Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Postmortem examination of the body.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Small cylindrical pieces of metal used to enhance retention.
Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
The period following a surgical operation.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The application of pathology to questions of law.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.
Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
An anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic glucocorticoid that can be administered orally, by inhalation, locally, and parenterally. It may cause water and salt retention.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Insertion of a catheter into the urethra to drain the urine from the bladder at intervals as needed.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/17045)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (2/17045)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (3/17045)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Structural basis of profactor D activation: from a highly flexible zymogen to a novel self-inhibited serine protease, complement factor D. (4/17045)

The crystal structure of profactor D, determined at 2.1 A resolution with an Rfree and an R-factor of 25.1 and 20.4%, respectively, displays highly flexible or disordered conformation for five regions: N-22, 71-76, 143-152, 187-193 and 215-223. A comparison with the structure of its mature serine protease, complement factor D, revealed major conformational changes in the similar regions. Comparisons with the zymogen-active enzyme pairs of chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and prethrombin-2 showed a similar distribution of the flexible regions. However, profactor D is the most flexible of the four, and its mature enzyme displays inactive, self-inhibited active site conformation. Examination of the surface properties of the N-terminus-binding pocket indicates that Ile16 may play the initial positioning role for the N-terminus, and Leu17 probably also helps in inducing the required conformational changes. This process, perhaps shared by most chymotrypsinogen-like zymogens, is followed by a factor D-unique step, the re-orientation of an external Arg218 to an internal position for salt-bridging with Asp189, leading to the generation of the self-inhibited factor D.  (+info)

Arginine methylation and binding of Hrp1p to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation. (5/17045)

Hrp1p is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of mRNAs and mRNA export. In addition, Hrplp is one of several RNA-binding proteins that are posttranslationally modified by methylation at arginine residues. By using functional recombinant Hrp1p, we have identified RNA sequences with specific high affinity binding sites. These sites correspond to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation, UAUAUA. To examine the effect of methylation on specific RNA binding, purified recombinant arginine methyltransferase (Hmt1p) was used to methylate Hrp1p. Methylated Hrp1p binds with the same affinity to UAUAUA-containing RNAs as unmethylated Hrpl p indicating that methylation does not affect specific RNA binding. However, RNA itself inhibits the methylation of Hrp1p and this inhibition is enhanced by RNAs that specifically bind Hrpl p. Taken together, these data support a model in which protein methylation occurs prior to protein-RNA binding in the nucleus.  (+info)

Co-expression of glutathione S-transferase with methionine aminopeptidase: a system of producing enriched N-terminal processed proteins in Escherichia coli. (6/17045)

We describe here an Escherichia coli expression system that produces recombinant proteins enriched in the N-terminal processed form, by using glutathione S-transferase cGSTM1-1 and rGSTT1-1 as models, where c and r refer to chick and rat respectively. Approximately 90% of the cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1 overexpressed in E. coli under the control of a phoA promoter retained the initiator methionine residue that was absent from the mature isoenzymes isolated from tissues. The amount of initiator methionine was decreased to 40% of the expressed cGSTM1-1 when the isoenzyme was co-expressed with an exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene under the control of a separate phoA promoter. The recombinant proteins expressed were mainly methionine aminopeptidase. The yield of cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 10% of that expressed in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene. By replacing the phoA with its natural promoter, the expression of methionine aminopeptidase decreased drastically. The yield of the co-expressed cGSTM1-1 was approx. 60% of that in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene; approx. 65% of the initiator methionine residues were removed from the enzyme. Under similar conditions, N-terminal processing was observed in approx. 70% of the recombinant rGSTT1-1 expressed. By increasing the concentration of phosphate in the growth medium, the amount of initiator methionine on cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 14% of the overexpressed isoenzymes, whereas no further improvement could be observed for rGSTT1-1. The initiator methionine residue does not affect the enzymic activities of either cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1. However, the epoxidase activity and the 4-nitrobenzyl chloride-conjugating activity of the purified recombinant rGSTT1-1 are markedly higher that those reported recently for the same isoenzyme isolated from rat livers.  (+info)

Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (7/17045)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (8/17045)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a polymorphic tract of polyglutamine repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin protein, which is thought to be responsible for protein aggregation and neuronal death. The polyglutamine tract is preceded by a 17-residue sequence that is intrinsically disordered. This region is subject to phosphorylation, acetylation and other post-translational modifications in vivo, which modulate its secondary structure, aggregation and, subcellular localization. We used Molecular Dynamics simulations with a novel Hamiltonian-replica-exchange-based enhanced sampling method, SWISH, and an optimal combination of water and protein force fields to study the effects of phosphorylation and acetylation as well as cross-talk between these modifications on the huntingtin N-terminus. The simulations, validated by circular dichroism, were used to formulate a mechanism by which the modifications influence helical conformations. Our findings have implications for
Post-translationally modified proteins make up the majority of the proteome and establish, to a large part, the impressive level of functional diversity in higher, multi-cellular organisms. Most eukar
Find great deals for Analysis of Protein Post-Translational Modifications by Mass Spectrometry by John R. Griffiths, Richard D. Unwin (Hardback, 2016). Shop with confidence on eBay!
The current release not only provides the sequence-based information, but also annotates the structure-based information for protein post-translational modification. The interface is also designed to facilitate the access to the resource. This effective database is now freely accessible at http://db …
The N-terminal tail of CENP-A is highly divergent from other H3 variants. Canonical histone N-termini are hotspots of conserved post-translational modification; however, no broadly conserved modifications of the vertebrate CENP-A tail have been previously observed. Our lab has identified novel post-translational modifications on human CENP-A N-termini using high-resolution MS. These include the trimethylation of Gly1 at the alpha-amino position and side-chain phosphorylation of Ser16 and Ser18. CENP-A is subjected to constitutive initiating methionine removal, similar to other H3 variants. The nascent N-terminal residue Gly1 becomes trimethylated on the α-amino group. We identified the methyltransferase NRMT as the enzyme responsible for modifying the CENP-A amino terminus. Methylation occurs in the pre-nucleosomal form and marks the majority of CENP-A nucleosomes. Serine 16 and 18 become phosphorylated in pre-nucleosomal CENP-A and are phosphorylated on asynchronous and mitotic nucleosomal ...
Histones and their variants are subjected to several post-translational modifications (PTMs). Histones PTMs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and are critical for the development and progression of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. In this study, we used two-dimensional TAU/SDS electrophoresis, coupled with mass spectrometry for a comprehensive profiling of histone PTMs in breast cancer cell lines.Proteomic approach allowed us to identify 85 histone PTMs, seventeen of which are not reported in the UniProt database. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm a peculiar pattern of PTMs in the sporadic and hereditary breast cancer cell lines compared to normal cells. Overlapping mass spectrometry data with western blotting results, we identified, for the first time to our knowledge, a tyrosine phosphorylation on histone H1, which is significantly higher in breast cancer cells. Additionally, by inhibiting specific signaling paths, such as PI3K, PPARγ and FAK
Post-translational protein processing refers to the folding, sorting, cleavage, and modifications required to make a protein functional after it is translated.
Nucleosome ELISA (NU-ELISA) is a sensitive and quantitative method to detect global patterns of post-translational modifications in...
In animals NO has been shown to play a key role in many important physiological process such as relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, neurotransmission, inflammation and immune function (Ignarro & Buga, 1987; ODell et al., 1991; Eiserich et al., 1998). Similarly, NO signalling in plants modulates a variety of physiological systems, from adaptive responses to germination, root growth and dynamics of stomatal aperture control. A significant emerging theme is the regulation of these processes through post-translational protein modifications, mainly metal nitrosylation, S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration (Besson-Bard et al., 2008). Metal nitrosylation is characterized by the formation of a NO-metal-containing protein and is best exemplified by the reaction between NO and haemoglobin (Hb), which controls vascular oxygen distribution. Metal nitrosylation also has a well characterized role during the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in animal cells, a classical route for the transfer ...
Asparagine-linked glycosylation is one of the most common protein modification reactions in eukaryotic cells, occurring on N-(x≠P)-T/S/C consensus sequons on newly synthesized proteins in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Transfer of the preassembled oligosaccharide (GlcNAc2Man9Glc3) from a dolichol pyrophosphate carrier to sequons is mediated by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). Although N-glycosylation is often described as a post-translational protein modification reaction, most N-linked glycans are added to ribosome-bound nascent polypeptides as the protein is passing through the protein translocation channel into the lumen of the RER. A cotranslational mode of N-linked glycosylation ensures that addition of glycan occurs before protein folding, thereby relieving the restriction that sequons reside on surface-exposed loops or within disordered protein segments that can access the OST active site (Lizak et al., 2011).. The OST is a hetero-oligomeric integral membrane ...
Molecular Reproduction and Development takes an integrated, systems-biology approach to understand the dynamic continuum of cellular, reproductive, and developmental processes. This journal fosters dialogue among diverse disciplines through primary research communications and educational forums, with the philosophy that fundamental findings within the life sciences result from a convergence of disciplines.. Increasingly, readers of the Journal need to be informed of diverse, yet integrated, topics impinging on their areas of interest. This requires an expansion in thinking towards non-traditional, interdisciplinary experimental design and data analysis. For example, biologists need to know how nanodevices might be used, while bioengineers need to know how post-translational protein modifications affect developmental mechanisms. The Journal will provide a means for readers to integrate divergent scientific disciplines into their current and future research. Readers will turn to Molecular ...
Demonstrates the first synthesis of histones, nucleosome core particles and defined nucleosomes arrays bearing this important post-translational modification, and demonstrates using single molecule FRET that H3K56 acetylation increases DNA breathing on nucleosomes. This paper demonstrates the power of creating designer nucleosomes to address problems in chromatin biology. More broadly, it demonstrates the power of genetically installing post translational modifications for asking previously un-addressable questions about biological regulation. ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free-radical product of mammalian cell metabolism that plays diverse and important roles in the regulation of cell function. Biological actions of NO arise as a direct consequence of chemical reactions between NO or NO-derived species and protein targets. Reactions of NO with transition metals in target proteins have garnered the most attention to date as the principal mechanism of NO signaling; nonetheless, S-nitrosylation of protein Cys residues is rapidly moving to center stage in importance. In general, however, there has been a delay in adequate appreciation of the role of S-nitrosylation in biological signaling by NO. This lag is attributed to a poor understanding of the basis for selective targeting of NO to particular thiols, and methodological limitations in accurately quantifying this modification--recent breakthroughs in concepts and methods diminish these barriers. Here, we consider the wheres and whys of protein S-nitrosylation and its basis for specificity. ...
Phosphorylation is a crucial post-translational protein modification mechanism with important regulatory functions in biological systems. It is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called kinases, each of which recognizes certain target sites in its substrate proteins.
The Proteomics Core Facility at the Frankfurt location is an initiative of the DKTK and is equipped with three Q Exactive mass spectrometers from Thermo Fisher (one Q Exactive, one Q Exactive Plus and one Q Exactive HF instrument). The available technology can be used to e.g. identify and quantify protein expression patterns, post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, and protein complexes.. This makes it possible to conduct a comprehensive characterisation of oncogenic mechanisms at the protein level, which includes mapping of oncogenic signal transduction processes. The technical advances made in recent years mean that it is now possible to identify and quantify in relative terms several thousand proteins from just a few micrograms of protein. The main activities of the Proteomics Core Facility relate to translational research topics in the field of acute leukaemia, lymphoma, lung cancer, rectal cancer and brain tumours. The research uses ...
Background endoplasmic reticulum lumen, arylsulfatase activity, glycosphingolipid metabolic process, post-translational protein modification Description ARSH Polyclonal Antibody, FITC Conjugated. FITC. Raised in Rabbit....
Medical & Life Sciences (Biochemistry), Manipulation and analysis of proteins; Research areas include the experimental analysis of enzyme mechanisms, post-translational protein modifications, proteomics, and protein-nucleic acid interactions studied in the biological context of cell cycle control, chromatin regulation and renewable energy research ...
The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins to solid-phase membranous support is known as blotting. Fragments of DNA and RNA molecules separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane in a process termed as Southern and Northern blotting, respectively. Southern blotting was introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975 as a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern (for post-translational protein modifications) and Southwestern (for DNA-protein interactions) blotting.. Southern and Northern blotting protocols involve the following major steps:. ...
Post-Translational Modification - Most proteins undergo some form of modification following translation. These modifications result in mass changes that are detected during analysis. Post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and sulfation, to name a few, serve many functions. As a result, the analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications is particularly important for the study of diseases where multiple genes are known to be involved, such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
With the rapidly increasing use of proteins as biotherapeutics to treat diseases, the characterization of these large molecules using mass spectrometry has become a highly attractive field of research. A particular area of research is the identification and characterization of protein post-translational modifications. Disulfide bonds and glycosylation are among the most critical protein post-translational modifications (PTMs), as they play vital roles in maintaining the proper protein folding, structure, and functions. These two PTMs are particularly important in the development and characterization of monoclonal antibody-based drugs, which are the most prevalent protein therapeutics in the market. Among the four classes of immunoglobulins (IgGs), the disulfide connectivity of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 have been effectively studied, and IgG2 and IgG4 have been shown to have disulfide bond-mediated isomers due to alternative disulfide bond connectivity. However, no studies to investigate the presence ...
Ngn3 is recognized as a regulator of pancreatic endocrine formation, and Notch signaling as an important negative regulator Ngn3 gene expression. By conditionally controlling expression of Ngn3 in the pancreas, we find that these two signaling components are dynamically linked. This connection involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation of ducts. On one hand, Ngn3 cell-intrinsically activates endocrine target genes; on the other, Ngn3 cell-extrinsically promotes lateral signaling via the Dll1,Notch,Hes1 pathway which substantially limits its ability to sustain endocrine formation. Prior to endocrine commitment, the Ngn3-mediated activation of the Notch,Hes1 pathway impacts formation of the trunk domain in the pancreas causing multipotent ...
