-PK multiprotein complex. Although previous Northern blot analysis failed to detect the DNA-PKcs transcript in these cells, we show here through quantitative studies that the transcript is present, albeit at greatly reduced (approximately 20x) levels. Sequencing revealed no genetic alteration in either the promoter region, the kinase domain, or the 3' untranslated region of the DNA-PKcs gene to account for the reduced transcript levels. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the rate of DNA-PKcs transcription in M059J and DNA-PKcs proficient cell lines was similar, but the stability of the DNA-PKcs message in the M059J cell line was drastically (approximately 20x) reduced. Furthermore, M059J cells lack an alternately spliced DNA-PKcs transcript that accounts for a minor (5-20%) proportion of the DNA-PKcs message in all other cell lines tested. Thus, alterations in DNA-PKcs mRNA stability and/or the lack of the alternate mRNA may result in the loss of DNA-PKcs activity. This finding has important implications as DNA-PKcs activity is essential to cells repairing damage induced by radiation or radiomimetric agents.  (+info)

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (6/27527)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (7/27527)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

Signals from the Ras, Rac, and Rho GTPases converge on the Pak protein kinase in Rat-1 fibroblasts. (8/27527)

Ras plays a key role in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Raf is the major effector of Ras in the Ras > Raf > Mek > extracellular signal-activated kinase (ERK) cascade. A second effector is phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase), which, in turn, activates the small G protein Rac. Rac also has multiple effectors, one of which is the serine threonine kinase Pak (p65(Pak)). Here we show that Ras, but not Raf, activates Pak1 in cotransfection assays of Rat-1 cells but not NIH 3T3 cells. We tested agents that activate or block specific components downstream of Ras and demonstrate a Ras > PI 3-kinase > Rac/Cdc42 > Pak signal. Although these studies suggest that the signal from Ras through PI 3-kinase is sufficient to activate Pak, additional studies suggested that other effectors contribute to Pak activation. RasV12S35 and RasV12G37, two effector mutant proteins which fail to activate PI 3-kinase, did not activate Pak when tested alone but activated Pak when they were cotransfected. Similarly, RacV12H40, an effector mutant that does not bind Pak, and Rho both cooperated with Raf to activate Pak. A dominant negative Rho mutant also inhibited Ras activation of Pak. All combinations of Rac/Raf and Ras/Raf and Rho/Raf effector mutants that transform cells cooperatively stimulated ERK. Cooperation was Pak dependent, since all combinations were inhibited by kinase-deficient Pak mutants in both transformation assays and ERK activation assays. These data suggest that other Ras effectors can collaborate with PI 3-kinase and with each other to activate Pak. Furthermore, the strong correlation between Pak activation and cooperative transformation suggests that Pak activation is necessary, although not sufficient, for cooperative transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts by Ras, Rac, and Rho.  (+info)

Dual Specificity Protein Kinase TTK (TTK Protein Kinase or Cancer/Testis Antigen 96 or Monopolar Spindle 1-Like 1 or EC 2.7.12.1) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10249099
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and
Alcohol-mediated cancers represent more than 3.5% of cancer-related deaths, yet how alcohol promotes cancer is a major open question. Using Drosophila, we identified novel interactions between dietary ethanol and loss of tumor suppressor components of the Hippo Pathway. The Hippo Pathway suppresses tumors in flies and mammals by inactivating transcriptional co-activator Yorkie, and the spectrum of cancers associated with impaired Hippo signaling overlaps strikingly with those associated with alcohol. Therefore, our findings may implicate loss of Hippo Pathway tumor suppression in alcohol-mediated cancers. Ethanol enhanced overgrowth from loss of the expanded, hippo, or warts tumor suppressors but, surprisingly, not from over-expressing the yorkie oncogene. We propose that in parallel to Yorkie-dependent overgrowth, impairing Hippo signaling in the presence of alcohol may promote overgrowth via additional alcohol-relevant targets. We also identified interactions between alcohol and Hippo Pathway over
Ischemic injury to white matter tracts is increasingly recognized to play a key role in age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimers disease. Knowledge of the effects of ischemic axonal injury on cortical neurons is limited yet critical to identifying molecular pathways that link neurodegeneration and ischemia. Using a mouse model of subcortical white matter ischemic injury coupled with retrograde neuronal tracing, we employed magnetic affinity cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorting to capture layer-specific cortical neurons and performed RNA-sequencing. With this approach, we identified a role for microtubule reorganization within stroke-injured neurons acting through the regulation of tau. We find that subcortical stroke-injured Layer 5 cortical neurons up-regulate the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase, Mark4, in response to axonal injury. Stroke-induced up-regulation of Mark4 is associated with selective remodeling of the apical dendrite after stroke and the
MARK1 - MARK1 (GFP-tagged) - Human MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (MARK1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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The RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Market research report presents an all-inclusive study of the global RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market. The report includes all the major trends and technologies performing a major role in the RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market development during forecast period. The key players in the market are Almac Discovery Ltd, ArQule Inc, AstraZeneca Plc, Bayer AG, Critical Outcome Technologies Inc, Merck & Co Inc, Novartis AG. An attractiveness study has been presented for each geographic area in the report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall competitive scenario of the RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market globally.. Apply here for the SAMPLE copy of the report @: https://www.promarketresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=24915. Furthermore, the report comprises an outline of the diverse tactics used by the key players in the market. It also details the competitive scenario of the RAC Beta ...
Strong epidemiologic evidence documents the protective effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. Using human exercise-conditioned serum for breast cancer cell incubation studies and murine exercise interventions, we aimed to identify exercise factors and signaling pathways involved in the exercise-dependent suppression of breast cancer. Exercise-conditioned serum from both women with breast cancer (n = 20) and healthy women (n = 7) decreased MCF-7 (hormone-sensitive) and MDA-MB-231 (hormone-insensitive) breast cancer cell viability in vitro by 11% to 19% and reduced tumorigenesis by 50% when preincubated MCF-7 breast cancer cells were inoculated into NMRI-Foxn1nu mice. This exercise-mediated suppression of cell viability and tumor formation was completely blunted by blockade of β-adrenergic signaling in MCF-7 cells, indicating that catecholamines were the responsible exercise factors. Both epinephrine ...
Researchers from around the world met for two days in April this year in Rome, Italy, to discuss progress in the rapidly developing field of Hippo signaling, which is relevant to cancer and the control of organ size. Most of the participants presented data related to previously uncharacterized proteins that physically and functionally interact with known components of the Hippo pathway and regulate its biological output.. ...
Protein kinase B (PKB) isoforms became activated [and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) became inhibited] when mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were exposed to oxidative stress (H2O2) or heat shock, but not when they were exposed to osmotic shock (0.5 M sorbitol or 0.7 M NaCl), chemical stress (sodium arsenite), the protein-synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, or UV radiation. In contrast, all seven stimuli activated mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2). The activation of MAPKAP-K2 was suppressed by the drug SB 203580, but not by inhibitors of phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositide, PI) 3-kinase. In contrast, the activation of PKB isoforms and the inhibition of GSK3 by oxidative stress or heat shock were prevented by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase, but not by SB 203580. Thus the activation of PKB by oxidative stress or heat shock is mediated by PI 3-kinase and not by MAPKAP-K2. PKBα and PKBγ were also activated by heat shock and oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney ...
RAC Gamma Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase (Protein Kinase Akt 3 or Protein Kinase B Gamma or RAC PK Gamma or STK 2 or AKT3 or EC 2.7.11.1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Price for Single User $ 3080 USD :: MAP Kinase Interacting Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 (MAP Kinase Signal Integrating Kinase 1 or MKNK1 or EC 2.7.11.1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016SummaryGlobal Markets Directs, MAP Kinase Interacting Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 (MAP Kinase
[92 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Pipeli report by Global Markets Direct. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit...
Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of extracellular ligands such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones to their cell-surface receptors activates RAS and this initiates RAF1 activation. RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 function specifically in the MAPK/ERK cascade, and catalyze the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2, leading to their activation and further transduction of the signal within the MAPK/ERK cascade. Depending on the cellular context, this pathway mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation, predominantly through the regulation of transcription, metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangements. One target of the MAPK/ERK cascade
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LATS1/LATS2 are primarily considered as central players in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway, however they also participate in a range of other signalling pathways. (Zhao,2010). The core of the Hippo pathway consists of Hpo, Wts, Sav and Mats. Hippo (Hpo) is a Ste20 family protein kinase that complexes with the regulatory scaffold protein Salvador (Sav). The Hpo/Sav complex then phosphorylates and activates Warts (Wts). Wts has an activating subunit Mats. The active Wts/Mats complex then in turn phosphorylates the transcriptional co-activators Yorkie (Yki) in flies, and YAP and TAZ in mammals. Phosphorylation of these transcriptional co-activators leads to their association with 14-3-3 family proteins, cytoplasmic retention and inactivation (Zhao,2007). In the presence of active CK1 kinase, LATS1/2 mediated phosphorylation of YAP also leads to the recruitment of the beta-TRCP SCF E3 ligase thereby triggering the subsequent proteasomal degradation of YAP (Zhao,2010). The LATS kinases prefer to ...
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MEKK3 is a conserved Ser/Thr proteins kinase belonging to the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family members. the T-cKO rodents (23). Identical phenotype in peripheral Capital t cells homeostasis was also reported by another group with individually produced T-cKO rodents (24). To understand Talampanel supplier additional the physical part of MEKK3 in Capital t cell-mediated adaptive defenses, we researched the function of T-cKO rodents had been referred to previously (23). All rodents had been on C57BD/6 history and utilized between 6 and 12 wk of age group. Our rodents had been encased in a pathogen-free pet treatment service at Meters.D. Anderson Cancers Middle (Houston, Texas) or Yale School (New Dreamland, CT). All mouse trials were approved by the Institutional Pet Use and Treatment Committees of the School of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancers Yale and Middle School. Immunization Eight-week-old rodents had been utilized for the immunization. A mix of 1 mg/ml Ovum (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and 1 ...
GT:ID BAD55749.1 GT:GENE BAD55749.1 GT:PRODUCT putative serine/threonine protein kinase GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(1006060..1007184) GB:FROM 1006060 GB:TO 1007184 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative serine/threonine protein kinase GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55749.1 LENGTH 374 SQ:AASEQ MIDRARPIVGPDYLVAGRYRLQSKLGGGGMGAVWLAHDRLLDRDVAIKQVLSTAGLPEAEAARIREQIMHEGRVAAKLSHEHAIAVYDVVLEAGEPWLVMEHLPSRSVARALGLVDTLPVLEVAQIGAQVADALAAAHAVGIVHRDIKPGNILVADRGPRVGFAKLSDFGISRGAGETSDEPDGIITGTPAYLPPEVARGAQPTAASDVFSLGATLYTAIEGQPPFGMDDDSDAVVQRAAMAQIIPPSRSGVLTDALLHMMEPAPQRRPTMAEARDEILTAAFGPGTASYILGAPVRTEDGTIPSWATRNGAIGLRSPHSAPLPRPHRGASAANAPAAQRARVAAPRQTNAALAVTIGLLIGLIIIIGVIVVAM GT:EXON 1,1-374:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 3-,268,PKN2_CORGL,1e-26,34.0,250/469, PROS 25-,48,PS00107,PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP,PDOC00100, PROS 142-,154,PS00108,PROTEIN_KINASE_ST,PDOC00100, TM:NTM 1 TM:REGION 351-,373, SEG 124-,144,aqigaqvadalaaahavgivh, SEG 326-,347,phrgasaanapaaqrarvaapr, SEG ...
Combining with a signal and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity by catalysis of the reaction: ATP protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + pro…
NDR kinases are essential for growth, cardiac development and blood vessel remodeling from about embryonic day 8 onward in mouse embryos.(A, B) Bright field ima
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development ...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, DMPK-related cell division control protein 42 binding kinase alpha. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), DMPK-like subfamily, DMPK-related cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) binding kinase (MRCK) alpha isoform, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The DMPK-like subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. MRCK is activated via interaction with the small GTPase Cdc42. MRCK/Cdc42 signaling mediates myosin-dependent cell motility. MRCKalpha is expressed ubiquitously in many tissues. It plays a role in the regulation of peripheral actin reorganization and neurite outgrowth. It may also play a role in the transferrin iron uptake pathway. ...
ILK has a low basal kinase activity, which is stimulated transiently by cell-ECM interactions and by certain growth factors (Dedhar, 2000). The activity is stimulated in a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent manner and likely involves binding of the phosphoinositide phospholipid product of PI 3-kinase, PI 3,4,5-triphosphate, to the PH-like domain of ILK (Dedhar, 2000). ILK activity is regulated negatively by two phosphatases: PTEN, a tumor suppressor lipid phosphatase, which dephosphorylates PI 3,4,5-triphosphate to PI 4,5-bisphosphate, and a PP2C protein phosphatase, ILKAP (Morimoto et al., 2000; Persad et al., 2000; 2001b; Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 2001). ILK activity is activated constitutively in PTEN-null tumor cells (Persad et al., 2000, 2001b). Both PI 3,4,5-triphosphate binding and (auto)phosphorylation appear to be crucial for ILK activation, since mutations in the PH domain (Arg 211) or in the activation loop serine (ser) 343 render the kinase inactive and unable to ...
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) detect invading micro-organisms which triggers the production of pro-inflammatory mediators needed to combat infection. Although these signalling networks are required to protect the host against invading pathogens, dysregulation of TLR pathways contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders. Molecular mechanisms have therefore evolved to restrict the strength of TLR signalling. In the present review, I highlight recent advances in our understanding of the protein kinase networks required to suppress the innate immune response by negatively regulating TLR signalling and/or promoting the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. I present my discoveries on the key roles of the IKK (inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase)-related kinases and the SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) in limiting innate immunity within the greater context of the field.. ...
MP2K1_HUMAN] Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of extracellular ligands such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones to their cell-surface receptors activates RAS and this initiates RAF1 activation. RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 function specifically in the MAPK/ERK cascade, and catalyze the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2, leading to their activation and further transduction of the signal within the MAPK/ERK cascade. Depending on the cellular context, this pathway mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation, predominantly through the regulation of transcription, metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangements. One target of ...
HEADER TRANSFERASE 31-JAN-08 3C5L TITLE POLO-LIKE KINASE 1 POLO BOX DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH PPHSPT TITLE 2 PEPTIDE COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: POLO BOX 1, POLO BOX 2, UNP RESIDUES 373-593; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE- COMPND 6 PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.11.21; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES; COMPND 9 MOL_ID: 2; COMPND 10 MOLECULE: PEPTIDE; COMPND 11 CHAIN: B; COMPND 12 ENGINEERED: YES SOURCE MOL_ID: 1; SOURCE 2 ORGANISM_SCIENTIFIC: HOMO SAPIENS; SOURCE 3 ORGANISM_COMMON: HUMAN; SOURCE 4 ORGANISM_TAXID: 9606; SOURCE 5 GENE: PLK1, PLK; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: ESCHERICHIA COLI; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_TAXID: 562; SOURCE 8 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_STRAIN: ROSETTA 2; SOURCE 9 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_VECTOR_TYPE: PLASMID; SOURCE 10 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_PLASMID: PET28A; SOURCE 11 MOL_ID: 2; SOURCE 12 SYNTHETIC: YES KEYWDS PLK1, POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, POLO BOX DOMAIN, PHOSPHOPEPTIDE, ...
