A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of very large, epibenthic SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Stichopodidae, commercially harvested in Southeast Asia for food.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the T lymphocyte lineage.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (1/9199)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Structural basis of profactor D activation: from a highly flexible zymogen to a novel self-inhibited serine protease, complement factor D. (2/9199)

The crystal structure of profactor D, determined at 2.1 A resolution with an Rfree and an R-factor of 25.1 and 20.4%, respectively, displays highly flexible or disordered conformation for five regions: N-22, 71-76, 143-152, 187-193 and 215-223. A comparison with the structure of its mature serine protease, complement factor D, revealed major conformational changes in the similar regions. Comparisons with the zymogen-active enzyme pairs of chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and prethrombin-2 showed a similar distribution of the flexible regions. However, profactor D is the most flexible of the four, and its mature enzyme displays inactive, self-inhibited active site conformation. Examination of the surface properties of the N-terminus-binding pocket indicates that Ile16 may play the initial positioning role for the N-terminus, and Leu17 probably also helps in inducing the required conformational changes. This process, perhaps shared by most chymotrypsinogen-like zymogens, is followed by a factor D-unique step, the re-orientation of an external Arg218 to an internal position for salt-bridging with Asp189, leading to the generation of the self-inhibited factor D.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (3/9199)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (4/9199)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105. (5/9199)

The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins.  (+info)

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (6/9199)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (7/9199)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. (8/9199)

Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta.  (+info)

PH-30, a sperm surface protein involved in sperm-egg fusion, is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are synthesized as precursors and processed, during sperm development, to yield the mature forms. The mature PH-30 alpha/beta complex resembles certain viral fusion proteins in membrane topology and predicted binding and fusion functions. Furthermore, the mature subunits are similar in sequence to each other and to a family of disintegrin domain-containing snake venom proteins. We report here the sequences of the PH-30 alpha and beta precursor regions. Their domain organizations are similar to each other and to precursors of snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. The alpha precursor region contains, from amino to carboxyl terminus, pro, metalloprotease, and disintegrin domains. The beta precursor region contains pro and metalloprotease domains. Residues diagnostic of a catalytically active metalloprotease are present in the alpha, but not the beta, precursor region. We propose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Domain map of the LDL receptor. T2 - Sequence homology with the epidermal growth factor precursor. AU - Russell, David W.. AU - Schneider, Wolfgang J.. AU - Yamamoto, Tokuo. AU - Luskey, Kenneth L.. AU - Brown, Michael S.. AU - Goldstein, Joseph L.. PY - 1984/6. Y1 - 1984/6. N2 - The nucleotide sequence of a partial cDNA for the bovine low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor revealed an open reading frame of 264 amino acids that encodes the COOH-terminal 25% of the receptor protein. The sequence predicts a cytoplasmic domain of 50 amino acids at the COOH terminus, followed in order by a membrane-spanning region of 27 hydrophobic amino acids and an externally disposed stretch of 42 amino acids, that is rich in serine and threonine residues and appears to be the site of O-linked glycosylation. This orientation was confirmed by proteolysis experiments in which the relevant fragments were localized by blotting with antipeptide antibodies and a galactose-specific lectin. The ...
Involucrin兔多克隆抗体(ab53112)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human N-Terminal Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProANP) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The clinical utility of serum procalcitonin levels in guiding antibiotic treatment decisions in patients with sepsis remains unclear. This patient-level meta-analysis based on 11 randomized trials investigates the impact of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy on mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with infection, both overall and stratified according to sepsis definition, severity, and type of infection. For this meta-analysis focusing on procalcitonin-guided antibiotic management in critically ill patients with sepsis of any type, in February 2018 we updated the database of a previous individual patient data meta-analysis which was limited to patients with respiratory infections only. We used individual patient data from 11 trials that randomly assigned patients to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin levels (the
In this urban, multiethnic, population-based sample, procalcitonin, a marker of bacterial infection, and MR-proANP, a marker for cardiac dysfunction, were each independently associated with 2 measures of subclinical cerebrovascular damage, SBI and WMHV. However, the association of MR-proANP concentrations with WMHV was less pronounced compared with the association with SBI.. Silent brain infarction serves as an imaging biomarker of vascular brain health. SBI has been associated with traditional vascular risk factors, as well as with future clinical stroke,20 cognitive decline, and dementia.3,21 The independent association of SBI with future stroke, however, after adjusting for vascular risk factors suggest that SBIs reflect either an overall effect of uncontrolled vascular risk factors better than the presence or absence of each individual factor or that other, yet unknown, factors play a role in the association with stroke and dementia. These unknown factors may include underlying chronic ...
By contrast, a marked reduction in the cellular abundance of preprotachykinin gene expression was detected in striatal cells (101 +/- 16 microns2) of these same MPTP animals. These changes in neuropeptide gene expression were not associated with a change in the density (approximately 10 cells per mm2) of messenger RNA-expressing cells. L-DOPA treatment of two of the severely-impaired MPTP monkeys resulted in a dissociation of expression of these two genes: the cellular abundance of preproenkephalin A remained elevated whilst preprotachykinin levels were normalized and comparable with controls. No change in the cellular abundance of preprotachykinin messenger RNA was observed in cells of the insular cortex or a small discrete population of large cells (208 +/- 27 microns2) in the ventral putamen ...
