RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hu Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Antigens: A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins: A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B: A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Factor 45 Protein: A protein subunit that takes part in forming nuclear factor 90 protein complexes.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA-Binding Protein FUS: A multifunctional heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that may play a role in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. The N-terminal portion of protein is a potent transcriptional activator, while the C terminus is required for RNA binding. The name FUS refers to the fact that genetic recombination events result in fusion oncogene proteins (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION) that contain the N-terminal region of this protein. These fusion proteins have been found in myxoid liposarcoma (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID) and acute myeloid leukemia.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Host Factor 1 Protein: An integration host factor that was originally identified as a bacterial protein required for the integration of bacteriophage Q beta (ALLOLEVIVIRUS). Its cellular function may be to regulate mRNA stability and processing in that it binds tightly to poly(A) RNA and interferes with ribosome binding.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C: A group of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 41-43 kDa in size found in the cell nucleus. Members of this class have been implicated in a variety of processes including splicing, polyadenylation, and nuclear retention of RNA.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Tristetraprolin: A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.RNA, Small Untranslated: Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.RNA, Small Cytoplasmic: Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA 3' End Processing: The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Kim JH, Paek KY, Ha SH, Cho S, Choi K, Kim CS, Ryu SH, Jang SK (September 2004). "A cellular RNA-binding protein enhances ... "Identification and characterization of proteins that selectively interact with isoforms of the mRNA binding protein AUF1 (hnRNP ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (April 2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec ... A cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (28): 25233-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202556200. PMID ...
Even though protein with DNA binding domains are more abundant than protein with RNA binding domains, a recent study by Cheadle ... These proteins achieve these events thanks to a RNA recognition motif (RRM) that binds a specific sequence or secondary ... analyses of protein-protein and protein-RNA interaction profiles have revealed ubiquitous interactions with RNA and protein ... In fact several key genes such as nanos are known to bind RNA but often their targets are unknown. Although RNA binding ...
"Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins". Cell. 161 (2): 404-16. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.025. PMC 4425988 . PMID ... It is possible that several mechanisms recruit PRC2 together, including Xist RNA, an adaptor protein, chromatin changes, RNA ... Zhao, J; Sun, BK; Erwin, JA; Song, JJ; Lee, JT (31 October 2008). "Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the ... Biochemical studies have also shown that PRC2 binds the A-repeat of Xist RNA directly and with very high affinity (dissociation ...
... has an RNA recognition motif that is highly conserved among RNA-binding proteins. Rbfox1, and the related protein Rbfox2 ... also known as ataxin 2-binding protein 1 (A2BP1) or hexaribonucleotide-binding protein 1 (HRNBP1) or RNA binding protein, fox-1 ... A2BP1 ataxin 2-binding protein 1". Jin, Y. (2003-02-17). "A vertebrate RNA-binding protein Fox-1 regulates tissue-specific ... Shibata H, Huynh DP, Pulst SM (May 2000). "A novel protein with RNA-binding motifs interacts with ataxin-2". Human Molecular ...
This protein bears similarity to nuclear RNA-binding proteins; however, it has not been demonstrated that this protein binds ... "The human RD protein is closely related to nuclear RNA-binding proteins and has been highly conserved". Gene. 90 (2): 299-302. ... RDBP RD RNA binding protein". Narita T, Yamaguchi Y, Yano K, Sugimoto S, Chanarat S, Wada T, Kim DK, Hasegawa J, Omori M, ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex termed negative elongation factor (NELF) which represses RNA polymerase ...
Identification of novel Y RNA-binding proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (9): 2778-2789. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01298.x. ... Tripartite motif-containing protein 21 also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21 is a protein that in humans is encoded ... 1999). "mRNA and protein expression of SSA/Ro and SSB/La in human fetal cardiac myocytes cultured using a novel application of ... The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING finger domain, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2 zinc finger, and a ...
Hinz M, Moore MJ, Bindereif A (Aug 1996). "Domain analysis of human U5 RNA. Cap trimethylation, protein binding, and ... forms a stable RNA-free complex with several U5-specific proteins, including an RNA unwindase, a homologue of ribosomal ... which function in protein-protein interactions. This protein has a sequence similarity to yeast Prp8 protein. This gene is a ... Grainger RJ, Beggs JD (May 2005). "Prp8 protein: at the heart of the spliceosome". RNA. 11 (5): 533-57. doi:10.1261/rna.2220705 ...