Pre-mRNA splicing occurs in two sequential transesterification steps, and the protein encoded by this gene is thought to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and in signal transduction. This protein belongs to a kinase family that includes serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinases and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). This protein is regarded as a CDK-like kinase (Clk) with homology to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
This gene is the human homolog of mouse BMP-2-inducible kinase. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is increased during BMP-2 induced differentiation and the gene product is a putative serine/threonine protein kinase containing a nuclear localization signal. Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in attenuating the program of osteoblast differentiation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
A-674563 is a potent and selective Akt1 inhibitor with IC50 value of 14 nM. A-67453 also inhibited PKA and Cdk2 with IC50 value of 16 nM and 46 nM. Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK10 gene.[1][2] This gene encodes a member of the Ste20 family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and is similar to several known polo-like kinase kinases. The protein can associate with and phosphorylate polo-like kinase 1, and overexpression of a kinase-dead version of the protein interferes with normal cell cycle progression. The kinase can also negatively regulate interleukin 2 expression in T-cells via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1 pathway.[2] ...
The Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as a critical regulator for organ size control. The serine/threonine protein kinases Mst1 and Mst2, mammalian homologs of the Hippo kinase from Drosophila, play the cent... Authors: Funiu Qin, Jing Tian, Dawang Zhou and Lanfen Chen. ...
protein kinase complex, protein kinase activity, positive regulation of MAP kinase activity, positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation, protein phosphorylation, regulation of cell cycle G2/M phase transition, regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
... , Authors: Isabel Serrano, Paul McDonald, Shoukat Dedhar. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Expression of various salt-inducible genes is downregulated by AtCAPE1. Ten-day-old seedlings were treated without and with salt for 12h. The transcript levels
The product of this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proteins. It regulates downstream kinases in response to environmental stress, and may play a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central signaling node in mediating cellular responses to mitogens, hormones and nutrients. The 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that belongs to the AGC family of protein kinases, which also includes Akt, RSK and many others. S6K1 is the principal kinase effector downstream mTORC1. S6K1 is sensitive to a wide range of signaling inputs, including growth factors, amino acids, energy levels, and hypoxia. S6K1 relays these signals to regulate a growing list of substrates and interacting proteins in control of oncogenic processes, such as cell growth and proliferation, cell survival and apoptosis, and cell migration and invasion.. Growing evidence indicates that there exists a close interaction between the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Notably, endocrine resistance is often associated with ligand-independent activation of ERα signaling due to hyperactivation of the ...
Gene Information The product of this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proteins. It regulates downstream kinases in response to environmental stress and may play a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an important role in cellular stress response. This kinase activates certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting an involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion. High levels of expression of this gene may contribute to conditions such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this family are well known for their essential roles as master switches in cell cycle control. The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009 ...
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A seemingly obscure gene in the female fruit fly that is only active in cells that will become eggs has led researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research to the discovery of a atypical protein that lures, traps, and inactivates the powerful Polo kinase, widely considered the master regulator of cell division. Its human homolog, Polo-like kinase-1, is misregulated in many types of cancer.
STK39 is a serine/threonine kinase that is thought to function in the cellular stress response pathway. The kinase is activated in response to…
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of: (1) MK5 alone; (2) MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3) MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α
Protein kinases have become central in the efforts to understand the nature of various diseases, and a lot is invested into creating effective therapeutic strategies and finding effective and selective protein kinase inhibitors. In order to succeed it is also important to focus on the structure of the kinases, their exact biological role, and how they interact and cooperate in the signaling. The exact structure of MAPKAPK5 is still unknown, and selective inhibitors are yet to be identified. Even though some of its biological roles are starting to emerge more work is required, including searching for selective inhibitors, analyzing its structure and interactions with its interaction partners. In order to analyze the structure of MAPKAPK5, homology models were generated and their ability to discriminate between binders and non-binders were analyzed. Based on the results, one model was found satisfactory and may be used as a working tool for further experimental studies and possibly structure aided ...
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been ...
(2005) Del Carratore et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research. Human myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), the product of the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus, is a member of a novel class of multidomain serine-threonine protein kinases, which interacts with members of the ...
The metabolic programs of functionally distinct T cell subsets are tailored to their immunologic activities. While quiescent T cells use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production, and effector T cells (Teffs) rely on glycolysis for proliferation, the distinct metabolic features of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are less well established. Here we show that the metabolic sensor LKB1 is critical to maintain cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis in Tregs. Treg-specific deletion of Lkb1 in mice causes loss of Treg number and function, leading to a fatal, early-onset autoimmune disorder. Tregs lacking Lkb1 have defective mitochondria, compromised OXPHOS, depleted cellular ATP, and altered cellular metabolism pathways that compromise their survival and function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the function of LKB1 in Tregs is largely independent of the AMP-activated protein kinase, but is mediated by the MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinases and salt-inducible kinases. Our ...
Catalytic domain of Myotonic Dystrophy protein kinase-like Protein Serine/Threonine Kinases. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Myotonic Dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK)-like subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The DMPK-like subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. The DMPK-like subfamily is composed of DMPK and DMPK-related cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) binding kinase (MRCK). Three isoforms of MRCK are known, named alpha, beta and gamma. The DMPK gene is implicated in myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1), an inherited multisystemic disorder with symptoms that include muscle hyperexcitability, progressive muscle weakness and wasting, cataract development, testicular atrophy, and cardiac conduction defects. ...
Myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) also known as myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (MDPK) or dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMK) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DMPK gene. The dmpk gene product is a Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to the MRCK p21-activated kinases and the Rho family of kinases. Data obtained by using antibodies that detect specific isoforms of DMPK indicate that the most abundant isoform of DMPK is an 80-kDa protein expressed almost exclusively in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. This kinase exists both as a membrane-associated and as a soluble form in human left ventricular samples. The different C termini of DMPK that arise from alternative splicing determine its localization to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, or cytosol in transfected COS-1 cells. Among the substrates for DMPK proposed by in vitro studies are phospholemman, the dihydropyridine receptor, and the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit. However, an in vivo demonstration of the ...
Materials. CEP-1347, also known as KT7515, is a semisynthetic derivative of K-252a provided by Kyowa-Hakko Kogyo (Tokyo, Japan) (Kaneko et al., 1997). CEP-1347 was dissolved in cell culture grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and stored in the dark at 4°C. All dilutions of CEP-1347 were made in DMEM containing 1% bovine serum albumin. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) antibody (catalog #sc-474-G) was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA). ERK1 antibody (catalog #06-182), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP2) antibody (catalog #06-534), and MAPKAP2 peptide substrate (catalog #12-240) were purchased from Upstate Biotechnology (Lake Placid, NY). HA antibody was purchased from Babco (Richmond, CA). AP-1 (c-jun) substrate was purchased from Promega (Madison, WI). Myelin basic protein substrate, Hoechst dye, and tunicamycin were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). SB203580 was custom-synthesized by RIT International Technology (Snellville, GA). ...
Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by hormones insulin and glucagon is central to glucose homeostasis. Recent work has proposed that amongst the salt inducible kinase isoforms (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SIK2 isoform may play a role as signalling mediator in the control of insulin- and glucagon-regulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the mechanisms of the hormonal-regulation of SIK2 in liver remain controversial, with much of the data based on the studies in non-hepatic tissues/cells. Therefore, the exact molecular regulation of SIK2 by these hormones in the liver required robust and intensive molecular/biochemical research coupled to physiological readout (e.g. gluconeogenesis). My studies with phosphopeptide mapping by mass spectrometry followed by verification with well-characterised phospho-specific antibodies revealed that SIK2 was phosphorylated on Ser343, Ser358, Thr484 and Ser587 in response to glucagon and fasting but not following insulin ...