The issue of differentiating patients with severe bacterial sepsis from infants and children with similar non-specific symptoms and signs has generated interest in identifying useful laboratory markers of infection.11-15 Other authors have described unconventional inflammatory markers such as fibronectin, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor, and β integrins, which have been used as research tools but not gained widespread acceptance in routine practice.25-27 Since Assicot and colleagues first proposed procalcitonin as an early marker of bacteraemia, descriptive reports of procalcitonin measurements in children have been reported.16 18 20More recently, several authors have reported the quantitative evaluation of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of bacteraemia and fungaemia, quoting sensitivity and specificity ranging from 57% to 100%, and from 50% to 100%, respectively.19 22 23-30For example, Chiesa et al reported that an abnormal procalcitonin concentration identified early neonatal ...
The issue of differentiating patients with severe bacterial sepsis from infants and children with similar non-specific symptoms and signs has generated interest in identifying useful laboratory markers of infection.11-15 Other authors have described unconventional inflammatory markers such as fibronectin, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor, and β integrins, which have been used as research tools but not gained widespread acceptance in routine practice.25-27 Since Assicot and colleagues first proposed procalcitonin as an early marker of bacteraemia, descriptive reports of procalcitonin measurements in children have been reported.16 18 20More recently, several authors have reported the quantitative evaluation of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of bacteraemia and fungaemia, quoting sensitivity and specificity ranging from 57% to 100%, and from 50% to 100%, respectively.19 22 23-30For example, Chiesa et al reported that an abnormal procalcitonin concentration identified early neonatal ...
PCT is the prohormone of the hormone calcitonin, but PCT and calcitonin are distinct proteins. Calcitonin is exclusively produced by C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to hormonal stimuli, whereas PCT can be produced by several cell types and many organs in response to proinflammatory stimuli, in particular by bacterial products.1. In healthy people, plasma PCT concentrations are found to be below 0.1 μg/L.2 Depending on the clinical background, a PCT concentration above 0.1 μg/L can indicate clinically relevant bacterial infection, requiring antibiotic treatment.3 PCT levels rise rapidly (within 6 to 12 hours) after a bacterial infectious insult with systemic consequences. The magnitude of the increase in PCT concentration correlates with the severity of the bacterial infection.4 At a PCT concentration ,0.5 μg/L, a patient should be considered at risk of developing severe sepsis or septic shock.5,6 On the other hand, the relief of the septic infection is accompanied by a decrease in ...
Downlod pdf Article Sharma SK, Kumar A, Yadav B, Singh AK, Pathak R, Hussain M, Sherma A. Role of Serum Procalcitonin in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis. National Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences 2015; 4(1):62-66. ...
Definition of Procalcitonin in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Procalcitonin? Meaning of Procalcitonin as a legal term. What does Procalcitonin mean in law?
Plasma Concentrations of the Vasoactive Peptide Fragments Mid-Regional Pro-Adrenomedullin, C-Terminal Pro-Endothelin 1 and Copeptin in Hemodialysis Patients: Associated Factors and Prediction of ...
Looking for Procalcitonin? Find out information about Procalcitonin. A protocol from Microsoft that provides secure transactions over the Web. See security protocol Explanation of Procalcitonin
OBJECTIVES: In addition to the acid-stimulatory gastrins, progastrin also release N-terminal fragments. In order to examine the cellular content, secretion and peripheral metabolism of these fragments, we developed an immunoassay specific for the N-terminal sequence of human progastrin.. RESULTS: The concentration of N-terminal progastrin fragments in human antral tissue was 6.7 nmol/g tissue (n=5), which was only half of that of acid-stimulatory gastrins (12 nmol/g tissue). Gel chromatography of antral extracts showed that the progastrin fragment 1-35 and 1-19 constitute the major part of the N-terminal progastrin fragments. The basal concentration of N-terminal fragments in normal human plasma was almost 30-fold higher than that of the amidated, acid-stimulatory gastrins (286 pmol/l versus 9.8 pmol/l, n=26, P,0.001). In contrast, the concentration of N-terminal fragments in hypergastrinemic plasma was only 2.7-fold higher than the concentration of amidated gastrins (540 pmol vs. 198 pmol/l, ...
Pierre Hausfater and Bruno Riou. We thank van Oers and colleagues for their comments. We agree that likelihood ratios (LR) are useful tests in interpretation of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and image studies, although they are little used [3]. However, we do not think that LR is the unique response to a complex issue. First, LR is provided for a given predetermined threshold and we are convinced that the threshold of procalcitonin (PCT) highly depends on the population tested and the type of infection studied. Moreover, we recently observed that this threshold is markedly modified by renal function [4]. It should also be pointed out that the threshold is usually provided without confidence interval whereas this information might be very important [5]. In contrast, the receiver operating curve (ROC) provides a global assessment of diagnostic accuracy without any focus on a given threshold. Second, we do not think that the LR of PCT should be applied to the global population tested and ...