Inheritance of biological information to future generations depends on the replication of DNA and the Mendelian principle of distribution of genes. In addition, external and environmental factors can influence traits that can be propagated to offspring, but the molecular details of this are only beginning to be understood. The discoveries of DNA methylation and post-translational modifications on chromatin and histones provided entry points for regulating gene expression, an area now defined as epigenetics and epigenomics. Mass spectrometry turned out to be instrumental in uncovering molecular details involved in these processes. The central role of histone post-translational modifications in epigenetics related biological processes has revitalized mass spectrometry based investigations. In this special report, current approaches and future challenges that lay ahead due to the enormous complexity are discussed.
Protein glycation is a spontaneous PTM of the proteome focused mainly on N-terminal and lysine side chain amino groups by glucose forming fructosa- mine residues and on guanidino groups of arginine residues forming mainly MG-derived hydroimidazolone residues. The latter appears to be most functionally damaging in physiological systems. Glycation is a relatively labile PTM, and so customized preanalytical processing is required to avoid compromising mass spectrometric analysis outcomes. ETD fragmentation has a clear advantage for the analysis of the fructosamine proteome, whereas CID, HCD, and ETD may be used for arginine-based dihydroxyimidazolidine/hydroimi- dazolone detection. Robust procedures are available for the detection and quantitation of total glycation adducts in protein extracts, and these may be combined with proteomics analysis for added security of findings - particularly as it is still challenging to achieve high sequence coverage in proteomics experiments. LC-MS/MS quantitative ...
Step change for this strategy was achieved by introduction of a dimethylation step posttryptic digest to block free (N-terminal, lysine-e) amines thus increasing the difference in basicity between N-acetylated and the rest of peptides in the sample. One-step purification of N-acetylated peptides is achieved by solid-phase extraction, using SCX in batch mode. A key benefit of this approach is that it can be utilized with stable isotope-labeled dimethylation reagents for relative quantification, an approach which has found application to distinguish protein isoforms that are N-terminally acetylated but differ in N-terminal amino acid sequence, for example, p-actin/y-actin isoforms [111]. ...
Enrichment methods to facilitate detection and quantitation of PTM proteins are a common strategy in proteomics. A boronate affinity chromatography method has been used for the fructosamine proteome based on the binding of the cis-1,2-diol structure of fructosamine-modified proteins, with subsequent release from the boronate affinity matrix with weak acid. Although some enzymatically glycosylated proteins contain cis-1,2-diol moieties, steric effects, proximate negatively charged groups, and acetylation limit the retention and interference in this method by glycoproteins [98]. A similar affinity method is used in the routine separation of hemoglobin in clinical chemistry to quantify glycated hemoglobin HbA1c for the assessment of glycemic control in diabetes [99]. Boronate affinity enrichment of protein glycated by glucose was employed in a study of glycated proteins in human plasma and red blood cells, and 7749 unique glycated peptides corresponding to 3742 unique glycated proteins were ...
The aforementioned considerations are features relating to the rate of formation of glycation adducts. FL and MG-H1 residues have half-lives of ca. 25 and 12 days, respectively [19, 106], which exceed the half-lives of most human proteins (median half-life of 1.9 days [107]). Therefore, for many proteins, the steady-state extent of protein glycation is also influenced by the half-life of the protein. Hence, early studies found that the extent of glycation by glucose of several proteins in vivo was linked to the protein half-life [108]. Since glycation leads to protein distortion and misfolding, it is also expected that glycated proteins are targeted for cellular proteolysis and have an unusually decreased halflife. This remains to be determined in robust unfocused proteome dynamics studies. The level of FL and N-terminal fructosamine residues in cellular proteins is also influenced by enzymatic removal and repair by F3PK [109]. F3PK has different specific activity for FL residues in different ...
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E-cadherin is synthesized as a precursor and then undergoes cleavage by proprotein convertases. This processing is essential for E-cadherin maturation and cell adhesion. Loss of cell adhesion causes detachment-induced apoptosis- anoikis. Anoikis can be inhibited despite loss of cell-matrix interactions by preserving E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion. Conversely, acute loss of E-cadherin sensitizes cells to apoptosis by unknown post-translational mechanisms. In response to drug treatment of breast cancer cells, our analysis revealed that two independent modifications of E-cadherin inhibit its cell surface transport. Firstly, O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the cytoplasmic domain retains E-cadherin in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secondly, incomplete processing by proprotein convertases arrests E-cadherin transport late in the secretory pathway. We demonstrated these E-cadherin modifications (detected by specific lectins and antibodies) do not affect binding to ...
Large‐scale identification of PTMs across multiple species has opened the door to comparative studies regarding the evolutionary conservation of the modification sites, interactions and function. These studies have primarily focused on protein phosphorylation given its broad functional role and well established detection methods. Most of the comparative analyses performed to date have studied the conservation of the modified residues in alignments of orthologous proteins (Holt et al, 2009; Landry et al, 2009; Nguyen Ba & Moses, 2010; Gray & Kumar, 2011). There is some debate regarding the extent of conservation: some studies report little to no conservation of the modified residues when compared to unmodified amino‐acids (Holt et al, 2009; Landry et al, 2009; Nguyen Ba & Moses, 2010), whereas others observe a significant constraint due to the phosphorylation (Gray & Kumar, 2011). Overall, a reconciled view on these finding is that phosphorylated residues show a significant but small increase ...
Imagine you are doing XIC based label free quan on sample 1 and sample 2. In sample 1 you find peptide HAPPYK with an intensity of 1e6 that elutes at 23.4 minutes. In sample B, you only find HAPPYK at that retention time at almost baseline, but at 10.8 minutes you find HAPPphospho-YK with an intesity of 8e5. Unless youve got some awesome tools that I dont have for global analysis of this type, get ready to buckle down for a fun filled afternoon of manually linking your modified and unmodified variants in that Excel sheet! (PD 2.0/2.1 can make the job a little easier for you -- see video 22 here, but you still have to do a lot of manual work ...
ziyuBio offers hundreds of peptide modifications to meet your custom peptide needs. These peptide modifications can be used to create synthetic peptide with the exact conformation or characteristics needed for specific applications. Large numbers of modified amino acids are focus on post-translation modification (PTM) that naturally occur in vivo, while others are pharmacologically modified or stable isotope labeled. Additionally, tags, protein or oligonucleotides can be chemically conjugated to these peptides through ziyuBio. With many years of experience in providing modified peptide synthesis, we are your best choice for producing custom modified peptides on time and on budget. Our peptide modification services include but are not limited to the following:. ■ Fluorophores and Quenchers: Emitting and Quenching dyes for FRET and other dyes. ■ Attachment Chemistry: Linkers, Spacers and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) modifications. ■ Unnatural Amino Acids: D-stereoisomers, Unnatural and special ...
To characterize the properties of the NvHsTRPA channel, we expressed it in HEK293 cells. Localization of the V5 and His epitope-tagged NvHsTRPA protein showed a staining pattern at the plasma membrane, demonstrating that it reaches to the cell surface (Fig. 5A). Nevertheless, some proteins are present in the cytoplasm as well. The molecular weight of the tagged protein was approximately 112 kDa, which is slightly larger than expected (105 kDa) from the amino acid sequence. The protein size was constant in the presence of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation (Fig. 5B), indicating that NvHsTRPA does not contain N-glycans unlike the vertebrate TRPV1, 4, 5, and TRPC3 and 6 as reported [42]. The partial denature of NvHsTRPA (60°C for 5 min) may result in the aberrant migration through 6% SDS-PAGE gel which makes the correct estimation of protein size difficult. Nevertheless, the possibility that NvHsTRPA undergoes the other post-translational modifications can not be ruled out. Patch-clamp ...
Phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modification. Phosphorylation is involved in multiple biological process such as DNA damage and repair, transcrip- tion regulation, and metabolism. In human proteome, three types of major residue in the substrate; serine(S), threonine(T), and tyrosine (Y) is phosphorylated by their responsible kinase. Streaming motion of phosphorylation constructs an signal transaction network of the living cell.. Resent achievements in the area of mass spectrometry based proteomics accomplished in determining the phosphorylated residue of the protein in a massive scale. On the other hand, the global picture of signal network driven by phosphorylation still remains unclear, due to the lack of information of kinase-substrate pairs. To work out with this problem, computational approaches has been applied. While various numbers of computational predictors such as Scansite, NetworKIN, PPRED are available, there still remains a interruption in ...
We produce custom antibodies against PTMs such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation as well as Ubiquitinylation or SUMOylation.
Forkhead box O3, also known as FOXO3 or FOXO3a, is a human protein encoded by the FOXO3 gene. FOXO3 belongs to the O subclass of the forkhead family of transcription factors which are characterized by a distinct fork head DNA-binding domain. There are three other FoxO family members in humans, FOXO1, FOXO4 and FOXO6. These transcription factors share the ability to be inhibited and translocated out of the nucleus on phosphorylation by proteins such as Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway (aside from FOXO6, which may be constitutively nuclear). Other post-translational modifications including acetylation and methylation are seen and can result in increased or altered FOXO3a activity. This protein likely functions as a trigger for apoptosis through upregulation of genes necessary for cell death, such as Bim and PUMA, or downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins such as FLIP. Gopinath et al.(2014) demonstrate a functional requirement for FOXO3 as a regulator of Notch signaling pathway (an ...
Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) is a cellXsurface anchored dimeric protease, closely related to Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP) 4. This atypical serine protease has both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities, cleaving substrates at a postXproline bond. FAP expression is difficult to detect in nonXdiseased adult organs, but is greatly up regulated in sites of tissue remodelling, which includes liver fibrosis, lung fibrosis, atherosclerosis, arthritis, tumours and embryonic tissues. Due to its restricted expression pattern and dual enzymatic activities, FAP is emerging as a unique therapeutic target. However, methods to exploit and target this protease are advancing more rapidly than knowledge of the fundamental biology of FAP. This thesis aims to rectify this imbalance, emphasising the need to better define the substrate repertoire and downstream effects of FAP enzyme activity to elucidate the role of this protease in biological and pathological processes. In this study, primary mouse ...
STATIN INHIBITION OF MACROPHAGE INTEGRIN-INDUCED RAC2-MYOSIN IIA INTERACTION: AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT. Kenneth E. Ike, Alan Morrison, and Jeffrey R. Bender. Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are pharmaceuticals that are utilized for the treatment of lipid disorders along with the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, converting HMG-CoA to mevalonate. The isoprenoid products, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), are derived from the mevalonate pathway and serve as substrates in the prenylation of 2% of cellular proteins including the Rho family of low molecular weight G-proteins which mediate multiple cellular signals. Prenylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins that plays a role in the subcellular localization of proteins
Perform Glycan and Glycopeptide Qualitative Analysis, Glycan Structure Prediction & Multi stage Mass Spectrometry (MSn) data analysis using accurate ranking mechanism.
Phosphorylation is among the most important post-translational modifications of proteins and has numerous regulatory functions across all domains of life. However, phosphorylation is often substoichiometric, requiring selective and sensitive methods to enrich phosphorylated peptides from complex cellular digests. Various methods have been devised for this purpose and we have recently ... read more described a Fe-IMAC HPLC column chromatography setup which is capable of comprehensive, reproducible, and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides out of complex peptide mixtures. In contrast to other formats such as StageTips or batch incubations using TiO2 or Ti-IMAC beads, Fe-IMAC HPLC columns do not suffer from issues regarding incomplete phosphopeptide binding or elution and enrichment efficiency scales linearly with the amount of starting material. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for the entire phosphopeptide enrichment procedure including sample preparation (lysis, digestion, desalting), ...
Is this a trick question? :) Sudheendra Rao N R ,sudhee26 from, wrote in message news:mailman.491.1202159543.2451.methods from , Hi, , can somebody tell me what changes would occur to the molecular weight of a , protein being run in a denaturing PAGE after it undergoes Post , translational , modification? , like sumoylation can increase mol weight by 11kD. , , Sudheendra. , , -- , Think before agree , Think before you nod , but STOP thinking , and You Are God ...
Cytokines are a group of proteins and polypeptides that organisms use as signaling molecules. Most cytokines are glycoproteins less than 30 kDa in size and bind to specific, high-affinity cell surface receptors. Due to their central role in the immune system, cytokines are involved in a variety of immunological, inflammatory and infectious diseases and widely used in research, diagnostics and therapeutics. Cytokines generally alter the gene expression pattern of the target cell which leads to changes in the rate of cell proliferation and/or in the state of cell differentiation. Currently, these proteins are predominantly produced in non-human cells (e.g. E. coli, SF9, CHO) and therefore lack authenticity due to the absence of physiologically relevant glycosylation. In addition, a number of important cytokines are not commercially available due to inadequate proteolytic processing, protein folding or other post-translational modifications that do not occur in the non-human cell expression ...
H1S186ph. H1.4 serine 186 (reported as H1S187) phosphorylation is preferentially associated with active rDNA promoters and enriched at hormone response element (PMID: 20439994). ...
Authors: Georges Khoury, Talia M Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin, Damian FJ Purcell
C.Post-Translational Modification Proteomics--phosphoproteome identification Protein post-translational modification (PTM) increases the functional diversity of the proteome either by the covalent addition of chemical moieties or functional groups, or by the proteolytic cleavage of regulatory subunits or the degradation of protein complexes. Many large-scale post-translational modification studies have recently been performed on various organisms, and phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, and glycosylation are among the most intensively studied PTM proteomes. Protein phosphorylation is an ubiquitous post-translational modification, essential to many physiological and biological processes and cellular events. Phosphoproteomic analysis provides identification of phosphorylated proteins and peptides, providing key data for understanding their biological functions. This proteomic method has greatly enhanced our understanding of cellular phosphoproteins and their dynamic regulatory mechanisms in ...
Ngn3 is recognized as a regulator of pancreatic endocrine formation, and Notch signaling as an important negative regulator Ngn3 gene expression. By conditionally controlling expression of Ngn3 in the pancreas, we find that these two signaling components are dynamically linked. This connection invol …
Nature provides an abundant source of functional proteins for designing new systems. To date, chromatin proteins are an untapped resource. A class of chromatin proteins, known as effectors, have the remarkable ability to discriminate and bind to specific post-translational modifications of target proteins called histones. Can a synthetic protein device be engineered to read histone modifications? Can we use this type of device as a new tool to monitor changes in histone modifications in single living cells? Accomplishing these goals will allow scientists to probe histone modification at unprecedented resolution, thus furthering our understanding of the dynamics of histone modifications associated with cancer and normal cell development. ...