The complex is minimally composed of the ribonuclease enzyme Drosha and the RNA-binding protein DGCR8 (also known as Pasha) and ... The loop region of the pri-miRNA stem-loop is also a recognition element for regulatory proteins, which may up- or down- ... a double-stranded RNA binding protein. (DGCR8 is the name used in mammalian genetics, abbreviated from "DiGeorge syndrome ... RNA. 22 (2): 175-83. doi:10.1261/rna.054684.115. PMID 26683315. Nguyen, TA; Jo, MH; Choi, YG; Park, J; Kwon, SC; Hohng, S; Kim ...
RNA-binding protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM4 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173933 - ... Lai MC, Kuo HW, Chang WC, Tarn WY (2003). "A novel splicing regulator shares a nuclear import pathway with SR proteins". EMBO J ... "Entrez Gene: RBM4 RNA binding motif protein 4". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... "A novel zinc finger-containing RNA-binding protein conserved from fruitflies to humans". Genomics. 41 (3): 444-52. doi:10.1006/ ...
RNA-binding protein 8A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM8A gene. This gene encodes a protein with a conserved ... two highly conserved RNA-binding motif proteins that interact with OVCA1, a candidate tumor suppressor". Genomics. 69 (1): 54- ... "Entrez Gene: RBM8A RNA binding motif protein 8A". Mingot, J M; Kostka S; Kraft R; Hartmann E; Görlich D (July 2001). "Importin ... Zhao, X F; Nowak N J; Shows T B; Aplan P D (January 2000). "MAGOH interacts with a novel RNA-binding protein". Genomics. UNITED ...
Spermatid perinuclear RNA-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STRBP gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... STRBP spermatid perinuclear RNA binding protein". Schumacher JM, Lee K, Edelhoff S, Braun RE (May 1995). "Spnr, a murine RNA- ... Coolidge CJ, Patton JG (March 2000). "A new double-stranded RNA-binding protein that interacts with PKR". Nucleic Acids ...
The protein encoded by this gene contains RNA recognition motif found in a variety of RNA binding proteins, including various ... RNA-binding protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM10 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: RBM10 RNA binding motif protein 10". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the ... 1996). "Molecular cloning of an RNA binding protein, S1-1". Nucleic Acids Res. 24 (15): 2990-7. doi:10.1093/nar/24.15.2990. PMC ...
RNA-binding protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM12 gene. This gene encodes a protein that contains ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... "Entrez Gene: RBM12 RNA binding motif protein 12". Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, et al. (2003). "Construction of expression ... several RNA-binding motifs, potential transmembrane domains, and proline-rich regions. This gene and the gene for copine I ...
"Cloning and mapping of a human RBP56 gene encoding a putative RNA binding protein similar to FUS/TLS and EWS proteins". ... RNA-binding protein EWS is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EWSR1 gene on human chromosome 22. This gene encodes a ... "Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS". Curr. Biol. ... codes for an RNA binding protein with novel regulatory domains". Oncogene. 9 (10): 3087-97. PMID 8084618. Maruyama K, Sugano S ...
2007). "Nuclear translocation of the calcium-binding protein ALG-2 induced by the RNA-binding protein RBM22". Biochim. Biophys ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ... "Entrez Gene: RBM22 RNA binding motif protein 22". Loftus SK, Dixon J, Koprivnikar K, et al. (1996). "Transcriptional map of the ... Pre-mRNA-splicing factor RBM22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM22 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
RNA-binding protein 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM14 gene. RBM14 has been shown to interact with TARBP2. ... a human nuclear receptor co-activator with similarity to EWS and TLS/FUS family of proteins". The Journal of Biological ... "Entrez Gene: RBM14 RNA binding motif protein 14". Iwasaki T, Chin WW, Ko L (Sep 2001). "Identification and characterization of ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ...
"Entrez Gene: PCBP3 poly(rC) binding protein 3". Makeyev AV, Liebhaber SA (2002). "The poly(C)-binding proteins: a multiplicity ... Proteins of this subfamily, also referred to as alpha-CPs, bind to RNA with a specificity for C-rich pyrimidine regions. Alpha- ... binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PCBP3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the KH-domain protein ... Makeyev AV, Eastmond DL, Liebhaber SA (2002). "Targeting a KH-domain protein with RNA decoys". RNA. 8 (9): 1160-73. doi:10.1017 ...