In HAP, CAP and, to a lesser extent, AECB, but not TB, significantly elevated median PCT levels were found compared to controls. However, median PCT levels in all groups were below the recommended cut-off level of 0.5 ng·mL−1. Therefore, according to the present study, PCT concentration seems not to be particularly useful for the detection of lower respiratory tract infections e.g. CRP. Similar results were obtained by Hedlund and Hansson 21, who compared CRP and PCT levels in CAP in adults. However, Moulin etal. 22 described a superiority of PCT over CRP concentration in paediatric patients with CAP. In the recent publication of Brunkhorst et al. 23, different results, with elevated PCT levels in patients with severe pneumonia, were demonstrated. In contrast to the present study, the latter study included only patients with severe pneumonia, who were treated in the intensive care unit. This could also be a reason for the elevated PCT levels. Although diagnostic value has not been proved, PCT ...
[116 Pages Report] Check for Discount on China Procalcitonin (CAS 56645-65-9) Market by Manufacturers, Regions (Province), Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 report by Global Info Research. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a 116 amino acid residue protein with...
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that expands the clinical claims of the Thermo Scientific B·R·A·H·M·S PCT (Procalcitonin) biomarker assay for sepsis risk assessment. Clinicians can now use B·R·A·H·M·S PCT to help assess the response of septic patients to treatment by comparing a baseline PCT measurement with a PCT value taken on day four.. B·R·A·H·M·S PCT cleared for assessing mortality risk of septic patients ›. ...
Corticotropin (ACTH) is biosynthesized in the human pituitary gland as a long polypeptide precursor (pro-opiocortin) of some 240 residues. When ACTH is secreted in response to stress, the peptides derived from the rest or this precursor, pro-γ-melanotropin (γ-MSH) and β-1ipotropin (β-LPH), are also secreted (Fig. 1). This article will describe the search for a biological significance for this phenomenon. ...
Despite great advances in AIDS diagnosis and treatment, the continuing devastation of the AIDS epidemic demands continuing efforts to understand all aspects of...
Je recherche des informations sur la nature des deux gènes de linsuline chez le rat pour étoffer létude dun document extrait de CELL vol 18 545-558, octobre 1979 : THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE TWO NONALLELIC RAT PREPROINSULIN GENES. Le texte étant ancien je recherche quelles seraient les techniques utilisées pour résoudre une même problématique 20 ans après. Je vous remercie davance pour vos réponses. Caroline SANDRE -- Caroline SANDRE email: p6lbp269 at cicrp.jussieu.fr WWW : http://www.cicrp.jussieu.fr http://www.cicrp.jussieu.fr/p6lbp269 ...
Receptor for lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.
Cytokine that can act as a growth factor for activated T and NK cells, enhance the lytic activity of NK/lymphokine-activated killer cells, and stimulate the production of IFN-gamma by resting PBMC.
What are prohormones? What prohormones are still legal? Learn what legal prohormones are and where to buy them! Buy legal prohormones!
BRAHMS AG Receives FDA Clearance to Market Automated Procalcitonin (PCT) Test - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Biglycan Preproprotein antibody, C-term (biglycan) for IHC, WB. Anti-Biglycan Preproprotein pAb (GTX89194) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Procalcitonin protein (ab53369). Please download our general protocols booklet
involucrin: soluble precursor protein of cross-linked envelope characteristic of epidermal s. corneum synthesized by keratinocytes in natural & cultured human epithelia; see also related records for prekeratin & stratum corneum basic protein precursor
A method for treating a disorder characterized by salt retention, fluid retention, and combinations thereof. A method for determining the presence of or the progression of a disorder characterized by
Patient subgroups with high MR-proADM concentrations (≥ 1.54 nmol/L) and low biomarker (PCT , 0.25 ng/mL, lactate , 2.0 mmol/L or CRP , 67 mg/L) or clinical score (SOFA , 2 points, qSOFA , 2 points, NEWS , 4 points or CRB-65 , 2 points) values were characterized by a significantly longer length of hospitalization (p , 0.001), rate of ICU admission (p , 0.001), elevated mortality risk (e.g. SOFA, qSOFA and NEWS HR [95%CI], 45.5 [10.0-207.6], 23.4 [11.1-49.3] and 32.6 [9.4-113.6], respectively) and a greater number of disease progression events (p , 0.001), compared to similar subgroups with low MR-proADM concentrations (, 1.54 nmol/L ...
Clone REA577 recognizes the pro-form of the mouse IL-1β antigen, a proinflammatory cytokine which is a member of the interleukin 1 family expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-1β is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a different cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clone REA577 does not detect the active form of IL-1β. Additional information: Clone REA577 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Deutschland
Prothymosin-alpha (ProT[alpha]) is a protein mainly located in the nucleus of the cells. Though its exact function is not known, it is believed to be involved in cell proliferation. The ability of this protein to inhibit ...
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In this lesson you will learn what prohormones are, what they do and what the side effects are. Prohormones (pro-steroids) are substances that are precursors to hormones.