E3 protein ligase that mediates ufmylation, the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like modifier UFM1 to substrate proteins, a post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins that may play a crucial role in a number of cellular processes. Mediates DDRGK1 ufmylation and may regulate the proteasomal degradation of DDRGK1 and CDK5RAP3 thereby modulating NF-kappa-B signaling (PubMed:20018847, PubMed:20164180, PubMed:20228063, PubMed:25219498). May also through TRIP4 ufmylation play a role in nuclear receptors-mediated transcription (PubMed:25219498). May play a role in the unfolded protein response, mediating the ufmylation of multiple proteins in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (PubMed:23152784).
YM-216391, an autitumor natural product, represents a new class of cyclic peptides containing a polyoxazolethiazole moiety, Herein we describe its gene cluster encoding the biosynthetic paradigm featuring a ribosomally synthesizing procursor peptide followed by a series of novel posttranslational modifications which include (1) cleavage of both N-terminal leader peptide and C-terminal extension peptide and cyclization in a head-to-tail fashion, (ii) conversion of an L-Ile to D-allo-Ile, and (iii) beta-hydroxylation of Phe by a P450 monooxygenase followed by further heterocyclization and oxidation to form a phenyloxazole moiety. The cluster was heterologously expressed in Streptomyces lividans to bypass difficult genetic manipulation. Deletion of the ymR3 gene, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, increased the YM-216391 yield about 20-fold higher than the original yields for the heterologous expression of wild-type cluster, which set the stage for further combinatorial biosynthesis ...
The NF-κB family of transcription factors play a central role in the inducible expression ofinflammatory genes during the immune response, and the proper regulation of these genes is acritical factor in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The chromatin environment atstimulus-responsive NF-κB sites is a major determinant in transcription factor binding, anddynamic alteration of the chromatin state to facilitate transcription factor binding is a keyregulatory mechanism. NF-κB is in turn able to influence the chromatin state through a variety ofmechanisms, including the recruitment of chromatin modifying co-activator complexes such asp300, the competitive eviction of negative chromatin modifications, and the recruitment ofcomponents of the general transcriptional machinery. Frequently, the selective interaction withthese co-activators is dependent on specific post-translational modification of NF-κB subunits.Finally, the mechanisms of inducible NF-κB activity in different immune cell types seem to
Nitro-fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed by reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite. NO(2)-FA exert anti-inflammatory signaling actions through post-translational protein modifications. We report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)) stimulates proMMP-7 and proMMP-9 proteolytic activity via adduction of the conserved cysteine switch domain thiolate. Biotin-labeled OA-NO(2) showed this adduction occurs preferentially with latent forms of MMP, confirming a role for thiol alkylation by OA-NO(2) in MMP activation. In addition to regulating pro-MMP activation, MMP expression was modulated by OA-NO(2) via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. MMP-9 transcription was decreased in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated THP-1 macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist Rosiglitazone. This was affirmed using a murine model of atherosclerosis, ApoE(-/-) mice, where in vivo OA-NO(2) administration
Lysine acetylation is a conserved, reversible, post-translational protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs; also known as histone deacetylases (HDACs)) that is involved in many cellular signalling pathways and diseases. Studies in animal models have revealed a regulatory role of reversible lysine acetylation in hypertension, vascular diseases, arrhythmia, heart failure and angiogenesis. Evidence from these studies indicates a therapeutic role of KDAC inhibitors (also known as HDAC inhibitors) in cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, we describe the diverse roles of KATs and KDACs in both the normal and the diseased heart. Among KDACs, class II and class III HDACs seem to have a protective role against both cardiac damage and vessel injury, whereas class I HDACs protect against vessel injury but have deleterious effects on the heart. These observations have important implications for the clinical utility of HDAC inhibitors as therapeutic agents
membrane, dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase activity, co-translational protein modification, glycoprotein catabolic process, post-translational protein modification, protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine, response to unfolded protein, ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway
1. Acetylation Databases. (1) PhosphoSitePlus: (PSP) is a comprehensive, manually curated and interactive resource on post-translational modifications (PTM). PSP contains encompasses 130000 non-redundant modification sites, manily on phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation and acetylation (Hornbeck, et al., 2004). (2) g2pDB: A Database Mapping Protein Post-Translational Modifications to Genomic Coordinates. The original data comes mainly from published studies, many of which involve the investigation of post-translational modification acceptor site assignments, e.g., phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, acetylation, and N-linked glycosylation sites. (Keegan S, et al., 2016). (3) dbPTM 2.0: integrates experimentally verified PTMs from several databases, and to annotate the predicted PTMs on Swiss-Prot proteins , 2,071 acetylation sites were included while most of which were N-alpha-terminal ones (Lee TY, et al., 2006) . (4) HPRD release 9: HPRD currently contains information for 16,972 PTMs ...
Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia heterophilically; it also promotes neurite outgrowth. In the chick brain, Ng-CAM is detected as glycoproteins of 190 and 210 kD (Ng-CAM200) with posttranslational cleavage products of 135 kD (F135, which contains most of the extracellular region) and 80 kD (F80, which includes the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic domains). To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135. In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be ...
Protein ubiquitination is an important post-translational modification involved in several essential signalling pathways. It has different effects on the target protein substrate, i.e., it can trigger the degradation of the protein in the proteasome, change the interactions of the modified protein with its partners, or affect its localization and activity. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the consequences of protein ubiquitination, scientists have to face the challenging task of producing ubiquitinated proteins for structural characterization with X-ray crystallography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These techniques require milligrams of homogeneous samples of high purity. The strategies proposed so far for the production of ubiquitinated proteins can be divided into two groups, i.e., chemical (or non-enzymatic) and enzymatic methodologies. In this review, we summarize the still very sparse examples available in the literature that describe successful
The conjugation of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to protein substrates is an important post-translational modification that has ramifications for cancer and other diseases. As the sole E2 enzyme in the tightly regulated E1/E2/E3 SUMOylation enzymatic cascade, Ubc9 plays a central role in the conjugation of all three SUMO isoforms to a variety of protein targets. Although Ubc9 is viewed as a promising anti-cancer drug target, the development of small-molecule Ubc9 inhibitors has proven to be very difficult. In the past decade, fragment-based drug design has emerged as a powerful approach to identify ligands for challenging protein targets that can provide excellent starting points for the development of potent inhibitors. By X-ray crystallographic fragment screening, we have identified two small-molecule fragments that bind to Ubc9 at a location that is distal from its active site. Although these fragments have weak affinity for Ubc9, biochemical assays have confirmed that they inhibit ...
In eukaryotes, the conjugation of the ubiquitinlikeprotein NEDD8 onto protein targets is an important post-translational modification. The best understood neddylation targets are the cullins, scaffold subunits of E3 ubiquitin ligases, where neddylation as well as deneddylation, facilitated by the protease activity of the CSN (COP9 signalosome), are required to control ubiquitin ligase assembly, function and ultimately substrate degradation. Little is known about the role of other deneddylating enzymes besides CSN and the role of neddylation and deneddylation of their substrates. We previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with defects in the conserved NEDD8-specific protease DEN1 (DENEDDYLASE1). These mutants display only subtle growth phenotypes despite the strong accumulation of a broad range of neddylated proteins. Specifically, we identified AXR1 (AUXIN RESISTANT1), a subunit of the heterodimeric NAE (E1 NEDD8 ACTIVATING ENZYME), as highly neddylated in den1 mutants. Here, we ...
Chumpen Ramirez S et at, Biochem J., 2017. Ganglioside glycosyltransferases (GGTs) are type-II membrane proteins bearing a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a transmembrane domain (TMD), and a lumenal catalytic domain. The expression and activity of these enzymes largely determine the quality of the glycolipids that decorate mammalian cells membranes. Many glycosyltransferases are themselves glycosylated and this is important for their proper localisation, but few if any other post-translational modifications of these proteins have been reported. Here we show that the GGTs, ST3Gal-V, ST8Sia-I, and β4GalNAcT-I are S-acylated at conserved cysteine residues located close the cytoplasmic border of their TMDs. ST3Gal-II, a GT that sialylates glycolipids and glycoproteins, is also S-acylated at a conserved cysteine located in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Many others GTs also possess cysteine residues in their cytoplasmic regions suggesting that this modification occurs on these GTs as well. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein phosphorylation detection using dual-mode field-effect devices and nanoplasmonic sensors. AU - Bhalla, Nikhil. AU - Di Lorenzo, Mirella. AU - Pula, Giordano. AU - Estrela, Pedro. PY - 2015/3/3. Y1 - 2015/3/3. N2 - Phosphorylation by kinases is an important post-translational modification of proteins. It is a critical control for the regulation of vital cellular activities, and its dysregulation is implicated in several diseases. A common drug discovery approach involves, therefore, time-consuming screenings of large libraries of candidate compounds to identify novel inhibitors of protein kinases. In this work, we propose a novel method that combines localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and electrolyte insulator semiconductor (EIS)-based proton detection for the rapid identification of novel protein kinase inhibitors. In particular, the selective detection of thiophosphorylated proteins by LSPR is achieved by changing their resonance properties via a pre-binding with ...
This thesis deals with an important post-translational modification, ubiquitination. An important part of ubiquitin, regulatory protein, is the N-terminus and seven lysine residues, through which originates mutual binding of ubiquitin molecules in the polyubiquitin chain. The various possibilities of binding provide diversity in the creation of polyubiquitin chains, and thus their significance. Since ubiquitinated proteins in the analyzed protein mixtures exist mostly as a minor component, the first important and difficult step is their correct separation and identification. Experimental part of this work deals with precisely this part of the research and thus contains optimization methods for isolating and identifying of ubiquitin proteins by antibodies on the peptide and protein level. It has been shown that the optimization takes more time and work, thus future progressin this area is expected. …víceméně ...
Abnormal levels of cross-linking in fibrillar collagen strands have been shown to cause a number of human and animal diseases. Cross-linking is a vital step in fibrillogenesis and contributes greatly to the structural integrity of collagenous tissues. Conversely, defects in cross-link formation can significantly alter fibrillar organisation and lead to pathogenesis. Because collagen cross-links form on collagen-specific hydroxylated lysine residues, an understanding of the link between hydroxylysine and cross-link concentrations is needed to determine whether the level of hydroxylysine, the stereochemistry of these hydroxylysine residues, or other post-translational modifications such as glycosylation affect the level of cross-linking in tissue. While some research has been done to elucidate the connection between the two in different tissue types from the same animal, little has been undertaken to relate hydroxylation and glycosylation of lysine and hydroxylysine to the concentration and types ...
Multiple biotic and abiotic environmental factors may constitute stresses that affect plant growth and yield in crop species. Advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to stresses. This book details on technologies that have emerged during the past decade and have been useful in studying the multigenicity of the plant abiotic stress response. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress, above all in the regulation of timings and amount of specific stress responses. Post-transcriptional mechanisms based on alternative splicing and RNA processing, as well as RNA silencing define the actual transcriptome supporting the stress response. Beyond protein phosphorylation, other post-translational modifications like ubiquitination and sumoylation regulate the activation of pre-existing molecules to ensure a prompt response to stress factors. The text in this book deals with the importance ...
This service allows the production of antibodies that will specifically recognize the phosphorylated state of your target protein. The approach includes the synthesis and purification of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides, immunisation, fabrication of two affinity columns for successive purification. Extensive ELISA on phospho-specific antibodies as well as on the fraction specific to the non-phosphorylated state is performed. We have successfully utilized this method with other post-translational modifications including acetylation and methylation. ...
Pharmacia Corporation, Milan, Italy is seeking talented people to join our research groups in a multidisciplinary and highly interactive environment. Pharmacia Corporation is a global company with global ambitions. We offer competitive salaries, benefits and global career opportunities limited only by your skill, creativity and performance. If you are interested in any of the positions described, please send a CV to Dr. Antonella Isacchi Phone 0248383791 Email Antonella.Isacchi at or Dr Simon Plyte simon.plyte at Open positions list - Biology Department Protein Chemist/Mass Spectrometrist The candidate will be responsible for a Protein Chemistry Unit of 4-5 scientists focused on the analytical characterization of recombinant proteins to be used for x-ray crystallographic and NMR studies. These efforts involve domain mapping by limited proteolysis, N- and C- terminal sequence analysis, and the mapping of phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications by LCMS and ...
FIGURE 3. The reduced form of glutathione (GSH) acting as a double-edged sword. As illustrated, GSH is a major cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic stress. It also plays an important role in redox signaling. On contrary, this tri-peptide, under certain conditions, make the host cell or organism more susceptible to such conditions as anxiety, pathogen infections, and tumorigenesis.. 3.1.4. Protein Deglutathionylation Reversible protein S-glutathionylation (protein-SSG) is an important post-translational modification involved in redox signaling. Analogous to protein dephosphorylation catalyzed by phosphatases, glutaredoxin using GSH as a cofactor/electron donor catalyzes deglutathionylation of proteins. This participates in regulating diverse intracellular signaling pathways [6, 7].. 3.2. Atypical Biological Activities. 3.2.1. Anxiety. In addition to the above well-established functions, GSH also possesses atypical biological activities, including both beneficial and detrimental ...
back to overview Galactose is a monosaccharide (sugar). Galactosylation (especially O-galactosylation at Ser and Thr) is an important post-translational modification of proteins ...
Linear ubiquitination is definitely a important posttranslational adjustment that regulates immune system signaling and cell death pathways, notably tumor necrosis element receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling. caspase\8 or epidermal mutilation of FADD.21, 23 These studies collectively corroborate a central part of LUBAC in restraining aberrant service of TNFR1\induced cell death machineries in order to maintain cells homeostasis. Although mice show liver swelling, it remains unfamiliar which cells and cell types contribute to hepatitis. In addition, the physiological part of LUBAC in LPCs remains unfamiliar. Here, we looked into the part of linear ubiquitination and Rabbit Polyclonal to MMP-19 LUBAC in liver swelling and carcinogenesis by studying mice that lack HOIP, the central and catalytically active component of LUBAC, specifically in LPCs. Materials and Methods ANIMALS All animal studies were carried out relating to an appropriate license under the Animals (Scientific TSA Methods) Take action of ...
