Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2: A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Mice, Inbred BALB CT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Syntaxin 1: A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Qb-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Mice, Inbred C57BLCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Gene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.Munc18 Proteins: A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Qc-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins: SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes, T-Cell Receptor delta: DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Syntaxin 16: A ubiquitously expressed member of the syntaxin subfamily of SNARE proteins that localizes to the GOLGI APPARATUS.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Inbred C3HTetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Synaptotagmin I: A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Synaptotagmin II: A vesicular transport protein that was originally characterized as an inositol polyphosphate binding protein. Synaptotagmin II helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Synaptotagmins: A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Cell SeparationListeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins: ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 3: A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Nerve Tissue ProteinsImmunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma: DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Mice, Inbred CBAAntibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Mice, Inbred DBASequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3G gene. T cell antigen receptor ( ... 1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... Griesinger F, Greenberg JM, Kersey JH (1989). "T cell receptor gamma and delta rearrangements in hematologic malignancies. ... "Primary structure of the T3 gamma subunit of the T3/T cell antigen receptor complex deduced from cDNA sequences: evolution of ...
T cell receptors come in 4 types, labelled alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In an organism, each of the 6 types of protein, in ... or antigen binding tests. Every day, we are exposed to a wide range of disease causing organisms. thus, how well our immune ... The 6 main types are: immunoglobulins (2), and T cell receptors (4). Immunoglobulin proteins consist of 2 parts, a light chain ... Cells whose protein would cause an immune reaction with the body, are removed. Cells which actually detect an invading organism ...
T-cell receptor zeta, together with T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers and CD3-gamma, -delta, and -epsilon ... forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. The zeta chain plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several ... CD247 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD247 genome location and ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain also known as T-cell receptor T3 zeta chain or CD247 (Cluster of Differentiation 247 ...
... delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (January 1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor ... The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide, which together with CD3-gamma, - ... cells and CD3 gamma, delta, epsilon complexes in fetal NK cells. Implications for the relationship of NK and T lymphocytes". ...
It contributes the gamma (γ) chain to the larger TCR protein (T-cell receptor). T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens ... If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds ... In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. ... "Entrez Gene: [email protected] T cell receptor gamma locus". Lefranc MP, Rabbitts TH (Aug 1989). "The human T-cell receptor γ (TRG) genes". ...
... express gamma-delta TCRs (γδ T cells), which recognize non-protein antigens. T cells with functionally stable TCRs express both ... Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigen. An antigen is a molecule capable ... cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells ... When these cells are infected with a virus (or another intracellular pathogen), the cells degrade foreign proteins via antigen ...
"Involvement of CD166 in the activation of human gamma delta T cells by tumor cells sensitized with nonpeptide antigens". J. ... The encoded protein contains three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains and a binding site for an activated ... "Global profiling of the cell surface proteome of cancer cells uncovers an abundance of proteins with chaperone function". J. ... "Assignment of gene coding human T-cell differentiation antigen, Tp120, to chromosome 11". Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 11 (3): 217- ...
... and adhesion receptors (CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like APCs (γδ T-APC) and present antigens to ... They are of an invariant nature and may be triggered by alarm signals, such as heat shock proteins (HSP). There also exists a ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are ... gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is ...
T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... Cardiff University UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T cell receptor T-Cell ... On helper T cells and regulatory T cells, this co-receptor is CD4 that is specific for MHC class II. On cytotoxic T cells, this ...
... delta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.311 --- gene rearrangement, gamma-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH ... protein processing, post-translational MeSH G05.315.670.600.400 --- protein isoprenylation MeSH G05.315.670.600.700 --- protein ... alpha-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH G05.330.801.211 --- gene rearrangement, beta-chain t-cell antigen receptor MeSH ... cell nucleus division MeSH G05.105.220.500 --- anaphase MeSH G05.105.220.625 --- chromosome segregation MeSH G05.105.220.625. ...
Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens. It has been shown to activate ... Possible classes of heavy chains in antibodies include alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, and mu, and they define the antibody's ... Antibodies are used in flow cytometry to differentiate cell types by the proteins they express; different types of cell express ... It is part of the B cell receptor (BCR), which allows a B cell to detect when a specific antigen is present in the body and ...
... myeloma proteins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.900.700 - pyroglobulins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950 - receptors, antigen, b-cell ... Retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.750 - Retinoid X receptor gamma MeSH D12.776.826.750.074.249 - coup ... immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312 - immunoglobulin e MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312.500 - ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.090 - antigens, ...
... myeloma proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.900.700 -- pyroglobulins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950 -- receptors, antigen, b-cell ... immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.312 -- immunoglobulin e MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.312.500 ... immunoglobulin gamma-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.393.522.400 -- immunoglobulin gm allotypes MeSH D12.776.124.486. ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ...
1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3D gene. CD3D has been shown to ... 1986). "Exon/intron organization of the genes coding for the delta chains of the human and murine T-cell receptor/T3 complex". ... 1991). "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...
T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T cell receptor ... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their ... The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several proteins. The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide ... Healthy cells typically express a large number of self derived pMHC on their cell surface and although the T cell antigen ... such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells ...
The antigen recognition by T cells is a remarkable process dependent on the T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR is randomly ... Homologues of the mammalian gamma, delta and alpha beta TCR (TCR1 and TCR2) are found in birds. However, a third TCR, called ... blood proteins and phagocytic cells. In addition, complement serum proteins, which are a part of the innate immune system, work ... Using monoclonal antibodies that are specific for chicken T cell surface antigens, the development of T cells in birds is ...
T-cell receptor alpha locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA gene, also known as TCRA or [email protected] It contributes ... CD3 epsilon/delta and CD3 epsilon/gamma dimers associate indistinctly with both TCR alpha and TCR beta chains. Evidence for a ... Manolios N, Kemp O, Li ZG (1994). "The T cell antigen receptor alpha and beta chains interact via distinct regions with CD3 ... 2001). "The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Trim Regulates T Cell Receptor (Tcr) Expression and Tcr-Mediated Signaling via an ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess an alternative T cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and share ... Most large molecules, including virtually all proteins and many polysaccharides, can serve as antigens. The parts of an antigen ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... T cells are useless without antigen-presenting cells to activate them, and B cells are crippled without T cell help. On the ...
... chain to the larger TCR protein (T-cell receptor). "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: [email protected] T cell receptor delta locus". ... Chauhan SK, Tripathy NK, Sinha N, Nityanand S (2006). "T-cell receptor repertoire of circulating gamma delta T-cells in ... "Identification and sequence of a fourth human T cell antigen receptor chain". Nature. 330 (6148): 569-72. doi:10.1038/330569a0 ... T cell receptor delta locus (symbol TRD), also known as TCRD or [email protected], is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRD gene. ...
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their ... The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several proteins. The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ...
