SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2: A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Syntaxin 1: A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.Qb-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Munc18 Proteins: A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.Qc-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins: SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Syntaxin 16: A ubiquitously expressed member of the syntaxin subfamily of SNARE proteins that localizes to the GOLGI APPARATUS.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Synaptotagmin I: A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Synaptotagmin II: A vesicular transport protein that was originally characterized as an inositol polyphosphate binding protein. Synaptotagmin II helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Synaptotagmins: A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins: ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3: A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSynaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Q-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins in which the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. They are classified separately from the R-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. Subfamilies, the QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; and QC-SNARES are grouped by the position of their SNARE motif-containing-domains in the SNARE complex and by their sequence similarities.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mice, Inbred C57BLVacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3: A ubiquitously expressed G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that has specificity for the agonist-occupied form of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and a variety of other G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Although it is highly homologous to G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 2, it is not considered to play an essential role in regulating myocardial contractile response.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
"Regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor signaling by S-nitrosylation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2". Cell. 129 (3): 511 ... increased beta adrenergic receptor numbers in lung and heart, diminished tachyphylaxis to β2-adrenergic receptor agonists, ... Nitrosylated thioredoxin, via directed protein-protein interaction, trans-nitrosylates the active site cysteine of caspase-3 ... Deleting the GSNOR gene from both yeast and mice increased the cellular levels of GSNO and nitrosylated proteins, and the yeast ...
... adrenergic receptor chimera: pharmacological properties of a unique G protein-linked receptor". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives ... DeCostanzo AJ, Huang XP, Wang HY, Malbon CC (May 2002). "The Frizzled-1/(beta(2))- ... gene family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for Wnt signaling proteins. The FZD1 protein contains a ... "Frizzled Receptors: FZD1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
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"Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists induce the release of granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, oncostatin M, and vascular ... Zilpaterol (zilpaterol hydrochloride; codenamed RU 42173) is a β2 adrenergic agonist. Under its trade name, Zilmax, it is used ...
... receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase via selective interaction with receptor beta subunits". Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 22 (1 ... adrenergic receptor complex facilitates receptor phosphorylation and signaling". Curr. Biol. 10 (7): 409-12. doi:10.1016/S0960- ... The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein kinase C and the phosphatase ... A-kinase anchor protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP5 gene. The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a ...
... a PDZ domain-containing protein, links a protein complex formation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and the guanine ... "beta-Arrestin-mediated ADP-ribosylation factor 6 activation and beta 2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45 ... "beta-Arrestin-mediated ADP-ribosylation factor 6 activation and beta 2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45 ... CYTH2 protein is 83% homologous to CYTH1. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. ...
... "beta-Arrestin-mediated ADP-ribosylation factor 6 activation and beta 2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45 ... ARF6 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ARF6 genome location and ARF6 ... A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 7. ARF6 can interact with βarrestin upon receptor activation. Arf6 has been ... D'Souza-Schorey C, Boshans RL, McDonough M, Stahl PD, Van Aelst L (1997). "A role for POR1, a Rac1-interacting protein, in ARF6 ...
Beta2-adrenergic agonists act on beta-2 receptors to drive potassium into the cells. Therefore, beta blockers can raise ... Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and ... dominant clinical condition where there is a mutation in gene located at 17q23 that regulates the production of protein SCN4A. ... Examples of drugs that can raise the serum potassium are non-selective beta-blockers such as propanolol and labetalol. Beta-1 ...
Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (Jan 1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases ... "The scaffold protein gravin (cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) binds the beta 2-adrenergic receptor via the ... Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases and ... This protein and RII PKA colocalize at the cell periphery. This protein is a cell growth-related protein. Antibodies to this ...
A smaller class of 3FTx proteins binds instead to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. ... causes decreased heart rate and are thought to function as beta blockers, antagonists for the beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic ... of Three-Finger Fold Toxins Creates Ligands with Original Pharmacological Profiles for Muscarinic and Adrenergic Receptors". ... Muscarinic toxins can be either receptor agonists or receptor antagonists, and in some cases the same 3FTx protein is an ...
