Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Zinc Phosphate Cement: A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Great BritainDental Pins: Small cylindrical pieces of metal used to enhance retention.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Forensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Mice, Inbred C57BLInjections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.EnglandAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.PolyvinylsLactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Denture, Partial, Temporary: A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)IndiaPlacebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Dexamethasone Isonicotinate: An anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic glucocorticoid that can be administered orally, by inhalation, locally, and parenterally. It may cause water and salt retention.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Mice, Inbred BALB CModels, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Intermittent Urethral Catheterization: Insertion of a catheter into the urethra to drain the urine from the bladder at intervals as needed.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (1/17045)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (2/17045)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (3/17045)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Structural basis of profactor D activation: from a highly flexible zymogen to a novel self-inhibited serine protease, complement factor D. (4/17045)

The crystal structure of profactor D, determined at 2.1 A resolution with an Rfree and an R-factor of 25.1 and 20.4%, respectively, displays highly flexible or disordered conformation for five regions: N-22, 71-76, 143-152, 187-193 and 215-223. A comparison with the structure of its mature serine protease, complement factor D, revealed major conformational changes in the similar regions. Comparisons with the zymogen-active enzyme pairs of chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and prethrombin-2 showed a similar distribution of the flexible regions. However, profactor D is the most flexible of the four, and its mature enzyme displays inactive, self-inhibited active site conformation. Examination of the surface properties of the N-terminus-binding pocket indicates that Ile16 may play the initial positioning role for the N-terminus, and Leu17 probably also helps in inducing the required conformational changes. This process, perhaps shared by most chymotrypsinogen-like zymogens, is followed by a factor D-unique step, the re-orientation of an external Arg218 to an internal position for salt-bridging with Asp189, leading to the generation of the self-inhibited factor D.  (+info)

Arginine methylation and binding of Hrp1p to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation. (5/17045)

Hrp1p is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of mRNAs and mRNA export. In addition, Hrplp is one of several RNA-binding proteins that are posttranslationally modified by methylation at arginine residues. By using functional recombinant Hrp1p, we have identified RNA sequences with specific high affinity binding sites. These sites correspond to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation, UAUAUA. To examine the effect of methylation on specific RNA binding, purified recombinant arginine methyltransferase (Hmt1p) was used to methylate Hrp1p. Methylated Hrp1p binds with the same affinity to UAUAUA-containing RNAs as unmethylated Hrpl p indicating that methylation does not affect specific RNA binding. However, RNA itself inhibits the methylation of Hrp1p and this inhibition is enhanced by RNAs that specifically bind Hrpl p. Taken together, these data support a model in which protein methylation occurs prior to protein-RNA binding in the nucleus.  (+info)

Co-expression of glutathione S-transferase with methionine aminopeptidase: a system of producing enriched N-terminal processed proteins in Escherichia coli. (6/17045)

We describe here an Escherichia coli expression system that produces recombinant proteins enriched in the N-terminal processed form, by using glutathione S-transferase cGSTM1-1 and rGSTT1-1 as models, where c and r refer to chick and rat respectively. Approximately 90% of the cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1 overexpressed in E. coli under the control of a phoA promoter retained the initiator methionine residue that was absent from the mature isoenzymes isolated from tissues. The amount of initiator methionine was decreased to 40% of the expressed cGSTM1-1 when the isoenzyme was co-expressed with an exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene under the control of a separate phoA promoter. The recombinant proteins expressed were mainly methionine aminopeptidase. The yield of cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 10% of that expressed in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene. By replacing the phoA with its natural promoter, the expression of methionine aminopeptidase decreased drastically. The yield of the co-expressed cGSTM1-1 was approx. 60% of that in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene; approx. 65% of the initiator methionine residues were removed from the enzyme. Under similar conditions, N-terminal processing was observed in approx. 70% of the recombinant rGSTT1-1 expressed. By increasing the concentration of phosphate in the growth medium, the amount of initiator methionine on cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 14% of the overexpressed isoenzymes, whereas no further improvement could be observed for rGSTT1-1. The initiator methionine residue does not affect the enzymic activities of either cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1. However, the epoxidase activity and the 4-nitrobenzyl chloride-conjugating activity of the purified recombinant rGSTT1-1 are markedly higher that those reported recently for the same isoenzyme isolated from rat livers.  (+info)

Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (7/17045)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (8/17045)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a polymorphic tract of polyglutamine repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin protein, which is thought to be responsible for protein aggregation and neuronal death. The polyglutamine tract is preceded by a 17-residue sequence that is intrinsically disordered. This region is subject to phosphorylation, acetylation and other post-translational modifications in vivo, which modulate its secondary structure, aggregation and, subcellular localization. We used Molecular Dynamics simulations with a novel Hamiltonian-replica-exchange-based enhanced sampling method, SWISH, and an optimal combination of water and protein force fields to study the effects of phosphorylation and acetylation as well as cross-talk between these modifications on the huntingtin N-terminus. The simulations, validated by circular dichroism, were used to formulate a mechanism by which the modifications influence helical conformations. Our findings have implications for
Post-translationally modified proteins make up the majority of the proteome and establish, to a large part, the impressive level of functional diversity in higher, multi-cellular organisms. Most eukar
Find great deals for Analysis of Protein Post-Translational Modifications by Mass Spectrometry by John R. Griffiths, Richard D. Unwin (Hardback, 2016). Shop with confidence on eBay!
The N-terminal tail of CENP-A is highly divergent from other H3 variants. Canonical histone N-termini are hotspots of conserved post-translational modification; however, no broadly conserved modifications of the vertebrate CENP-A tail have been previously observed. Our lab has identified novel post-translational modifications on human CENP-A N-termini using high-resolution MS. These include the trimethylation of Gly1 at the alpha-amino position and side-chain phosphorylation of Ser16 and Ser18. CENP-A is subjected to constitutive initiating methionine removal, similar to other H3 variants. The nascent N-terminal residue Gly1 becomes trimethylated on the α-amino group. We identified the methyltransferase NRMT as the enzyme responsible for modifying the CENP-A amino terminus. Methylation occurs in the pre-nucleosomal form and marks the majority of CENP-A nucleosomes. Serine 16 and 18 become phosphorylated in pre-nucleosomal CENP-A and are phosphorylated on asynchronous and mitotic nucleosomal ...