RNA-binding protein 26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM26 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000139746 - ... Kavanagh SJ, Schulz TC, Davey P, Claudianos C, Russell C, Rathjen PD (Mar 2005). "A family of RS domain proteins with novel ... "Entrez Gene: RBM26 RNA binding motif protein 26". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in vivo, and site- ... 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization". Nat. ...
Zhao XF, Nowak NJ, Shows TB, Aplan PD (2000). "MAGOH interacts with a novel RNA-binding protein". Genomics. 63 (1): 145-8. doi: ... 2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation ... "MAGOH interacts with a novel RNA-binding protein". Genomics. UNITED STATES. 63 (1): 145-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.6064. ISSN ... 2006). "Structure of the exon junction core complex with a trapped DEAD-box ATPase bound to RNA". Science. 313 (5795): 1968-72 ...
Probable RNA-binding protein 19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM19 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome ... "Entrez Gene: RBM19 RNA binding motif protein 19". Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, et al. (2002). "Directed proteomic analysis of ... Mayer AN, Fishman MC (2003). "Nil per os encodes a conserved RNA recognition motif protein required for morphogenesis and ...
RNA-binding protein 39 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM39 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an RNA ... The encoded protein is found in the nucleus, where it colocalizes with core spliceosomal proteins. Studies of a mouse protein ... "Entrez Gene: RBM39 RNA binding motif protein 39". Jung DJ, Na SY, Na DS, Lee JW (Jan 2002). "Molecular cloning and ... "Steroid hormone receptor coactivation and alternative RNA splicing by U2AF65-related proteins CAPERalpha and CAPERbeta". Mol. ...
This gene encodes a member of the U2AF-like family of RNA binding proteins. This protein interacts with some steroid nuclear ... Probable RNA-binding protein 23 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM23 gene. ... RBM23 RNA binding motif protein 23". Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
"Entrez Gene: RBMX RNA binding motif protein, X-linked". Hofmann Y, Wirth B (Aug 2002). "hnRNP-G promotes exon 7 inclusion of ... and other hnRNP G proteins interact with Tra2beta and affect splicing". Human Molecular Genetics. 9 (5): 685-94. doi:10.1093/ ... a novel relative of SAM68 that interacts with an RNA-binding protein implicated in spermatogenesis". Human Molecular Genetics. ... sequence and characterization of a glycosylated RNA-binding protein". Nucleic Acids Research. 21 (18): 4210-7. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YTHDF2 gene. This gene encodes a ... Basis for the Discriminative Recognition of N6-Methyladenosine RNA by the Human YT521-B Homology Domain Family of Proteins". J ... The YTH domain is usually located in the middle of the protein sequence and may function in binding to RNA. In addition to a ... YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2". Retrieved 2017-12-24. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH ...
"AU-rich RNA-binding induces changes in the quaternary structure of AUH". Proteins. 75 (2): 360-72. doi:10.1002/prot.22246. PMID ... AU RNA binding protein/enoyl-CoA hydratase". Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Tucker T, Casey B (Nov 2011). "Phenotypic heterogeneity in ... but it is the only member of that family that is able to bind to RNA. Not only does it bind to RNA, AUH has also been observed ... These lysine residues were shown to be the main reason why AUH is able to bind to RNA rather than its counterparts. Moreover, ...
... (or circRNA) is a type of RNA which, unlike the better known linear RNA, forms a covalently closed continuous loop, i.e., in circular RNA the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together. This feature confers numerous properties to circular RNAs, many of which have only recently been identified. Many circular RNAs arise from otherwise protein-coding genes. They have been categorized as noncoding RNA, but more recently, they have been shown to code for proteins. Some circular RNAs have recently shown potential as gene regulators. Like many other ...
... , often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, mature mRNA consists exclusively of exons and has all introns removed. Mature mRNA is also called "mature transcript", "mature RNA" or "mRNA". The production of a mature mRNA molecule occurs in 3 steps: During capping, a 7-methylguanosine residue is attached to the 5'-terminal end of the primary transcripts. This is otherwise known as the GTP or 5' Cap, and is used for the stability and attachment ...
... is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within a RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase. RNA editing is relatively rare, and common forms of RNA processing (e.g. splicing, 5'-capping, and 3'-polyadenylation) are not usually included as editing. Editing events may include the insertion, deletion, and base substitution of nucleotides within the edited RNA molecule. RNA editing has been observed in some tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, or miRNA molecules of eukaryotes and their viruses, archaea, and prokaryotes. RNA editing occurs in the cell nucleus and cytosol, as ...