... is a cytosolic protein and acts as a cofactor in the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK) mediated ... 1990). "beta-Arrestin: a protein that regulates beta-adrenergic receptor function". Science. 248 (4962): 1547-50. doi:10.1126/ ... Lefkowitz RJ (1998). "G protein-coupled receptors. III. New roles for receptor kinases and beta-arrestins in receptor signaling ... 1999). "Beta-arrestin-dependent formation of beta2 adrenergic receptor-Src protein kinase complexes". Science. 283 (5402): 655- ...
Feldman RD, Hunninghake GW, McArdle WL (1987). "Beta-adrenergic-receptor-mediated suppression of interleukin 2 receptors in ... Autophagy-related protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATG10 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
"Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... The protein encoded by this gene binds receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor and contains one SH2 domain and ... "Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHPTP2 couples platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta to Ras". Proceedings of the National ... "Phosphorylation of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha on Tyr789, a binding site for the SH3-SH2-SH3 adaptor protein ...
9388-9394 Internal trafficking and surface mobility of a functionally intact beta 2-adrenergic receptor - green fluorescent ... protein conjugate, Molecular Pharmacology, 51:177-184 (1997) Chris Martenson, The Crash Course: The Unsustainable Future of Our ...
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 mediated, phosphorylation of ribosomal protein P2". Biochemistry. 41 (42): 12850-12857. doi ... 2002). "Beta 2-adrenergic receptor stimulated, ... 60S acidic ribosomal protein P2 is a protein that in humans is ... "Analysis of the protein-protein interactions between the human acidic ribosomal P-proteins: evaluation by the two hybrid system ... "Analysis of the protein-protein interactions between the human acidic ribosomal P-proteins: evaluation by the two hybrid system ...
1996). "Effect of different G protein-coupled receptor kinases on phosphorylation and desensitization of the alpha1B-adrenergic ... Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein- ... and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes". Genomics. 23 (1): 286-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1497. PMID 7695743. ... "Acidic amino acids flanking phosphorylation sites in the M2 muscarinic receptor regulate receptor phosphorylation, ...
Regulation of receptor proteins occurs when the PDZ domain on the EBP50 protein binds to the C-terminus of the beta-2 ... "A kinase-regulated PDZ-domain interaction controls endocytic sorting of the β2-adrenergic receptor". Nature. 401 (6750): 286- ... Glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) is a post-synaptic protein with that interacts with AMPA receptors in a fashion ... Researchers found that the protein ezrin enhances the binding of the PDZ protein NHERF1. PDZ proteins are a family of proteins ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 Cannon WB, Rosenbluth A (31 May 1933). "Studies On Conditions ... α1-adrenergic receptors are members of the Gq protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Upon activation, a heterotrimeric G protein ... The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, ... Basic Neurochemistry: α- and β-Adrenergic Receptors Brief overview of functions of the β3 receptor Theory of receptor ...
... beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta-thromboglobulin - ... prostaglandin receptor - protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein ... fusion oncogene protein - G protein - G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A receptor - gag-onc ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ...
It has been shown that M1-Muscarinic receptors cooperate with D5 receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors to consolidate cued ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene. It belongs to the D1-like receptor family along with the D1 receptor ... D5 receptor is highly homologous to the D1 receptor. Their amino acid sequences are 49% to 80% identical. D5 receptor has a ... "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk between dopamine D5 and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors". Nature. 403 ( ...
... which functions primarily through protein kinase A to upregulate inhibitory cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta ( ... The activity of the encoded protein, a G protein-coupled receptor family member, is mediated by G proteins which activate ... This protein is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which possess seven transmembrane alpha helices. The ... "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor". Ohta A, Sitkovsky M (2001). "Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in ...
... has been shown to interact with: Beta-gamma complex, G protein GIT1, GNAQ, PDE6G, PRKCB1 and ... "Overexpression of beta-arrestin and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase augment desensitization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors". J ... "beta2-Adrenergic receptor regulation by GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor GTPase- ... Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (also referred to as βARK or BARK) is a serine/threonine intracellular kinase. It is activated ...
Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (Jan 1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases ... "Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ...
Mahmoudian M (1994). "The complex of human Gs protein with the beta 3 adrenergic receptor: a computer-aided molecular modeling ... Beta-3 adrenergic receptor has been shown to interact with Src. Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta Blocker GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. It is a G-protein coupled receptor associated with ... "G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 regulates beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95". The Journal of Biological ... "The cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor. Structural similarities of beta 1 and beta 2 receptor subtypes demonstrated by ... "beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95. Inhibition of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1- ...
Syntaxin-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STXBP3 gene. Syntaxin binding protein 3 has been shown to interact with STX2 and STX4. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116266 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027882 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Reed GL, Houng AK, Fitzgerald ML (May 1999). "Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion". Blood. 93 (8): 2617-26. PMID 10194441. "Entrez Gene: STXBP3 syntaxin binding protein 3". Schraw, Todd D; Lemons Paula P; Dean William L; Whiteheart Sidney W (Aug 2003). "A role for Sec1/Munc18 proteins in platelet exocytosis". Biochem. J. England. 374 (Pt 1): 207-17. doi:10.1042/BJ20030610. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1223584 . PMID 12773094. Widberg, ...
Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAPA gene. Together with VAPB it forms the VAP protein family. The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. VAPA has been shown to interact with OSBP. This interaction is mediated by the FFAT motif in OSBP. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101558 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024091 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nishimura Y, Hayashi M, Inada ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMP's BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are ...
... can occur sporadically in families or be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Two genes associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome are BMPR1A and SMAD4.[1] Gene testing may be useful when trying to ascertain which non-symptomatic family members may be at risk of developing polyps, however having a known familial mutation would be unlikely to change the course of treatment. A known mutation may also be of use for affected individuals when they decide to start a family as it allows them reproductive choices. While mutations in the gene PTEN were also thought to have caused juvenile polyposis syndrome, it is now thought that mutations in this gene cause a similar clinical picture to juvenile polyposis syndrome but are actually affected with Cowden syndrome or other phenotypes of the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMP's BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are ...
... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMP's in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, ...
Syntaxin-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STXBP3 gene. Syntaxin binding protein 3 has been shown to interact with STX2 and STX4. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116266 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027882 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Reed GL, Houng AK, Fitzgerald ML (May 1999). "Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion". Blood. 93 (8): 2617-26. PMID 10194441. "Entrez Gene: STXBP3 syntaxin binding protein 3". Schraw, Todd D; Lemons Paula P; Dean William L; Whiteheart Sidney W (Aug 2003). "A role for Sec1/Munc18 proteins in platelet exocytosis". Biochem. J. England. 374 (Pt 1): 207-17. doi:10.1042/BJ20030610. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1223584 . PMID 12773094. Widberg, ...
Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAPA gene. Together with VAPB it forms the VAP protein family. The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. VAPA has been shown to interact with OSBP. This interaction is mediated by the FFAT motif in OSBP. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101558 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024091 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nishimura Y, Hayashi M, Inada ...
Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAPA gene. Together with VAPB it forms the VAP protein family. The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. VAPA has been shown to interact with OSBP. This interaction is mediated by the FFAT motif in OSBP. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101558 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024091 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nishimura Y, Hayashi M, Inada ...
Synaptic vesicle membrane protein VAT-1 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAT1 gene. Synaptic vesicles are responsible for regulating the storage and release of neurotransmitters in the nerve terminal. The protein encoded by this gene is an abundant integral membrane protein of cholinergic synaptic vesicles and is thought to be involved in vesicular transport. It belongs to the quinone oxidoreductase subfamily of zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase proteins. In melanocytic cells VAT1 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000108828 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000034993 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Friedman LS, Ostermeyer EA, Lynch ED, Welcsh P, Szabo CI, Meza JE, Anderson LA, Dowd P, Lee MK, Rowell SE, et al. (Jul 1995). "22 genes from chromosome 17q21: cloning, sequencing, and characterization ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMP's BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are ...
... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMP's in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, ...
Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAPA gene. Together with VAPB it forms the VAP protein family. The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. VAPA has been shown to interact with OSBP. This interaction is mediated by the FFAT motif in OSBP. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101558 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024091 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nishimura Y, Hayashi M, Inada ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ... Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence * Number of PDB entries for Q6GMT4: no matching PDB entries ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q6GMT4 - Homo sapiens 0 * Q6LCR3 - Rattus norvegicus no matching PDB entries ...
Cleavage of CD23 by ADAM proteins is regulated by beta-2 adrenergic receptor engagement on primed B cells (55.11). Caroline ... Cleavage of CD23 by ADAM proteins is regulated by beta-2 adrenergic receptor engagement on primed B cells (55.11) ... Cleavage of CD23 by ADAM proteins is regulated by beta-2 adrenergic receptor engagement on primed B cells (55.11) ... Cleavage of CD23 by ADAM proteins is regulated by beta-2 adrenergic receptor engagement on primed B cells (55.11) ...
Compare beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... Protein level used designations for ADRB2 adrenergic receptor beta-2 , adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface , beta-2 ... receptor, surface , catecholamine receptor , beta2-adrenergic receptor , Adrenergic beta 2- receptor surface , adrenergic ...
A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor ... A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor ... beta 2AR-Y326A). This mutation completely abolishes agonist-mediated receptor sequestration without affecting the ability of ... exists in a highly conserved sequence motif in virtually all members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The potential ...
These effects have traditionally been thought to be mediated exclusively by receptor activation of intrace … ... Stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors on the cell surface by adrenaline or noradrenaline leads to alterations in the ... Protein Binding * Rabbits * Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 / genetics * Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 / metabolism* ... Mutation of the final residue of the beta2-adrenergic receptor from leucine to alanine abolishes the receptors interaction ...
Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, Malbon CC (Jan 1999). "Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases ... "Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q6LCR3 - Rattus norvegicus 0 * Q6P4D8 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
... center stage in Stockholm where they will receive their Nobel Prize Medals for their studies of G-protein-coupled receptors ( ... Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat ... Cystatin: A protein that flips out!. September 2013. Protein residues in unusually strained conformations often merit close ... E3 ubiquitin ligase is responsible for flagging proteins for degradation by transferring ubiquitin from a donor protein onto ...
For live-cell receptor internalization studies a,Screening,for,potential,beta,2-adrenergic,receptor,antagonists,using,CypHer5E, ... used to obtain dose-response and rank-order potency data for both agonist and antagonist treatment of β2-adrenergic receptor ... Introduction CypHer ™ 5 a pH sensitive dye has shown utility in β2-adrenergic receptor agonist screening (1). CypHer5 has been ... known receptors and for ligands of non-G protein coupled receptors and orphan receptors References 1. Application Note: ...
1998). "β2-Adrenergic receptor regulation by GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor ... The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G ... protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic ... The beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 was cloned from mice and rats in 1991 and the human gene was cloned in 1993. Gene linkage ...
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 / metabolism* * Transforming Growth Factor beta / analysis * Transforming Growth Factor beta / ... In saline-treated rats latent TGF-beta-binding protein-1 (LTBP-1) immunoreactivity was moderately elevated 3 and 6 h after ... adrenoceptor stimulation enhances latent transforming growth factor-beta-binding protein-1 and transforming growth factor-beta1 ... suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of TGF-beta1 protein after beta(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation. ...
... reconstitution of functional interactions between pure receptor and pure stimulatory nucleotide binding protein of the ... Pure beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) isolated from guinea pig lung and pure guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein ( ... The GTPase activity can be stimulated by beta-adrenergic agonists such as isoproterenol (2-5-fold) and is completely blocked by ... reconstitution of functional interactions between pure receptor and pure stimulatory nucleotide binding protein of the ...
transforming growth factor, beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53 kDa). ... guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha. inhibiting activity polypeptide 3. ADRB2. adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor ... protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-denved). PPP2R1B. protein phosphatase 2 (formerly 2A), regulatory ... Beta Adrenoceptor Antagonists (beta blockers): Beta blockers are almost always used in combination with other drugs such as ACE ...