Histones and their variants are subjected to several post-translational modifications (PTMs). Histones PTMs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and are critical for the development and progression of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. In this study, we used two-dimensional TAU/SDS electrophoresis, coupled with mass spectrometry for a comprehensive profiling of histone PTMs in breast cancer cell lines.Proteomic approach allowed us to identify 85 histone PTMs, seventeen of which are not reported in the UniProt database. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm a peculiar pattern of PTMs in the sporadic and hereditary breast cancer cell lines compared to normal cells. Overlapping mass spectrometry data with western blotting results, we identified, for the first time to our knowledge, a tyrosine phosphorylation on histone H1, which is significantly higher in breast cancer cells. Additionally, by inhibiting specific signaling paths, such as PI3K, PPARγ and FAK
Nucleosome ELISA (NU-ELISA) is a sensitive and quantitative method to detect global patterns of post-translational modifications in...
In animals NO has been shown to play a key role in many important physiological process such as relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, neurotransmission, inflammation and immune function (Ignarro & Buga, 1987; ODell et al., 1991; Eiserich et al., 1998). Similarly, NO signalling in plants modulates a variety of physiological systems, from adaptive responses to germination, root growth and dynamics of stomatal aperture control. A significant emerging theme is the regulation of these processes through post-translational protein modifications, mainly metal nitrosylation, S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration (Besson-Bard et al., 2008). Metal nitrosylation is characterized by the formation of a NO-metal-containing protein and is best exemplified by the reaction between NO and haemoglobin (Hb), which controls vascular oxygen distribution. Metal nitrosylation also has a well characterized role during the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in animal cells, a classical route for the transfer ...
Asparagine-linked glycosylation is one of the most common protein modification reactions in eukaryotic cells, occurring on N-(x≠P)-T/S/C consensus sequons on newly synthesized proteins in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Transfer of the preassembled oligosaccharide (GlcNAc2Man9Glc3) from a dolichol pyrophosphate carrier to sequons is mediated by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). Although N-glycosylation is often described as a post-translational protein modification reaction, most N-linked glycans are added to ribosome-bound nascent polypeptides as the protein is passing through the protein translocation channel into the lumen of the RER. A cotranslational mode of N-linked glycosylation ensures that addition of glycan occurs before protein folding, thereby relieving the restriction that sequons reside on surface-exposed loops or within disordered protein segments that can access the OST active site (Lizak et al., 2011).. The OST is a hetero-oligomeric integral membrane ...
Molecular Reproduction and Development takes an integrated, systems-biology approach to understand the dynamic continuum of cellular, reproductive, and developmental processes. This journal fosters dialogue among diverse disciplines through primary research communications and educational forums, with the philosophy that fundamental findings within the life sciences result from a convergence of disciplines.. Increasingly, readers of the Journal need to be informed of diverse, yet integrated, topics impinging on their areas of interest. This requires an expansion in thinking towards non-traditional, interdisciplinary experimental design and data analysis. For example, biologists need to know how nanodevices might be used, while bioengineers need to know how post-translational protein modifications affect developmental mechanisms. The Journal will provide a means for readers to integrate divergent scientific disciplines into their current and future research. Readers will turn to Molecular ...
Demonstrates the first synthesis of histones, nucleosome core particles and defined nucleosomes arrays bearing this important post-translational modification, and demonstrates using single molecule FRET that H3K56 acetylation increases DNA breathing on nucleosomes. This paper demonstrates the power of creating designer nucleosomes to address problems in chromatin biology. More broadly, it demonstrates the power of genetically installing post translational modifications for asking previously un-addressable questions about biological regulation. ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free-radical product of mammalian cell metabolism that plays diverse and important roles in the regulation of cell function. Biological actions of NO arise as a direct consequence of chemical reactions between NO or NO-derived species and protein targets. Reactions of NO with transition metals in target proteins have garnered the most attention to date as the principal mechanism of NO signaling; nonetheless, S-nitrosylation of protein Cys residues is rapidly moving to center stage in importance. In general, however, there has been a delay in adequate appreciation of the role of S-nitrosylation in biological signaling by NO. This lag is attributed to a poor understanding of the basis for selective targeting of NO to particular thiols, and methodological limitations in accurately quantifying this modification--recent breakthroughs in concepts and methods diminish these barriers. Here, we consider the wheres and whys of protein S-nitrosylation and its basis for specificity. ...
Phosphorylation is a crucial post-translational protein modification mechanism with important regulatory functions in biological systems. It is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called kinases, each of which recognizes certain target sites in its substrate proteins.
The Proteomics Core Facility at the Frankfurt location is an initiative of the DKTK and is equipped with three Q Exactive mass spectrometers from Thermo Fisher (one Q Exactive, one Q Exactive Plus and one Q Exactive HF instrument). The available technology can be used to e.g. identify and quantify protein expression patterns, post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, and protein complexes.. This makes it possible to conduct a comprehensive characterisation of oncogenic mechanisms at the protein level, which includes mapping of oncogenic signal transduction processes. The technical advances made in recent years mean that it is now possible to identify and quantify in relative terms several thousand proteins from just a few micrograms of protein. The main activities of the Proteomics Core Facility relate to translational research topics in the field of acute leukaemia, lymphoma, lung cancer, rectal cancer and brain tumours. The research uses ...
Medical & Life Sciences (Biochemistry), Manipulation and analysis of proteins; Research areas include the experimental analysis of enzyme mechanisms, post-translational protein modifications, proteomics, and protein-nucleic acid interactions studied in the biological context of cell cycle control, chromatin regulation and renewable energy research ...
The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins to solid-phase membranous support is known as blotting. Fragments of DNA and RNA molecules separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane in a process termed as Southern and Northern blotting, respectively. Southern blotting was introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975 as a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern (for post-translational protein modifications) and Southwestern (for DNA-protein interactions) blotting.. Southern and Northern blotting protocols involve the following major steps:. ...
Post-Translational Modification - Most proteins undergo some form of modification following translation. These modifications result in mass changes that are detected during analysis. Post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and sulfation, to name a few, serve many functions. As a result, the analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications is particularly important for the study of diseases where multiple genes are known to be involved, such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
With the rapidly increasing use of proteins as biotherapeutics to treat diseases, the characterization of these large molecules using mass spectrometry has become a highly attractive field of research. A particular area of research is the identification and characterization of protein post-translational modifications. Disulfide bonds and glycosylation are among the most critical protein post-translational modifications (PTMs), as they play vital roles in maintaining the proper protein folding, structure, and functions. These two PTMs are particularly important in the development and characterization of monoclonal antibody-based drugs, which are the most prevalent protein therapeutics in the market. Among the four classes of immunoglobulins (IgGs), the disulfide connectivity of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 have been effectively studied, and IgG2 and IgG4 have been shown to have disulfide bond-mediated isomers due to alternative disulfide bond connectivity. However, no studies to investigate the presence ...