... (Chromatin Isolation by RNA purification) is a high-throughput sequencing method to discover regions of the genome which are bound by a specific RNA (or a by a ribonucleoprotein containing the RNA of interest). Recent studies have shown that a significant proportion of some genomes (including mouse and human genomes) synthesize RNA that apparently do not code for proteins. The function of most of these non-coding RNA still has to be ascertained. Various genomic methods are being developed to map the functional association of these novel RNA to distinct regions of the genome to gain a better understanding of their function. ChiRP-Seq is one of these new methods which uses the massively parallel ...
... describes several mechanistically related pathways which are involved in controlling and regulating gene expression.[4][5][6] RNA silencing pathways are associated with the regulatory activity of small non-coding RNAs (approximately 20-30 nucleotides in length) that function as factors involved in inactivating homologous sequences, promoting endonuclease activity, translational arrest, and/or chromatic or DNA modification.[7][8][9] In the context in which the phenomenon was first studied, small RNA was found to play an important role in defending plants against viruses. For example, these studies demonstrated that enzymes detect double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) not normally found in cells and digest it into small pieces that are not able to cause disease.[10][11][12][13][2] While some functions of RNA ...
Polivirüsün hücresel yaşam döngüsü (1) CD155 reseptörüne bağlanmasıyla başlar. Virüs endositozla alınır, ve viral RNA serbest kalır (2). Translation of the viral RNA occurs by an IRES-mediated mechanism (3). The polyprotein is cleaved, yielding mature viral proteins (4). The positive-sense RNA serves as template for complementary negative-strand synthesis, producing double-stranded replicative form (RF) RNA(5). Many positive strand RNA copies are produced from the single negative strand (6). The newly synthesized positive-sense RNA molecules can serve as templates for translation of more viral proteins (7) or can be enclosed in a capsid (8), which ultimately ...
5S ribosomaalne RNA (5S rRNA) on nii prokarüootide (50S) kui ka eukarüootide (60S) suurte ribosomaalsete alaühikute komponent. 5S rRNA on ligikaudu 120 nukleotiidi pikk, mis on küllaltki lühike võrreldes teiste ribosomaalsete RNA-dega. 5S rRNA-d ei leidu seente mitokondriaalsetes ribosoomides.[3] Eukarüootset 5S rRNA-d sünteesib RNA polümeraas III, samas kui enamik teisi eukaroüootseid rRNA-sid toodetakse 45S prekursorilt, mida transkribeerib RNA polümeraas I. On näidatud, et Xenopus'e ootsüütidel üheksa tsink-sõrmelise transkriptsiooni faktori TFIIIA sõrmed 4-7 võivad seonduda 5S RNA tsentraalse piirkonnaga.[4] Seondumine 5S rRNA ja TFIIIA ...
Interferenca RNA ali RNA-interferenca (RNAi; angleško RNA interference) je biološki postopek, pri katerem se z molekulami RNA nevtralizirajo ciljne molekule mRNA in s tem zavira izražanje genov (gensko prevajanje - translacija). V literaturi so se za ta koncept uporabljali še drugi izrazi, vključno z izrazi kosupresija (c-suppression), posttranskripcijsko utišanje genov (PIGS - post-transcriptional gene silencing) in quelling. Podroben opis je pokazal, da gre dejansko v vseh primerih za RNAi. Raziskovalca Andrew Fire in Craig C. Mello sta si leta 2006 delila Nobelovo nagrado za fiziologijo ali medicino za delo na interferenci RNA v glisti vrste Caenorhabditis elegans, ki sta ga objavila leta 1998. Po odkritju ...
Transferová-mediátorová RNA (tmRNA) je molekula RNA, která má rysy transferové RNA (tRNA) i mediátorové RNA (mRNA). Vyskytuje se u řady bakterií a v plastidech.[1] Slouží k záchraně ribozomu, který nerozpoznal stop kodon a nemůže ukončit translaci. K takovému ribozomu se tmRNA nejdříve naváže jako tRNA a následně je jím přeložena jako mRNA. tmRNA kóduje krátký polypeptid sloužící jako značka pro degradaci vznikajícího proteinu, zajišťuje degradaci poškozené mRNA a uvolňuje ribozom.[2] tmRNA obsahuje řadu modifikovaných bází, ...