... delta and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). Ig molecules are highly modular proteins, in which ... Ig-like domains are involved in a variety of functions, including cell-cell recognition, cell-surface receptors, muscle ... C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... a protein that is involved in cell-cell adhesion and immune response modulation, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis ...
Gamma delta T cellsEdit. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather ... The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several proteins. The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide ... Memory T cellsEdit. Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ...
... a target molecule for gamma/delta T cells, is encoded by an immunoglobulin superfamily gene (Blast-1) located in the CD1 region ... Loertscher R, Lavery P (2002). "The role of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface proteins in T-cell ... CD48 was the first B-cell-specific cellular differentiation antigen identified in transformed B lymphoblasts. The gene for CD48 ... Nakajima H, Colonna M (January 2000). "2B4: an NK cell activating receptor with unique specificity and signal transduction ...
... biochemistry and protein engineering to understand how cell surface receptors sense environmental cues and transduce signals. ... Garcia's group used directed evolution to strengthen low-affinity interactions between the receptor Notch1 and ligands Delta- ... At Stanford University, Garcia has continued to study antigen recognition by both antibodies and TCRs. The Garcia Laboratory ... common gamma (γc) family (IL-2), Type I Interferons (IFNα2/IFNω) and Type III Interferons. The Garcia Laboratory has also ...
... , also known as TNFRSF8, is a cell membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and tumor marker. ... I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Epoetin delta. *Epoetin epsilon. *Epoetin gamma. *Epoetin kappa. *Epoetin omega. *Epoetin theta ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ...
However, the specific immune cell subsets and mediators of … ... Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / genetics * Receptors ... Il17a protein, mouse * Interleukin-17 * Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta ... However, the specific immune cell subsets and mediators of healing are not entirely clear. Here we show that γδ T cells produce ... IL-17-producing γδ T cells enhance bone regeneration Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 11;7:10928. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10928. ...
Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells recognize the pyrophosphorylated isoprenoid intermediates (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl ... Human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells play important roles in mediating immunity against microbial pathogens and have potent anti-tumor ... Protein Prenylation / immunology* * Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / immunology* * T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology* ... Activated Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells are able to kill most tumor cells because of recognition by T-cell receptor and natural killer ...
... gammadelta T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell ... the data indicate that protein antigens are important stimulators of WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma ... The most antigenic protein inducing proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell cultures was found to be ... T cells being the major producers of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). However, enzymatic digestion of the protein in MBSE removed ...
T cells can recognize and trigger responses to small molecules and are thereby versatile drivers of immunity. ... The T-cell receptors of gamma delta (γδ) ... human gammadelta T cell antigen receptor to endothelial protein ... T cells and gamma delta (γδ) T cells. These cells have proteins on their surfaces that function as receptors; when the ... Structure and specificity of T cell receptor gamma/delta on major histocompatibility complex antigen-specific CD3+, CD4-, CD8- ...
... cells before immunization on the development of eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation. Animals were immunized and repeatedly ... NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B. *Ovalbumin/immunology. *Proteins. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta ... cells, NK1.1(+) T cells (NKT cells), and gamma/delta T cells, may regulate the development of allergic airway disease. We ... cells, NK1.1(+) T cells (NKT cells), and gamma/delta T cells, may regulate the development of allergic airway disease. We ...
Recombinant Human MICA protein is a HEK 293 Protein fragment 24 to 308 aa range, , 95% purity, , 1.000 Eu/µg endotoxin level ... Acts as a stress-induced self-antigen that is recognized by gamma delta T-cells. Ligand for the KLRK1/NKG2D receptor. Binding ... Cell membrane. Cytoplasm. Expressed on the cell surface in gastric epithelium, endothelial cells and fibroblasts and in the ... Proteolytically cleaved and released from the cell surface of tumor cells which impairs KLRK1/NKG2D expression and T-cell ...
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3G gene. T cell antigen receptor ( ... 1991). "The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 ... Griesinger F, Greenberg JM, Kersey JH (1989). "T cell receptor gamma and delta rearrangements in hematologic malignancies. ... "Primary structure of the T3 gamma subunit of the T3/T cell antigen receptor complex deduced from cDNA sequences: evolution of ...
T cell receptors come in 4 types, labelled alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In an organism, each of the 6 types of protein, in ... or antigen binding tests. Every day, we are exposed to a wide range of disease causing organisms. thus, how well our immune ... The 6 main types are: immunoglobulins (2), and T cell receptors (4). Immunoglobulin proteins consist of 2 parts, a light chain ... Cells whose protein would cause an immune reaction with the body, are removed. Cells which actually detect an invading organism ...
Alterations in immune system cells in ME/CFS patients suggest significant impairments in immune regulation in CFS/ME and these ... receptors, adhesion molecules, antigens and intracellular proteins using flow cytometric protocols. ... The cells investigated included NK cells, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, B cells, T cells, gamma delta T cells and Tregs. ... CD39+ T cells, cytotoxic activity, granzyme B, neutrophil antigens, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the CFS/ME patients in ...
dvances in cell biology and basic science are made in step-by-step increments of understanding, achieved over years of ... receptor genes found to govern the two major types of T-cell receptors:. the alpha-beta receptor and the gamma-delta receptor. ... proteins falls to foreign protein (antigen) receptors (T-cell. receptors) on the T-cell surface. ... antigens and the T-cell receptors that respond to them. Finding. the genes that code for these receptors was regarded as the " ...
... placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, parturition, and post-partum uterine involution. The activation state and function of ... placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, parturition, and post-partum uterine involution. The activation state and function of ... APC, antigen-presenting cell; DLL, delta-like; E1, estrone; E, estradiol; E3, estriol; ER, estrogen receptor; EVT, extravillous ... T-Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain Protein 3 (Tim-3). T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 was first described ...
... mice that lack alphabeta but have gammadelta T cells remain tumor-free after PyV infection, whereas TCRbeta x delta KO mice ... Cell lines established from PyV-induced tumors activate NK and gammadelta T cells both in culture and in vivo and express Rae-1 ... develop the tumors earlier than TCRbeta x delta KO mice. These observations implicate gammadelta T and NK cells in the ... Our findings demonstrate a protective role for NK and gammadelta T cells against naturally occurring virus-induced tumors and ...
T cell - Immune cells that fight infections. Two broad categories are alpha-beta and gamma-delta T cells. Alpha-beta subsets ... include helper T cells (CD4+) and killer T cells (CD8+).. T cell receptor (TCR) - A protein found on the surface of T cells. ... Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells are the main antigen-presenting cells.. Astrocyte - A support cell in the central ... Dendritic cells - A white blood cell that is bone-marrow derived and specializes in presenting antigen to T cells.. ...
Isolated pluralities of T cells which recognize at least one epitope of an intestinal cancer antigen or CNS cancer antigen and ... The CD3 protein complex includes a CD3.gamma. chain, a CD3.delta. chain, and two CD3.epsilon. chains. Therapies are known in ... T Cells Transformed with Antigen-Specific T Cell Receptors In some embodiments, a plurality of immune cells, such as T cells, ... T cells engineered to express antigen-specific T cell receptor via gene therapy; or 3) T cells engineered to express antigen- ...