Ngn3 is recognized as a regulator of pancreatic endocrine formation, and Notch signaling as an important negative regulator Ngn3 gene expression. By conditionally controlling expression of Ngn3 in the pancreas, we find that these two signaling components are dynamically linked. This connection involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation of ducts. On one hand, Ngn3 cell-intrinsically activates endocrine target genes; on the other, Ngn3 cell-extrinsically promotes lateral signaling via the Dll1,Notch,Hes1 pathway which substantially limits its ability to sustain endocrine formation. Prior to endocrine commitment, the Ngn3-mediated activation of the Notch,Hes1 pathway impacts formation of the trunk domain in the pancreas causing multipotent ...
Protein glycation is a spontaneous PTM of the proteome focused mainly on N-terminal and lysine side chain amino groups by glucose forming fructosa- mine residues and on guanidino groups of arginine residues forming mainly MG-derived hydroimidazolone residues. The latter appears to be most functionally damaging in physiological systems. Glycation is a relatively labile PTM, and so customized preanalytical processing is required to avoid compromising mass spectrometric analysis outcomes. ETD fragmentation has a clear advantage for the analysis of the fructosamine proteome, whereas CID, HCD, and ETD may be used for arginine-based dihydroxyimidazolidine/hydroimi- dazolone detection. Robust procedures are available for the detection and quantitation of total glycation adducts in protein extracts, and these may be combined with proteomics analysis for added security of findings - particularly as it is still challenging to achieve high sequence coverage in proteomics experiments. LC-MS/MS quantitative ...
Step change for this strategy was achieved by introduction of a dimethylation step posttryptic digest to block free (N-terminal, lysine-e) amines thus increasing the difference in basicity between N-acetylated and the rest of peptides in the sample. One-step purification of N-acetylated peptides is achieved by solid-phase extraction, using SCX in batch mode. A key benefit of this approach is that it can be utilized with stable isotope-labeled dimethylation reagents for relative quantification, an approach which has found application to distinguish protein isoforms that are N-terminally acetylated but differ in N-terminal amino acid sequence, for example, p-actin/y-actin isoforms [111]. ...
Enrichment methods to facilitate detection and quantitation of PTM proteins are a common strategy in proteomics. A boronate affinity chromatography method has been used for the fructosamine proteome based on the binding of the cis-1,2-diol structure of fructosamine-modified proteins, with subsequent release from the boronate affinity matrix with weak acid. Although some enzymatically glycosylated proteins contain cis-1,2-diol moieties, steric effects, proximate negatively charged groups, and acetylation limit the retention and interference in this method by glycoproteins [98]. A similar affinity method is used in the routine separation of hemoglobin in clinical chemistry to quantify glycated hemoglobin HbA1c for the assessment of glycemic control in diabetes [99]. Boronate affinity enrichment of protein glycated by glucose was employed in a study of glycated proteins in human plasma and red blood cells, and 7749 unique glycated peptides corresponding to 3742 unique glycated proteins were ...
The aforementioned considerations are features relating to the rate of formation of glycation adducts. FL and MG-H1 residues have half-lives of ca. 25 and 12 days, respectively [19, 106], which exceed the half-lives of most human proteins (median half-life of 1.9 days [107]). Therefore, for many proteins, the steady-state extent of protein glycation is also influenced by the half-life of the protein. Hence, early studies found that the extent of glycation by glucose of several proteins in vivo was linked to the protein half-life [108]. Since glycation leads to protein distortion and misfolding, it is also expected that glycated proteins are targeted for cellular proteolysis and have an unusually decreased halflife. This remains to be determined in robust unfocused proteome dynamics studies. The level of FL and N-terminal fructosamine residues in cellular proteins is also influenced by enzymatic removal and repair by F3PK [109]. F3PK has different specific activity for FL residues in different ...
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E-cadherin is synthesized as a precursor and then undergoes cleavage by proprotein convertases. This processing is essential for E-cadherin maturation and cell adhesion. Loss of cell adhesion causes detachment-induced apoptosis- anoikis. Anoikis can be inhibited despite loss of cell-matrix interactions by preserving E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion. Conversely, acute loss of E-cadherin sensitizes cells to apoptosis by unknown post-translational mechanisms. In response to drug treatment of breast cancer cells, our analysis revealed that two independent modifications of E-cadherin inhibit its cell surface transport. Firstly, O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the cytoplasmic domain retains E-cadherin in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secondly, incomplete processing by proprotein convertases arrests E-cadherin transport late in the secretory pathway. We demonstrated these E-cadherin modifications (detected by specific lectins and antibodies) do not affect binding to ...
Large‐scale identification of PTMs across multiple species has opened the door to comparative studies regarding the evolutionary conservation of the modification sites, interactions and function. These studies have primarily focused on protein phosphorylation given its broad functional role and well established detection methods. Most of the comparative analyses performed to date have studied the conservation of the modified residues in alignments of orthologous proteins (Holt et al, 2009; Landry et al, 2009; Nguyen Ba & Moses, 2010; Gray & Kumar, 2011). There is some debate regarding the extent of conservation: some studies report little to no conservation of the modified residues when compared to unmodified amino‐acids (Holt et al, 2009; Landry et al, 2009; Nguyen Ba & Moses, 2010), whereas others observe a significant constraint due to the phosphorylation (Gray & Kumar, 2011). Overall, a reconciled view on these finding is that phosphorylated residues show a significant but small increase ...
Imagine you are doing XIC based label free quan on sample 1 and sample 2. In sample 1 you find peptide HAPPYK with an intensity of 1e6 that elutes at 23.4 minutes. In sample B, you only find HAPPYK at that retention time at almost baseline, but at 10.8 minutes you find HAPPphospho-YK with an intesity of 8e5. Unless youve got some awesome tools that I dont have for global analysis of this type, get ready to buckle down for a fun filled afternoon of manually linking your modified and unmodified variants in that Excel sheet! (PD 2.0/2.1 can make the job a little easier for you -- see video 22 here, but you still have to do a lot of manual work ...
ziyuBio offers hundreds of peptide modifications to meet your custom peptide needs. These peptide modifications can be used to create synthetic peptide with the exact conformation or characteristics needed for specific applications. Large numbers of modified amino acids are focus on post-translation modification (PTM) that naturally occur in vivo, while others are pharmacologically modified or stable isotope labeled. Additionally, tags, protein or oligonucleotides can be chemically conjugated to these peptides through ziyuBio. With many years of experience in providing modified peptide synthesis, we are your best choice for producing custom modified peptides on time and on budget. Our peptide modification services include but are not limited to the following:. ■ Fluorophores and Quenchers: Emitting and Quenching dyes for FRET and other dyes. ■ Attachment Chemistry: Linkers, Spacers and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) modifications. ■ Unnatural Amino Acids: D-stereoisomers, Unnatural and special ...