By 1958, experiments and analysis such as the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment, the Hershey-Chase experiment, the Watson-Crick structure and the Meselson-Stahl experiment had shown DNA to be the molecule of genetic information. It was not known, however, how DNA directed the expression of proteins, or what role RNA had in these processes. Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei at the National Institutes of Health to answer these questions. They produced RNA composed solely of uracil, a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA. They then added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other cellular machinery for protein synthesis. They added DNase, which breaks ...
HIV의 구조는 다른 레트로바이러스와 다르며 아주 복잡하다. 전체적으로 구형에 가까우며,[55] 지름은 약 120nm로 적혈구보다 60배 정도 작지만, 바이러스 중에서는 큰 편이다.[56] 유전체는 아홉 개의 바이러스 유전인자를 암호화하고 있는 2벌의 양성 단일가닥 RNA로 구성되어 있다. RNA는 바이러스 단백질 p24[57] 2,000개 가량으로 구성된 원뿔형의 캡시드로 둘러싸여 있다. 바이러스 내부는 단일가닥 RNA와 핵캡시드 단백질 p7과 비리온단백질 형성에 필수적 효소(역전사효소, 단백질 분해효소, 리보뉴클레이스, 인테그레이스)로 꽉 들어차있다. 바이러스 단백질 p17로 구성된 기질이 비리온의 보전을 위해 다시 캡시드를 둘러싸고 있다.[57] 기질은 다시 인지질(지방산의 일종)2중층으로 이루어진 바이러스막에 둘러 싸여 있다. 바이러스막은 숙주세포로부터 새로 ...
இரைபோ கருவமிலம் அல்லது ஆர்.என்.ஏ. (RNA - Ribonucleic acid) என்பது ஒரு கருவமிலம் ஆகும். இதனை இரைபோக் கருக்காடி, ஐங்கரிமவினியக் கருக்காடி, ஐவினியக் கருக்காடி, ஐங்கரிமவினியக் கருவமிலம், ஐவினியக் கருவமிலம் என்ற பெயர்கள் கொண்டும் அழைக்கலாம். இது அனைத்து உயிரினங்களுக்கும் தேவையான நான்கு பெரிய பிரிவுகளில் அடங்கும் பருமூலக்கூறுகளில் ஒன்றான கருவமிலங்களில் ஒன்றாகும். இவையும் டி.என்.ஏ யைப் ...
ആർക്കിയ, ബാക്ടീരിയ വിഭാഗങ്ങൾക്ക് ജനിതകഘടനയിൽ കുറേ അടിസ്ഥാന വ്യത്യാസങ്ങളുണ്ട്. 16 Sr RNA യുണ്ടാക്കുന്ന ജീനുകളുടെ പഠനമാണ് മുകളിൽക്കൊടുത്ത വർഗ്ഗീകരണ പദ്ധതിക്ക് അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയത്. 400 കോടി വർഷങ്ങൾ പഴക്കമുള്ള ഈ ജീനിന് മ്യൂട്ടേഷൻവഴി പലതരം മാറ്റങ്ങളുണ്ടായി. ആർക്കിയ, ബാക്ടീരിയ വിഭാഗങ്ങൾക്ക് കോശങ്ങളിൽ ന്യൂക്ലിയസ് ഇല്ല. പ്രൊകാരിയോട്ടുകൾ എന്നാണ് ഇവയെ പൊതുവിൽ പറയുക. പ്രൊകാരിയോട്ട് ...
... gene expression at moderately low culture temperatures and could be utilized to increase the yield of recombinant proteins in ... Expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (cirp, also called cirbp or hnRNP A18) is known to be induced in response to ... Sp1 transcription factor bound to MCRE in vitro. Immunohistochemistry and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated ... Overexpression of Sp1 protein increased the expression of endogenous Cirp as well as a reporter gene driven by the 5′ flanking ...
T1 - The interaction between the iron-responsive element binding protein and its cognate rna is highly dependent upon both RNA ... The interaction between the iron-responsive element binding protein and its cognate rna is highly dependent upon both RNA ... The interaction between the iron-responsive element binding protein and its cognate rna is highly dependent upon both RNA ... The interaction between the iron-responsive element binding protein and its cognate rna is highly dependent upon both RNA ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... GO:0003676 nucleic acid binding GO:0003723 RNA binding GO:0003729 mRNA binding ...