PRAK antibody [N3C3] (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-PRAK pAb (GTX107938) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Looking for online definition of serine/threonine kinase 12 in the Medical Dictionary? serine/threonine kinase 12 explanation free. What is serine/threonine kinase 12? Meaning of serine/threonine kinase 12 medical term. What does serine/threonine kinase 12 mean?
Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinsons disease (PD). FAK activation through different mechanisms that are the advertising of autoinhibition and/or the recruitment of phosphatases, such as for example SHP-2. continues to be connected with an autosomal dominant, late-onset type of familial Parkinsons disease (PD). The encoded proteins, LRRK2, is approximately 280 kDa in proportions and contains many useful domains, including a serine/threonine kinase area [1]. Among the PD-related pathogenic mutations discovered throughout the whole gene [2], the G2019S mutation, which enhances kinase activity [3], continues to be within both familial and sporadic PD [4,5]. Many reports have sought to recognize the kinase substrates of LRRK2 to boost our knowledge of LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis, and LRRK2 provides been proven to govern different biological features, including neurite outgrowth, cell MEK162 inhibitor database migration, ...
We isolated cDNA clones containing the entire coding region of the putative oncogene AKT2. Sequence analysis and in vitro translation demonstrated that AKT2 encodes a 56-kDa protein with homology to serine/threonine kinases; moreover, this protein contains a Src homology 2-like domain. AKT2 was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. AKT2 was mapped to chromosome region 19q13.1-q13.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the two ovarian carcinoma cell lines exhibiting amplification of AKT2, the amplified sequences were localized within homogeneously staining regions. We conclude that AKT2 belongs to a distinct subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases containing Src homology 2-like domains and that alterations of AKT2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas.. ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is a direct activator of MAP kinases in response to various environmental stresses or mitogenic stimuli. It has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK1, MAPK9/JNK2, and MAPK14/p38, but not MAPK1/ERK2 or MAPK3/ERK1. This kinase is phosphorylated, and thus activated by MAP3K1/MEKK. The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as in the organogenesis of liver. MAP2K4 has been shown to interact with FLNC, MAPK8, MAPK8IP3 and AKT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000065559 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000033352 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Lin A, Minden A, Martinetto H, Claret FX, Lange-Carter C, Mercurio F, Johnson GL, Karin ...
The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of innate immunity, stress responses, inflammation, and the inhibition of apoptosis 1,2. The activity of NF-κB is tightly regulated by cytokines and other external stimuli. In most cell types, NF-κB is present as a heterodimer comprising 50-kD (p50) and 65-kD (p65) subunits and is sequestered in the cytoplasm by a member of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) family of inhibitory proteins. NF-κB activation requires the degradation of IκB proteins, and the mechanisms of IκB degradation and subsequent NF-κB activation have been the subject of intense investigation 3. Those studies have revealed two important classes of kinase involved in this pathway: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) and its downstream target, IκB kinase (IKK) 4,5. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is structurally related to MAP3K and has been identified as a TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2-interacting protein 6. On the basis of ...
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2) is originally identified by its phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at serine-7 and the corresponding serine in a peptide (GS peptide-1) modelled after the N-terminus of glycogen synthase.. MAPKAP kinase-2 is a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, is distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence.. ...
The splicing factor Sf3b is an integral part of U2 snRNP and plays an essential role during spliceosome assembly and recognition of the introns branch point. One of the components of SF3b, SF3b1, is known to be reversibly phosphorylated during splicing catalysis [3], suggesting that protein kinases play a role in the regulation of splicing. Previous studies have shown that cyclin E/CDK2 complexes associate with spliceosomal proteins in vivo, and that CDK2 phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro [12, 22]. Here we provide evidence that the protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro and in vivo.. The N-terminal part of Sf3b1 harbours a large number of Thr/Pro dipeptide motifs within a 240-amino acid region preceding the carboxyterminal repeat domain (Fig. 1). Both DYRK1A and CDK2 are proline-directed kinases, i.e. they phosphorylate serine or threonine residues followed by a proline residue [15, 23]. It has been shown that cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro at multiple sites within the ...
View mouse Mapkapk5 Chr5:121525038-121545905 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
We have identified a novel serine/threonine kinase, NIK, that interacts with the SH3 domains of Nck. Overexpression of NIK constitutively activated the JNK/SAPK pathway. NIK interacts with MEKK1 in cells and likely signals through MEKK1 to activate JNK, suggesting that NIK directly regulates MEKK1 activity. We found that NIK contains a regulatory domain in its C‐terminus that is conserved in two other members of this kinase family. This domain mediates the association of NIK with MEKK1 and is critical for NIK activation of the SAPK pathway, suggesting that the C‐terminal domain of these proteins encodes a new protein domain family that couples these kinases to the SAPK pathway, possibly by interacting with MEKK1. Our finding that NIK also interacts with Nck suggests that SH2/SH3 adaptor proteins couple NIK and related kinases to activation of the SAPK/JNK pathway by different receptors.. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that a serine/threonine kinase, Ste20, acts upstream of ...
NAC, a common dietary supplement and an antioxidant membrane-permeable metal-binding compound, has been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses, tumor growth including lung cancer [13, 14]. However, the mechanisms by which this reagent in control of NSCLC cell growth has not been well elucidated. We have found that NAC inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation through reduction of PDK1, a kinase and master regulator of a number of downstream signal cascades that are involved in suppression of apoptosis and promotion of tumor growth including lung cancer [4, 15]. High expression of PDK1 has been detected in invasive cancers including lung [5] and inhibition of PDK1 in several cancer cells results in significant cell growth inhibition [6]. These observations suggest that PDK1 can be considered as a target for therapies. This result, together with the finding that exogenous PDK1 diminishes the inhibitory effect of NAC on cell growth, indicates an important role of targeting PDK1 in mediating the ...
Since the publication of Protein Kinases in 1994 many novel protein kinases have been discovered, but perhaps more importantly there have been dramatic advances in our understanding of the cellular functions of this remarkably diverse class of proteins. Protein Kinase Functions is not just an update of the previous edition but provides a new focus on the context and function of protein kinases, thus reflecting the recent advances in kinase biology.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Phosphorylation in the activation segment of protein kinases is a common mechanism of kinase regulation. However, activation loop phosphorylation of many kinases generally induces activating structural changes by repositioning key structural elements that permit substrate and cofactor binding and efficient catalysis (51). Although no common mechanism has been proposed for negative regulation of protein-Ser/Thr kinases, phosphorylation of several of the CDKs within the subdomain I GXGXXG motif at the Thr14 and Tyr15 (human CDK1 numbering) are known to be inhibitory (67-69), and acetylation of the ATP coordinating Lys has been shown to reduce the kinase activity of CDK9 (70).. Here, we establish for the first time that mimicking phosphorylation of PLK1 on Tyr217 in the P+1 loop completely inhibits detectable kinase activity, likely through inhibition of substrate binding, although we cannot formally rule out the possibility that the effect is due to the Glu substitution rather than a ...
The Hippo pathway component WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (TAZ) is a transcriptional co-activator and an oncogene in breast and lung cancer. Transcriptional targets of TAZ that modulate immune cell function in the tumour microenvironment are poorly understood. Here, we perform a comprehensive screen for immune-related genes regulated by TAZ and its paralog YAP using NanoString gene expression profiling. We identify the immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 as a target of Hippo signaling. The upstream kinases of the Hippo pathway, mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 and 2 (MST1/2) and large tumour suppressor 1 and 2 (LATS1/2), suppress PD-L1 expression while TAZ and YAP enhance PD-L1 levels in breast and lung cancer cell lines ...
Zhou, Q., Phoa, A., Abbassi, R., Hoque, M., Reekie, T., Font Sadurni, J., Ryan, R., Stringer, B., Day, B., Johns, T., Munoz, L., Kassiou, M. (2017). Structural optimization and pharmacological evaluation of inhibitors targeting dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRK) and CDC-like kinases (CLK) inglioblastoma. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 60(5), 2052-2070. [More Information] ...