Acts as a stress-induced self-antigen that is recognized by gamma delta T cells. Ligand for the KLRK1/NKG2D receptor. Binding ... CD8 alphabeta T cells, and gammadelta T cells which express the receptor. This protein is stress-induced and is similar to MHC ... This gene encodes a heavily glycosylated protein which is a ligand for the NKG2D type II receptor. Binding of the ligand ... Seems to have no role in antigen presentation. ... How do genes direct the production of proteins?. *More about ...
... the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma ... T cell antigen receptor alpha polypeptide antibody. *T cell antigen receptor beta polypeptide T cell receptor beta cluster ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ... Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, ...
Whole-genome gene-expression analysis provides a new way to study the signals required for the activation of γδ T cells, their ... Epithelial tissues house γδ T cells, which are important for the mucosal immune system and may be involved in controlling ... mode of action and relationships among cells of the mucosal immune system. ... Limited diversity of γδ antigen receptor genes of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell. 1988, 55: 837-847.PubMedView Article ...
The genes for all 4 subunits of the T-cell antigen receptor (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) are controlled by distinct enhancers ... T cell receptor signaling pathway regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling ... Protein Aliases: Endothelial transcription factor GATA-2; GATA-binding factor 3; GATA-binding protein 2; GATA-binding protein 3 ... thymic T cell selection T-helper 2 cell differentiation innate immune response cell fate commitment response to ethanol ...
CD3D produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing a total of 323 amino acids and ... CD3-epsilon and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, creates the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. Once ... Delta (CD3-TCR Complex), T-Cell Receptor T3 Delta Chain, T3D, T-Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Delta Chain, CD3 Antigen, Delta ... antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transferred through the cell membrane ...
... delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. CD3 is ... CD3 - General T cell marker. CD-markers (Cluster of Differentiation) are antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens and ... DictionaryProtein expressionCD3E. Protein expression - CD3E. Normal lymph node showing expression of the T-cell receptor ... G-protein coupled receptors. Mapped to UniProt SWISS-PROT. Nuclear receptors. Plasma proteins. Potential drug targets. ...
The cDNA clones thus isolated included LCA and six other novel receptor-like PTPases, named HPTP alpha, beta, gamma, delta, ... HPTP delta is very similar to leukocyte common antigen related molecule (LAR), in both the extracellular and cytoplasmic ... together with protein tyrosine kinases, regulate the tyrosine phosphorylation that controls cell activities and proliferation. ... Structural diversity and evolution of human receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases.. Krueger NX1, Streuli M, Saito H. ...
KLRK1 protein, human. *Ligands. *NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta ... Human gammadelta T cells expressing a V gamma 9V delta 2 T-cell receptor (TCR) kill various tumour cells including autologous ... Lysis of a broad range of epithelial tumour cells by human gamma delta T cells: involvement of NKG2D ligands and T-cell ... Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/metabolism. *Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/physiology* ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-PKC delta antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal PKC delta antibodies for many ... PKC delta (PKCd) Antigen Profile Antigen Summary Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein ... receptor in C6 cells. in The FEBS journal 2006 (PubMed) Show all 5 Pubmed References ... anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, gamma 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit Antibodies * anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, gamma 2 Non- ...
The anti-tumoral activity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells is governed by a complicated set of activating and inhibitory cell receptors. In ... The anti-tumoral activity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells is governed by a complicated set of activating and inhibitory cell receptors. In ... Here, we review the anti- versus pro-tumoral activities of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells, and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ... The comprehensive understanding the dual face of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells in tumor immunology may improve the therapeutic efficacy and ...
Acts as a stress-induced self-antigen that is recognized by gamma delta T- cells. Ligand for the KLRK1/NKG2D receptor. Binding ... Cellular Location: Cell membrane; Single- pass type I membrane protein Cytoplasm Note=Expressed on the cell surface in gastric ... SW620Whole Cell Lysate, A549 Whole Cell Lysate, MCF-7 Whole Cell Lysate, HELA Whole Cell Lysate. MICA Antibody - C-terminal ... thought that MICA functions as a stress-induced antigen that is broadly recognized by intestinal epithelial gamma delta T cells ...
AntibodyPolypeptideImmunoglobulinTCRsFlow CytometryBindsEpsilonDendritic cellsIntracellular proteinsAntibodiesCD3ELigandPeptideEndothelialChimericEncodeEpithelial gammaSpleenInnateGene rearrangementDiversityLocusSurfaceViralReactivityPathogenRecogniseZetaCytokineSubsetMediateHumanEffector functionSpeciesAntigenicRecognizesAdhesionFunctionalMicePeripheralRole in antigenStress-inducedVariety of antigensAlphabeta T cells
- CD163, CD206, CD209, and IL-10), M2 cells have immunosuppressive capacities, contribute to tissue remodeling, and promote Th2 or antibody-mediated immune responses ( 4 ) (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Antibody - A protein made by a plasma cell (mature B cell) that protects the body against foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. (mssociety.ca)
- B cell - An antibody-making lymphocyte (white blood cell) originating in the bone marrow. (mssociety.ca)
- This antibody is purified through a protein A column, followed by peptide affinity purification. (avivasysbio.com)
- Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
- The IMMU510 monoclonal antibody recognizes all γ/δ T cells, regardless of their variable chains. (beckman.com)
- The TWAJ Human/Mouse Gata-3 antibody will recognize both forms (50 and 45 kDa) of the protein. (thermofisher.com)
- A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. (thermofisher.com)
- Immunoglobulin (IG or antibody) and the T-cell receptor (TR) are pivotal proteins in the immune system of higher organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1X10^6 Jurkat cells were stained with 0.5ug CD3 antibody (17617-1-AP, red) and control antibody (blue). (ptglab.com)
- A repetitive, highly organized antigenic structure common to many TI antigens is postulated to be important in the induction of antibody responses in the absence of helper T cells. (umassmed.edu)
- The H57-597 antibody is specific for the beta chain of the mouse T cell Receptor (TCR). (vwr.com)
- The H57-597 antibody is used as a phenotypic marker for T cells expressing the alpha-beta TCR. (vwr.com)
- The antibody does not cross-react with cells expressing the g/d TCR. (vwr.com)
- Western blot analysis using CD3E monoclonal antibody, clone 4E2 (Cat # MAB10536) against Jurkat cell lysate. (abnova.com)
- Flow cytometric analysis of Jurkat cells using CD3E monoclonal antibody, clone 4E2 (Cat # MAB10536) (green) and negative control (purple). (abnova.com)
- An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
- The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (wikipedia.org)
- Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
- Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
- The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
- In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