ECS progastrin develops and markets an IVD test and innovative solutions against cancer, based on the presence of hPG80 (Circulating Progastrin) in blood for monitoring, diagnosis from a simple blood test and therapy in the near future thanks to an antibody.
Ref-1: Tsuyuki et al., Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 2337-42. Ref-2: Demissei et al., Int J Cardiol 2016; 204: 164-171. Ref-3: Arrigo et al., Eur J Heart Fail 2017 Feb; 19(2): 201-208. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.682. Epub 2016 Oct 28. Ref-4: Alba et al. Am J Med 2016;129 (1): 96-104 e7. Ref-5: Maisel et al., Eur J Heart Fail 2012; 14: 278-86. ...
David: Do you think the https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Talk:Precursor#Neurotransmitter_precursor section should be renamed to https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Talk:Precursor#Amino_acid_precursor ?
Encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group, and contributes to the maturation of the precursor polyproteins. The enzyme is greatly activated by binding of the 54-residue NS4A cofactor protein also derived from the viral polyprotein. Type example of peptidase family S29. The crystallographic structure shows a chymotrypsin-like fold ...
Vince Gironda used half n half in his hormone precursor shake. Is this the same as the half n half you buy in the stores today for your coffee? Or is there a way to better emulate what was being used back in the day when everything was just better?
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:1:86526737:86529527:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000048097 transcript:OTTMUST00000123575 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Ptma description:prothymosin alpha ...
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Elevated plasma natriuretic peptide levels after AMI (acute myocardial infarction) are associated with adverse outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of plasma N-ANP (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide) and N-BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) with mortality and heart failure following AMI. We studied 403 patients with AMI. Blood was sampled for measurement of N-ANP and N-BNP on a single occasion between 72 and 96 h after symptom onset. Natriuretic peptide levels were related to all-cause mortality and heart failure episodes. During follow up (median, 462 days; range 5-764), 43 (10.7%), 25 (6.2%) and 49 (12.2%) patients suffered death, heart failure hospitalization and outpatient heart failure respectively. Only N-BNP (P,0.0005), N-ANP (P=0.005) and previous AMI (P=0.016) were independently predictive of death. N-BNP, but not N-ANP, predicted 30-day mortality. N-ANP, but not N-BNP, predicted mortality after 30 days. N-BNP was the better ...
Background: Anastomotic leaks in colorectal surgery results in a high morbidity and mortality rate. Serum procalcitonin levels is known as a sensitive and specific marker of sepsis and could be use as a marker for early detection of a leak allowing early intervention. It may help a clinician decide to perform a CT scan even earlier especially when the diagnosis of a leak is uncertain. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum procalcitonin is a good predictor of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery. Methodology: Between July 2014 until October 2015, 70 patients undergoing colorectal surgery were prospectively analyzed in a single-center tertiary teaching hospital. Demographic and surgical data were obtained. Serum procalcitonin was taken before surgery and at day 3 (72 hours) postoperatively. During the postoperative period, the patients were observed in the ward for features of anastomotic leak and if present, it was managed accordingly. The primary outcome was to prospectively ...
The endogenous opioid enkephalin neuropeptides are mediators of pain perception and have been implicated in human addictions. The preproenkephalin gene and its mRNA have also provided many examples of tissue- and species-specific variations in mRNA structure produced through a variety of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Resultant differences in mRNA structure, in several cases, have impact on translation of enkephalin prepropeptide. The reports and discussion presented herein describe studies of the preproenkephalin gene and mRNA structure in the guinea pig, an animal that may have specific advantages for modeling the human endogenous opioid system. A guinea pig brain cDNA library was constructed and screened for clones of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin, which were then sequenced. These studies confirmed the predicted mRNA structure that had been previously proposed based on homology with gene sequences and other methods. Multiple transcription initiation sites for each ...
BACKGROUND: The natriuretic peptides are counterregulatory hormones involved in volume homeostasis and cardiovascular remodeling. The prognostic significance of plasma natriuretic peptide levels in apparently asymptomatic persons has not been established.. METHODS: We prospectively studied 3346 persons without heart failure. Using proportional-hazards regression, we examined the relations of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to the risk of death from any cause, a first major cardiovascular event, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and coronary heart disease.. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 119 participants died and 79 had a first cardiovascular event. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, each increment of 1 SD in log B-type natriuretic peptide levels was associated with a 27 percent increase in the risk of death (P=0.009), a 28 percent increase in the risk of a first cardiovascular ...
Introduction: Chorioamnionitis is one of the most important maternal complications in the expectant management of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Procalcitonin (proCT), the precursor of the hormone calcitonin, is used to differentiate bacterial infections from...