To characterize the properties of the NvHsTRPA channel, we expressed it in HEK293 cells. Localization of the V5 and His epitope-tagged NvHsTRPA protein showed a staining pattern at the plasma membrane, demonstrating that it reaches to the cell surface (Fig. 5A). Nevertheless, some proteins are present in the cytoplasm as well. The molecular weight of the tagged protein was approximately 112 kDa, which is slightly larger than expected (105 kDa) from the amino acid sequence. The protein size was constant in the presence of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation (Fig. 5B), indicating that NvHsTRPA does not contain N-glycans unlike the vertebrate TRPV1, 4, 5, and TRPC3 and 6 as reported [42]. The partial denature of NvHsTRPA (60°C for 5 min) may result in the aberrant migration through 6% SDS-PAGE gel which makes the correct estimation of protein size difficult. Nevertheless, the possibility that NvHsTRPA undergoes the other post-translational modifications can not be ruled out. Patch-clamp ...
Phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modification. Phosphorylation is involved in multiple biological process such as DNA damage and repair, transcrip- tion regulation, and metabolism. In human proteome, three types of major residue in the substrate; serine(S), threonine(T), and tyrosine (Y) is phosphorylated by their responsible kinase. Streaming motion of phosphorylation constructs an signal transaction network of the living cell.. Resent achievements in the area of mass spectrometry based proteomics accomplished in determining the phosphorylated residue of the protein in a massive scale. On the other hand, the global picture of signal network driven by phosphorylation still remains unclear, due to the lack of information of kinase-substrate pairs. To work out with this problem, computational approaches has been applied. While various numbers of computational predictors such as Scansite, NetworKIN, PPRED are available, there still remains a interruption in ...
We produce custom antibodies against PTMs such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation as well as Ubiquitinylation or SUMOylation.
Forkhead box O3, also known as FOXO3 or FOXO3a, is a human protein encoded by the FOXO3 gene. FOXO3 belongs to the O subclass of the forkhead family of transcription factors which are characterized by a distinct fork head DNA-binding domain. There are three other FoxO family members in humans, FOXO1, FOXO4 and FOXO6. These transcription factors share the ability to be inhibited and translocated out of the nucleus on phosphorylation by proteins such as Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway (aside from FOXO6, which may be constitutively nuclear). Other post-translational modifications including acetylation and methylation are seen and can result in increased or altered FOXO3a activity. This protein likely functions as a trigger for apoptosis through upregulation of genes necessary for cell death, such as Bim and PUMA, or downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins such as FLIP. Gopinath et al.(2014) demonstrate a functional requirement for FOXO3 as a regulator of Notch signaling pathway (an ...
Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) is a cellXsurface anchored dimeric protease, closely related to Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP) 4. This atypical serine protease has both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities, cleaving substrates at a postXproline bond. FAP expression is difficult to detect in nonXdiseased adult organs, but is greatly up regulated in sites of tissue remodelling, which includes liver fibrosis, lung fibrosis, atherosclerosis, arthritis, tumours and embryonic tissues. Due to its restricted expression pattern and dual enzymatic activities, FAP is emerging as a unique therapeutic target. However, methods to exploit and target this protease are advancing more rapidly than knowledge of the fundamental biology of FAP. This thesis aims to rectify this imbalance, emphasising the need to better define the substrate repertoire and downstream effects of FAP enzyme activity to elucidate the role of this protease in biological and pathological processes. In this study, primary mouse ...
STATIN INHIBITION OF MACROPHAGE INTEGRIN-INDUCED RAC2-MYOSIN IIA INTERACTION: AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT. Kenneth E. Ike, Alan Morrison, and Jeffrey R. Bender. Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are pharmaceuticals that are utilized for the treatment of lipid disorders along with the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, converting HMG-CoA to mevalonate. The isoprenoid products, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), are derived from the mevalonate pathway and serve as substrates in the prenylation of 2% of cellular proteins including the Rho family of low molecular weight G-proteins which mediate multiple cellular signals. Prenylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins that plays a role in the subcellular localization of proteins
Perform Glycan and Glycopeptide Qualitative Analysis, Glycan Structure Prediction & Multi stage Mass Spectrometry (MSn) data analysis using accurate ranking mechanism.
Is this a trick question? :) Sudheendra Rao N R ,sudhee26 from gmail.com, wrote in message news:mailman.491.1202159543.2451.methods from net.bio.net... , Hi, , can somebody tell me what changes would occur to the molecular weight of a , protein being run in a denaturing PAGE after it undergoes Post , translational , modification? , like sumoylation can increase mol weight by 11kD. , , Sudheendra. , , -- , Think before agree , Think before you nod , but STOP thinking , and You Are God ...
H1S186ph. H1.4 serine 186 (reported as H1S187) phosphorylation is preferentially associated with active rDNA promoters and enriched at hormone response element (PMID: 20439994). ...
Authors: Georges Khoury, Talia M Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin, Damian FJ Purcell
C.Post-Translational Modification Proteomics--phosphoproteome identification Protein post-translational modification (PTM) increases the functional diversity of the proteome either by the covalent addition of chemical moieties or functional groups, or by the proteolytic cleavage of regulatory subunits or the degradation of protein complexes. Many large-scale post-translational modification studies have recently been performed on various organisms, and phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, and glycosylation are among the most intensively studied PTM proteomes. Protein phosphorylation is an ubiquitous post-translational modification, essential to many physiological and biological processes and cellular events. Phosphoproteomic analysis provides identification of phosphorylated proteins and peptides, providing key data for understanding their biological functions. This proteomic method has greatly enhanced our understanding of cellular phosphoproteins and their dynamic regulatory mechanisms in ...
Nature provides an abundant source of functional proteins for designing new systems. To date, chromatin proteins are an untapped resource. A class of chromatin proteins, known as "effectors," have the remarkable ability to discriminate and bind to specific post-translational modifications of target proteins called histones. Can a synthetic protein device be engineered to read histone modifications? Can we use this type of device as a new tool to monitor changes in histone modifications in single living cells? Accomplishing these goals will allow scientists to probe histone modification at unprecedented resolution, thus furthering our understanding of the dynamics of histone modifications associated with cancer and normal cell development. ...
E3 protein ligase that mediates ufmylation, the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like modifier UFM1 to substrate proteins, a post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins that may play a crucial role in a number of cellular processes. Mediates DDRGK1 ufmylation and may regulate the proteasomal degradation of DDRGK1 and CDK5RAP3 thereby modulating NF-kappa-B signaling (PubMed:20018847, PubMed:20164180, PubMed:20228063, PubMed:25219498). May also through TRIP4 ufmylation play a role in nuclear receptors-mediated transcription (PubMed:25219498). May play a role in the unfolded protein response, mediating the ufmylation of multiple proteins in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (PubMed:23152784).