- There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
- Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
- This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
- FACS analysis of PBMC cells using TCR V beta 8b antibody [MX-(FITC) at a dilution of 1:10 (green) or an isotype control (blue). (genetex.com)
- The monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD3, a complex of CD3-gamma,-epsilon, -delta and -zeta, which together with the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. (cellsciences.com)
- The 17A2 antibody reacts with the mouse CD3 complex, comprised of CD3 epsilon, CD3 gamma and CD3 delta. (tonbobio.com)
- The 17A2 antibody is a widely used phenotypic marker for mouse T cells. (tonbobio.com)
- In addition, as the CD3e chain within the TCR complex contains intracellular signaling domains, binding of 17A2 antibody to CD3 can induce cell activation (use format suitable for functional assays). (tonbobio.com)
- The UCHT1 antibody is specific for human CD3e, also known as CD3 epsilon, a 20 kDa subunit of the T cell receptor complex, along with CD3 gamma and CD3 delta. (thomassci.com)
- The 2.4G2 antibody is specific for a common epitope found in the extracellular regions of mouse Fc-receptors Fc-gamma II (CD32) and Fc-gamma III (CD16). (thomassci.com)
- The CD28.2 antibody reacts with human CD28, a 44 kDa type I surface glycoprotein which acts as a co-stimulatory receptor in support of the T cell receptor (TCR). (thomassci.com)
- The OKT4 antibody reacts with human CD4, a 59 kDa protein which acts as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR) in its interaction with MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. (thomassci.com)
- The M1/70 antibody reacts with human and mouse CD11b, also known as integrin alpha M. This 165-170 kDa cell surface glycoprotein is part of a family of integrin receptors that mediate adhesion between cells (cell-cell) and components of the extracellular matrix, e.g. fibrinogen (cell-matrix). (thomassci.com)
- This antibody was produced from a hybridoma (mouse myeloma fused with spleen cells from a rat) immunized with mouse recombinant protein of NKG2D. (reliatech.de)
- Western blot: NCI-H460 cell lysate stained with ARG56879 anti-MICB antibody. (arigobio.com)
- The receptors on T cells consist of immunoglobulin like integral membrane glycoproteins containing 2 polypeptide subunits, alpha and beta, of similar molecular weight, 40 to 55 kD in the human. (abcam.com)
- CD3D, also known as Delta Polypeptide (TiT3 Complex), is a single-pass type 1 membrane protein. (prospecbio.com)
- CD3D produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain (22-105 a.a.) and fused to a 239 aa hIgG-His-tag at C-terminus containing a total of 323 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 36.5kDa. (prospecbio.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-epsilon polypeptide which together with CD3-gamma -delta and -zeta and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. (bio-rad.com)
- The epsilon polypeptide plays an essential role in T-cell development. (bio-rad.com)
- Abrasion T corpuscle antigen receptor: anatomy and alignment of connected and abutting gene segments encoding the beta polypeptide. (bybloggers.net)
- Samelson, L. E., Patel, M. D., Weissman, A. M., Harford, J. B. & Klausner, R. D. Antigen activation of murine T beef induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a polypeptide associated with the T corpuscle antigen receptor. (bybloggers.net)
- T-cell receptor (TCR) is one of two polypeptide chains (a or ß) on the surface of T lymphocytes that recognize and bind foreign antigens. (assignmentpoint.com)
- Moreover, systemic allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG2a levels and the number of IL-4 and interferon gamma-producing splenic cells were diminished in mice depleted of NK1.1(+) cells before the priming regime. (nih.gov)
- The immune repertoire, is defined as, the number of different sub-types an organism's immune system makes, of any of the 6 key types of protein, either immunoglobulin or T cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunoglobulin proteins consist of 2 parts, a light chain and a heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
- 3 additional dimeric signaling molecules are associated, 2 types of CD3 (one chain each of CD3E (epsilon), CD3Z (Zeta), CD3D (delta), and CD3G (gamma)), and CD247 (zeta chain dimer).CD3 chains belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (brainscape.com)
- T-Cell-independent immunoglobulin G responses in vivo are elicited by " by Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Quang P. Le et al. (umassmed.edu)
- Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to viruses are generally assumed to be T-cell dependent (TD). (umassmed.edu)
- Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRs), also referred as immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILTs) and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LIRs), are a family of innate immune receptors that recognise self-antigens [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- It also suggests a method to control for admixture of DNA from normal lymphocytes by utilizing the unique immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in the B-cells. (pianolarge.gq)
- Their specialty is signaled partly by protein receptors on the cell surface known as T cell receptors (TCRs) or antigen receptors. (medicalxpress.com)
- Since CAR-grafted alpha beta T-cells concurrently express endogenous T cell receptors (TCRs) in the same T cells, uncontrolled graft-versus-host effects may be produced when used allogeneically. (a-star.edu.sg)
- In humans, most γδ T cells express Vγ9Vδ2+ T cell receptors (TCRs) that respond to phosphoantigens (pAgs) produced by cellular pathogens and overexpressed by cancers. (edu.au)
- The receptors on the surface of B cells (BCRs) can bind to soluble antigens, while T cell receptors (TCRs) can only recognise an antigen when it is complexed with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of other cells. (assignmentpoint.com)
- Linker-for-activation of T cells (LAT) protein (IPR008359) A key event in the regulation of the adaptive immune response is the binding of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes to T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). (ebi.ac.uk)
- 2. The plurality of T cells of claim 1 wherein the chimeric antigen receptor that binds to guanylyl cyclase C comprises: a GCC specific scFv linked to a truncated CD28 extracellular domain to the intracellular part of the FcRI.gamma. (patents.com)
- Marine J & Winoto A The human enhancer-binding protein Gata3 binds to several T-cell receptor regulatory elements. (acris-antibodies.com)
- This is present on both T and B cells and binds to ICAM-1 (CD54) on antigen presenting cells. (brainscape.com)
- HOTTIP RNA binds the adaptor protein WDR5 directly and targets WDR5/MLL complexes across HOXA, driving histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and gene transcription. (stanford.edu)
- IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen , for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the mechanism of action has not been elucidated, following subcutaneous administration, CD44 targeted agent SPL-108 binds to CD44 and prevents the activation of various CD44-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may lead to reduced proliferation of CD44-expressing tumor stem cells. (cancer.gov)
- Upon administration, ALX148 binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and prevents the interaction of CD47 with its ligand SIRPa, a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. (cancer.gov)
- The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while the Variable region binds to the peptide/MHC complex. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon proteins in activated human adult natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 gamma, delta, epsilon complexes in fetal NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
- CD3D jointly with CD3-zeta, CD3-gamma, CD3-epsilon and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, creates the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. (prospecbio.com)