Les histones sont des protéines nucléaires hautement conservées chez les cellules des eucaryotes. Elles permettent dorganiser et de compacter lADN sous la forme de nucléosomes, ceux-ci representant les sous unités de base de la chromatine. Les histones peuvent être modifiées par de nombreuses modifications post-traductionnelles (PTMs) telles que lacétylation, la méthylation et la phosphorylation. Ces modifications jouent un rôle essentiel dans la réplication de lADN, la transcription et lassemblage de la chromatine. Labondance de ces modifications peut varier de facon significative lors du developpement des maladies incluant plusieurs types de cancer. Par exemple, la perte totale de la triméthylation sur H4K20 ainsi que lacétylation sur H4K16 sont des marqueurs tumoraux spécifiques a certains types de cancer chez lhumain. Par conséquent, létude de ces modifications et des événements determinant la dynamique des leurs changements dabondance sont des atouts importants ...
For this analysis they are primarily using an LTQ-Orbitrap XL with ETD and employing both CID and ETD fractionation. Surprisingly, the majority of the information being obtained for PTM matches is not coming from the ETD. This is likely due to the lower speed/efficiency of the earliest ETD system compared to the ones I normally get to mess around with. It does, however, contribute meaningfully to the study. This is a nice clear study but I mostly highlight it here because Im very interested in what they are going to do next AND how this data is going to line up with other well established histone PTM datasets we have from other models. So...this post is kind of to remind myself to check back on these guys later...sorry ...
Small ubiquitin-related modifier 2; Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. Covalent attachment via an isopeptide bond to its substrates requires prior activation by the E1 complex SAE1-SAE2 and linkage to the E2 enzyme UBE2I, and can be promoted by an E3 ligase such as PIAS1-4, RANBP2, CBX4 or ZNF451. This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. Polyme [...] (95 aa ...
Protein phosphorylation is arguably the most important reversible post-translational modification that occurs in cells. Protein kinases and phosphatases add or remove, respectively, phosphate groups that regulate enzymatic activity, protein-protein interactions, and protein tertiary structures. Knowledge of the sites of phosphorylation on a particular protein can aid in understanding the mechanism by which that protein affects a biological pathway.. A variety of techniques are available for detecting phosphorylated peptides. Traditional methods such as TLC and Edman sequencing have the disadvantages that they typically require the use of radioactively labeled sample and either prior knowledge of the protein sequence or the ability to make some assumptions about the peptide sequence. Proteins can be labeled in vivo using [32P]orthophosphate or in vitro using purified kinase and [γ-32P]ATP. The phosphorylated proteins are enzymatically digested, and the phosphopeptides are isolated by high ...
Antibody-based Therapeutics N-linked glycosylation is a common post-translational modification on many antibody-based therapeutics, and has been linked to safety, stability and activity. Modification should therefore be monitored and controlled.During this webcast, our expert Michael Walker discusses peptide mapping and middle-up mass spectrometry as characterization techniques that give relative levels of different glycoforms at specific sites, and compares to more common methodologies of enzymatic stripping and fluorescent labelling.
ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein. It is a reversible post-translational modification that is involved in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, DNA repair, gene regulation and apoptosis. Improper ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in some forms of cancer. It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first suggestion of ADP-ribosylation surfaced during the early 1960s. At this time, Pierre Chambon and coworkers observed the incorporation of ATP into hen liver nuclei extract. After extensive studies on the acid insoluble fraction, several different research laboratories were able to identify ADP-ribose, derived from NAD+, as the incorporated group. Several years later, the enzymes responsible for this incorporation were identified and given the name poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Originally, this group was thought to be a linear sequence of ADP-ribose units ...
The small ubiquitin related modifier (SUMO)-mediated posttranslational protein modification is widely conserved among eukaryotes. Similar to ubiquitination, SUMO modifications are attached to the substrate protein through three reaction steps by the E1, E2 and E3 enzymes. To date, multiple families of SUMO E3 ligases have been reported in yeast and animals, but only two types of E3 ligases have been identified in Arabidopsis: SAP and Miz 1 (SIZ1) and Methyl Methanesulfonate-Sensitivity protein 21 (MMS21)/HIGH PLOIDY 2 (HPY2), hereafter referred to as HPY2. Both proteins possess characteristic motifs termed Siz/PIAS RING (SP-RING) domains, and these motifs are conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Previous studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in HPY2 or SIZ1 cause dwarf phenotypes and that the phenotype of siz1-2 is caused by the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). However, we demonstrate here that the phenotype of hpy2-1 does not depend on SA accumulation. Consistently, the expression
SUMO1 is a member of a ubiquitin-like group of enzymes responsible for SUMOylation, a type of reversible posttranslational protein modification (82, 100). SUMOylation facilitates a wide array of cellular homeostasis-related functions, such as nuclear translocation, cell signaling, and protein allocation (28). Furthermore, SUMOylation regulates tumor suppressors such as PTEN (6), p53 (99), and VHL (18) and promotes cell survival, via the aforementioned HDAC2-dependent p53 acetylation (5) and its partaking in the DDR (81). PARK7 is both a target for SUMOylation (109) and a regulator of the SUMO-1 pathway, inhibiting SUMOylation unless functionally impaired by oxidation (56). A PARK7-induced dysregulation of SUMOylation could lead to increased survival of neoplastic cells through either the SUMO1 or PARK7 pathway, given that they appear to be intertwined. This is a speculation, however, and more specific studies should address it. Still, no published reports on the potential role of SUMO1 exist on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-translational modifications as key regulators of apicomplexan biology. T2 - insights from proteome-wide studies. AU - Yakubu, Rama R.. AU - Weiss, Louis M.. AU - Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. N2 - Parasites of the Apicomplexa phylum, such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, undergo complex life cycles involving multiple stages with distinct biology and morphologies. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation, acetylation and glycosylation, regulate numerous cellular processes, playing a role in every aspect of cell biology. PTMs can occur on proteins at any time in their lifespan and through alterations of target protein activity, localization, protein-protein interactions, among other functions, dramatically increase proteome diversity and complexity. In addition, PTMs can be induced or removed on changes in cellular environment and state. Thus, PTMs are likely to be key regulators of developmental transitions, biology ...
The folding, quality control, and secretion of collagen presents a significant challenge to collagen-producing cells. Each monomeric polypeptide must undergo extensive post-translational modifications, folding and assembly of the C-terminal propeptide globular domain, and isomerization of hundreds of prolyl bonds into the trans conformation before the mature triple helix can form. The triple-helical domain lacks a traditional hydrophobic core that often drives the assembly and folding of globular proteins. Even once folded, the triple helix is at best marginally stable at body temperature and is prone to local regions of unwinding. The process must be highly orchestrated by the endoplasmic reticulums chaperone network, including maintaining newly synthesized collagen polypeptides in an unfolded, non-aggregated, and unassembled form until after the extreme C-terminus adopts its folded structure. Despite decades of work, however, the mechanisms of collagen folding remain poorly understood, and ...
Background: Ubiquitination is a vital posttranslational protein modification involved in the regulation of many eukaryotic signalling pathways. Aberrant ubiquitin signalling is known to be a molecular causality of certain cancer, neurodegenerative, immune system or cardiovascular diseases. The recent development of mass spectrometry methods enables qualitative and quantitative ubiquitination...
Human bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix of bone. It is thought to be the primary nucleator of hydroxyapatite crystallization, and is known to bind to hydroxyapatite, collagen, and cells. Mature BSP shows extensive post-translational modifications, including attachment of glycans, sulfation, and phosphorylation, and is highly flexible with no specific 2D or 3D structure in solution or the solid state. These features have severely limited the experimental characterization of the structure of this protein. We have therefore developed a 3D structural model for BSP, based on the available literature data, using molecular modelling techniques. The complete model consists of 301 amino acids, including six phosphorylated serines and two sulfated tyrosines, plus 92 N- and O-linked glycan residues. A notable feature of the model is a large acidic patch that provides a surface for binding Ca2+ions. Density functional theory quantum calculations with an implicit ...
Soil-dwelling Streptomyces bacteria such as S.coelicolor have to constantly adapt to the nitrogen (N) availability in their habitat. Thus, strict transcriptional and post-translational control of the N-assimilation is fundamental for survival of this species. GlnR is a global response regulator that controls transcription of the genes related to the N-assimilation in S. coelicolor and other members of the Actinomycetales. GlnR represents an atypical orphan response regulator that is not activated by the phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate residue (Asp 50). We have applied transcriptional analysis, LC-MS/MS analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to understand the regulation of GlnR in S. coelicolor M145. The expression of glnR and GlnR-target genes was revisited under four different N-defined conditions and a complex N-rich condition. Although, the expression of selected GlnR-target genes was strongly responsive to changing N-concentrations, the glnR expression itself ...
Most human protein-encoding genes contain multiple exons that are spliced together, frequently in alternative arrangements, by the spliceosome. It is established that U1 snRNP is an essential component of the spliceosome, in human consisting of RNA and ten proteins, several of which are post-translationally modified and exist as multiple isoforms. Unresolved and challenging to investigate are the effects of these post translational modifications on the dynamics, interactions and stability of the particle. Using mass spectrometry we investigate the composition and dynamics of the native human U1 snRNP and compare native and recombinant complexes to isolate the effects of various subunits and isoforms on the overall stability. Our data reveal differential incorporation of four protein isoforms and dynamic interactions of subunits U1-A, U1-C and Sm-B/B. Results also show that unstructured post-translationally modified C-terminal tails are responsible for the dynamics of Sm-B/B and U1-C and that their
Dr. Mamulas received degrees from UCLA, the University of Notre Dame and the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Mamulas central research interests are in investigating the early events involved with breaking immune tolerance to self proteins, both in autoimmune disease and in tumor biology. Overall, it is the goal of Dr. Mamulas laboratory to understand the mechanisms that may shift this balance toward the initiation of anti-self immune responses. Seminal work from the Mamula lab elucidated the biochemical forms of autoantigens capable of breaking immunologic tolerance to intracellular autoantigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Simply put, Dr. Mamula examines posttranslational protein modifications that alter cellular biology and immunity. These studies have now been applied to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in developing anti-tumor vaccines in breast cancer and colon cancer. In addition, studies from the Mamula laboratory first demonstrated the ...
Dr. Mamulas received degrees from UCLA, the University of Notre Dame and the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Mamulas central research interests are in investigating the early events involved with breaking immune tolerance to self proteins, both in autoimmune disease and in tumor biology. Overall, it is the goal of Dr. Mamulas laboratory to understand the mechanisms that may shift this balance toward the initiation of anti-self immune responses. Seminal work from the Mamula lab elucidated the biochemical forms of autoantigens capable of breaking immunologic tolerance to intracellular autoantigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Simply put, Dr. Mamula examines posttranslational protein modifications that alter cellular biology and immunity. These studies have now been applied to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in developing anti-tumor vaccines in breast cancer and colon cancer. In addition, studies from the Mamula laboratory first demonstrated the ...
The members of the recently established DFG Research Training Group 2155 (ProMoAge) gathered for their first meeting in the historical city of Wittenberg during the weekend from 5th to 7th November 2016. What better location for this kick-off-meeting could be chosen than the „Leucorea, which was founded over 500 years ago and has later merged with the Friedrichs University of Halle to form the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg. The aim of the meeting was to introduce each specific subproject of ProMoAge and the working group behind it. 14 innovative projects dealing with posttranslational protein modifications and their role in ageing were shortly presented and discussed with enthusiasm by PhD and MD students, postdocs and group leaders. Guest lectures about good scientific practice, ProMoAge-related epidemiological cohort studies and newest insights in proteasome modulation during ageing complemented the diverse programme. One should not stay in Wittenberg without visiting the ...
Author summary Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like post-translational modifications are evolutionarily conserved and involved in fundamental cellular processes essential to all eukaryotes. As such, enzymatic components of these pathways present attractive targets for therapeutic intervention for both chronic and communicable diseases. Nedd8 modification of cullin ubiquitin E3 ligases is critical to the viability of eukaryotic organisms and mediates cell cycle progression and DNA damage repair. Given the complex lifecycle and unusual replication mechanisms of the malaria parasite, one would expect neddylation to be of central importance to its survival, yet little is known about this pathway in Plasmodium. Here we present our findings on how Nedd8 removal is controlled in Plasmodium falciparum and how this pathway differs to that of its human host.
Our laboratory located at Cystic Fibrosis and Pulmonary Research Center. One of the main focuses of our work is the characterization of the large mucin gene products (Mr 2-3 million) and the complexes they make (Mr 10-100 million) essential for the formation of the mucus gels vital for epithelial protection and function. our current work is focused around the human lung where there are many hypersecretory human diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic bronchitis in which these glycoconjugates are centrally implicated. My proteomic interest includes designing and implementing novel mass spectral methods for identifying proteins and glycoproteins in mucus gels where conventional proteomic methods do not work. Many of the molecules are heavily modified and thus MS methods for characterizing post-translational modifications are vital in this work. ...
An elevated level of LDL cholesterol is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and is also associated with aging. Modification of LDL particle is one of the main contributors to the development of atherosclerosis and is elevated with increasing plasma LDL concentrations. Modified LDL is usually composed of LOOH/aldehydes, unfolded protein and some protein post-translational modifications. It has been debated whether the lipid peroxides or unfolded apoB-100 protein is important. An important pathway in atherosclerosis may be the phosphorylation of JNK-2 in ECs. OxLDL-R CD-36 knockout macrophages which have decreased foam cell formation and decreased JNK-2 phosphorylation as well as an ApoE and JNK-2 double knockout mouse has decreased lesion size and MFC formation. Foam cells have increased ROS production and mitochondria are the major source of ROS and this evidence may suggest that p-JNK-2 is involved in regulating mitochondrial function.; We hypothesize that ONOO- induced nitration ...