The serine/threonine kinase Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is overexpressed in many types of human cancers, and has been implicated as an adverse prognostic marker for cancer patients. Plk1 localizes to its intracellular anchoring sites via its polo-box domain (PBD). Here we show that Plk1 can be inhibited by small molecules which interfere with its intracellular localization by inhibiting the function of the PBD. We report the natural product thymoquinone and, especially, the synthetic thymoquinone derivative Poloxin as inhibitors of the Plk1 PBD. Both compounds inhibit the function of the Plk1 PBD in vitro, and cause Plk1 mislocalization, chromosome congression defects, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis in HeLa cells. Our data validate the Plk1 PBD as an anticancer target and provide a rationale for developing thymoquinone derivatives as anticancer drugs.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large, multi-domain protein that includes leucine-rich repeats and a GTPase domain. LRRK2 is present largely in the cytoplasm but is also known to associate with the mitochondrial outer membrane. It positively regulates autophagy through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway. Mutations in the LRRK2 gene, corresponding to regions within the kinase and GTPase domains, are commonly associated with late-onset Parkinsons disease. Some members of the 14-3-3 family bind to and influence the cytoplasmic localization of LRRK2, and this interaction has been identified as important to the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease. LRRK2 is also known as Parkinson disease (autosomal dominant) 8 (PARK8), augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 17 (AURA17), leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2, dardarin, RIPK7, ROCO2, DKFZp434H2111, and FLJ45829.. ...
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ) are transcriptional coactivators that regulate genes involved in proliferation and transformation by interacting with DNA-binding transcription factors. Remarkably, YAP/TAZ are essential for cancer initiation or growth of most solid tumors. Their activation induces cancer stem cell attributes, proliferation, and metastasis. The oncogenic activity of YAP/TAZ is inhibited by the Hippo cascade, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is governed by two kinases, mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1/2 (MST1/2) and Large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (LATS1/2), corresponding to Drosophilas Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), respectively ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binds two distinct cell surface receptors designated p60 and p80. Our previous studies indicate that a protein kinase from U-937 cells binds to and phosphorylates the p60 receptor. While the p80 receptor is phosphorylated
Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human [(PUBMED:12471243)]. Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [(PUBMED:12368087)]. Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [(PUBMED:15078142)], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [(PUBMED:15320712)].. This entry represents the catalytic domain found in a number of serine/threonine- and tyrosine-protein kinases. It does not include catalytic domain of dual specificity kinases ...
The present invention relates to compounds useful as inhibitors of protein kinases. The invention also provides pharmaceutically acceptable compositions comprising said compounds and methods of using the compositions in the treatment of various disease, conditions, or disorders ...
Predicted to have protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Predicted to be involved in protein phosphorylation. Predicted to localize to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Orthologous to human CDK18 (cyclin dependent kinase 18 ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
filtered_set; syntelog; UniRef90: No significant hits (1e-5); maizesequence.org: GO:0006468; protein amino acid phosphorylation , GO:0005524; ATP binding , GO:0004674; protein serine/threonine kinase activity , GO:0004672; protein kinase ...
IRAK2 encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. IRAK2 is reported to participate in the IL1-induced upregulation of NF-kappaB ...
Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is the master regulator of at least 23 other AGC kinases whose downstream signalling has often been implicated in various diseases and in particular in cancer. Therefore there has been great interest in determining how PDK1 is controlled and how it regulates its substrates spatially and temporally. The understanding of these mechanisms could offer new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. Over the years, a more comprehensive view of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PDK1 has emerged and these comprise serine/threonine as well as tyrosine phosphorylation, subcellular localization, regulator binding and conformation status. In the present review, we discuss how various molecular mechanisms are together responsible for the conformational regulation behind the activation of PDK1 in cells. ...
Plasmid pEGFP C3-Lats1-PY1+2 mutant from Dr. Marius Sudols lab contains the insert Large tumor suppressor kinase 1, N mutant and is published in J Biol Chem. 2008 Jul 17. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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This gene encodes a member of the Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kise (DYRK) family. This member contains a nuclear targeting…
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase mediates the signaling transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell functions including transcription regulation and apoptosis. In response to IL-1, this protein forms a kinase complex including TRAF6, MAP3K7P1/TAB1 and MAP3K7P2/TAB2; this complex is required for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. This kinase can also activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K4/MKK4, and thus plays a role in the cell response to environmental stresses. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
QLT Announces Second Quarter 2016 Results - Merger With Aegerion Expected to Close Before the End of 2016. Vancouver, BC, August 17, 2016--QLT Inc. (QLTI) (QLT.TO) reported financial results today for the second quarter ended June 30, 2016. The operating loss for the second quarter of 2016 was $7.4 million, compared to $10.7 million for the same period in 2015. The Companys consolidated cash and cash equivalents were $79.9 million. The companys merger with Aegerion is currently expected to close before the end of 2016.
Recombinant Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHEK1) Protéine. Origine: Humain. Source: Baculovirus infected Insect Cells. Commandez ABIN457519.
A tightly associated serine/threonine protein kinase regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1993 ...
Ubiquitous serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates a broad spectrum of substrates, and regulates many cellular processes. The catalytic subunit is released following
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction pathways regulated by mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase kinase induce cell death. AU - Johnson, Nancy Lassignal. AU - Gardner, Anne M.. AU - Diener, Katrina M.. AU - Lange-Carter, Carol A.. AU - Gleavy, Janice. AU - Jarpe, Matthew B.. AU - Minden, Audrey. AU - Karin, Michael. AU - Zon, Leonard I.. AU - Johnson, Gary L.. PY - 1996/2/9. Y1 - 1996/2/9. N2 - Mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase (MEK) kinase (MEKK) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates sequential protein phosphorylation pathways, leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including members of the Jun kinase (JNK)/stress- activated protein kinase (SAPK) family. In Swiss 3T3 and REF52 fibroblasts, activated MEKK induces cell death involving cytoplasmic shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. Expression of activated MEKK enhanced the apoptotic response to ultraviolet irradiation, ...
Nov 02, 2019 (Eon Market Research via COMTEX) -- The market report, titled Global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 Market Research Report 2019 - By Manufacturers, Product Type, Applications, Region and Forecast to 2026′, recently added to the market research repository of Eonmarketresearch.com, details in-depth past and present analytical and statistical data about the global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 market. The report describes the Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 market in detail in terms of the economic and regulatory factors that are currently shaping the markets growth trajectory, the regional segmentation of the global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 market , and an analysis of the markets downstream and upstream value and supply chains. Competitive Research of Global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 Market 2019 Based on Key Players: " CanBas Co Ltd Cascadian Therapeutics Inc Eli Lilly and Company Genentech Inc ProNAi Therapeutics Inc Sareum Holdings Plc ...
The parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) mediates the biologic actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Here, we showed that salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) are key kinases that control the skeletal actions downstream of PTH1R and that this GPCR, when activated, inhibited cellular SIK activity. Sik gene deletion led to phenotypic changes that were remarkably similar to models of increased PTH1R signaling. In growth plate chondrocytes, PTHrP inhibited SIK3, and ablation of this kinase in proliferating chondrocytes rescued perinatal lethality of PTHrP-null mice. Combined deletion of Sik2 and Sik3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes led to a dramatic increase in bone mass that closely resembled the skeletal and molecular phenotypes observed when these bone cells express a constitutively active PTH1R that causes Jansens metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Finally, genetic evidence demonstrated that class IIa histone deacetylases were key PTH1R-regulated SIK ...
Looking for online definition of TGF-beta type I receptor in the Medical Dictionary? TGF-beta type I receptor explanation free. What is TGF-beta type I receptor? Meaning of TGF-beta type I receptor medical term. What does TGF-beta type I receptor mean?