YM-216391, an autitumor natural product, represents a new class of cyclic peptides containing a polyoxazolethiazole moiety, Herein we describe its gene cluster encoding the biosynthetic paradigm featuring a ribosomally synthesizing procursor peptide followed by a series of novel posttranslational modifications which include (1) cleavage of both N-terminal leader peptide and C-terminal extension peptide and cyclization in a head-to-tail fashion, (ii) conversion of an L-Ile to D-allo-Ile, and (iii) beta-hydroxylation of Phe by a P450 monooxygenase followed by further heterocyclization and oxidation to form a phenyloxazole moiety. The cluster was heterologously expressed in Streptomyces lividans to bypass difficult genetic manipulation. Deletion of the ymR3 gene, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, increased the YM-216391 yield about 20-fold higher than the original yields for the heterologous expression of wild-type cluster, which set the stage for further combinatorial biosynthesis ...
The NF-κB family of transcription factors play a central role in the inducible expression ofinflammatory genes during the immune response, and the proper regulation of these genes is acritical factor in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The chromatin environment atstimulus-responsive NF-κB sites is a major determinant in transcription factor binding, anddynamic alteration of the chromatin state to facilitate transcription factor binding is a keyregulatory mechanism. NF-κB is in turn able to influence the chromatin state through a variety ofmechanisms, including the recruitment of chromatin modifying co-activator complexes such asp300, the competitive eviction of negative chromatin modifications, and the recruitment ofcomponents of the general transcriptional machinery. Frequently, the selective interaction withthese co-activators is dependent on specific post-translational modification of NF-κB subunits.Finally, the mechanisms of inducible NF-κB activity in different immune cell types seem to
Influenza A virus (IAV) targets the ciliated epithelium of conducting airways through interaction of the viral envelope protein hemagglutinin (HA) with cell surface glycoproteins or glycolipids containing terminal sialic acid residues. Following IAV internalization by endocytosis, HA leads to fusion of the viral and cellular membranes by virtue of irreversible conformational changes into the HA molecule triggered by the mildly acidic pH within the virion-containing endosome, allowing the viral RNA genome to get inside the cytoplasm and thus instruct the cell to make new viral particles. The HA spike on the viral envelope is a homotrimeric type I integral membrane glycoprotein, where each of the mature monomers results from extensive post-translational modifications (i.e. trimming of N-linked carbohydrate chains, terminal glycosylation, sulfation, fatty acylation) during transport en route from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Although current IAV vaccination programs in humans ...
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Epigenetics, the study of heritable changes in gene function not due to mutations in the DNA sequence, provides the syntax, structural organization, developmental context and functional programs that give meaning to the sequence of letters in the genomes "Book of Life.". The broad applicability of epigenetics might surprise some researchers. The last decade has brought several profound and exciting insights into epigenetic mechanisms and the application of epigenetics to biology and medicine generally. For example, it is now known that histones show specific post-translational modifications that contain information and are at the heart of transcriptional regulation. And researchers have discovered that problems with DNA methylation and genomic imprinting can affect cancer risk and progression and brain and immune system disorders. But each new discovery reveals that epigenetic control of gene regulation and gene expression will have an impact ...
Tweedie-Cullen RY, Reck JM, Mansuy IM (2009) Comprehensive mapping of post-translational modifications on synaptic, nuclear, and histone proteins in the adult mouse brain. J Proteome Res 8, 4966-82 ...
Microorganisms have evolved mechanisms that enable them to grow and rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Regulation of protein activity can occur at transcriptional, translational, and/or post-translational levels. Transcriptional and translational control are slow and have high energy costs due to de novo synthesis of proteins (i.e. transcription, translation, and protein-folding processes). Conversely, protein post-translational modifications drive adaptive cellular responses more efficiently by adding or removing functional groups from specific protein residues (1). Among the post-translational modifications that regulate protein functionality, phosphorylation is by far the most studied in bacteria (2, 3).. Two-component systems involve the phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues and were the first studied bacterial signal transduction mechanisms (3). Pioneering studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis demonstrated extensive serine, threonine, and tyrosine ...
The small ubiquitin related modifier (SUMO)-mediated posttranslational protein modification is widely conserved among eukaryotes. Similar to ubiquitination, SUMO modifications are attached to the substrate protein through three reaction steps by the E1, E2 and E3 enzymes. To date, multiple families of SUMO E3 ligases have been reported in yeast and animals, but only two types of E3 ligases have been identified in Arabidopsis: SAP and Miz 1 (SIZ1) and Methyl Methanesulfonate-Sensitivity protein 21 (MMS21)/HIGH PLOIDY 2 (HPY2), hereafter referred to as HPY2. Both proteins possess characteristic motifs termed Siz/PIAS RING (SP-RING) domains, and these motifs are conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Previous studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in HPY2 or SIZ1 cause dwarf phenotypes and that the phenotype of siz1-2 is caused by the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). However, we demonstrate here that the phenotype of hpy2-1 does not depend on SA accumulation. Consistently, the expression
Nitric oxide can modify cysteine residues on proteins and produce an S-nitrosylated derivative (see the review by Lane et al.). Gu et al. report that such a modification of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activates the enzyme. MMP-9 nitrosylation and activation were observed in rodent brain tissue upon stroke, and treatment of cultured neurons with NO-activated MMP-9 caused apoptosis. This activation pathway may contribute to neuronal cell death that is associated with the extracellular matrix disruption observed in cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. P. Lane, G. Hao, S. S. Gross, S-Nitrosylation is emerging as a specific and fundamental posttranslational protein modification: Head-to-head comparison with O-phosphorylation. Sciences STKE (2001), http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sigtrans;2001/86/re1 [Abstract] [Full Text] Z. Gu, M. Kaul, B. Yan, S. J. Kridel, J. Cui, A. Strongin, J. W. Smith, R. C. Liddington, S. A. Lipton, S-Nitrosylation of matrix ...
Background: Reactive species have been regarded as by-products of cellular metabolism, which cause oxidative damage contributing to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. However, accumulated evidence support the notion that reactive species mediate intracellular and extracellular signals that regulate physiological functions including posttranslational protein modifications. Cysteine thiol groups of proteins are particularly susceptible to oxidative modifications by oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species generating different products with critical roles in the cellular redox homeostasis. At physiological conditions, reactive species can function not only as intracellular second messengers with regulatory roles in many cellular metabolic processes but also as part of an ancestral biochemical network that controls cellular survival, regeneration, and death ...