- TCR-associated zeta-Fc epsilon RI gamma heterodimers on CD4-CD8- NK1.1+ T cells selected by specific class I MHC antigen. (springer.com)
- The delta- and epsilon-chains of the beastly T3/T-cell receptor circuitous are audible polypeptides. (bybloggers.net)
- Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells are the main antigen-presenting cells. (mssociety.ca)
- Dendritic cells - A white blood cell that is bone-marrow derived and specializes in presenting antigen to T cells. (mssociety.ca)
- Candida albicans stimulates IL-23 release by human dendritic cells and downstream IL-17 secretion by Vδ1 T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- The TCR alpha/beta/CD19-depleted HPCs contain high amounts of natural killer (NK) cells, gamma/delta T-cells, CD34+ stem cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs), while devoid of alpha/beta T cells and CD19-positive B cells. (cancer.gov)
- These activities of ESAT-6 were dependent on TLR-2/MyD88 signalling and involved IL-6 and TGF-β production by dendritic cells. (prolekare.cz)
- RD1 infection had little effect on the expression of the anti-inflammatory microRNA-146a (miR146a) in dendritic cells (DCs), whereas BCG and H37RvΔRD1 profoundly induced its expression in DCs. (prolekare.cz)
- TLR9 is required for protective innate immunity in Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia: role of dendritic cells. (umich.edu)
- We have demonstrated that the subset of CD85j + Natural Killer (NK) cells efficiently controls human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) in vitro and this led us to hypothesize that the CD85j + NK cell-mediated anti-HIV activity in MDDC is specifically dependent on the interaction between the CD85j receptor and unknown non-HLA class-I ligand(s). (biomedcentral.com)
- We have previously shown that the CD85j + NK cell subset control more efficiently HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) compared to their CD85j- NK cell counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
- Described herein are compositions and methods for treating cancer through the combination of tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells and Dengue Virus. (patents.com)
- Whole blood samples were collected from all participants for the assessment of cell phenotypes, functional properties, receptors, adhesion molecules, antigens and intracellular proteins using flow cytometric protocols. (prohealth.com)
- Please refer to Best Protocols: Protocol B: One step protocol for (nuclear) intracellular proteins located under the Resources Tab online. (thermofisher.com)
- We knew that B-cells recognized foreign entities using antibodies, but we didn't know what T-cells used and how they 'see' both antigen and MHC together," Dr. Davis explains. (cancernetwork.com)
- Moreover, these PyV tumor cells are killed by NK cells in vitro, and this cytotoxicity is prevented by treatment with NKG2D-blocking antibodies. (umassmed.edu)
- Antigen - A substance that is bound by antibodies. (mssociety.ca)
- The name 'antigen' arises from the ability to generate antibodies. (mssociety.ca)
- Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
- On www.antibodies-online.com are 364 Protein Kinase C, delta (PKCd) Antibodies from 29 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
- To test whether the repetitive structure of viral antigens is essential and/or sufficient for the induction of TI antibodies, we compared the abilities of three forms of PyV antigens to induce IgM and IgG responses in T-cell-deficient mice: soluble capsid antigens (VP1), repetitive virus-like particles (VLPs), and live PyV. (umassmed.edu)
- Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells . (wikipedia.org)
- Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
- Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
- Methods and agents such as monoclonal antibodies for reducing KIR-mediated inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity without reducing or blocking HLA-binding by, e.g., reducing or blocking dimerization of KIR, are provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Neonatal lupus erythematosus: maternal IgG antibodies bind to a recombinant NH2-terminal fusion protein encoded by human alpha-fodrin cDNA. (statescale.tk)
- Once antigen presenting cells (APCs) activate T-cell receptor (TCR), TCR-mediated signals are transferred through the cell membrane by the CD3 chains CD3D, CD3E, CD3G and CD3Z. (prospecbio.com)
- Recombinant Human CD3E protein (Asp23-Asp126), fused to His tag at C-terminus, was expressed in human 293 cells (HEK293). (creativebiomart.net)
- CD3E plays an essential role in T-cell development, and defects in CD3E gene cause severe immunodeficiency. (creativebiomart.net)
- Recombinant protein corresponding to human CD3E. (abnova.com)
- The exons 2-8 of mouse Cd3e gene that encode the Full-length protein domain were replaced by human CD3E exons 2-9 in B-hCD3EDG mice. (biocytogen.com)
- Ligand for the KLRK1/NKG2D receptor. (abcam.com)
- Cell lines established from PyV-induced tumors activate NK and gammadelta T cells both in culture and in vivo and express Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand. (umassmed.edu)
- This gene encodes a heavily glycosylated protein which is a ligand for the NKG2D type II receptor. (nih.gov)
- Binding of the ligand activates the cytolytic response of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8 alphabeta T cells, and gammadelta T cells which express the receptor. (nih.gov)
- It is a ligand for the NKG2-D type II integral membrane protein receptor. (creative-proteomics.com)
- 1. An isolated TCR-deficient T cell that does not express a functional TCR, wherein said T cell further expresses at least one functional exogenous non-TCR receptor which comprises a chimeric receptor comprising a ligand binding domain attached to a signaling domain. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Rapid expression of heat shock protein 60 (hsp60), a known ligand for gamma delta-T cells, was observed following intravenous infection. (umich.edu)
- This CD85j + NK cell mediated anti-HIV-1 activity is dependent on cell-to-cell contact, and on the interaction between the CD85j receptor and non-HLA class-I ligand(s) expressed on MDDC [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (IPR008064) Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) is a receptor for TNFRSF25 and TNFRSF6B. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Synthetic peptide EVTADQPRWVSHH, representing the N Terminus of the human protein (residues 2-14), according to NP_002042. (acris-antibodies.com)
- The protein/peptide profile in patients with damage to nerves and brain cells are distinguished from normal individuals using inexpensive techniques. (google.ca)
- CDR3 is the main CDR responsible for recognizing processed antigen , although CDR1 of the alpha chain has also been shown to interact with the N-terminal part of the antigenic peptide, whereas CDR1 of the β-chain interacts with the C-terminal part of the peptide. (wikipedia.org)
- Expressed predominantly in gastric epithelium and also in monocytes, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and in the outer layer of Hassal's corpuscles within the medulla of normal thymus. (abcam.com)
- Single- pass type I membrane protein Cytoplasm Note=Expressed on the cell surface in gastric epithelium, endothelial cells and fibroblasts and in the cytoplasm in keratinocytes and monocytes. (avivasysbio.com)
- The epithelial gamma delta T cells exhibit highly restricted V gene use, preferential pairing of TCR chains, and lack of diversity at the junctions creating populations of cells with virtually identical TCR in particular epithelia. (nih.gov)
- Generation of certain epithelial gamma delta populations appears to be restricted to a discrete stage early in development. (nih.gov)
- The restricted localization and expression of invariant antigen receptors may equip the epithelial gamma delta T cells to perform specialized functions which differ from those of circulating alpha beta and gamma delta TCR+ cells. (nih.gov)
- It is thought that MICA functions as a stress-induced antigen that is broadly recognized by intestinal epithelial gamma delta T cells. (avivasysbio.com)
- Disruption of epithelial gamma delta T cell repertoires by mutation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. (atcc.org)