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by muscle weakness, myotonia, cataracts, and cardiac conduction defects; it is associated with expansions of cytosine-thymine-guanine repeats in the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase. Hypogammaglobulinemia is a lesser known association of myotonic dystrophy type 1 and the underlying pathogenesis of immunoglobulin G depletion remains unclear. Here we report a kindred of two members (a 62-year-old white woman and a 30-year-old white man; mother and son) with myotonic dystrophy type 1-associated hypogammaglobulinemia associated with altered intravenous immunoglobulin elimination kinetics and reduced half-life. There was no history of systemic immunosuppression or renal or gastrointestinal protein loss in either patient, and no underlying case for a secondary immunodeficiency could be found. One patient required fortnightly intravenous immunoglobulin to maintain adequate trough immunoglobulin G levels. Ongoing study of myotonic
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Oligo Accession Gene ID Number Number number Gene Name Symbol APOB-10167- 12138 NM_000384 Apolipoprotein B (including Ag(x) antigen) APOB 20-12138 APOB-10167- 12139 NM_000384 Apolipoprotein B (including Ag(x) antigen) APOB 20-12139 MAP4K4-2931- 12266 NM_004834 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 MAP4K4 13-12266 (MAP4K4), transcript variant 1 MAP4K4-2931- 12293 NM_004834 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 MAP4K4 16-12293 (MAP4K4), transcript variant 1 MAP4K4-2931- 12383 NM_004834 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 MAP4K4 16-12383 (MAP4K4), transcript variant 1 MAP4K4-2931- 12384 NM_004834 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 MAP4K4 16-12384 (MAP4K4), transcript variant 1 MAP4K4-2931- 12385 NM_004834 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 MAP4K4 16-12385 (MAP4K4), transcript variant 1 MAP4K4-2931- 12386 NM_004834 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 MAP4K4 ...
The 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric, evolutionary conserved enzyme which has emerged as a critical regulator of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics. AMPK is activated by both chemical (adipokines) and mechanical (stretch, contraction) stimuli leading to metabolic changes within muscle cells that include increased fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake and glycolysis, as well as the stimulation and regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively these acute responses and chronic adaptations act to reduce cellular disturbances, resulting in tighter metabolic control and maintenance of energy homeostasis. This brief review will describe the structure, function and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and how this ubiquitous molecule may be a plausible target for the treatment of several lifestyle-related metabolic disorders.
Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STRAP gene. STRAP has been ... signaling and PDK1 kinase activity by physical interaction between PDK1 and serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein ... STRAP serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein". Datta PK, Moses HL (May 2000). "STRAP and Smad7 synergize in the ... "NM23-H1 tumor suppressor physically interacts with serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein, a transforming growth ...
"Regulation of glycolysis by Raf protein serine/threonine kinases". Advances in Enzyme Regulation. 42: 317-32. doi:10.1016/S0065 ... Gupta V, Bamezai RN (Nov 2010). "Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein". Protein Science. 19 (11): 2031-44. doi: ... Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM1/M2), also known as pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM), pyruvate kinase type K, cytosolic ... "Use of a novel method to find substrates of protein kinase C delta identifies M2 pyruvate kinase". The International Journal of ...
It lacks an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase domain and hence is a pseudoreceptor. It binds to the type I receptor ... "Phosphorylation of Smad signaling proteins by receptor serine/threonine kinases". Methods Mol. Biol. 124: 107-20. doi:10.1385/1 ... These receptors are serine/threonine kinase receptors. They have a cysteine rich extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain ... The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. Each ...
kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... "Entrez Gene: CIT citron (rho-interacting, serine/threonine kinase 21)".. *^ a b c Madaule P, Furuyashiki T, Reid T, Ishizaki T ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
protein kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • magnesium ion binding ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAST1 gene.[5] ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • kinase activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • cell ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase 19 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK19 gene.[5][6][7] ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 38 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK38 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a conserved nuclear serine(threonine) protein kinase". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92 ( ... "Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24444-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Entrez Gene: STK38 serine/threonine kinase 38". Tripodis N, Mason R, Humphray SJ, et al. (1999). "Physical map of human 6p21.2- ...
"Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24444-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "HIV-1 incorporates and proteolytically processes human NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". Virology. 331 (1): 181-9. doi: ... The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic protein that may play a role in neurite outgrowth. This gene may be involved ... Protein NDRG2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDRG2 gene (NMYC downstrean-regulated gene 2). This gene is a ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase 38-like is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK38L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24444-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Entrez Gene: STK38L serine/threonine kinase 38 like". Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, et al. (2003). "Construction of ... 2004). "Regulation of NDR2 protein kinase by multi-site phosphorylation and the S100B calcium-binding protein". J. Biol. Chem. ...
They signal through receptor tyrosine kinases and serine/threonine protein kinases. Several other biomolecules that have ... Whereas neurotrophic factors within the neurotrophin family commonly have a protein tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk), ... Most NTFs exert their trophic effects on neurons by signaling through tyrosine kinases, usually a receptor tyrosine kinase. In ... The NT-3 protein is found within the thymus, spleen, intestinal epithelium but its role in the function of each organ is still ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SGK2 gene. This gene encodes a serine/ ... threonine protein kinase. Although this gene product is similar to serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK), this ... 2003). "The serine/threonine kinases SGK2 and SGK3 are potent stimulators of the epithelial Na+ channel alpha,beta,gamma-ENaC ... 2003). "K+ channel activation by all three isoforms of serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent protein kinase SGK". Pflugers Arch. ...
MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MKNK2 gene. MKNK2 has ... Waskiewicz AJ, Flynn A, Proud CG, Cooper JA (1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: MKNK2 MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2". Scheper, Gert C; Parra Josep L; Wilson Mary; Van ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi:10.1093/ ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal- ... The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to ...
MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MKNK1 gene. MKNK1 has ... Waskiewicz AJ, Flynn A, Proud CG, Cooper JA (1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi: ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ...
Serine/threonine protein kinase MST4, also known as mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 4 (MST-4), is a protein that in humans ... RP6-213H19.1 serine/threonine protein kinase MST4". Goudreault M, D'Ambrosio LM, Kean MJ, Mullin MJ, Larsen BG, Sanchez A, ... The protein kinase localizes to the Golgi apparatus and is specifically activated by binding to the Golgi matrix protein GM130 ... which are a subset of the Ste20-like kinases. The encoded protein contains an amino-terminal kinase domain, and a carboxy- ...
The encoded protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Loeys-Dietz aortic ... Kawabata M, Chytil A, Moses HL (March 1995). "Cloning of a novel type II serine/threonine kinase receptor through interaction ... Transforming growth factor beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa) is a membrane-bound receptor protein ... The protein encoded by this gene forms a heteromeric complex with type II TGF-β receptors when bound to TGF-β, transducing the ...
protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic ...
... protein tyrosine kinases and protein serine/threonine kinases. Dual-specificity kinases are subclass of the tyrosine kinases.[8 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... which is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, with a sequence similarity to the family of lipid kinases, PI3Ks.[8] ... which is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that belongs to the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) related ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4 also known as polo-like kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLK4 gene. ... PLK4 encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to centrioles-complex ... "Sak serine-threonine kinase acts as an effector of Tec tyrosine kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (42): 39012- ... Schultz SJ, Nigg EA (October 1993). "Identification of 21 novel human protein kinases, including 3 members of a family related ...
Plant perception (physiology) Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase Choi, J.; Tanaka, K.; Cao, Y.; Qi, Y.; Qiu, J.; Liang, Y ... In contrast to animal purinergic receptors (which are G protein-coupled receptors), DORN1 is a lectin receptor kinase (LecRK), ... several mutants lacking the DORN1 receptors are unable to phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinases after ATP stimulation ... resulting in several cellular responses such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, increased cytosolic calcium ...