These data provide the first direct evidence that one molecular mechanism of desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors ... Highly specific receptor kinases, such as rhodopsin kinase and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, which show stimulus-dependent ... Here we report that prevention of agonist-stimulated beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) phosphorylation by truncation of its ... Removal of phosphorylation sites from the beta 2-adrenergic receptor delays onset of agonist-promoted desensitization.. Bouvier ...
rac1 GTP-binding protein. *receptors, adrenergic, beta. Received July 23, 2003; de novo received December 4, 2004; revision ... Beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes differentially affect apoptosis in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Circulation. 2000; 102: ... Beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species/c-Jun NH2-terminal ... adrenergic receptors on cardiac myocyte apoptosis : role of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Circulation. 1999; 100: 2210 ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. A0A024R1D8. Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. HUMAN ... PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. PS50132 RGS, 1 hit ... PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. PS50132 RGS, 1 hit ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Cluster: Beta-3 adrenergic receptor. 11. Full view. Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00237. G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1. 1 hit. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00237. G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1. 1 hit. ... Protein family/group databases. Information system for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) ...
Orthosteric β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, known as beta-blockers, are amongst the most prescribed drugs in the world and ... TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINS: ALPHA-HELICAL. Sub Group: G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs): Class A. Protein: β2 adrenergic receptor ... Chimera protein of Beta-2 adrenergic receptor and Lysozyme. A. 500. Homo sapiens, Escherichia virus T4. This entity is chimeric ... such as the nine adrenergic receptors. Allosteric ligands may bind to less-conserved regions of these receptors and therefore ...
Wire frame model of protein. Protein with Cholesterol and Palmitic acid ligands bound - These secure the protein as a dimer ... Protein with bound ligand Carazolol, a high affinity antagonist. Protein with Proline residues - proline induces kinks at ... where the protein is embedded in a membrane, and the binding site (red) is negatively charged. (May have to refresh page in ... Human β2-Adrenergic G Protein-Coupled Receptor. Java version. HTML 5 version (does not require Java; downloads and moves slowly ...
... are the receptors for the catecholamines adreline and noradreline (called epinephrine and… ... The Adrenoceptors are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily of membrane proteins. They share a common ... Adrenoceptors (also called adrenergic receptors) are the receptors for the catecholamines adreline and noradreline (called ... Western blot analysis of Adrenergic Receptor beta2 expression in NIH-3T3 whole cell lysates,The lane on the left is treated ...
Role of beta gamma subunits of G proteins in targeting the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase to membrane-bound receptors. ... The substance P receptor, which couples to Gq/11, is a substrate of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 and 2. ... Acute myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with cardiac valve disease. Duke ... A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor ...
Here, we summarized the recent advances on our understanding of GPCR-G protein coupling based on BRET approaches and supported ... Here, we summarized the recent advances on our understanding of GPCR-G protein coupling based on BRET approaches and supported ... We discussed the concept of agonist-induced conformational changes within the preassembled PAR1-G protein complexes as well as ... We discussed the concept of agonist-induced conformational changes within the preassembled PAR1-G protein complexes as well as ...
Protein Coding), G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... ATP + [beta-adrenergic receptor] = ADP + [beta-adrenergic receptor] phosphate. *ARBK2_HUMAN,P35626 ... The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G ... Protein Symbol:. P35626-ARBK2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. Protein Accession:. P35626. ...
How does the cAMP second messenger pathway work downstream of beta-adrenergic receptor? ... angiotensin II binds to receptor --, --, activated G protein helps phospholipase C cleave PIP2 into DAG and IP3 --, IP3 opens ... Serine/threonine receptors (TGF-beta); INF or IL/JAK/STAT; Tyrosine receptors (EGF & Insulin) ... 1) receptor activated --, associated kinase phosphorylates --, signal transducer protein binds to kinase ...
Compare and order beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more ... This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing ... receptor, surface , catecholamine receptor , beta2-adrenergic receptor , Adrenergic beta 2- receptor surface , adrenergic ... beta-2b-adrenergic receptor , beta-2 adrenoceptor , beta-2 adrenoreceptor , beta 2-AR , adrenergic receptor beta 2 , adrenergic ...