Evaluation of: Riedel S, Melendez JH, An AT, Rosenbaum JE, Zenilman JM. Procalcitonin as a marker for the detection of bacteremia and sepsis in the emergency department. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 135(2), 182-189 (2011). In a recent report, Riedel et al. proposed a procalcitonin cutoff of 0.1 ng/ml to rule out bacteremia in adult patients presenting to the emergency department with systemic infections. Procalcitonin levels were higher in patients with true bacteremia than in patients with negative blood cultures or bacteremia due to possible contaminants. For prediction of bacteremia, a procalcitonin level of 0.1 ng/ml had an excellent negative predictive value of 96.3%, and a good sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 70.6% and area under the curve of 0.73, but poor positive predictive value of 12.8%. Based on the results in this study, we propose that a procalcitonin value of 0.1 ng/ml or less could be used to rule out bacteremia (NPV: 96.3 ...
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers reflecting diverse pathophysiological pathways may play an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (aortic diameter ≥30 mm, AAA), levels of many biomarkers are elevated and correlated to aortic diameter among 65-year-old men undergoing ultrasound (US) screening for AAA.. PROBANDS AND METHODS: To evaluate potential relationships between biomarkers and aortic dilatation after long-term follow-up, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), proneurotensin (PNT), copeptin (CPT), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 (Lp-PLA2), cystatin C (Cyst C), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were measured in 117 subjects (114 [97 %] men) aged 47-49 in a prospective population-based cohort study, and related to aortic diameter at US examination of the aorta after 14-19 years of follow-up.. RESULTS: Biomarker levels at baseline did not correlate with aortic diameter after 14-19 years of follow up (CRP [r ...
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis. It was first identified by Leonard J. Deftos and Bernard A. Roos in the 1970s. It is composed of 116 amino acids and is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid and by the neuroendocrine cells of the lung and the intestine. The level of procalcitonin in the blood stream of healthy individuals is below the limit of detection (0.01 µg/L) of clinical assays. The level of procalcitonin rises in a response to a proinflammatory stimulus, especially of bacterial origin. It is therefore often classed as an acute phase reactant. In this case, it is produced mainly by the cells of the lung and the intestine.... It does not rise significantly with viral or non-infectious inflammations. With the derangements that a severe infection with an associated systemic response brings, the blood levels of procalcitonin may rise to 100 µg/L. In serum, procalcitonin has a ...
We demonstrate that JunD, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, activates transcription of the human proenkephalin gene in a fashion that is completely dependent upon the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A. Activation of proenkephalin transcription by JunD is dependent upon a previously characterized cAMP-, phorbol ester-, and Ca(2+)-inducible enhancer, and JunD is shown to bind the enhancer as a homodimer. Another component of the AP-1 transcription complex, JunB, is shown to inhibit activation mediated by JunD. As a homodimer JunB is unable to bind the enhancer; however in the presence of c-Fos, high-affinity binding is observed. Furthermore, JunD is shown to activate transcription of genes linked to both cAMP and phorbol ester response elements in a protein kinase A-dependent fashion, further blurring the distinction between these response elements. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of an AP-1-related protein is regulated by the ...
The novel inflammatory marker procalcitonin (PCT) was assessed as an index of infection in patients with febrile neutropenia. Blood samples were obtained from 115 patients with febrile neutropenia for determination of PCT levels before onset of fever and daily until the resolution of fever. The median PCT level on the first day of fever was 8.23 ng/mL in patients with bacteremia, compared with 0.86 ng/mL in patients with localized bacterial infections (P = .017). The median PCT level on the first day of fever was 2.62 ng/mL in patients with severe sepsis, compared with 0.57 ng/mL in patients with clinically localized infections (P , .001). A dramatic decrease in PCT levels was documented after resolution of the infection; PCT levels were elevated when the infection worsened. Pronounced PCT levels were also found in patients with fever of unknown origin who were responding to antimicrobial chemotherapy, compared with those not responding to treatment with antibiotics. PCT levels were particularly ...
5. Summary During the evolutionary evolvement of mitochondria, the mitochondrial genome got reduced and has almost completely been transferred to the host genome. Therefore most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and delivered to the organelle by the help of molecular chaperones in an unfolded state. Cytosolic chaperones like Hsp90 and Hsp70 in mammalian cells act in a large cytosolic complex that helps in the delivery of some mitochondrial proteins to the organelle by docking on the import receptor Tom70. These chaperones are abundant ones, which have many other cellular functions, suggesting that the specificity for the targeting of mitochondrial proteins probably requires addition of specific factors within the targeting complex. Most mitochondrial precursor proteins comprise a cleavable N-terminal targeting sequence, also known as presequence, that targets them to the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20. Many of these proteins associate during or after synthesis with ...
BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of procalcitonin-guided treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections from different clinical settings. METHODS: Based on a prespecified Cochrane protocol, we did a systematic literature search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, and pooled individual patient data from trials in which patients with respiratory infections were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin concentrations (procalcitonin-guided group) or control ...