Sanjo H, Kawai T, Akira S (October 1998). "DRAKs, novel serine/threonine kinases related to death-associated protein kinase ... kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase family and encodes an autophosphorylated nuclear protein with a protein kinase ... Serine/threonine kinase 17a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STK17A gene. This gene is a member of the death- ... Serine/threonine kinase 17a". Landa I, Ruiz-Llorente S, Montero-Conde C, Inglada-Pérez L, Schiavi F, Leskelä S, Pita G, Milne R ...
PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activated kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. These proteins serve as ... "The adaptor protein Nck links receptor tyrosine kinases with the serine-threonine kinase Pak1". The Journal of Biological ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK1 gene. PAK1 is one of six members of ... Manser E, Leung T, Salihuddin H, Zhao ZS, Lim L (January 1994). "A brain serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Cdc42 and ...
This gene encodes a member of the Aurora subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein is a chromosomal ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase 13 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AURKC gene. ... "Protein kinase profile of sperm and eggs: cloning and characterization of two novel testis-specific protein kinases (AIE1, AIE2 ... 2005). "Aurora-C kinase is a novel chromosomal passenger protein that can complement Aurora-B kinase function in mitotic cells ...
"Regulation of neuronal survival by the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt." Science 275, no. 5300 (1997): 661-665. Ma, Qing, ... Segal defined the motif within Hedgehog proteins critical for binding to proteoglycans, defined the nature of the proteoglycan ...
The protein undergoes phosphorylation by a serine/threonine kinase, 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase. Interactions of this protein ... "A serine/threonine kinase p90rsk1 phosphorylates the anti-proliferative protein Tob". Genes to Cells. 6 (2): 131-8. doi:10.1046 ... "A serine/threonine kinase p90rsk1 phosphorylates the anti-proliferative protein Tob". Genes to Cells. 6 (2): 131-8. doi:10.1046 ... Protein Tob1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TOB1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the tob/btg1 family of anti ...
A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Serine and threonine (both very common in chloroplast transit sequences-making up 20-30% of the sequence)[45] are often the ... It can be regulated through phosphorylation, but by a different protein kinase than the one that phosphorylates Toc34.[41] Its ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ...
This method has been used to control a variety of proteins including serine/threonine kinases. Day, R. N.; Davidson, M. W. ( ... Zhou, X. X.; Chung, H. K.; Lam, A. J.; Lin, M. Z. (2012). "Optical Control of Protein Activity by Fluorescent Protein Domains ... It can also be used to track fast dynamics of proteins in cells. Oligomeric forms of Dronpa have been engineered as synthetic ... Dronpa is a reversibly switchable photoactivatable fluorescent protein that is 2.5 times as bright as EGFP. Dronpa gets ...
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinase involved in apoptosis. Aberrant methylation ... Epigenetic down-regulation of death-associated protein kinase in lung cancers. https://edrn.nci.nih.gov/publications/12912953- ... and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. We investigated methylation status of 5 ...
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and August 2, 2018. by Felix ... Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and ... Death-associated proteins kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated and cytoskeleton-associated serine/threonine kinase ( ... cytoplasmic adaptor proteins, and Rho family members guanosine triphosphatases PKCA (GTPases; Ridley et al., 2003). The Rho ...
... death-associated protein kinase family (DAPK family); serine/threonine kinases (STKs). Why publish with Current Research in ... Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) represent the majority of discovered kinases to date even though a few Food and Drug ... Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) family modulators: Current and future therapeutic outcomes. Med Res Rev. 2019 Jan;39(1): ... Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) family modulators: Current and future therapeutic outcomes. ...
A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ... Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Non-specific serine/threonine ... specifically protein-serine/threonine kinases. These enzymes transfer phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine ... Serine/threonine protein kinase p90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is in involved in development of some prostate cancers.[10] ...
Lambda/iota protein kinase C-interacting protein; Lambda-interacting protein; LIP; Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase ... Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase; Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase; PI-3-kinase-related kinase ... 61E3.4; ATX; hSMG-1; KIAA0421; Lambda/iota protein kinase C-interacting protein; Lambda-interacting protein; LIP; ... Yamashita A. (2018) Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase SMG1. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation Molecular Function. GO:0005524 ATP binding GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase ... This entry represents serine/threonine-protein kinases (EC:2.7.11.1) such as Rio3. RIO kinases are atypical members of the ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Eukaryotic phytochromes: Light-regulated serine/threonine protein kinases with histidine kinase ancestry. Kuo-Chen Yeh and J. ... Eukaryotic phytochromes: Light-regulated serine/threonine protein kinases with histidine kinase ancestry ... Eukaryotic phytochromes: Light-regulated serine/threonine protein kinases with histidine kinase ancestry ... Eukaryotic phytochromes: Light-regulated serine/threonine protein kinases with histidine kinase ancestry ...
serine/threonine protein kinase. Locus tag. Synpcc7942_0600. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. PROVISIONAL. Organism. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * YP_399619.1 serine/threonine protein kinase [Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942] ... Synpcc7942_0600 serine/threonine protein kinase [ Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 ] Gene ID: 3775318, discontinued on 5-Feb- ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Names. serine/threonine protein kinase. ...
... receptor type I serine/threonine protein kinase, receptor type II serine/threonine protein kinase, STK13, TGF-beta kinase, and ... In enzymology, a receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP ... to be specific those transferring phosphorus-containing groups protein-serine/threonine kinases. The systematic name of this ... receptor serine/threonine protein kinase. This enzyme participates in 7 metabolic pathways: MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine- ...
A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ... Serine/threonine kinase (STK) expression is altered in many types of cancer. Serine/threonine protein kinase p90-kDa ribosomal ... specifically protein-serine/threonine kinases. These enzymes transfer phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine ... At least 125 of the 500+ human protein kinases are serine/threonine kinases (STK). In enzymology, the term non-specific serine/ ...
Rabbit polyclonal Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 ... Anti-Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 antibody. See all Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 primary antibodies. ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.. Contains 1 protein kinase ... Anti-Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 antibody (ab97399) at 1/1000 dilution + HepG2 whole cell lysate at 30 µg. Predicted band ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q13188 - Homo sapiens 9 * A8K722 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... in complex with its regulatory protein SAV1, phosphorylates and activates LATS1/2 in complex with its regulatory protein MOB1, ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase which is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of ion channels, membrane transporters, ... ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H+ + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein] UniProt ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): O00141 - Homo sapiens 3 * Q9UN56 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ...
Serine/threonine protein kinase UL97. Details. Name. Serine/threonine protein kinase UL97. Kind. protein. Organism. Not ... Serine/threonine protein kinase UL97. Q68101. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ...
... serine/threonine kinase) [Mu... Bmpr2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) [Mus musculus]. ... S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain. cd14054. Location:207 → 504. STKc_BMPR2_AMHR2; Catalytic domain of ... S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain. cd14054. Location:207 → 504. STKc_BMPR2_AMHR2; Catalytic domain of ... bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1095407 See ...
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Specific Function. AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases ... lcl,BSEQ0002331,RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase MNEVSVIKEGWLHKRGEYIKTWRPRYFLLKSDGSFIGYKERPEAPDQTLPPLNNFSVAEC ... a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian ... Activation of protein kinase B beta and gamma isoforms by insulin in vivo and by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 ...
Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ...
Phosphorylates ATF5 but also stabilizes ATF5 protein levels in a kinase-independent manner. ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase that regulates a number of transcription factors with key roles in cell fate determination. ... PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. ... PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. ...
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 antibody [EP1465Y] (ab51134). Please download our ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
AKT2, a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian ... AKT2, a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian ... AKT2, a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian ... AKT2, a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian ...