  • To mark this occasion we have written a special Quips article which explores the Nobel Prize winning structure of B2AR bound to its G-protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This modification, which is widespread in eukaryotes, allows the reversible association of peripheral proteins with membranes or, in the case of integral membrane proteins, modulates their behavior within the plane of the membrane due to their partition to different micro- and nanodomains via interaction with other proteins and lipids [ 1-3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • The function of any given biological membrane is determined largely by the specific set of integral membrane proteins embedded in it, and the peripheral membrane proteins attached to the membrane surface. (mdpi.com)
  • The reconstitution of membrane proteins into a model membrane allows investigation of individual features and activities of a given cell membrane component. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the activity of membrane proteins is often difficult to sustain following reconstitution, since the composition of the model phospholipid bilayer differs from that of the native cell membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • We also discuss examples where the same membrane proteins have been successfully reconstituted into two or more model membrane systems with comparison of the observed activity in each system. (mdpi.com)
  • Integral membrane proteins have at least one polypeptide segment spanning the membrane bilayer whereas peripheral membrane proteins are temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer or to integral membrane proteins by various interactions such as hydrophobic, electrostatic and other types of non-covalent interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, membrane proteins play an essential role in the physiological functions needed for cell survival. (mdpi.com)
  • thus the composition of the lipid bilayer can affect the inter- or intra-molecular interactions between the lipid bilayer and membrane proteins [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Investigating membrane proteins in vivo is difficult because the membrane proteins are associated with a complex mixture of other proteins, and are prone to aggregation in solution [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Sotalol has both beta-adrenoreceptor blocking (Vaughan Williams Class I) and cardiac action potential duration prolongation (Vaughan Williams Class I) antiarrhythmic properties. (hmdb.ca)
  • Antibody fragments fused at the C-terminus , N-terminus or bivalent forms as well as fusions to small or large peptides were compared to unfused albumin variants for FcRn affinity by SPR using Biocoree technology (Figure 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of clenbuterol, a lipophilic beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, caused an increase in TGF-beta1 expression in non-ischemic rats and further enhanced TGF-beta1 protein levels in rat CA1 pyramidal neurones after transient forebrain ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • beta-Arrestin-mediated PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase recruitment regulates beta-adrenoceptor switching from Gs to Gi. (duke.edu)
  • Genetic variation of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor: its functional and clinical importance in bronchial asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual Regulations by α 2 -Adrenoceptor Activation? (ahajournals.org)
  • There, working as a postdoctoral fellow, he successfully pieced together the full DNA sequence for the mammalian beta 2 -adrenergic receptor from fragments of genomic DNA that had been amplified in genetically engineered bacteria . (britannica.com)
  • However, we increasingly recognize that biological processes are typically driven by the interplay of complex interaction networks of various molecules (mostly proteins). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The crystal structure of bovine retinal arrestin comprises two domains of antiparallel beta-sheets connected through a hinge region and one short alpha-helix on the back of the amino-terminal fold [ PMID: 9495348 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • knocking out of the beta1/2 (show TFAP2B ELISA Kits ) receptor significantly diminished the ST25 acupuncture-induced inhibition of gastric motility and jejunal motility without significantly altering the enhancement of colonic motility induced by acupuncture at ST25. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A comparison of this structure with inactive- and active-state structures of the β 2 AR reveals the mechanism by which Cmpd-15 modulates agonist binding affinity and signalling. (rcsb.org)
  • Their mechanism of action in tocolysis involves the blockade of L-type Ca 2+ channels, influenced by the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels, beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and sexual hormones. (mdpi.com)
  • We hypothesized that some β-blockers may have the unique property of being able to stimulate β 1 AR signaling without activating G proteins, providing a possible mechanism for differences in clinical efficacy. (pnas.org)
  • The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine - that is, its principal mechanism of action relies on its direct and indirect actions on the adrenergic receptor system, which is part of the sympathetic nervous system. (drugbank.ca)