- The protein functions as a stress-induced antigen that is broadly recognized by intestinal epithelial gamma delta T cells. (creative-proteomics.com)
- These are conventional T cells that circulate widely and reside in the spleen and lymph nodes. (medicalxpress.com)
- CD3=Derived from the hybridization of mouse NS-1 myeloma celss with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with human thymocytes. (mybiosource.com)
- IL-7 is a hemopoietin family member that factor is produced by bone marrow, thymic stromal cells and spleen cells, among others. (thomassci.com)
- Percent of T, B, NK, DC, Granulocyte, Monocyte, and macrophage cells in heterozygous B-hCD3EDG mice were similar to those in the C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating that introduction of hCD3EDG in place of its mouse counterpart does not change the overall development, differentiation or distribution of these cell types in spleen. (biocytogen.com)
- The purpose of this paper is to examine innate and adaptive immune cell phenotypes and functional characteristics that have not been previously examined in CFS/ME patients. (prohealth.com)
- Vγ9Vδ2-T cells are considered as potent effector cells for tumor immunotherapy through directly killing tumor cells and indirectly regulating other innate and adaptive immune cells to establish antitumoral immunity. (frontiersin.org)
- Vγ9Vδ2-T cells can directly kill tumor cells through the secretion of cytolytic molecules or indirectly prime and modulate immunological functions of other innate and adaptive immune cells to develop and establish profound antitumor immunity ( 21 , 22 ). (frontiersin.org)
- MC innate responses to pathogens promote pathogen clearance in vivo through initiation of inflammation and recruitment and activation of other immune cells within the site of infection. (jci.org)
- Born WK, Reardon CL, O'Brien RL (2006) The function of gammadelta T cells in innate immunity. (springer.com)
- Early production of interferon (IFN)-gamma by gammadelta T cells may have a role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses and contribute to T helper-1 bias. (ox.ac.uk)
- We hypothesize that the induction of IFN-gamma secretion from WC1(+)gammadelta T cells by IL-12 and IL-18 is likely to be an important element of the innate response to pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis. (ox.ac.uk)
- Unlike classical MHC-specific cells, unconventional T cells generally exhibit limited T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoires and often produce innate immune cell-like rapid effector responses. (stanford.edu)
- Defective innate antibacterial host responses during murine Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 deficiency versus therapy with anti-TNF-alpha. (umich.edu)
- During this phase, gene rearrangement of the receptor chain occurs, and it is decided if they will gain alpha-beta (and need additional maturation steps) or gamma-delta receptors (that can leave thymus without further receptor selection). (brainscape.com)
- γδ T cells, together with B cells and αβ T cells, are the only cells that use somatic V, D, J gene rearrangement to generate diverse antigen receptors. (stanford.edu)
- Bulk populations of T-cell receptor (Tcr) γδ-expressing splenocytes from different inbred strains of mice were examined for the diversity of Tcr γδ proteins. (springer.com)
- Each of them is composed of several V (variable) segments, coding for about 90 amino acids, very short D (diversity) segments (alpha and delta loci only), and short J (joining) segments (about 15 amino acids), and one or two C (constant) segments. (beckman.com)
- Both the alpha and delta loci include V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant) segments and the delta locus also includes diversity (D) segments. (nih.gov)
- Exploiting this system in new generation vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), other infectious agents, and cancer was the focus of a recent workshop, "Immune Surveillance by Non-classical MHC Molecules: Improving Diversity for Antigens," sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (stanford.edu)
- This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor beta locus. (cancerindex.org)
- Several V segments and one J segment of the beta locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. (cancerindex.org)
- Chromosomal abnormalities involving the T-cell receptor beta locus have been associated with T-cell lymphomas. (cancerindex.org)
- The gene repertoires that code for the γδ T cell receptor chains and the T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) gene locus organizations have been extensively described for humans and mice but to a lesser extent for the artiodactyls which includes ruminants and swine. (biomedcentral.com)
- The delta locus is situated within the alpha locus, between the alpha V and J segments. (nih.gov)
- Several V and J segments of the alpha locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. (nih.gov)
- T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3G gene. (wikipedia.org)
- T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. (wikipedia.org)
- The role of recognizing foreign proteins falls to foreign protein (antigen) receptors (T-cell receptors) on the T-cell surface. (cancernetwork.com)
- Antigen presenting cell - A specialized cell that sticks pieces of antigen combined with self 'display' molecules on its surface for passing immune cells to survey. (mssociety.ca)
- MICA is the higly polymorphic MHC (HLA) class I chain-related gene A. The protein product is expressed on the cell surface, although unlike canonical class I molecules does not seem to associate with beta-2-microglobulin. (avivasysbio.com)
- They express different cell surface receptors . (medicalxpress.com)
- Class I MHC glycoproteins are expressed on the surface of all somatic nucleated cells, with the exception of neurons. (embl.de)
- This cell surface protein combines with a second protein chain (alpha chain) to form the alpha-beta TCR that is expressed by NK1.1+ thymocytes, NKT cells, and the majority of peripheral T cells. (vwr.com)
- It is also widely used to cross-link surface TCR and thereby mimic TCR-mediated cell activation or induction of apoptosis. (vwr.com)
- A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
- CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
- By the end of the 21st century, annual mean residential electricity consumption in China's Yangtze River Delta might increase by an estimated 9.2% for each 1 °C increase in global mean surface temperature relative to the late 20th century. (pnas.org)
- T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3D gene. (biocytogen.com)
- T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3G gene, defects in CD3G are associated with T cell immunodeficiency. (biocytogen.com)
- WC1 proteins specifically expressed on the surface of γδ T cells are members of group B Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) superfamily, in which receptors contain several SRCR domains in the extracellular region. (umass.edu)
- The disruption of the dileucine motif greatly accumulates the overall levels of CD4/WC1-3 molecules on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. (umass.edu)
- NK-T cells represent a minor but unique subset of T cells expressing cell surface markers commonly associated with Natural Killer (NK) cells. (umich.edu)
- We further demonstrated that HIV-1 infection of MDDC induces a modulation of S100A9 expression on surface of the MDDC, which potentially influences the anti-HIV-1 activity of human NK cells through a mechanism involving CD85j ligation. (biomedcentral.com)
- CD247, also known as CD3Z (T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain), belongs to the CD3Z/FCER1G family. (vwr.com)
- Proteolytically cleaved and released from the cell surface of tumor cells. (arigobio.com)
- Viral and bacterial molecules and even the body's own molecules can be antigens. (mssociety.ca)
- The results of this study indicate that mast cells serve as nonconventional antigen-presenting cells that are poised to activate γδ T cells early during viral infection and limit disease. (jci.org)
- We believe immune synapse formation between MCs and γδ T cells is a novel mechanism to induce specific and protective immunity at sites of viral infection. (jci.org)