Y. Qi, K. Tsuda, A. Joe et al., "A putative RNA-binding protein positively regulates salicylic acid-mediated immunity in ... Z. J. Lorković and A. Barta, "Genome analysis: RNA recognition motif (RRM) and K homology (KH) domain RNA-binding proteins from ... N. V. Fedoroff, "RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?" Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. ... RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Immunity. Virginia Woloshen,1,2 Shuai Huang,1,2 and Xin Li1,2 ...
The introduction of large-scale quantitative methods, such as next-generation sequencing and modern protein mass spectrometry, ... stability and translation of coding and non-coding RNAs. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and ribonucleoproteins coordinate RNA ... A census of human RNA-binding proteins.. Gerstberger S1, Hafner M2, Tuschl T1. ... Our analysis is a critical step towards the comprehensive characterization of proteins involved in human RNA metabolism. ...
Here, we focus on how PUF proteins enhance deadenylation and mRNA decay. We show that a yeast PUF protein physically binds ... PUF proteins, a family of RNA-binding proteins, interact with the 3 untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific mRNAs to control ... PUF proteins bind Pop2p to regulate messenger RNAs.. Goldstrohm AC1, Hook BA, Seay DJ, Wickens M. ... By binding Pop2p, the PUF protein simultaneously recruits the Ccr4p deadenylase and two other enzymes involved in mRNA ...
... and the same principles are also applied to determine whether a protein participates in RNAbinding [10-16]. Some investigations ... the RNA-binding protein training dataset of 2752 proteins and the RNA-binding protein testing dataset of 1374 proteins (see ... iv) The RNA-Binding Protein Dataset:. protein sequences with length ,6000 aa or ,50 aa were removed since they might be protein ... means RNA-binding protein and "B" means RNA-nonbinding protein) are available in Supplementary Material (see Supplementary ...
New findings from Vogels team have now been published in the journal PNAS: So far, two proteins (Hfg and CsrA) have been known ... Bacteria: Third RNA binding protein identified. 18.10.2016. Small regulatory RNA molecules are vital for salmonella and other ... This protein and the RNA molecules that bind to it represent a largely unresearched class of gene activity regulators in the ... The structures of the different regulatory RNA molecules are shown left, their preferred protein binding partners on the right ...
The Pumilio protein binds RNA through a conserved domain that defines a new class of RNA-binding proteins. RNA 3:1421-1433. ... This review focuses on RNA-binding proteins and their role in regulating local protein synthesis in neurons. ... Such a mechanism was recently attributed to the mRNA-binding protein zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1) (Huttelmaier et al., 2005 ... RNA-Binding Proteins: A Lesson in Repression. David G. Wells. Journal of Neuroscience 5 July 2006, 26 (27) 7135-7138; DOI: ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... RNA-binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1 member B (A6NDE4) Accession ...
In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol- ... Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies ... We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. ... related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. ...
Select Proteins. (mouse, human, rat). Rbms1. 2. 9640. 1 mouse : 1 human : 1 rat. ... Term: RNA-binding motif, single-stranded-interacting protein. ID: PIRSF037997 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one ... MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein ... The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence ...
A more functionally relevant criterion is the association of RNAs with cognate RNA-binding proteins. Here, we describe the ... 1999) Degradation of FinP antisense RNA from F-like plasmids: The RNA-binding protein, FinO, protects FinP from ribonuclease E ... One such criterion is the association of RNAs with functionally important cognate RNA-binding proteins. Here we analyze the ... Grad-seq promises to define functional RNA classes and major RNA-binding proteins in both model species and genetically ...
To examine a potential link between PMLs homology to known RING finger proteins associated with RNA, we performed experiments ... Localization of nascent RNA and CREB binding protein with the PML-containing nuclear body. Vickie J. LaMorte, Jacqueline A. ... Creb-Binding Protein (Cbp/P300) and RNA Polymerase II Colocalize in Transcriptionally Active Domains in the Nucleus ... Localization of nascent RNA and CREB binding protein with the PML-containing nuclear body ...
... and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and ... Approximately 6%-8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a ... Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein-RNA binding sites, by ... Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein-RNA interactions. However, these ...
Human cells encode thousands of RNA-binding proteins with u … ... allow cells to carry out pre-RNA processing and post- ... These properties are regulated through modularity of a large variety of RNA-binding domains, rendering RNA-protein interactions ... Our results show specific enrichment of many known RNA-binding regions on many known RNA-binding proteins, confirming the ... Keywords: RNA-binding proteins; RNA-binding regions; mass spectrometry; single-shot MS analysis. ...