The Discovery Award in Proteomic Sciences has been awarded by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) to Albert J.R. Heck, Professor at the Science Faculty of Utrecht University. Heck is also scientific director of the Netherlands Proteomics Centre and coordinator of the European proteomics infrastructure PRIME-XS and the NWO roadmap funded Large-Scale Proteomics Research Facility Proteins At Work.. The Discovery in Proteomic Sciences award recognizes a scientist for an eminent single discovery in the field of proteomics. Heck receives the award because he has implemented innovative mass spectrometric methods with a unique emphasis on protein post-translational modifications and interactions.. Heck will receive the award during a ceremony at the HUPO World Congress in Yokohama, Japan, September 18, 2013.. Past award recipients are amongst others: Carol Robinson, Steve Carr, Matthias Mann, Catherine Costello, John Yates, Ruedi Aebersold and Brian Chait.. ...
Glycoscience is gaining recognition as an important component of life science, as emphasized in two recently published roadmaps issued by the American National Research Council in 2012 (1) and by the European Science Foundation (ESF) GlycoForum ( in 2015. Both references point to the same need for organizing access to glycan-related data that is absent in current bioinformatics resources.. Glycosylation is the most common protein post-translational modification yet its role is far from being understood. Glycans, proteins to which they are attached (glycoproteins) and proteins to which they bind (lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins) are the main molecular actors in this overall cell surface picture as well as the enzymes that are needed to synthesize or trim the attached glycans. The first challenge in collecting this data is the wide range of experimental techniques used to analyze glycans and to elucidate their ...
Photosynthetic electron transport and biological energy transduction are studied by electron spin resonance and time-resolved optical and electroabsorption spectroscopies. Biochemical and biophysical research also focuses on the mechanisms of protein folding and aggregation, protein folding defects related to human diseases, and the molecular structures of proteins, including amino acid sequence determination and identification of protein post-translational modifications. Carbohydrate biochemistry and glycobiology are used to understand disease processes and to develop new therapeutic agents. The biochemical aspects of biotechnology including chemoenzymatic synthesis, biocatalysis, and metabolic engineering are being explored. The methodologies used include kinetic and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, fluorescence, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and FTIR of protein conformational changes), molecular modeling, computational graphics, and molecular mechanics calculations on ...
About the project There are hundreds of types of protein post-translational modification (PTM), which alter protein structure, function, stability, etc.
HIstome is a freely available, specialist, electronic database dedicated to display infomation about human histone variants, sites of their post-translational modifications and about various histone modifying enzymes. HIstome data is available by browsing the contents. The database covers 5 types of histones, 8 types of their post-translational modifications and 13 classes of modifying enzymes. Current version contains information for about ~50 histone proteins and ~150 histone modifying enzymes. Many data fields are hyperlinked to other databases (e.g. UnprotKB/Swiss-Prot, HGNC, OMIM, Unigene etc.). Additionally, this database also provides sequences of promoter regions (-700 TSS +300) for all gene entries. These sequences were extracted from the UCSC genome browser. Sites of post-translational modifications of histones were manually searched from PubMed listed literature. This infobase would be of use to biology researchers, especially those interested in epigenetic regulation. We welcome ...
A system-wide analysis of cell signaling requires detecting and quantifying many different proteins and their posttranslational modification states in the same cellular sample. Here, we present Protocols for two miniaturized, array-based methods, one of which provides detailed information on a central signaling protein and the other of which provides a broad characterization of the surrounding signaling network. We describe a bead-based array and its use in characterizing the different forms and functions of β-catenin, as well as lysate microarrays (reverse-phase protein arrays) and their use in detecting and quantifying proteins involved in the canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways. As an application of this dual approach, we characterized the state of β-catenin signaling in cell lysates and linked these molecule-specific data with pathway-wide changes in signaling. The Protocols described here provide detailed instructions for cell culture methods, bead arrays, and lysate ...
Monoclonal antibody and Fc fusion protein drugs are complex heterogeneous mixtures of numerous different protein variants and modifications. N-glycosylation as one of the most complex post translational modification influences the structural characteristics of the antibodies Fc part thereby potentially modulating effector function and pharmacokinetics. Several investigations on the relationship between N-glycosylation and pharmacokinetics have been published. However, this structure-function relationship is not fully understood. In this review potential alterations with focus on N-glycosylation of mAbs and Fc fusion proteins and the possible effects on the pharmacokinetics are reviewed and the current understandings of the underlying mechanisms are described. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. ...
... they help to mature proteins (e.g., Post-translational modification) or regulate biological processes. For example, the ... This is in contrast to an aminopeptidases, which cleave peptide bonds at the N-terminus of proteins. Humans, animals, bacteria ... and many other processes. Carboxypeptidases are usually classified into one of several families based on their active site ... bradykinin is broken down among other enzymes by carboxypeptidase N D-Ala carboxypeptidase is a penicillin-binding protein ...
Post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... Protein splicing[edit]. Main article: Protein splicing. In addition to RNA, proteins can undergo splicing. Although the ... In many cases, the splicing process can create a range of unique proteins by varying the exon composition of the same mRNA. ... DNA damage affects splicing factors by altering their post-translational modification, localization, expression and activity.[ ...
... and proteins). Glycosylation is a form of co-translational and post-translational modification. Glycans serve a variety of ... Glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to a target macromolecule, typically proteins and ... The process is non-templated (unlike DNA transcription or protein translation); instead, the cell relies on segregating enzymes ... Walsh C (2006). Posttranslational Modification of Proteins: Expanding Nature's Inventory. Roberts and Co. Publishers, Englewood ...
... s regulate larger multidomain proteins at the post-translational level. Microproteins are analogous to microRNAs ( ... In animals and plants, microproteins have been found to greatly influence biological processes. Because of microproteins' ... LITTLE ZIPPER protein is analogous to the Id protein. Despite not all proteins being small, in 2011, this class of protein was ... In homotypic miP inhibition, microproteins interact with proteins with similar protein-protein interaction (PPI) domain. In ...
The open reading frame (ORF) encodes a precursor protein that contains 431 amino acids; post-translational processing results ... The encoded protein is also involved in L-leucine catabolism. Mutations in the ACADSB gene have been associated with 2- ... with the mutations causing exon skipping and other transcriptional and translational errors. The disorder may be detected by MS ... in a mature protein with 399 amino acids. The cDNA is significantly similar to the cDNA of other members of the acyl-CoA ...
These can be post-translational modifications that may change the protein's properties. Although the protein can undergo these ... The explanation for this lies in the fact that type 2 diabetes is related to inflammation processes, hence coinciding with the ... The NF-κB protein is responsible for regulating inflammation in adipose tissue, so the activation of this protein leads to ... "SERPINA12 protein expression". The Human Protein Atlas. November 10, 2020. Zulet M, Puchau B, Navarro C, Marti A, Martinez JA ( ...
Each Rho protein affects numerous proteins downstream, all of which having roles in various cell processes. Over 60 targets of ... post-translational phosphorylation, transglutamination and AMPylation modulate Rho GTPase signaling; and ubiquitination ... A second target to explain the role of the Rho proteins in cancer is their regulatory proteins. Rho proteins are very tightly ... Rho proteins help cells regulate changes in shape throughout their life-cycle. Before cells can undergo key processes such as ...
September 2005). "Consequences of disease-causing mutations on lubricin protein synthesis, secretion, and post-translational ... processing". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (35): 31325-32. doi:10.1074/jbc.M505401200. PMID 16000300. Liu T, Qian WJ ... Due to the protein's overall slight negative charge and the fact that the center of the protein carries negatively charged ... The protein encoded by this gene is a approximately 345 kDa specifically synthesized by chondrocytes located at the surface of ...
"Cytoplasmic interaction with CYCLE promotes the post-translational processing of the circadian CLOCK protein". FEBS Letters. ... CYC also plays a role in the post-translational regulation of CLK in the cytoplasm. These four proteins of the feedback loop ... However, to fully understand these processes, work must be done to identify downstream interactions of CYCLE proteins. In ... The TIM protein in these complexes mediate the accumulation of the dimeric PER-TIM protein complex and their subsequent ...
Most programs available for protein analysis are not written for proteins that have undergone post-translational modifications ... One such modification is phosphorylation, which happens to many enzymes and structural proteins in the process of cell ... Most proteins function via protein-protein interactions, and one goal of interaction proteomics is to identify binary protein ... Another approach is the arraying of multiple protein types for the study of properties like protein-DNA, protein-protein and ...
Multiple post-translational modifications have been reported. Thus AHSG is a secreted partially phosphorylated glycoprotein ... Jahnen-Dechent W, Trindl A, Godovac-Zimmermann J, Müller-Esterl W (November 1994). "Posttranslational processing of human alpha ... Fetuins are carrier proteins like albumin. Fetuin-A forms soluble complexes with calcium and phosphate and thus is a carrier of ... The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and ...
DNA or protein:protein interactions.[39] Histone post-translational modifications modify the chromatin structure. The most ... Glycolysis is an essential process of glucose degrading into two molecules of pyruvate, through various steps, with the help of ... Protein phosphorylation is considered the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Phosphorylation can ... Protein phosphorylation[edit]. Main article: Protein phosphorylation. Function[edit]. Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is ...
Nevertheless, cellular post-translational modification is dependent on the presence of a poly-A tail; therefore this process is ... The virus encodes these activities in its non-structural proteins. The NS3 protein encodes a RNA triphosphatase within its ... In general, the genome encodes three structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, ... A G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (also known as ADRBK1) appears to be important in entry and replication for several ...
... post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... In many cases, the splicing process can create a range of unique proteins by varying the exon composition of the same mRNA. ... cDNA Exon junction complex mRNA capping Polyadenylation Post-transcriptional modification RNA editing SWAP protein domain, a ... DNA damage affects splicing factors by altering their post-translational modification, localization, expression and activity. ...
There is also tissue-specific processing of neuropeptide precursors. Different tissues have tailored post-translational ... Neuropeptides are small proteins produced by neurons that act on G protein-coupled receptors and are responsible for slow-onset ... Neuropeptides conjugated to proteins or other carriers, such as liposomes, may be used for targeting radioisotopes or drugs to ... Neuropeptides are released in a calcium-dependent manner to bind to G protein-coupled receptor(GPCRs)]]. Large dense core ...
Only after post-translational processing does the enzyme become active. This processing consists of truncating much of the ... protein's C-terminal chain, reducing the peptide molecular weight to 54 kDa. Histidine decarboxylase exists as a homodimer, ... This is the rate-limiting step of the all process, requiring an activation energy of 17.6 kcal/mol and fitting the experimental ... Histamine is an important biogenic amine that moderates numerous physiologic processes. There are four different histamine ...
This precursor undergoes a complex post-translational maturation process that requires a number of accessory proteins. At one ... Gene/protein names are sometimes used interchangeably to designate various "hydrogenase cluster" proteins unrelated to each ... For example, the following names are used for members of this group, but also for unrelated proteins: HupD is used in ... For example, Escherichia coli HycI is involved in processing of pre-HycE (the large subunit of hydrogenase 3),; HybD is ...
By multiple gene knockout Physcomitrella plants were engineered that lack plant-specific post-translational protein ... These knockout mosses are used to produce complex biopharmaceuticals in a process called molecular farming. The genome of P. ... PpRAD51, a protein at the core of the homologous recombination repair reaction, is required to preserve genome integrity in P. ... The genome sequence of P. patens has revealed the presence of numerous genes that encode proteins necessary for repair of DNA ...
The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as ... a new post-translational modification found in glycopeptide bacteriocins". FEBS Letters. 585 (4): 645-650. doi:10.1016/j. ... Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. Carbohydrates are attached to some proteins to form glycoproteins. In ... Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. ...
They exist in several molecular forms due to tissue-specific post-translational processing. The biological activity of gastrin ... The gastrin family (also known as the gastrin/cholecystokinin family) of proteins is defined by the peptide hormones gastrin ... Like many other active peptides they are synthesized as larger protein precursors that are then enzymatically converted into ... Watson S, Arkinstall S (1994). "Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin". The G-protein linked receptor factsbook. London: Academic ...
... and proteins). Glycosylation is a form of co-translational and post-translational modification. Glycans serve a variety of ... is an enzymatic process. Indeed, glycosylation is thought to be the most complex post-translational modification, because of ... It is a spontaneous reaction and a type of post-translational modification of proteins meaning it alters their structure and ... The Notch proteins go through these organelles in their maturation process and can be subject to different types of ...
... alternative first exons and post-translational processing". Eur. J. Immunol. 23 (4): 860-6. doi:10.1002/eji.1830230414. PMID ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ...
This is a reversible process and a major form of posttranslational modification of proteins. S-Nitrosylated proteins (SNO- ... post-translational modification leads to changes in protein activity, protein interactions, or subcellular location of target ... proteins) serve to transmit nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity and to regulate protein function through enzymatic mechanisms ... The addition of a nitroso group to a sulfur atom of an amino acid residue of a protein is known as S-nitrosylation or S- ...
The two enzymatic forms result from alternate transcription initiation sites and post-translational processing. Two transcripts ... 1989). "Glycosylation and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... The shorter transcript encodes a protein which is cleaved to form the soluble lactose synthase. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
There are two motifs with high probability of post translational modification sumoylation sites. Sumoylation sites are involved ... in a number of cellular processes, including nuclear-cytosolic transport, transcriptional regulation and protein stability. ... FAM83H is a gene in humans that encodes a protein known as FAM83H (uncharacterized protein FAM83H). FAM83H is targeted for the ... Alpha helices comprise the majority of the protein. There is a transmembrane domain from 231-252. Protein FAM83H is targeted to ...
"Aging as war between chemical and biochemical processes: protein methylation and the recognition of age-damaged proteins for ... Asparagine Aspartic acid Peptide bond Post-translational modification Clarke, S (2003). " ... J., Peptide Protein Res. 30: 808-821. PMID 3440704. Stephenson, RC; Clarke, S (1989). "Succinimide Formation from Aspartyl and ... Protein deamidation has been commonly analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) through peptide mapping. Recently ...