- Immunization with each of the viral antigens resulted in IgM production. (umassmed.edu)
- These results suggest that the highly organized, repetitive nature of the viral antigens is insufficient to account for their ability to elicit TI IgG response and that signals generated by live-virus infection may be essential for the switch to IgG production in the absence of T cells. (umassmed.edu)
- We have developed a general strategy to prevent viral infection using multi-functional macromolecules that were designed to have mannose moieties that compete with viruses for immune cells, and basic amine groups that block viral entry through electrostatic interactions and prevent viral replication by neutralizing the endosomal pH. (a-star.edu.sg)
- Previous reports have shown that this receptor interacts with several HLA class-I molecules, as well as with some viral proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- This then triggers a cascade of events that help to clear the infection and help immune cells to rapidly respond to any future infection by the same pathogen. (elifesciences.org)
- Tissue-resident mast cells are critical for pathogen surveillance and initial response. (jci.org)
- Taken together, the data support that co-ligation of WC1 and the γδ TCR by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) induces specific γδ T cell activation. (umass.edu)
- Hall, Sancho, Terhorst: Reconstitution of T cell receptor zeta-mediated calcium mobilization in nonlymphoid cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Nambiar, Fisher, Warke, Krishnan, Mitchell, Delaney, Tsokos: Reconstitution of deficient T cell receptor zeta chain restores T cell signaling and augments T cell receptor/CD3-induced interleukin-2 production in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Phosphorylation of T cell receptor zeta is regulated by a lipid dependent folding transition. (springer.com)
- Chronic inflammation and CD16+ natural killer cell zeta-chain downregulation in hemodialysis patients. (springer.com)
- Fidelity of T cell activation through multistep T cell receptor zeta phosphorylation. (springer.com)
- Co-association of CD3 zeta with a receptor (CD16) for IgG Fc on human natural killer cells. (springer.com)
- T cell development in mice lacking the CD3-zeta/eta gene. (springer.com)
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is an inflammatory disorder with possible autoimmune correlates, characterised by reduced Natural Killer (NK) cell activity, elevations in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and dysregulation in cytokine levels. (prohealth.com)
- There are many different cytokines, each acting only on cells that have receptors for that cytokine. (mssociety.ca)
- In addition, cytokine milieu in tumor microenvironment can also induce the pro-tumoral activities and functional plasticity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Huang, W. & August, A. The signaling symphony: T corpuscle receptor tunes cytokine-mediated T corpuscle differentiation. (bybloggers.net)
- This cytokine is a growth factor for progenitor B cells and T cells that signals through the IL-7R, comprised of IL-7Ralpha (CD127) and the common gamma chain (CD132). (thomassci.com)
- Engagement of the TCR initiates positive and negative cascades that ultimately result in cellular proliferation, differentiation, cytokine production, and/or activation-induced cell death. (assignmentpoint.com)
- 17. The method of claim 1, wherein the hematopoietic system reconstituting cells administered to the recipient are present in a source population of between 1.0 10 8 and 40 10 8 donor cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cells/kg of recipient's body weight. (google.com)
- Newly recruited and locally proliferating γδ T cells were the first T cell subset to respond to MC-driven inflammation, and their production of IFN-γ was MC dependent. (jci.org)
- CD3 is expressed early in thymocyte development, and on a subset of NK cells. (novusbio.com)
- CMV infection is known to have a large impact on the distribution of T cell phenotypes, especially the accumulation of late-stage differentiated CD8 + , as well as Vδ2 - γδ T-cells, which are the main subset of γδ T-cells involved in anti-CMV immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- NK cells and gammadelta T cells mediate resistance to polyomavirus-ind" by Rabinarayan Mishra, Alex T. Chen et al. (umassmed.edu)
- Mishra R, Chen AT, Welsh RM, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E (2010) NK Cells and γδ T Cells Mediate Resistance to Polyomavirus-Induced Tumors. (umassmed.edu)
- Vδ1 γδ-T cells with different Vγ elements account for the majority of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue γδ-T cells, and they mediate the immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes , Cytomegalovirus, and certain hematological malignancies ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells play important roles in mediating immunity against microbial pathogens and have potent anti-tumor activity. (nih.gov)
- Depletion of NK1.1(+) cells during the challenge period only did not influence pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation.Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role of NK cells, but not of NKT cells, for the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation, and that this effect of NK cells is exerted during the immunization.These observations are also compatible with a pathogenic role for the increased NK cell activity observed in human asthma. (nih.gov)
- These observations are also compatible with a pathogenic role for the increased NK cell activity observed in human asthma. (nih.gov)
- Human gammadelta T cells expressing a V gamma 9V delta 2 T-cell receptor (TCR) kill various tumour cells including autologous tumours. (nih.gov)
- Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans is marked by declining CD4+-T-cell counts and increasing virus load (VL). (semanticscholar.org)
- MICA engagement by human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells enhances their antigen-dependent effector function. (semanticscholar.org)
- Human colon, ulcerative colitis: immunohistochemical staining for CD16 antigen using NCL-CD16. (leicabiosystems.com)
- Bonneville M, Scotet E (2006) Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells: promising new leads for immunotherapy of infections and tumors. (springer.com)
- Brandes M, Willimann K, Moser B (2005) Professional antigen-presentation function by human gammadelta T Cells. (springer.com)
- Human thymocytes followed by Sezary T cells. (bosterbio.com)
- if product is indicated to react with multiple species, protein info is based on the human gene. (bosterbio.com)
- MICA Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_000238), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15NL-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15NL-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. (creative-proteomics.com)
- In this study, we reveal that the human CD8 antigen is also associated with the T-cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck). (pnas.org)
- Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence cells alleviate chronic epilepsy in rats, raising the possibility of autologous grafts, which could preclude the need for immune suppression after grafting and promote long-term graft-host integration. (pnas.org)
- TLR7 induces anergy in human CD4(+) T cells. (yale.edu)
- The plasticity of human Treg and Th17 cells and its role in autoimmunity. (yale.edu)
- these cytokines are known to influence murine and human gammadelta T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- Recombinant protein of Human MICB. (arigobio.com)
- Our findings demonstrate a strong influence of CMV on γδ T-cells during human ageing, similar to that observed for αβ T-cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The majority (approximately 70%) of γδ T-cells in human blood is represented by the Vδ2 receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
- In mycobacterial infections of other species, gammadelta T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets within MBSE require further definition in terms of the dominance of protein versus nonprotein components. (semanticscholar.org)