We invite submissions pertaining to protein structure, function, and stability. Studies that utilize experimental or computational approaches are welcome, which may include structural or functional analysis, engineering of new proteins by structure-based design, effects of post-translational modifications, and analysis of protein conformational stability among other topics. Submissions that focus on the mechanisms of protein folding, misfolding, and post-translational modifications are particularly welcome.. ...
Post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... Protein splicing[edit]. Main article: Protein splicing. In addition to RNA, proteins can undergo splicing. Although the ... In many cases, the splicing process can create a range of unique proteins by varying the exon composition of the same mRNA. ... DNA damage affects splicing factors by altering their post-translational modification, localization, expression and activity.[ ...
... and proteins). Glycosylation is a form of co-translational and post-translational modification. Glycans serve a variety of ... Glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to a target macromolecule, typically proteins and ... The process is non-templated (unlike DNA transcription or protein translation); instead, the cell relies on segregating enzymes ... Walsh C (2006). Posttranslational Modification of Proteins: Expanding Nature's Inventory. Roberts and Co. Publishers, Englewood ...
... they help to mature proteins (e.g., Post-translational modification) or regulate biological processes. For example, the ... end of a protein or peptide. (Contrast with an aminopeptidase, which cleaves peptide bonds at the other end of the protein.) ... and many other processes. Carboxypeptidases are usually classified into one of several families based on their active site ... and plants contain several types of carboxypeptidases that have diverse functions ranging from catabolism to protein maturation ...
The open reading frame (ORF) encodes a precursor protein that contains 431 amino acids; post-translational processing results ... The encoded protein is also involved in L-leucine catabolism. Mutations in the ACADSB gene have been associated with 2- ... with the mutations causing exon skipping and other transcriptional and translational errors. The disorder may be detected by MS ... in a mature protein with 399 amino acids. The cDNA is significantly similar to the cDNA of other members of the acyl-CoA ...
DNA or protein:protein interactions.[39] Histone post-translational modifications modify the chromatin structure. The most ... Glycolysis is an essential process of glucose degrading into two molecules of pyruvate, through various steps, with the help of ... Protein phosphorylation is considered the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Phosphorylation can ... Protein phosphorylation[edit]. Main article: Protein phosphorylation. Function[edit]. Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is ...
"Consequences of disease-causing mutations on lubricin protein synthesis, secretion, and post-translational processing". The ... "Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein forms protein complexes with synovial lubricin via non-covalent and covalent interactions ... The protein encoded by this gene is a approximately 345 kDa specifically synthesized by chondrocytes located at the surface of ... The cDNA encodes a protein of 1,404 amino acids (human A isoform) with a somatomedin B homology domain, heparin-binding domains ...
"Cytoplasmic interaction with CYCLE promotes the post-translational processing of the circadian CLOCK protein". FEBS Letters. ... CYC also plays a role in the post-translational regulation of CLK in the cytoplasm. These four proteins of the feedback loop ... However, to fully understand these processes, work must be done to identify downstream interactions of CYCLE proteins. In ... The TIM protein in these complexes mediate the accumulation of the dimeric PER-TIM protein complex and their subsequent ...
Only after post-translational processing does the enzyme become active. This processing consists of truncating much of the ... protein's C-terminal chain, reducing the peptide molecular weight to 54 kDa. Histidine decarboxylase exists as a homodimer, ... Histamine is an important biogenic amine that moderates numerous physiologic processes. There are four different histamine ... forming carbon dioxide.This is the rate-limiting step of the all process, requiring an activation energy of 17.6 kcal/mol and ...
... alternative first exons and post-translational processing". Eur. J. Immunol. 23 (4): 860-6. doi:10.1002/eji.1830230414. PMID ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ...
Post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... In many cases, the splicing process can create a range of unique proteins by varying the exon composition of the same mRNA. ... cDNA post-transcriptional modification mRNA capping polyadenylation Exon Junction Complex SWAP protein domain, a splicing ... DNA damage affects splicing factors by altering their post-translational modification, localization, expression and activity. ...
They exist in several molecular forms due to tissue-specific post-translational processing. The biological activity of gastrin ... The gastrin family (also known as the gastrin/cholecystokinin family) of proteins is defined by the peptide hormones gastrin ... Like many other active peptides they are synthesized as larger protein precursors that are then enzymatically converted into ... are structurally and functionally related peptide hormones that serve as regulators of various digestive processes and feeding ...
By multiple gene knockout Physcomitrella plants were engineered that lack plant-specific post-translational protein ... These knockout mosses are used to produce complex biopharmaceuticals in a process called molecular farming. The genome of P. ... RpRAD51, a protein at the core of the homologous recombination repair reaction, is required to preserve genome integrity in P. ... The genome sequence of P. patens has revealed the presence of numerous genes that encode proteins necessary for repair of DNA ...
The two enzymatic forms result from alternate transcription initiation sites and post-translational processing. Two transcripts ... 1989). "Glycosylation and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. ... As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi ... The shorter transcript encodes a protein which is cleaved to form the soluble lactose synthase. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Several proteins contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification. These citrulline residues are generated by ... for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that catalyses the peptidyl-arginine-citrulline post-translational ... a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which convert arginine into citrulline in a process called ... Proteins that normally contain citrulline residues include myelin basic protein (MBP), filaggrin, and several histone proteins ...
This is a reversible process and a major form of posttranslational modification of proteins. S-Nitrosated proteins (SNOs) serve ... post-translational modification leads to changes in protein activity, protein interactions, or subcellular location of target ... The addition of a nitroso group to a sulfur atom of an amino acid residue of some protein is known as S-nitrosylation or S- ... proteins; all major classes of proteins can undergo S-nitrosylation; and enzymes play a primary role in regulation of S- ...
This process is called light adaptation. PDE6β is the only protein that undergoes the two types of post-translational ... This process leads to the release of subunit PDE6γ from PDE6αβ, activating PDE6 which leads to the hydrolysis of cGMP. Without ... PDE6 is a protein complex located on the photoreceptor's outer segment, and plays an important role in the phototransduction ... PDE6 is a highly concentrated protein in retinal photoreceptors. With the presence of the GAF domain, PDE6 can actively bind to ...
This precursor molecule undergoes post-translational processing where the eventual, active α-LTX protein (131.5 kDa) is formed ... which mediate protein-protein interactions, the α-LTX monomer forms a dimer with another α-LTX monomer under normal conditions ... protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPσ). The toxin stimulates a receptor, most likely latrophilin, which is a G-protein ... The α-LTX protein tertiary structure can be divided in three parts: the N-terminal wing (36 kDa), the body (76 kDa), and the C- ...