Binds directly to the 3-UTR of the PER1 mRNA (By similarity). ... with other proteins or protein complexes.,p>,a href=/help/ ... sp,Q9BQ04,RBM4B_HUMAN RNA-binding protein 4B OS=Homo sapiens GN=RBM4B PE=1 SV=1 ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9BQ04. G7NC45. G3R7Q9. G7PP84. H2NCQ1. H2Q476. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9BQ04. Q9BDY9. UPI00034F7D96. UPI000A339742. ...
May bind to specific miRNA hairpins (By similarity). ... Binds to RNA homopolymers, with a preference for poly(G) and ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P70501. P98175-3. UPI000387D87F. UPI000BB690A1. ... RNA-binding motif protein 10. RNA-binding protein S1-11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on ... RNA-binding protein 10Add BLAST. 852. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ...
... it makes a speckled pattern consistent with the large protein/RNA complexes formed by RNA-binding proteins. Bowser suspects it ... RNA-binding Protein Inhabits Granules in ALS, FTD. Go to another part. Series - 10th Brain Research Conference: RNA Metabolism ... Li thinks RBM45 must bind RNAs as an oligomer. The researchers are now trying to identify the RNAs that bind both RBM43 and TDP ... Role of Stress Granules and RNA-Binding Proteins in Neurodegeneration: A Mini-Review. Gerontology. 2013;59(6):524-33. PubMed. ...
... led by Dr Enrique Lara Pezzi at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares has identified the RNA-binding protein ... RNA-binding proteins perform important tasks in the cell.. In this study, we have investigated the role of the RBP SRSF3 in the ... RNA-binding protein SRSF3 appears to be key factor for proper heart contraction, survival. *Download PDF Copy ... has identified the RNA-binding protein SRSF3 as an essential factor for proper heart contraction and survival. In a study ...
... identification of RNA-binding proteins has extended the number of RNA-binding proteins significantly RNA-binding protein Sam68 ... RNA-binding protein database starBase platform: a platform for decoding binding sites of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) from large ... intricacy of protein-RNA recognition of RRM as it entails RNA-RNA and protein-protein interactions in addition to protein-RNA ... RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and ...
The mRNAs of certain regulatory cellular proteins such as oncogenes, cytokines, lymphokines, and transcriptional activators are ... This protein consists of three subunits and binds rapidly to AUUUA-containing RNA. Such protein-RNA complexes are resistant to ... Identification of an AUUUA-specific messenger RNA binding protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... A cytosolic protein was identified that binds specifically to RNA molecules containing four reiterations of the AUUUA ...
1993b) The protein product of the fragile X gene, FMR-1, has characteristics of an RNA-binding protein. Cell 74:291-298. ... Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that the Hu proteins bind to RNA. HuB was found to bind to AU-rich RNA sequences in ... complexity of the Hu RNA binding proteins. Our work illustrates several levels of complexity in the family of Hu RNA binding ... 1993) The Drosophila gene rbp9 encodes a protein that is a member of a conserved group of putative RNA binding proteins that ...
... a database for RNA-binding proteins. Protein-RNA interface: a database for Protein-RNA interface. Rice RNA Binding Protein ... Right now, RNA-binding protein database (RBPDB) contains 1171 RNA-binding proteins from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila ... The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes ... RNA-binding proteins ( RBPs ) play critical role during this process. All RBPs can bind to RNA depends on different ...
  • To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the induction and to exploit this to improve the productivity of recombinant proteins, we tried to identify the regulatory sequence(s) in the 5′ flanking region of the mouse cirp gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that more Sp1, but not Sp3, was localized in the nucleus to bind to the cirp regulatory region containing MCRE at 32°C than 37°C. Overexpression of Sp1 protein increased the expression of endogenous Cirp as well as a reporter gene driven by the 5′ flanking region of the cirp gene, and down-regulation of Sp1 had the opposite effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present novel enhancer permits conditional high-level gene expression at moderately low culture temperatures and could be utilized to increase the yield of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "To assess the influence of RNA sequence2.urule;structure on the interaction RNAs with the iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP), twenty eight altered RNAs were tested as competitors for an RNA corresponding to the ferritin H chain IRE. (uthscsa.edu)
more