- The change reduced anabolic metabolism but increased levels of toxic molecules called reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulated activity along a molecular pathway that promotes cell growth. (medicalxpress.com)
- Cattle are considered a "γδ T cell high" species indicating they have an increased proportion of γδ T cells in circulation relative to that in "γδ T cell low" species such as humans and mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- These latter are "γδ T cell high" species because of their high levels of γδ T cells in circulation ("γδ T cell low" species exhibit much lower levels of γδ T cells in circulation). (biomedcentral.com)
- Analysis of immune responses directed toward a recombinant early secretory antigenic target six-kilodalton protein-culture filtrate protein 10 fusion protein in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. (semanticscholar.org)
- Here we provide evidence that early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6), expressed by the virulent M. tb strain H37Rv but not by BCG, promotes vaccine-enhancing Th17 cell responses. (prolekare.cz)
- Early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6) is one of the most prominent antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), but not by BCG , . (prolekare.cz)
- ab176542 recognizes TCR alpha/beta, the dominant subtype of T cell receptor expressed in peripheral blood. (abcam.com)
- The TCR recognizes antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (ptglab.com)
- It is the only reported member of the LILR family that recognizes a non-self antigen. (biomedcentral.com)
- The antitumor activity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells is influenced by their functional plasticity that is driven by environmental factors ( 26 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Similar to αβ-T cells, Vγ9Vδ2-T cells also display the plasticity that contributes to their functional specialization ( 27 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Functional inflammatory profiles distinguish myelin-reactive T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis. (yale.edu)
- In another embodiment of the invention, these TCR-deficient T cells are designed to express a functional non-TCR receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
- These aspects allow γδ T cells to occupy unique temporal and functional niches in host immune defense. (stanford.edu)
- Natural killer cells determine development of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice. (nih.gov)
- CD1d1 mutant mice, deficient in NKT cells but with normal NK cells, developed lung tissue eosinophilia and allergen-specific IgE levels not different from those observed in wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
- Mice deficient in gamma/delta T cells showed a mild attenuation of lung tissue eosinophilia in this model. (nih.gov)
- Corresponding mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells exhibited a few scattered eosinophilic infiltrates only (b), or a complete absence of pulmonary inflammation (not shown). (nih.gov)
- In contrast, corresponding mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells (groups 8 and 10) showed a clearly inhibited eosinophilia in lung tissue (Fig. 1, a and b). (nih.gov)
- While a staff fellow at the National Institutes of Health in 1984, Dr. Mark Davis, together with Dr. Stephen Hedrick and others, reported the cloning of a gene that encodes the amino acid sequence that controls a T-cell receptor in mice. (cancernetwork.com)
- Polyomavirus (PyV) induces tumors in neonatally infected mice of susceptible strains and in adult mice with certain immune deficiencies, and CD8+ alphabeta T cells are regarded as the main effectors in anti-tumor immunity. (umassmed.edu)
- Here we report that adult TCRbeta knockout (KO) mice that lack alphabeta but have gammadelta T cells remain tumor-free after PyV infection, whereas TCRbeta x delta KO mice that lack all T cells develop tumors. (umassmed.edu)
- In addition, E26 mice, which lack NK and T cells, develop the tumors earlier than TCRbeta x delta KO mice. (umassmed.edu)
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) - An MS-like disease created in laboratory mice after they are injected with CNS tissue or a derivative of myelin basic protein. (mssociety.ca)
- Immunoprecipitations with anti-Cγ1/2, anti-Cγ4, and anti-Vγ1 sera demonstrated that splenocytes from B10.BR, C57BL/6, and C57L strains of mice expressed the same array of Tcrγ proteins, namely Vγ1-Cγ2, Vγ1-Cγ4, and Vγ2-Cγ1, although the Tcr γδ heterodimers observed for each of these strains were biochemically distinct. (springer.com)
- Finally, the Vγ1-Cγ4 polymorphism between mice of phenotype 3 and phenotypes 1 or 2 was due to differences in core protein size. (springer.com)
- Although no striking qualitative differences in Tcr γδ heterodimers were observed between strains (including those with autoimmune disorders), a quantitative difference in the relative amount of Cγ4-encoded proteins was observed on Tcr γδ splenocytes from both newborn euthymic and adult athymic mice when compared to adult Tcr γδ splenocytes from euthymic mice. (springer.com)
- Recently, however, polyomavirus (PyV) infection of T-cell-deficient (T-cell receptor beta chain [TCR-beta] -/- or TCR-betaxdelta -/-) mice was shown to elicit a protective, T-cell-independent (TI) antiviral IgM and IgG response. (umassmed.edu)
- Antigen-specific TI IgG responses, however, were detected only in mice infected with live PyV, not in VP1- or VLP-immunized mice. (umassmed.edu)
- No significant difference was observed between OVA-challenged wild-type mice and γ/δ T cell-deficient mice. (nih.gov)
- A moderate reduction, although statistically insignificant, of lung tissue eosinophilia was observed in OVA-challenged γ/δ T cell-deficient animals compared with corresponding wild-type mice (Fig. 7). (nih.gov)
- Similarly, no significant difference in systemic levels of OVA-specific IgE was observed between OVA-challenged γ/δ T cell-deficient animals and corresponding wild-type mice (1,066.3 ± 314.5 and 2,567.4 ± 1,497.1 U/ml, respectively). (nih.gov)
- Impaired spatial memory in mice lacking CD3ζ is associated with altered NMDA and AMPA receptors signaling independent of T-cell deficiency. (springer.com)
- It was shown that the intravenous infection of AB-Jena mice with 2.5 X 10(5) Candida albicans cells was a very suitable model. (statescale.tk)
- T-Cell αβ+ and γδ+ Deficient Mice Display Abnormal but Distinct Phenotypes Toward a Natural, Widespread Infection of the Intestinal Epithelium," PNAS, Oct. 1996, vol. 93, pp. 11174-11779. (freepatentsonline.com)
- T Cells from Tolerized αβ T Cell Receptor (TCR)-deficient Mice Inhibit Contact Sensitivity-effector T Cells in Vivo, and Their Interferon-γ Production in Vitro," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Dec. 1, 1996, vol. 184, pp. 2129-2139. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Resistance of T-Cell Receptor δ-Chain-Deficient Mice to Experimental Candida albicans Vaginitis," Infection and Immunity, Nov. 2001, vol. 69, No. 11, pp. 7162-7164. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Studies indicate increased mortality and uncontrolled bacterial growth in gamma delta-T cell deficient mice following intravenous bacterial inoculation, suggesting impaired liver anti-bacterial host defenses. (umich.edu)
- NK-T cell deficient mice displayed increased mortality following infection that correlated with uncontrolled bacterial growth. (umich.edu)
- There are striking differences between these and peripheral T cells. (nih.gov)
- MC-γδ T cell conjugates were observed consistently in infected peripheral tissues, suggesting a new role for MCs as nonconventional APCs for γδ T cells. (jci.org)
- It stains 1.6% to 8.9% of peripheral CD3+ cells from healthy donors. (beckman.com)
- In addition, the response of peripheral blood WC1(+)gammadelta T cells was significantly higher in neonatal calves compared with adult animals. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, in adult animals the response of lymph node WC1(+)gammadelta T cells to IL-12/IL-18 was more pronounced than that of peripheral blood WC1(+)gammadelta T cells. (ox.ac.uk)