This process is called light adaptation. PDE6β is the only protein that undergoes the two types of post-translational ... This process leads to the release of subunit PDE6γ from PDE6αβ, activating PDE6 which leads to the hydrolysis of cGMP. Without ... PDE6 is a protein complex located on the photoreceptor's outer segment, and plays an important role in the phototransduction ... PDE6 is a highly concentrated protein in retinal photoreceptors. With the presence of the GAF domain, PDE6 can actively bind to ...
This precursor molecule undergoes post-translational processing where the eventual, active α-LTX protein (131.5 kDa) is formed ... which mediate protein-protein interactions, the α-LTX monomer forms a dimer with another α-LTX monomer under normal conditions ... protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPσ). The toxin stimulates a receptor, most likely latrophilin, which is a G-protein ... The α-LTX protein tertiary structure can be divided in three parts: the N-terminal wing (36 kDa), the body (76 kDa), and the C- ...
... which is just as important as phosphorylation as a post-translational modification of proteins. Lysines 218, 221 and 310 are ... RELA/p65 interacts with various proteins in both the cytoplasm and in the nucleus during the process of classical NF-κB ... Phosphorylation and acetylation of RELA are crucial post-translational modifications required for NF-κB activation. RELA has ... Subsequent to NF-κB nuclear translocation, RELA undergoes site-specific post-translational modifications to further enhance the ...
Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl ... In chemistry, acylation (or alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling. One prominent type is fatty acylation, the ... To do this an acylation reaction is performed, then the carbonyl is removed by Clemmensen reduction or a similar process. ...
This post-translational modification happens in conjunction with the H3K4me3 modification. The serotonylation potentiates the ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... This process therefore helps ensure that transcription is not interrupted.. Repressed genes[edit]. Three histone modifications ... Histones are subject to post translational modification by enzymes primarily on their N-terminal tails, but also in their ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... "Translational Psychiatry. 4 (5): e389. doi:10.1038/tp.2014.26. PMC 4035720. PMID 24802307.. ... Post mortem analysis has shown lowered levels of BDNF in the brain tissues of people with Alzheimer's disease, although the ... Biological process. • brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic ...
Post-injury neurodegeneration/tauopathy such as Tau protein and phospho-tau protein. There are also autoantibodies as ... Mirroring the different pathophysiologic processes occurring in TBI, a panel of TBI biofluid-based protein biomarkers has now ... 7) The biomarker should be translational in nature with demonstrated evidence that there are similar to biofluid profiles in at ... Temporal protein biomarkers in tracking different phases of TBIEdit. A continuum of protein biomarkers in tracking different ...
... protein degradation, the cytoskeleton, and RNA processing. Mutant SOD1 protein forms intracellular aggregations that inhibit ... "Annals of Translational Medicine. 4 (2): 27. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2016.01.16. PMC 4731596. PMID 26889480.. ... post-polio syndrome, multifocal motor neuropathy, CIDP, spinal muscular atrophy, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy can ... There are a number of ALS genes that encode for RNA-binding proteins. The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a ...
... especially when the proteasome plays a normal role in the post-translational processing of the protein. The proteasomal ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... for some proteins, the unfolding process is rate-limiting, while deubiquitination is the slowest step for other proteins.[27] ... Rape M, Jentsch S (May 2002). "Taking a bite: proteasomal protein processing". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (5): E113-6. doi:10.1038/ ...
Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE (1999). "The enzymatic biotinylation of proteins: a post-translational modification of exceptional ... Alkorta I, Garbisu C, Llama MJ, Serra JL (January 1998). "Industrial applications of pectic enzymes: a review". 》Process ... Hunter T (January 1995). "Protein kinases and phosphatases: the yin and yang of protein phosphorylation and signaling". 》Cell》 ... Protein structure and function》. London: New Science. 27쪽. ISBN 978-1405119221. .. ...
Kivirikko KI, Myllylä R (1985). "Post-translational processing of procollagens". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. ... processing, and routing domains". Protein Science. 2 (4): 489-497. doi:10.1002/pro.5560020401. PMC 2142366. PMID 8518727.. ... The Reichstein process and the modern two-step fermentation processes use sorbitol as the starting material and convert it to ... The Reichstein process, developed in the 1930s, uses a single pre-fermentation followed by a purely chemical route. The modern ...
The collagen IV C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers link head-to-head, ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... Translational Research. 165 (1): 200-20. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2014.05.006. PMC 4233194. PMID 24905038.. ... miRNAs are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing via inhibiting translation or involvement in RNAi pathways. Some ... "Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". review. Brain Research. 1462: 3-15. doi:10.1016/j.brainres. ...
negative regulation of protein processing. • protein destabilization. • activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium- ... The primary sequence of PrP is 253 amino acids long before post-translational modification. Signal sequences in the amino- and ... ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ...
Biological process. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase ... Upregulated in eosinophils post antigen exposure.[21] Cystic fibrosis Possible correlation with severity of the lung ... "Translational Psychiatry. 4 (2): e358. doi:10.1038/tp.2014.2. PMC 3944635. PMID 24495969.. ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ...
... part of the process that allows influenza viruses to invade cells is the cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin protein by any one ... Kash JC, Goodman AG, Korth MJ, Katze MG (July 2006). "Hijacking of the host-cell response and translational control during ... and post organ transplant.[110] In those at high risk immunization may reduce the risk of heart disease.[111] Whether ... matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase ...
... but differences exist regarding their manufacturing processes (chemical process versus biological process).[5] ... "Huffington Post. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.. *^ "In cancer drug battle, both sides appeal to ethics". CNN. ... Eli Lilly & Company and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.. *^ Taylor, David (2015). The Pharmaceutical ... Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has ...
The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... However, it has been shown that plants do use cellular memory mechanisms mediated by PcG proteins in several processes, ... (p. ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... They play an important role in many biological processes, binding to mRNA and protein targets in prokaryotes. Their ...
Frail elderly people are at significant risk of post-surgical complications and the need for extended care. Frailty more than ... the factors and processes that put elders at such risk, especially the increased vulnerability to stressors (e.g. extremes of ... and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in ... Advances about potentially modifiable risk factors for frailty now offer the basis for translational research effort aimed at ...
McClain WH (November 1993). "Rules that govern tRNA identity in protein synthesis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 234 (2): 257- ... A common novel function within human aaRSs is providing additional regulation of biological processes. There exists a theory ... leucyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus complexed with a post-transfer editing substrate analogue ... "Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 dictates transcript-selective translational ...
post-translational protein modification. • cellular protein metabolic process. • transport. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... "Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding protein". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... regulation of protein stability. • transferrin transport. • iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • ... The protein is composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two domains.[8] The N- and C- terminal sequences are ...
Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by post-translational ... Many proteins are involved in the process of cell signaling and signal transduction. Some proteins, such as insulin, are ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and membrane proteins. Almost all globular proteins are soluble and many are enzymes. ...
... which undergoes a series of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation before it is ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... a continual and highly regulated process in the bodies of air-breathing vertebrates.[10] The functional expression of MC2R on ... and their associated electron transfer proteins.[8] This effect is observed over several hours.[8] ...
"Protein & Cell. 6: 363-72. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5. PMC 4417674 . PMID 25894090. Retrieved 24 April 2015.. ... This process includes a medical history, family history (pedigree), a detailed physical examination, reviewing objective data ... Many of the clinical career paths also include basic or translational research, and thus individuals in the field of medical ... College (4 yrs) → Graduate school (PhD, usually 4-7 years) and/or Medical school (MD/DO, 4 years) → Post-doctoral research ...
Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processingEdit. Main article: Post-transcriptional modification. Processing of mRNA differs greatly among ... Translational efficiency, including sometimes the complete inhibition of translation, can be controlled by UTRs. Proteins that ... Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons, which terminate protein synthesis. This process of ... The short-lived, unprocessed or partially processed product is termed precursor mRNA, or pre-mRNA; once completely processed, ...
GLP-2 is created by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355 ...
Once this post-translational modification process has been completed, the protein begins to fold (sometimes spontaneously and ... Protein denaturationEdit. Denatured proteins can exhibit a wide range of characteristics, from loss of solubility to protein ... and protein-solvent interactions.[8] As a result, this process is heavily reliant on environmental state that the protein ... Process of partial or total alteration of the native secondary, and/or tertiary, and/or quaternary structures of proteins or ...
... regimens for PD restrict proteins during breakfast and lunch, allowing protein intake in the evening.[11] ... Muscles and nerves that control the digestive process may be affected by PD, resulting in constipation and gastroparesis (food ... "Translational Neurodegeneration. 6: 18. doi:10.1186/s40035-017-0090-8. PMC 5494127. PMID 28680589.. ... This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.[51][57] According to the Braak ...
lipoprotein metabolic process. • post-translational modification. • cellular protein metabolic process. • transport. • positive ... viral process. • negative regulation of lipid catabolic process. • protein oxidation. • triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle ... diacylglycerol catabolic process. • lipid transport. • regulation of protein stability. • positive regulation of cholesterol ... cholesterol metabolic process. • regulation of lipid metabolic process. • chylomicron remodeling. • chylomicron assembly. • ...
... is a type of post-translational modification of proteins. It is generally defined as the phosphorylation of ... Process and structure[edit]. Kinases are either phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues, or solely on tyrosine ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m Petsko, GA and Ringe, D 2009, 'Protein Structure and Function', Oxford University Press Inc., New ... 2 Process and structure. *3 Signaling pathways and trans-autophosphorylation *3.1 Examples of RTKs which undergo ...
post-translational protein modification. • protein neddylation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. Species. Human. Mouse. ... Biological process. • proteolysis. • regulation of cell cycle. • cellular protein modification process. • mitotic cell cycle. • ... protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • acid-amino acid ligase activity. • NEDD8 activating enzyme activity. ... The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins ...
... which convert arginine into citrulline in a process called citrullination or deimination. Proteins that normally contain ... for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that catalyses the peptidyl-arginine-citrulline post-translational ... citrulline residues include myelin basic protein (MBP), filaggrin, and several histone proteins, whereas other proteins, such ... Several proteins contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification. These citrulline residues are generated by ...
... of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post-translational level. ... This process yields aspirin and acetic acid, which is considered a byproduct of this reaction. Small amounts of sulfuric acid ( ... Protein binding. 80-90%[1]. Metabolism. Liver, (CYP2C19 and possibly CYP3A), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut ... About 50-80% of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; ...
Anatomical context of Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *Associations of Protein Processing, Post-Translational with ... Psychiatry related information on Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *High impact information on Protein Processing, Post- ... Associations of Protein Processing, Post-Translational with chemical compounds. *A unique post-translational modification of ... Chemical compound and disease context of Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *Biological context of Protein Processing, ...
Protein Translation & Post-Translational Processing flashcards from Jonathan Kallevang ... Post-Translational Processing Flashcards Preview Biochemistry , Exam #4: Protein Translation & Post-Translational Processing , ... Chaperones are proteins that associate with partly folded proteins. - Guide the folding process by binding hydrophobic regions ... Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER induces the unfolded protein response that: - Inhibits protein translation - ...
... and modifications required to make a protein functional after it is translated. ... Post-translational protein processing refers to the folding, sorting, cleavage, ... Post-translational protein processing (including post-translational modification) is the folding, sorting, cleavage, and ... Protein cleavage. Protein cleavage is the process of removing certain polypeptides in order for the protein to become ...
"Protein Processing, Post-Translational" by people in this website by year, and whether "Protein Processing, Post-Translational ... Post-Translational*Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *Processing, Post-Translational Protein. *Post-Translational Protein ... Protein Modification, Translational [G02.111.087.675.871.790]. *Protein Processing, Post-Translational [G02.111.087.675.871.790 ... Protein Modification, Translational [G02.149.115.675.871.790]. *Protein Processing, Post-Translational [G02.149.115.675.871.790 ...
... several studies underline the particular importance of the interaction between AMPK and the post-translational modification ... several studies underline the particular importance of the interaction between AMPK and the post-translational modification ... O-GlcNAcylation plays a role in multiple physiological cellular processes but is also associated with the development of ... O-GlcNAcylation plays a role in multiple physiological cellular processes but is also associated with the development of ...
Peptide sequence tag-based blind identification of post-translational modifications with point process model ... in a protein. In general, the process of PTM identification by aligning experimental spectra with theoretical spectra from ... Peptide sequence tag-based blind identification of post-translational modifications with point process model by Chunmei Liu, Bo ... BIOINFORMATICS Peptide Sequence Tag-Based Blind Identification of Post-Translational Modifications with Point Process Model by ...
A translational regulator that binds mRNA to regulate translation initiation and/or mRNA stability. Usually binds in the 5-UTR ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. Q72EP8, 2 interactors ... Translational regulator CsrAAdd BLAST. 78. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ...
... thereby regulating various cellular and signaling processes. Cooperates with PTEN to modulate the kinase activity of AKT1. Its ... interaction with PTPRB and tyrosine phosphorylated proteins suggests that it may link receptor tyrosine phosphatase with its ... Acts as a scaffolding protein at cell-cell junctions, ... resource for the study of protein post-translational ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ...
NS1 Expression, post translational processing and trafficking. Figure 3.Schematic summary of NS1 trafficking in mammalian cells ... Flaviviruses are small and have only seven nonstructural and three structural proteins. These structural proteins are ... E proteins are important for cell infection as they mediate binding to cell receptors and fusion with endosomal membranes after ... The hexamer form of NS1 is only found in mammalian cells and comes from NS1 sent to the Golgi for processing (Muller and Young ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Uncharacterized protein Rv0034Add BLAST. 131. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ... p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following ...
Interacts with extracellular matrix proteins and with the actin cytoskeleton. Mediates adhesion of cells to type 1 collagen and ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. Q0PMD2, 1 interactor ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00600, AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_3, 1 hit ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 360106.CFF8240_1176. Genome annotation databases. EnsemblBacteriai. ABK82975; ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF02735, Ku, 1 hit. PF03730, Ku_C, 1 hit. PF03731, Ku_N ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9913.ENSBTAP00000038271 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in SMART. SM01391, Filament, 1 hit. PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00226, IF_ROD_1, 1 hit. PS51842, IF_ ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR003484, NodA. IPR020567, Nodulation_prot_NodA_CS. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF02474, NodA, ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 460265.Mnod_4025. Genome annotation databases. EnsemblBacteriai. ACL58907; ...