... protein serine/threonine kinase activity; INVOLVED IN protein phosphorylation; INTERACTS WITH 17beta-estradiol; benzo[a]pyrene ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits ATP binding; magnesium ion binding; ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA. 2290271. UniProtKB. PMID:15733851. protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA. ... Nim1k (NIM1 serine/threonine protein kinase). NCBI. Ortholog. Sus scrofa (pig):. NIM1K (NIM1 serine/threonine protein kinase). ...
... mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 4 , serine/threonine protein kinase MST4 , serine/threonine-protein kinase MST4 , mammalian ... anti-Serine/threonine-Protein Kinase PRP4 Homolog Antibodies * anti-Serine/threonine-Protein Phosphatase 4 Regulatory Subunit ... anti-Serine/threonine Protein Phosphatase Ppa2 Antibodies * anti-Serine/threonine Kinase Receptor Associated Protein Antibodies ... Serine/threonine-Protein Kinase MST4 (MST4) Antigen Profile Protein Summary The product of this gene is a member of the GCK ...
Targeting ERK1/2 protein-serine/threonine kinases in human cancers. by Selleckchem , Apr 28 2019. ... and protein-serine/threonine phosphatases. The combined functions of kinases and phosphatases make the overall process ... ERK1 and ERK2 are key protein kinases that contribute to the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK MAP kinase signalling module. This pathway ... The linear MAP kinase pathway branches extensively at the ERK1/2 node. ERK1/2 are proline-directed kinases that preferentially ...
... cell shape and cell division via phosphorylation of target proteins such as FtsZ, Wag31, GlmU, FhaB, PstP, EmbR and Rv1422 ( ... Protein kinase that regulates many aspects of mycobacterial physiology, and is critical for growth in vitro and survival of the ... Transmembrane serine/threonine-protein kinase a PknA (Protein kinase a) (STPK A). MYCTX ... Transmembrane serine/threonine-protein kinase a PknA (Protein kinase a) (STPK A). MYCTX ...
  • DAPKs comprise five members (DAPK1, DAPK2, DAPK3, DRAK1, and DRAK2) and belong to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases domain. (inpst.net)
  • Prevention of the β-amyloid peptide-induced inflammatory process by inhibition of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in primary murine mixed co-cultures. (uclouvain.be)
  • In continuous cell lines, mRNA expression was down-regulated, as well as compared with nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells, and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • The most extensively studied member is DAPK1 (based on the publications number and Protein Data Bank reported crystal structures) that plays fundamental biological roles depending on the cellular context. (inpst.net)
  • The M. tuberculosis genome includes 11 STPK genes, namely PknA to PknL, and their domain organization indicates that only two enzymes PknG and PknK are cytosolic proteins and other nine STPKs are membrane bound proteins contains transmembrane domain which connects the N-terminal kinase domain inside the cell to a C-terminal sensory component outside the cell . (medcraveonline.com)
  • These enzymes consist three domains, first N-terminal catalytic domain having homology with its eukaryotic counter parts distributed in cytoplasm, second the transmembrane domain which anchors the enzyme to the plasma membrane and followed by third extracellular C-terminal PASTA (Penicillin-binding protein and Serine/Threonine kinase Associated) domain act as sensor . (medcraveonline.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) genes by glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More particularly, the present invention concerns with the selection of genes and/or proteins, and generation of formulae with the selected genes and/or proteins for the prediction of cancer recurrence by measuring. (google.com)
  • 6. Wan B, Lin Y, Mou T. Expression of rice Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) genes under different environmental stresses. (ac.ir)
  • We found no evidence to suggest substantial horizontal transfer of genes encoding Hanks-type kinases from eukarya to bacteria. (chalmers.se)
  • Further, in this organism PknB is actively present in the external secretions and along with phosphatases they interact with vast range of host tissue proteins aiding this pathogen to colonize in any anatomical locales in human host [1- (medcraveonline.com)
  • The discovery of cyanobacterial phytochrome histidine kinases, together with the evidence that phytochromes from higher plants display protein kinase activity, bind ATP analogs, and possess C-terminal domains similar to bacterial histidine kinases, has fueled the controversial hypothesis that the eukaryotic phytochrome family of photoreceptors are light-regulated enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that purified recombinant phytochromes from a higher plant and a green alga exhibit serine/threonine kinase activity similar to that of phytochrome isolated from dark grown seedlings. (pnas.org)
  • In this regard, biochemical analysis of purified oat phytochrome A in the mid-1980s ( 10 - 13 ) revealed an associated polycation-stimulated, pyrophosphate-inhibited serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase activity implicating phytochrome itself to be the enzyme responsible. (pnas.org)
  • AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). (drugbank.ca)
  • This kinase activity required either Mg2+ or Mn2+ for optimal activity, and it phosphorylated myelin basic protein, histone H2B, and also the cytoplasmic domain of the p60 receptor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An increase in the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been correlated with the progression of prostate cancer to advanced disease in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The RSK2 regulation of PSA expression occurred via a mechanism involving both RSK2 kinase activity and its ability to associate with the coactivator, p300. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The N-terminal region of the protein binds CDC2 to form a complex showing reduced H1 histone kinase activity, indicating a role as a negative regulator of CDC2/cyclin A. In addition, the C-terminal kinase domain binds to its own N-terminal region, suggesting potential negative regulation through interference with complex formation via intramolecular binding. (biomol.com)
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. (mybiosource.com)
  • Negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling but positively regulates the PDPK1 kinase activity by enhancing its autophosphorylation and by significantly reducing the association of PDPK1 with 14-3-3 protein. (rcsb.org)
  • Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. (mcw.edu)
  • In HCC cells, the modulation of NCTD on cell cycle-related proteins and kinase activity may contribute to NCTD-induced cell cycle arrest 8 . (nature.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • These were formerly included in EC number "2.7.1.37", which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core of this pathway is composed of a kinase cascade wherein MST1/MST2, in complex with its regulatory protein SAV1, phosphorylates and activates LATS1/2 in complex with its regulatory protein MOB1, which in turn phosphorylates and inactivates YAP1 oncoprotein and WWTR1/TAZ. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylates ATF5 but also stabilizes ATF5 protein levels in a kinase-independent manner. (uniprot.org)
  • Our previous studies indicate that a protein kinase from U-937 cells binds to and phosphorylates the p60 receptor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In response to Fas receptor ligation, it phosphorylates TIA1, an apoptosis-promoting nuclear RNA-binding protein. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The eukaryotic type serine-threonine protein kinases (STPKs) found in normal human microbiote and in pathogenic bacteria play a key role in regulation of microbial survival, virulence and pathogenicity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Valery N. Danilenko, Dmitry I. Osolodkin, Sergey A. Lakatosh, Maria N. Preobrazhenskaya and Alexander A. Shtil, " Bacterial Eukaryotic Type Serine-Threonine Protein Kinases: From Structural Biology to Targeted Anti-Infective Drug Design", Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2011) 11: 1352. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For historical reasons, the term "eukaryotic-type kinases" propagated in the literature to describe bacterial members of this protein family. (chalmers.se)
  • They are bona fide Ras (a membrane-associated guanine nucleotide-binding protein) effectors and upstream activators of the ubiquitous ERK pathway , which has drawn the attention to these proteins as potential targets in cancer therapy . (axonmedchem.com)
  • Of the latter, types include: Serine/threonine kinase (STK) expression is altered in many types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of the 534 proteins that may play a role in lung cancer, 71 proteins were selected that are likely to be actively involved in lung cancer. (peerj.com)
  • The kinase was originally found to become elevated in rapidly proliferating cells CAL-101 including cancer cells and as time passes it is becoming apparent that CK2 is dysregulated by a rise in protein expression in every cancers examined. (himafund.org)
  • Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. (drugbank.ca)
  • Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. (uniprot.org)