... post-translational processing via cleavage by subtilisin-like enzymes known as prohormone convertases. The encoded protein is ... Enzymes responsible for processing of POMC peptides include prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), ... König S, Luger TA, Scholzen TE (October 2006). "Monitoring neuropeptide-specific proteases: processing of the ... The production of β-MSH occurs in humans but not in mice or rats due to the absence of the enzymatic processing site in the ...
Most programs available for protein analysis are not written for proteins that have undergone post-translational modifications ... One such modification is phosphorylation, which happens to many enzymes and structural proteins in the process of cell ... Most proteins function via protein-protein interactions, and one goal of interaction proteomics is to identify binary protein ... Another approach is the arraying of multiple protein types for the study of properties like protein-DNA, protein-protein and ...
Multiple post-translational modifications have been reported. Thus AHSG is a secreted partially phosphorylated glycoprotein ... "Posttranslational processing of human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (human fetuin). Evidence for the production of a phosphorylated ... Fetuins are carrier proteins like albumin. Fetuin-A forms soluble complexes with calcium and phosphate and thus is a carrier of ... The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and ...
... because it takes place on the protein after the DNA is translated. The role of post-translational processing in gene regulation ... This process is known as post-translational processing or post-translational modification, ... Instead, it is the result of a post-translational modification. Citrullination is distinct from the formation of the free amino ... This increases the hydrophobicity of the protein, which can lead to changes in protein folding, affecting the structure and ...
A broad range of bodily systems is affected because of the lack of post-translational modifications of to proteins. These ... The endoplasmic reticulum is a major protein sorting and processing center in every cell of the body. ... This kinase is needed for the control of protein levels in the endoplasmic reticulum and is linked to ribosome activity. ... proteins are coming from the endoplasmic reticulum can be in the cells of the various organ systems effected, such as urinary ...
It has been suggested that BRICHOS participates in the protein post-translational processing, however the exact function ... Protein analyses in eye and periodontal ligament revealed full length TNMD protein as a double band of 40 and 45 kDa. It has ... The last exon of TNMD gene encodes the conserved C-terminal cysteine-rich domain, which makes up the part of the protein ... Tenomodulin (also referred to as tendin, myodulin, Tnmd and TeM) is a protein encoded by the TNMD (Tnmd) gene and was ...
This precursor undergoes a complex post-translational maturation process that requires a number of accessory proteins. At one ... Gene/protein names are sometimes used interchangeably to designate various "hydrogenase cluster" proteins unrelated to each ... For example, the following names are used for members of this group, but also for unrelated proteins: HupD is used in ... For example, Escherichia coli HycI is involved in processing of pre-HycE (the large subunit of hydrogenase 3),; HybD is ...
Nevertheless, cellular post-translational modification is dependent on the presence of a poly-A tail; therefore this process is ... The virus encodes these activities in its non-structural proteins. The NS3 protein encodes a RNA triphosphatase within its ... In general, the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 7 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B ... A G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (also known as ADRBK1) appears to be important in entry and replication for several ...
This post-translational modification happens in conjunction with the H3K4me3 modification. The serotonylation potentiates the ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... This process therefore helps ensure that transcription is not interrupted.. Repressed genes[edit]. Three histone modifications ... Histones are subject to post translational modification by enzymes primarily on their N-terminal tails, but also in their ...
Anatomical context of Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *Associations of Protein Processing, Post-Translational with ... Psychiatry related information on Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *High impact information on Protein Processing, Post- ... Associations of Protein Processing, Post-Translational with chemical compounds. *A unique post-translational modification of ... Chemical compound and disease context of Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *Biological context of Protein Processing, ...
Protein Translation & Post-Translational Processing flashcards from Jonathan Kallevang ... Post-Translational Processing Flashcards Preview Biochemistry , Exam #4: Protein Translation & Post-Translational Processing , ... Chaperones are proteins that associate with partly folded proteins. - Guide the folding process by binding hydrophobic regions ... Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER induces the unfolded protein response that: - Inhibits protein translation - ...
"Protein Processing, Post-Translational" by people in this website by year, and whether "Protein Processing, Post-Translational ... Post-Translational*Protein Processing, Post-Translational. *Processing, Post-Translational Protein. *Post-Translational Protein ... Protein Modification, Translational [G02.111.087.675.871.790]. *Protein Processing, Post-Translational [G02.111.087.675.871.790 ... Protein Modification, Translational [G02.149.115.675.871.790]. *Protein Processing, Post-Translational [G02.149.115.675.871.790 ...
... several studies underline the particular importance of the interaction between AMPK and the post-translational modification ... several studies underline the particular importance of the interaction between AMPK and the post-translational modification ... O-GlcNAcylation plays a role in multiple physiological cellular processes but is also associated with the development of ... O-GlcNAcylation plays a role in multiple physiological cellular processes but is also associated with the development of ...
Peptide sequence tag-based blind identification of post-translational modifications with point process model ... in a protein. In general, the process of PTM identification by aligning experimental spectra with theoretical spectra from ... Peptide sequence tag-based blind identification of post-translational modifications with point process model by Chunmei Liu, Bo ... BIOINFORMATICS Peptide Sequence Tag-Based Blind Identification of Post-Translational Modifications with Point Process Model by ...
Binds with MAX to form a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex which recognizes the core sequence 5-CAC[GA]TG-3. ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Acts as a chaperone by maintaining the newly synthesized protein in an open conformation. Functions as a peptidyl-prolyl cis- ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... protein]-peptidylproline (ω=180)*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule.. *Search chemical reactions in Rhea for this ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q9RGR9. Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Staphylococcus ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF02744, GalP_UDP_tr_C, 1 hit. PF01087, GalP_UDP_transf, ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P49925. P09630. P10629. H2Q635. F7I3I0. F7HTX2. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P49925. P09025. K7AMT8. D2HM45. B5A7E0. S7MYB5. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. The isoform beta-3 ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P79136. P47757-4. UPI000B535965. UPI0003D0D24E. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Developmental protein, Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase. Biological process. Differentiation, Fertilization ... PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. PS00479 ZF_DAG_PE_1 ... PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. PS00479 ZF_DAG_PE_1 ...
... oxidizing NADH in the process. Can also use 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrates, ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P92947. A0A178WFH3. Q3YIM9. Q3YI77. A0A178WHD0. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P92947. A0A178WFH3. Q3YIM9. Q3YI77. A0A178WHD0. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR007318 ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... help/post-translational_modification target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Post-translational modificationi. N-glycosylated.1 ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. Q6VE48, 1 interactor ... PTM/processing,/a> section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs). This subsection ,strong>complements,/strong> the ...