PhosphoSitePlus® - comprehensive post-translational modification resource *Protein Ontology Consortium. * Protein Ontology ... NIP7 NIP7, nucleolar pre-rRNA processing protein [Homo sapiens] NIP7 NIP7, nucleolar pre-rRNA processing protein [Homo sapiens] ... Protein interactions. Protein. Gene. Interaction. Pubs. Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat upregulates the abundance of nuclear ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. 60S ribosome subunit biogenesis protein NIP7 ...
PhosphoSitePlus® - comprehensive post-translational modification resource *Protein Ontology Consortium. * Protein Ontology ... mitochondrial fission process protein 1. Names. mitochondrial 18 kDa protein. mitochondrial fission protein MTP18. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001003704.3 → NP_001003704.1 mitochondrial fission process protein 1 isoform b ... NM_016498.5 → NP_057582.2 mitochondrial fission process protein 1 isoform a. See identical proteins and their annotated ...
Processing of the NF-kappa B2 precursor p100 to the mature p52 subunit is regulated via a unique pathway. NF-kappa B-inducing ... Protein Precursors / chemistry * Protein Precursors / metabolism* * Protein Processing, Post-Translational* * Protein Structure ... Processing of the NF-kappa B2 precursor p100 to the mature p52 subunit is regulated via a unique pathway. NF-kappa B-inducing ... Mechanism of processing of the NF-kappa B2 p100 precursor: identification of the specific polyubiquitin chain-anchoring lysine ...
Both proteins are ubiquitously expressed, are involved in the same signalling pathways and interact with the same identified ... Protein Processing, Post-Translational * Proteoglycans * RNA, Small Interfering / genetics * Repressor Proteins / genetics ... Both proteins are ubiquitously expressed, are involved in the same signalling pathways and interact with the same identified ... In search of isoform functional specificity, we knocked down the expression of each p190 protein using siRNA and examined the ...
Protein sequence databases and their use. - Protein sequence data in UniProt. - Post-translational modifications. - ... MS Search Engines and post-processing software. - Quantitative proteomics. - ... Functional analysis of proteins using Cytoscape. - Placing proteins in pathways using Reactome. Limited bursaries are available ... The final aim is to provide attendees with the practical bioinformatics knowledge they need to go back to the lab and process ...
Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications Conference scheduled on August 04-05, 2020 in August 2020 in Montreal is ... RNA processing. Non-coding RNA maturation. RNA export. Translation. Folding. Translocation. Protein transport. Regulation of ... Post-translational modifications. Measurement in gene expression. MRNA quantification. Protein quantification. MRNA-protein ... Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications. ICGEPTM 2020: 14. International Conference on Gene Expression and Post- ...
Post-translational processing targets functionally diverse proteins in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Tacchi, JL Raymond, BBA Haynes ... We hypothesize that protein processing is underestimated as a post-translational modification in genome-reduced bacteria and ... We hypothesize that protein processing is underestimated as a post-translational modification in genome-reduced bacteria and ... Post-translational processing targets functionally diverse proteins in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. en_US. ...
Protein Processing*degradation. *Post-translational Processing. *Cancer Research*Other. *Research Tools*Toxicology Research* ... GFP, Green Fluorescent Protein, Site of Expression. Transgene transcripts are detected in all tissues examined; however the ... GFP, Green Fluorescent Protein, Site of Expression. Transgene transcripts are detected in all tissues examined; however the ... Hemizygous transgenic mice are viable and fertile; they contain the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to a constitutively ...
Post-translational Processing. *Protein Processing. Mammalian Phenotype Terms by Genotype. The following phenotype information ... If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee ... The polycomb group protein L3mbtl2 assembles an atypical PRC1-family complex that is essential in pluripotent stem cells and ... The polycomb group protein L3mbtl2 assembles an atypical PRC1-family complex that is essential in pluripotent stem cells and ...
Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process. It is analogous to ubiquitylation in terms of the reaction scheme and ... Characterization of the zinc finger proteins ZMYM2 and ZMYM4 as novel B-MYB binding proteins *Hannah Cibis ... PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase involved in various cellular processes. Here, the authors use quantitative proteomics to identify ... FAT10 is an ubiquitin-like modifier that targets proteins to proteasomal degradation. Here, the authors show that FAT10 also ...
Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process. It is analogous to ubiquitylation in terms of the reaction scheme and ... Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein-1 Induces the Expression of SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 in LMP1-positive Lymphomas and Cells ... Insulin-dependent GLUT4 trafficking is not regulated by protein SUMOylation in L6 myocytes *Ruth E. Carmichael ... Sumoylation can affect a proteins structure and subcellular localization. ...
Post-translational protein processing‎ (1 C, 51 F). R. *. ► Ribosomes‎ (5 C, 45 F) ... Sinh tổng hợp protein (vi); Biosynteza białka (pl); Sintesis protein (id); Proteïensintese (af); Синтеза протеина (sr); ... Protein synthesis, Protein biosynthesis, تركيب البروتين الحيوي, تخليق حيوي للبروتين, تخليق البروتين الحيوي, اصطناع البروتينات ... Impaired-protein-translation-in-Drosophila-models-for-Charcot-Marie-Tooth-neuropathy-caused-by-ncomms8520-s2.ogv 11 s, 960 × ...
Post-translational processing of oncornavirus proteins. In: Processing and turnover of proteins and organelles in the cell. ... This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. ... de Robertis, E.M. and Olson, M.V. (1979). Transcription and processing of cloned yeast tyrosine tRNA genes microinjected into ... DNAs of simian virus 40 and polyoma direct the synthesis of viral tumor antigens and capsid proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Proc. ...
Kivirikko KI, Myllylä R. Post-translational processing of procollagens. Ann NY Acad Sci 1986; 460: 187-201.CrossRefGoogle ... Polypeptide chain binding proteins: catalysts of protein folding and related processes in cells. Cell 1989; 59: 591-601.PubMed ... Hubbard TJP, Sander C. Heat-shock and chaperone proteins: evidence for a role in protein folding. Protein Eng (in press).Google ... Posttranslational association of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein with nascent heavy chains in nonsecreting and ...
9 Posttranslational Processing of Secretory Proteins 171. Nabil G. Seidah and Johann Guillemot ... the mechanisms that enhance peptide and protein diversity beyond what is encoded in the genome through post-translational ... expression and the mechanisms that contribute to protein, and hence biological, diversity. B) discusses ... genomic technologies in physiological and behavioural experiments that seek to better understand complex biological processes. ...
  • Post-translational protein processing (including post-translational modification) is the folding, sorting, cleavage, and modifications required to make a protein functional after it is translated. (
  • Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. (
  • Lewis KM, Munske GR, Byrd SS, Kang J, Cho HJ, Ríos E, Kang C. Characterization of Post-Translational Modifications to Calsequestrins of Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle. (
  • An important but difficult problem in proteomics is the identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a protein. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICGEPTM 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications . (
  • Post-translational modifications serve many different purposes in a wide variety of cellular processes,such as protein synthesis, folding, stability, the housing of prosthetic groups, vesicular trafficking,protein targeting to particular cell stores, exocytosis and endocytosis, the biogenesis of cell organelles and basal lamina. (
  • Post-translational Modifications in Health and Disease provides the reader with nineteen reviews that stimulate further investigations in the proteomic field - focusing on functional and pathological aspects of protein prenylation, the incorporation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moieties, oxidation, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and phosphorylation and dephosphorylation - with emphasis on their outcome for protein-protein interaction phenomena and down-stream effects. (
  • Describe protein synthesis, starting with the replication and transcription, translation and post-translational modifications. (
  • Moreover, mammalian proteins also undergo various post-translational modifications. (
  • Post-translational modifications of proteins, glycosylation, role of molecular chaperones. (
  • Golgi complex: ultrastructure, biosynthetic processes, post-translational modifications of proteins (mainly glycosylation) and sorting of molecules synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Sometimes these modifications can regulate where a protein is found in the cell-for example, in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, or attached to the plasma membrane. (
  • The FVIII portion has post-translational modifications comparable to endogenous Factor VIII. (
  • Post-translational modifications of histone proteins is another epigenetic process. (
  • Understanding the basics of amino acids allows a more comprehensive understanding of protein folding and modification. (
  • During the last decade, several studies underline the particular importance of the interaction between AMPK and the post-translational modification called O-GlcNAcylation. (
  • The majority of proteins playing essential biological roles undergo post-translational modification (PTM) to regulate their structure, cellular localization, activity and biological function. (
  • Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process. (
  • B) discusses the mechanisms that enhance peptide and protein diversity beyond what is encoded in the genome through post-translational modification. (
  • Additional chapters are devoted to protein ubiquitination, sumoylation and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the influence of histone modification on gene expression and DNA repair, and proteolytic processing of intracellular and basal lamina proteins. (
  • Thus, the study of protein acetylation dynamics is critical for understanding of how this modification influences protein stability, localization, and function. (
  • These include DNA-packaging proteins, structural components, a dual lysis system, a putative lysogeny switch, and proteins that are involved in replication, recombination, and modification of phage DNA. (
  • Post-translational modification) or regulate biological processes. (
  • They discuss DNA, RNA, proteins (including enzymes), metabolism and valuable metabolites in more detail. (
  • Faster rates were enriched on proteins associated with chromatin and RNA metabolism, while slower rates were more typical on proteins involved with lipid metabolism. (
  • Describes basic catabolic and anabolic pathways of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, and their relationships. (
  • The smooth endoplasmic reticulum: structure, role in lipid metabolism, in detoxification processes, in glycogenolysis and calcium accumulation. (
  • Participants will be able to go from MS spectra, to identifying peptides and finally to lists of protein identifiers that can be analysed further using a wide range of resources. (
  • However, the encoded protein lacks caspase activity and appears to be itself cleaved into two peptides by caspase-8. (
  • Section Headings): Mass Spectrometry of Peptides and Proteins. (
  • NMR Analysis of Peptides and Proteins. (
  • In addition to tankyrase-2, peptides derived from tankyrase-1, GA-binding protein subunit beta-2 (GABPB2) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ARD all displayed +16 Da mass shifts after reaction with FIH (Fig. 6B). (
  • Like many other active peptides they are synthesized as larger protein precursors that are enzymatically converted to their mature forms. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. (
  • The highly developed genetic system, ease of use, reduced time input and costs have made S. cerevisiae an attractive organism for the expression and production of recombinant proteins. (
  • MTP18 mRNA as well as protein expression is dependent on PI 3-kinase activity. (
  • Upon exposure to Cre recombinase, the floxed sequences are deleted - resulting in a null allele (no mRNA or protein is expressed). (
  • The repressor protein blocks the operon, so that RNA polymerase cannot transcribe the mRNA. (
  • Ribosome moves in the 5' ⇒ 3' direction along the mRNA, making the protein from its amino (N) to carboxyl (C) terminus. (
  • Prokaryotic RNAse III is important in post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translational efficiency. (
  • Intracellular coexpression of the LCMV minigenome and LCMV L and NP proteins supplied from cotransfected plasmids driven by the T7 RNA polymerase provided by the recombinant vaccinia virus vTF7-3 resulted in high levels of CAT activity and synthesis of subgenomic CAT mRNA and antiminigenome RNA species. (
  • Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. (
  • Motivation: Homology models of proteins are of great interest for planning and analyzing biological experiments when no experimental three-dimensional structures are available. (
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (
  • The 19 chapters are divided into four sectors: A) describes and explores the genome, its evolution, expression and the mechanisms that contribute to protein, and hence biological, diversity. (
  • D) presents a range of case studies that exemplify the state-of-the-art application of genomic technologies in physiological and behavioural experiments that seek to better understand complex biological processes. (
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (
  • Protein acetylation plays a critical role in biological processes by regulating the functions and properties of proteins. (
  • The results presented in this work indicate a close functional interaction between NIP7 and FTSJ3 during pre-rRNA processing and show that FTSJ3 participates in ribosome synthesis in human cells. (
  • Synthesis and post-translational processing of surfactant protein C". Pediatric pathology & molecular medicine. (
  • The book represents a comprehensive review and synthesis of the biomedical literature that spans over a half-century on a single protein called glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (or, GAPDH). (
  • In E.coli , synthesis of secretory proteins and translocation through the cytoplasmic membrane are not coupled. (
  • What impact do you think this might have on protein synthesis? (
  • Here we performed a comprehensive characterization of protein acetylation dynamics using mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics through utilization of 13C-glucose or D3-acetate, which are metabolized into acetyl-coA, labeling acetyl groups through subsequent incorporation into proteins. (
  • The Proteomics Shared Resource offers state-of-the-art, user-friendly mass spectrometry-based resources to support SCI members' studies of protein presence, structure and/or function in cancer-related inquiries. (
  • The Resource houses 14 mass spectrometers and associated instrumentation, along with in-house proteomics data processing capabilities. (
  • Similar to protein phosphorylation, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) addition on Ser/Thr residues is a dynamic PTM that regulates many cellular processes including stress response ( 3 , 4 ), transcriptional activity ( 5 , 6 ), and epigenetic regulation ( 7 ). (
  • The increase of both MLC phosphorylation and MLCK protein expression induced by IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly inhibited by berberine treatment. (
  • Translated literally to mean "in addition to changes in genetic sequence," epigenetics includes processes such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, sumolyation, and ubiquitylation which can be transmitted to daughter cells upon cell division (1). (
  • The use of alternative transcription starts causes dual targeting of the same mature MDAR protein to both mitochondria and chloroplast. (
  • Presence of an inducer molecule turns on transcription by blocking the repressor protein. (
  • When a Corepressor molecule is present, it activates the repressor protein, which turns off transcription. (
  • HATs play important roles in regulating chromatin remodeling, transcription and other nuclear processes by acetylating histone and nonhistone proteins. (
  • Like transcription, translation is controlled by proteins that bind and initiate the process. (
  • 40S Small Subunit w/ 34 Proteins. (
  • AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein composed of one catalytic subunit α (existing in two isoforms, α1, and α2) and two regulatory subunits, β (β1 and β2) and γ (γ1, γ2, and γ3) ( 8 ). (
  • Downregulation of NIP7 affects pre-rRNA processing, causing an imbalance of the 40S/60S subunit ratio. (
  • Processing of the NF-kappa B2 precursor p100 to the mature p52 subunit is regulated via a unique pathway. (
  • The eIF-2 protein bound to GTP binds to the small 40S ribosomal subunit . (
  • The phosphate and the eIF-2 protein are released from the complex and the large 60S ribosomal subunit binds to translate the RNA. (
  • Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (
  • Part of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) that enables the energy-independent insertion into endoplasmic reticulum membranes of newly synthesized membrane proteins. (
  • Involved in the cotranslational insertion of multi-pass membrane proteins in which stop-transfer membrane-anchor sequences become ER membrane spanning helices. (