FRMC Pharmacy Director, Mike Broyles PharmD, has worked diligently for the past several years, crossing the country, educating Healthcare Representatives about Antibiotic Usage and improving patient outcomes. He recently completed a study in which he included data from over 2100 patients that had been treated at Five Rivers Medical Center. The study consisted of comparing data that was found with the patients who were treated with antibiotics prior to the use of a laboratory test called Procalcitonin (PCT) and those that were treated after the test was available. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a Peptide Precursor of the hormone Calcitonin. The level of Procalcitonin will rise in the presence of a bacterial infection. During the course of antibiotic treatment for these bacterial infections, PCT is measured to verify that the antibiotic administered is decreasing the level of PCT found circulating in the patients bloodstream. If not, Antibiotics might need to be adjusted or changed. As PCT decreases, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prothymosin alpha interacts with C-terminal domain of histone H1 and dissociates p53-histone H1 complex. AU - Zakharova, N. I.. AU - Sokolov, V. V.. AU - Suvorova, A. A.. AU - Shiau, Ai Li. AU - Wu, Chao Liang. AU - Evstafieva, A. G.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from the Rus sian Foundation for Basic Research (10 04 92007 HHC_a and 09 04 01246 a), Russian Ministry of Education and Science (Contracts P334 and 14.740.11.0168), and National Science Council (Tai wan) NSC 99 2923 B 006 003 MY3.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - A novel mode of tumor suppressor protein p53 regulation, mediated by recruitment of the linker histone H1 to the promoters of p53 target genes leading to specific repression of p53-dependent transcription, has recently been uncovered. Yet, how this repression could be relieved is not clear. Previously, a histone-binding nuclear protein prothymosin alpha (ProTa) was shown to trigger a p53 response. The histone-binding region of ...
This single-centre, prospective randomized intervention study was conducted in a tertiary neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit in the Childrens Hospital of Lucerne, Switzerland between June 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006. All term and near term infants with suspected early-onset sepsis were randomly assigned either to standard treatment based on conventional laboratory parameters (standard group) or to Procalcitonin-guided treatment (Procalcitonin-group). Minimum duration of antibiotic therapy was (48)-72 hours in the standard group, whereas in the Procalcitonin group antibiotic therapy was discontinued when two consecutive Procalcitonin values were below predefined age-adjusted cut-off values ...
Background : The mortality on sepsis is still high. Its because of delayed ofthe treatment resulted from the diagnosis of sepsis estabilished more frequently imprecise. The inflammatory makers as c reactive protein and leucocyte apparently have high sensitivity and specifity where do contemn whereas blood culture examination required so long time and the result of culture often negatively. Research on Procalcitonin (PCT) formering have important of the role for the establishment diagnosis of sepsis because its utilized as sepsis marker and in reference to severity sepsisdegree . Objective: To determine whether procalcitonin can be used as sepsis marker and severity of sepsis. Method : Patients were assigned as 2 groups, sepsis and without sepsis with their consisting of 21 samples respectively. In the sepsis subgroup separated as sepsis only (8 samples), severe sepsis (6 samples) and sepsis shock (7 samples). All of them were examined by procalcitonin, C reactive protein, blood culture and ...
The invention relates to human procalcitonin and the preparation and use thereof. In particular, a process for preparing human procalcitonin is described wherein a gene coding for a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of human procalcitonin is inserted into a vector; a host organism is transformed with this gene-containing vector; and the polypeptide expressed by the host organism is isolated. Furthermore the use of the polypeptides according to the invention, in particular as medicaments and diagnostic agents is described.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Late immunoneutralization of procalcitonin arrest the progression of lethal porcine sepsis. AU - Martinez, Jose M.. AU - Wagner, Kristin E.. AU - Snider, Richard H.. AU - Nylen, Eric S.. AU - Muller, Beat. AU - Sarani, Babak. AU - Becker, Kenneth L.. AU - White, Jon C.. PY - 2001/9/1. Y1 - 2001/9/1. N2 - Background: Procalcitonin (ProCT) is becoming increasingly recognized as a mediator as well as a marker of sepsis. Serum ProCT concentrations rise soon after induction of sepsis and remain elevated over a prolonged period of time. In contrast, many pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), rise and decline early in the course of sepsis. Researchers have improved survival in animal models of sepsis by prophylactically blocking IL-1β and TNF-α with immunotherapy, but therapeutic treatment has been less successful in clinical trials. We hypothesized that the sustained elevation of ProCT in the serum would allow for ...
Procalcitonin wird auch bei Immunsuppression und unter einer Chemotherapie maligner Tumore gebildet und kann daher auf eine bakterielle Infektion hinweisen, selbst wenn die Leukozyten nicht ansteigen. Procalcitonin reagiert auf eine bakterielle Infektion innerhalb weniger Stunden und eignet sich für kurzfristige Verlaufskontrollen einer Sepsis. Die Höhe des Procalcitonin-Spiegels gibt einen Hinweis auf die Schwere der Infektion. Er ist bei einer Sepsis besonders hoch. ...
BACKGROUND: The results of recent studies suggest the usefulness of PCT for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the behavior of serum PCT concentrations in both unin
Protein import into plant chloroplasts is a fascinating topic that is being investigated by many research groups. Since the majority of chloroplast proteins are synthesised as precursor proteins in the cytosol, they have to be posttranslationally imported into the organelle. For this purpose, most preproteins are synthesised with an N-terminal presequence, which is both necessary and sufficient for organelle recognition and translocation initiation. The import of preproteins is facilitated by two translocation machineries in the outer and inner envelope of chloroplasts, the Toc and Tic complexes, respectively. Translocation of precursor proteins across the envelope membrane has to be highly regulated to react to the metabolic requirements of the organelle. The aim of this review is to summarise the events that take place at the translocation machineries that are known so far. In addition, we focus in particular on alternative import pathways and the aspect of regulation of protein transport at ...