... to play a role in regulating the intracellular trafficking of polycystin-2/PKD2 and possibly of other intracellular proteins. ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10116. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. D6RAR4. Q04756. UPI00062A6F0F. UPI0004F47750. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. D6RAR4. Q04756. UPI00062A6F0F. UPI0004F47750. ...
Interacts with other neurogenic proteins in the specification of the neuroblast versus epidermoblast cell fate. ... p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P29503. UPI000A1CF4D0. UPI0007E684F2. B3M200. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... help/post-translational_modification target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Post-translational modificationi. Cleaved after Arg-488, ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... processing target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... GO - Biological processi. *cobalamin biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniRule. *glutamine metabolic process Source: ... processing target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form. ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR011701 ...
p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ptm_processing_ ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 7955.ENSDARP00000121318 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
PhosphoSitePlus® - comprehensive post-translational modification resource *Protein Ontology Consortium. * Protein Ontology ... NIP7 NIP7, nucleolar pre-rRNA processing protein [Homo sapiens] NIP7 NIP7, nucleolar pre-rRNA processing protein [Homo sapiens] ... Protein interactions. Protein. Gene. Interaction. Pubs. Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat upregulates the abundance of nuclear ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. 60S ribosome subunit biogenesis protein NIP7 ...
PhosphoSitePlus® - comprehensive post-translational modification resource *Protein Ontology Consortium. * Protein Ontology ... mitochondrial fission process protein 1. Names. mitochondrial 18 kDa protein. mitochondrial fission protein MTP18. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001003704.3 → NP_001003704.1 mitochondrial fission process protein 1 isoform b ... NM_016498.5 → NP_057582.2 mitochondrial fission process protein 1 isoform a. See identical proteins and their annotated ...
Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications Conference scheduled on August 04-05, 2020 in August 2020 in Montreal is ... RNA processing. Non-coding RNA maturation. RNA export. Translation. Folding. Translocation. Protein transport. Regulation of ... Post-translational modifications. Measurement in gene expression. MRNA quantification. Protein quantification. MRNA-protein ... Gene Expression and Post-Translational Modifications. ICGEPTM 2020: 14. International Conference on Gene Expression and Post- ...
  • The active site residues characteristic of serine proteases appear to be absent from this protein, which may therefore lack catalytic activity. (uniprot.org)
  • Malignant brain tumor (MBT) domain chromatin reader proteins bind to methylated histone lysine residues and associate with chromatin remodeling complexes. (jax.org)
  • Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyses the post-translational hydroxylation of histidinyl residues within ankyrin repeat domains. (nih.gov)
  • 5. The polypeptide analog according to claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 comprising, except for the cysteine replacement at either position 132 or 135, from 176 to 199 of the amino terminal residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein. (google.es)
  • 6. The polypeptide analog according to claim 5 comprising the initial 193 amino terminal amino acid residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein. (google.es)
  • 8. The DNA of claim 7 encoding the thirty-one amino acid leader sequence and the first 193 N-terminal residues of bacterial/permeability- increasing protein and having a stop codon immediately following the codon for the leucine residue at position 193. (google.es)
  • Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (hmdb.ca)
  • AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein composed of one catalytic subunit α (existing in two isoforms, α1, and α2) and two regulatory subunits, β (β1 and β2) and γ (γ1, γ2, and γ3) ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca 2+ -independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. (uniprot.org)
  • Jaenicke R. Protein folding: local structures, domains, subunits and assemblies. (springer.com)
  • Learning about biochemistry and the chemical processes of living beings is easy with BrightHub's collection of helpful articles in the Genetics Channel. (brighthub.com)
  • they contain the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to a constitutively active degradation signal (Ub G76V ). (jax.org)
  • however no GFP protein expression is detected due to the G76V substitution which leads to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. (jax.org)
  • The Ub G76V -GFP transgene was designed with a chicken beta-actin promoter (and cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer) upstream of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to a mutant ubiquitin moiety (Ub G76V ), a constitutively active proteasome degradation signal. (jax.org)
  • FAT10 is an ubiquitin-like modifier that targets proteins to proteasomal degradation. (nature.com)
  • Profile of secreted hydrolases, associated proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the degradation of hemicellulose. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. (mdpi.com)
  • For many eukaryotic introns, splicing is carried out in a series of reactions which are catalyzed by the spliceosome , a complex of small nuclear ribonucleo proteins ( snRNPs ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain is found in eukaryotic, bacterial and archeal ribonuclease III (RNAse III) proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic RNase III's participate (through direct cleavage) in rRNA processing, in processing of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and snRNA's (components of the spliceosome). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The protein encoded by this gene consists of two polypeptide chains activated from a single precursor protein by proteolysis. (genecards.org)
  • and two mature virion glycoproteins, GP-1 (40 to 46 kDa) and GP-2 (35 kDa), that are derived by posttranslational cleavage of a precursor polypeptide, GP-C (75 kDa) ( 47 , 55 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • 1. A polypeptide analog of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein or biologically-active fragment thereof wherein a cysteine residue at position 132 or at position 135 is replaced by a different amino acid. (google.es)
  • 14. A method for producing polypeptide analogs of bactericidal/permeability increasing protein and biologically active fragments thereof comprising growing a host cell according to claim 11 in a suitable culture medium and isolating said analog from said host cell or said culture medium. (google.es)
  • 15. A hybrid fusion protein comprising, at its amino terminal, an analog polypeptide according to claim 1 and, at its carboxyl terminal, at least one constant domain of an immunoglobulin heavy chain or an allelic variation thereof. (google.es)
  • In this study we show that overexpression of an apparent Arabidopsis ortholog of Rop1Ps , Rop1At , induces isotropic cell growth in fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ) and that green fluorescence protein-tagged Rop1At displays polar localization to the site of growth in yeast. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These results strongly suggest that the translocation of the molybdoenzyme TMAO reductase into the periplasm uses a mechanism fundamentally different from general protein translocation. (embopress.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical investigations have shown that the SecYEG complex is the integral part of the general protein translocation apparatus and that this complex is required for all proteins to be translocated into the periplasm of E.coli . (embopress.org)
  • Genotyping tests are extensively used in various development processes of drug discovery and in providing personalized therapies to treat a host of genetic diseases. (openpr.com)
  • The results showed that berberine significantly attenuated TER decrease and paracellular permeability increase in Caco-2 monolayers treated with IFN-γ and TNF-α.Berberine also dramatically alleviated IFN-γ and TNF-α-induced morphological alteration of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occluding, and claudin-1.Additionally, berberine suppressed the activation of HIF-1α, but not NF-κB. (nih.gov)
  • D) presents a range of case studies that exemplify the state-of-the-art application of genomic technologies in physiological and behavioural experiments that seek to better understand complex biological processes. (wiley.com)