  • By mediating the proper cotranslational insertion of N-terminal transmembrane domains in an N-exo topology, with translocated N-terminus in the lumen of the ER, controls the topology of multi-pass membrane proteins like the G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • Klausner RD. Architectural editing: determining the fate of newly synthesized membrane proteins. (
  • The active site residues characteristic of serine proteases appear to be absent from this protein, which may therefore lack catalytic activity. (
  • Preferentially accommodates proteins with transmembrane domains that are weakly hydrophobic or contain destabilizing features such as charged and aromatic residues. (
  • Malignant brain tumor (MBT) domain chromatin reader proteins bind to methylated histone lysine residues and associate with chromatin remodeling complexes. (
  • Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. (
  • The green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa ) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range. (
  • Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyses the post-translational hydroxylation of histidinyl residues within ankyrin repeat domains. (
  • Finally, a point process model − an efficient blind search approach for PTM identification , is applied to report the correct peptide and PTMs if there are any. (
  • In low pH, the E protein dimer disassociates, and becomes a trimer with an exposed fusion peptide at one tip. (
  • Release-factor protein binds to the stop codon, causing the peptide chain to be hydrolyzed off of the ribosome and tRNA. (
  • In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the peptide chain is folded in by chaperone proteins. (
  • Peptide and Protein Separations and Other Methods. (
  • Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are structurally and functionally related peptide hormones that function as hormonal regulators of various digestive processes and feeding behaviors. (
  • A (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) end of a protein or peptide. (
  • This is in contrast to an aminopeptidases, which cleave peptide bonds at the N-terminus of proteins. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • BDD-rFVIIIFc is a recombinant protein consisting of a B-domain deleted analogue of human Coagulation Factor VIII covalently linked to the human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc domain sequence. (
  • Epigenetics, or the study of the physiological mechanisms that silence or activate genes, encompasses processes which alter gene function without changing the sequence of nucleotide base pairs in our DNA. (
  • These structural proteins are designated E, prM/M, and C for envelope, precursor of the membrane or membrane, and capsid respectively (Fig 1). (
  • Three murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV)-producing epithelial cell lines derived from murine mammary tumors were examined in order to identify the MuMTV-specific cell surface antigens and their distribution on the cell surface, to study the kinetics of the MuMTV envelope precursor processing, virus assembly, and release, and to characterize the soluble MuMTV antigens that are shed into culture medium. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene consists of two polypeptide chains activated from a single precursor protein by proteolysis. (
  • The activation and translocation of the TMAO reductase precursor are post‐translational processes, and activation is dissociable from translocation. (
  • Consequently, it is necessary to maintain precursor proteins in an export‐competent conformation prior to the interaction with the translocase. (
  • It was first reported that precursor maltose‐binding protein is competent for transport into the periplasm only before it has achieved its final, stably folded, conformation. (
  • and two mature virion glycoproteins, GP-1 (40 to 46 kDa) and GP-2 (35 kDa), that are derived by posttranslational cleavage of a precursor polypeptide, GP-C (75 kDa) ( 47 , 55 , 57 ). (
  • It is also required for the post-translational insertion of tail-anchored/TA proteins in endoplasmic reticulum membranes. (
  • Hurtley SM, Helenius A. Protein oligomerization in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (
  • One such protein, L3MBTL2, functions in early embryonic development and methylated histone-binding, and is an essential component of an atypical Polycomb complex (termed polycomb repressive complex 1.6 or PRC1.6). (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the MYST family of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and was originally isolated as an HIV-1 TAT-interactive protein. (
  • This protein is a histone acetylase that has a role in DNA repair and apoptosis and is thought to play an important role in signal transduction. (
  • Among others, we identified sites catalyzed at faster rates with potential critical roles in protein activation, including the histone acetyltransferase p300 acetylated in its activation loop, which could explain self-acetylation as an important feedback mechanism to regulate acetyltransferases. (
  • Specific intermediates in the folding reactions of small proteins and the mechanism of protein folding. (
  • These results strongly suggest that the translocation of the molybdoenzyme TMAO reductase into the periplasm uses a mechanism fundamentally different from general protein translocation. (
  • they contain the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to a constitutively active degradation signal (Ub G76V ). (
  • however no GFP protein expression is detected due to the G76V substitution which leads to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. (
  • The Ub G76V -GFP transgene was designed with a chicken beta-actin promoter (and cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer) upstream of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to a mutant ubiquitin moiety (Ub G76V ), a constitutively active proteasome degradation signal. (
  • FAT10 is an ubiquitin-like modifier that targets proteins to proteasomal degradation. (
  • Profile of secreted hydrolases, associated proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the degradation of hemicellulose. (
  • Digestion of proteins, intracellular degradation of proteins. (
  • Mechanisms for the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins: the ubiquitin-proteasome system. (
  • Has also been shown to play a role in regulating the intracellular trafficking of polycystin-2/PKD2 and possibly of other intracellular proteins. (
  • In a quaternary structure, multiple subunits of a protein come together to form a single protein. (
  • F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca 2+ -independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. (
  • Jaenicke R. Protein folding: local structures, domains, subunits and assemblies. (
  • E proteins are important for cell infection as they mediate binding to cell receptors and fusion with endosomal membranes after host cell endocytosis. (
  • Together with the histidine kinase CheA and an adaptor protein, CheW, receptors are organized in large sensory complexes that perform most of signal processing in chemotaxis ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • Both proteins are ubiquitously expressed, are involved in the same signalling pathways and interact with the same identified binding partners. (
  • Disulfide bonds as probes of protein folding pathways. (
  • Apoptosis regulator protein which may function as a crucial link between cell survival and cell death pathways in mammalian cells. (
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (
  • In the introductory lessons are summarized basic terms from chemistry needed for understanding of body structure a physico-chemical processes occuring in it ((chemical composition of the body, survay of biologically important elements,water, elektrolytes, non-elektrolytes, osmotic pressure, acid-base, redox and precipitation reactions), the following lectures are focused on biochemical pathways in cells. (
  • Bioinformatics enhance protein structure analysis, gene and protein functional information, data from patents, pre-clinical and clinical trials and the metabolic pathways of numerous species. (
  • The most intriguing observation is that translocation of the TMAO reductase across the cytoplasmic membrane is independent of the SecY, SecE, SecA and SecB proteins. (
  • However, both Sec‐dependent and Sec‐independent protein insertion into the E.coli cytoplasmic membrane have been reported. (
  • Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity and complexity. (
  • RhoA, Rac-1, and Cdc42) are molecular switches, which for function, depend upon the covalent attachment of lipid adducts (prenylation) that direct membrane insertion, localization, and protein:protein interaction ( 25 , 26 ). (
  • We identified a single lysine residue, K855, that serves as the ubiquitin-anchoring residue required for signal-induced processing of p100. (
  • Transglutaminases are enzymes that catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by epsilon-gamma glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds. (
  • The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome associated protein interacts with HsNip7 and its down-regulation affects gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. (
  • Single species gene expression and transcriptome studies must be extended to provide meaningful insights into gene/protein function and/or the biology of plants. (
  • 2019. Convergent evidence that ZNF804A is a regulator of pre-messenger RNA processing and gene expression . (
  • Main stages in the translation process. (
  • As previously discussed, the stability of the RNA will have a large impact on its translation into a protein. (
  • In translation, the complex that assembles to start the process is referred to as the initiation complex . (
  • The first protein to bind to the RNA to initiate translation is the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) . (
  • Enzyme and protein structure, function, regulation. (
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, GFP, along with the separate luminescent protein aequorin (an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of luciferin , releasing light), was first purified from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its properties studied by Osamu Shimomura . (
  • However, for large scale applications such as enzyme, antibody or vaccine production, the amount of protein required is considerably high. (
  • Post-transcriptional processing and regulation. (
  • Post-transcriptional regulation of the Streptomyces coelicolor stress responsive sigma factor, SigH, involves translational control, proteolytic processing, and an anti-sigma factor homolog. (
  • Here, we describe developmentally regulated post-transcriptional control systems for SigH. (
  • Our quantitative pulse-chase studies suggest that of the two populations of MuMTV env precursors that are present in MuMTV-producing cells, only Pr70env is processed intracellularly to give rise to the mature MuMTV envelope proteins gp52 and gp36. (
  • It is involved in the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors. (
  • Prokaryotic RNAse III also plays a role in the maturation of tRNA precursors and in the processing of phage and plasmid transcripts. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • To help fusion with the endosomal membrane, E proteins undergo yet another structural change triggered by pH. (
  • These proteins can bind to hydrophobic regions of unfolded proteins, allowing proper folding to take place. (
  • Yeasts are able to carry specifically designed plasmids and this ability is valuable in a recombinant protein expression system. (
  • The development of genetic engineering and cloning has opened many possibilities of expression and isolation of heterologous proteins for research purposes. (
  • The various protein expression systems are bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian systems.The development of genetic engineering and cloning has opened many possibilities of expression and isolation of heterologous proteins for research purposes. (
  • Tertiary structure is the complex looping and folding that occurs as a result of interactions and bonding between portions of the protein that are farther apart. (
  • Recombinant protein expression technology enables various downstream applications, including analysis of gene regulation , protein structure and function, protein-protein interactions , and antibody generation . (
  • Xenopus oocytes, mammalian brain, invertebrate nervous system) in terms of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational regulation and the significance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal function and plasticity. (
  • Polypeptide chain binding proteins: catalysts of protein folding and related processes in cells. (
  • Flaviviruses are small and have only seven nonstructural and three structural proteins. (
  • In hair follicles, involved in cross-linking structural proteins to hardening the inner root sheath. (
  • This feature allows the virus to exploit cellular apparatuses to synthesise both structural and non-structural proteins, during replication. (
  • The virus encodes these activities in its non-structural proteins. (
  • The N-terminal domain of the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) has both the N7-methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities necessary for forming mature RNA cap structures. (
  • Structure, expression, and properties of an atypical protein kinase C (PKC3) from Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • In search of isoform functional specificity, we knocked down the expression of each p190 protein using siRNA and examined the resulting phenotypic changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (
  • This research report presents an in-depth analysis of the global market for protein expression by system type, products and services, applications, end users and regional markets. (
  • The report includes key protein expression systems that are incorporated in several therapeutic treatment methods. (
  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of key companies operating in the global market for protein expression. (
  • The protein expression market is mainly segmented into the following system types: prokaryotic expression systems, mammalian cell expression systems, insect cell expression systems, yeast expression systems, cell-free expression systems and algal-based expression systems. (
  • What is Protein Expression? (
  • [9] Frederick Tsuji's lab independently reported the expression of the recombinant protein one month later. (
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant applications from Small Business Concerns (SBCs) and non-profit research institutions that will focus on innovative technologies and strategies to improve HIV envelope protein expression, yield and rapid universal purification platforms that would meet the requirements of regulatory agencies for clinical research use. (
  • Considerable advances in technology have enabled expression and isolation of recombinant proteins in large scale. (
  • These requirements led to the discovery of protein expression systems. (
  • The various protein expression systems are bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian systems. (
  • The process of expressing a recombinant protein in an expression system requires the following information/components. (
  • Using the right protein expression system for your specific application can be critical for success. (
  • Functionality, solubility, speed, and yield are often the most important factors to consider when choosing a protein expression system. (
  • We offer a wide variety of protein expression systems, so you'll be sure to find one that meets your needs. (
  • The following table summarizes some of the key characteristics of the most popular protein expression host systems. (
  • The line has been used as a transfection host for expression of pulmonary surfactant protein (SP-B). (
  • The expression and distribution of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occluding, and claudin-1 were respectively analyzed by immunoblot or immunofluorescence. (
  • Berberine does not affect the expression of tight junction proteins.Caco-2 monolayers were treated as described in Fig. 1A. (
  • Cell lysates were analyzed to detect the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 (A), occludin (B) and claudin-1 (C) by immunoblot. (
  • It has been reported that the alteration of tight junction protein expression is involved in the intestinal barrier disruption induced by proinflammatory cytokines [12], [36]. (
  • Thus, we examined the effect of berberine on the total expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 in Caco-2 monolayers treated with or without IFN-γ and TNF-α. (
  • Specificity of transport and vesicle fusion processes: Rab protein, v-SNARE and t-SNARE. (
  • The minimal set of proteins constituting a functional translocase complex comprises SecA, SecY, SecE and SecG, which mediate the ATP‐ and proton motive force‐dependent translocation across the membrane ( Schatz and Dobberstein, 1996 ). (
  • O-GlcNAcylation plays a role in multiple physiological cellular processes but is also associated with the development of various diseases. (
  • By regulating the insertion of various proteins in membranes, it is indirectly involved in many cellular processes. (
  • PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase involved in various cellular processes. (
  • Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. (
  • Interaction between perdeuterated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and low molecular weight pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C". Biochemistry. (
  • A proteolytic fragment (p43) is likely retained in the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) thereby blocking further recruitment and processing of caspase-8 at the complex. (
  • Here, we describe the molecular differences in FV Gag and Env, as well as Pol, which is translated as a separate protein and not in an orthoretroviral manner as a Gag-Pol fusion protein. (
  • They are found in several molecular forms due to tissue-specific post-translational processing. (