Results Eight completed trials evaluating 1,062 patients with AECOPD met the inclusion criteria. Procalcitonin-based protocols used in all included trials were similar. Antibiotics were recommended for procalcitonin levels ,0.25 μg/L and discouraged for lower levels. All studies were open-labelled or single blinded and the final decision to administer or withhold antibiotic was left to the responsible clinician, who could deviate from the protocol. Adherence to procalcitonin-based protocols ranged between 61.3% and 98.1%. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescription (RR 0.56 [0.43, 0.73]) and the total antibiotic exposure (MD −3.83 [−4.32, −3.35]), without affecting clinical outcomes such as rate of treatment failure (RR 0.81 [0.62, 1.06]), length of hospitalisation (MD −0.76 [−1.95, 0.43]), exacerbation recurrence rate (RR 0.96 [0.69, 1.35]) or mortality (RR 0.99 [0.57, 1.70]). However, the quality of the available evidence is low to moderate because of ...
Bronchitis is one of the top conditions for which patients seek medical care. It is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes (or bronchi), the air passages that extend from the trachea into the small airways and alveoli.
Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins are directed to their destination by N-terminal leader peptides, which are removed by the presequence protease MPP, localized in the mitochondrial matrix. Improper processing of precursor proteins through loss of MPP function is thought to impair protein stability. Using a yeast strain containing a temperature-sensitive MPP, Poveda-Huertes et al. revealed that deactivation of MPP at higher temperatures induced abnormal accumulation of unprocessed precursor proteins that formed insoluble aggregates inside mitochondria but did not alter mitochondrial function or cell survival. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes associated with protein folding and refolding were upregulated. The authors used a synthetic lethality assay to identify nuclear protein Rox1 as a critical mediator of survival upon loss of MPP activity. Loss of MPP function resulted in the translocation of Rox1 into the mitochondria, where it binds mitochondrial DNA, thereby stabilizing de novo ...
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Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid-β-protein precursor (AβPP) by β- and γ-secretases results in production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) that accumulates in the brains of sufferers of Alzheimers disease (AD). We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 2B
Implementation of a procalcitonin diagnostic algorithm improves diagnostic yield and reduces hospital length of stay in bacterial pneumonia.
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Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J., Grecka, P., Poulakou, G., et al. (2001) Assessment of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of underlying infection in patients with febrile neutropenia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 32, 1718-1725. doi10.1086/320744
A new study in the January issue of CHEST examines whether procalcitonin (PCT) testing helps to more effectively manage sepsis care.
Research Report on Europe Procalcitonin Antigen Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Principal Investigator:NAKAMURA Misa, Project Period (FY):2012-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Emergency medicine
The Lancet Infectious Diseases Median consumption of antibiotics was 7.5 daily defined doses (DDD) in the procalcitonin-guided group v 9.3 DDD in the standard-of-care group (absolute difference 2.69, p|0.0001), and median duration of treatment was 5 v 7 days respectively (absolute difference 1.22, p|0.0001).
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As the National Institutes of Health tell it, biomarkers are objective indications of medical signs outside the patient that can be measured. Studies have shown that a biomarker known as procalcitonin (PCT) has been promising to evaluate risk of bacterial infections, such as sepsis. PCT is known as a precursor to a hormone calcitonin, usually…
A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an ... Protein precursors are often used by an organism when the subsequent protein is potentially harmful, but needs to be available ... Some protein precursors are secreted from the cell. Many of these are synthesized with an N-terminal signal peptide that ... Media related to Precursor proteins at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
... is an ancient and highly conserved protein. In humans, the gene APP is located on chromosome 21 ... Amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses ... "Association of a novel human FE65-like protein with the cytoplasmic domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein". Proceedings ... a novel protein that binds to the carboxyl-terminal region of the amyloid precursor protein". The Journal of Biological ...
Among other roles in the cell, secretases act on the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) to cleave the protein into three ... BACE is a transmembrane protein with an extracellular aspartic acid protease domain. γ-secretase is actually a protein complex ... Besides their involvement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's, these proteins also have other functional roles in the cell. γ- ... Secretases are enzymes that "snip" pieces off a longer protein that is embedded in the cell membrane. ...
"MicroRNA-153 negatively regulates the expression of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2". Brain ... Delay C, Calon F, Mathews P, Hébert SS (October 2011). "Alzheimer-specific variants in the 3'UTR of Amyloid precursor protein ... Page for mir-153 microRNA precursor family at Rfam v t e (Rfam pages needing a picture, MicroRNA, MicroRNA precursor families, ... "MicroRNA-153 physiologically inhibits expression of amyloid-β precursor protein in cultured human fetal brain cells and is ...
Liu W, Liu C, Zhu J, Shu P, Yin B, Gong Y, Qiang B, Yuan J, Peng X (2010). "MicroRNA-16 targets amyloid precursor protein to ... The miR-16 microRNA precursor family is a group of related small non-coding RNA genes that regulates gene expression. miR-16, ... Metzler M, Wilda M, Busch K, Viehmann S, Borkhardt A (2004). "High expression of precursor microRNA-155/BIC RNA in children ... Page for mir-16 microRNA precursor family at Rfam miRBase family MIPF0000006 Baudry A, Mouillet-Richard S, Schneider B, Launay ...
... , also known as NPPC, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPPC gene. The precursor ... "Entrez Gene: NPPC natriuretic peptide precursor C". Kaneko T, Shirakami G, Nakao K, Nagata I, Nakagawa O, Hama N, Suga S, ... Tawaragi Y, Fuchimura K, Tanaka S, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (March 1991). "Gene and precursor structures of human C-type ... "CNP production in the kidney and effects of protein intake restriction in nephrotic syndrome". American Journal of Physiology. ...
Pardee, A. B. (1954). "Nucleic acid precursors and protein synthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... He named this DNA-protein interaction as the "diamond code." Although Gamow's premise that DNA directly synthesized proteins ... Crick, Francis: From DNA to protein On degenerate templates and the adapter hypothesis: a note for the RNA Tie Club, 1955. ... Based on the Watson-Crick model, he proposed the "direct DNA template hypothesis" that states that proteins are directly ...
Pardee AB (May 1954). "Nucleic Acid Precursors and Protein Synthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the exosome complex, ... Proteins that are needed in a particular region of the cell can also be translated there; in such a case, the 3' UTR may ... Proteins that bind to either the 3' or 5' UTR may affect translation by influencing the ribosome's ability to bind to the mRNA ...
Pardee, A. B. (1954). "Nucleic acid precursors and protein synthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... On Protein Synthesis A soluble ribonucleic acid intermediate in protein synthesis Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine ( ... He even speculated that "insulin, for example, are probably RNA-made proteins. Perhaps a special class of DNA-made proteins ... In fact, they are much larger, having a more complex role to play in protein synthesis, and are closer to 100 nucleotides in ...
... s are precursor proteins that are modified into tachykinin peptides. Via alternative splicing and post- ...
They are all encoded as large protein precursors; TGF-β1 contains 390 amino acids and TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 each contain 412 amino ... The mature TGF-β protein dimerizes to produce a 25 KDa active protein with many conserved structural motifs. TGF-β has nine ... TGF-β causes synthesis of p15 and p21 proteins, which block the cyclin:CDK complex responsible for retinoblastoma protein (Rb) ... Protein Lefty-2; Protein Lefty-A). A fourth member of the subfamily, TGFB4, has been identified in birds and a fifth, TGFB5, ...
... skeletal muscle-specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; Akt; Beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP); Huntingtin. ... For example, GAPDH interactions with beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) could interfere with its function regarding the ... GAPDH participates in a number of biological functions through its protein-protein interactions with: tubulin to facilitate ... where it ubiquitinates and degrades nuclear proteins during nitrosative stress conditions; GAPDH's competitor of Siah protein ...
Hevein on Pubchem (Precursor proteins). ... They correspond to the full Pro-Havein protein, the matur ... Hevein is the main IgE-binding epitope of the major latex allergen prohevein as are hevein-like protein domains in fruit class ... Gidrol X, Chrestin H, Tan HL, Kush A (Mar 1994). "Hevein, a lectin-like protein from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) is ... Pro-hevein (Alternative name: Major hevein, gene name: HEV1) is a wound-induced and a lectin-like protein from Hevea ...
ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. "Protein" thyroglobulin precursor [Homo sapiens]". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. ... Refolding of colloidal thyroglobulin by protein disulfide isomerase and immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein". The ... Metabolism of thyroglobulin occurs in the liver via thyroid gland recycling of the protein. Circulating thyroglobulin has a ... Thyroglobulin has been shown to interact with Binding immunoglobulin protein. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000042832 - ...
"uncharacterized protein C4orf29 precursor [Homo sapiens]". NCBI Protein. "NetOGlyc4.0 C4orf29". CBS Prediction Servers. " ... The domain of unknown function, DUF2048, is found from amino acid residues 25 to 414 in the precursor C4orf29 protein. This ... In humans, the protein is found at high levels the digestive tract and parathyroid gland. The homologous mouse protein ... "NP_001034806". NCBI Protein BLAST. Kelley, LA; Sternberg, MJE. "Protein structure prediction on the web: a case study using the ...
... s are the precursors to proteins. They join by condensation reactions to form short polymer chains called peptides or ... These properties influence protein structure and protein-protein interactions. The water-soluble proteins tend to have their ... Tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Tyrosine (and its precursor phenylalanine) are precursors of the ... Glycine is a precursor of porphyrins such as heme. Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide. Ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine ...
Protein precursors include immunoglobulin-derived light chains and transthyretin mutations. The misfolding of the protein ... The general cause of cardiac amyloidosis is the misfolding of a specific protein precursor depending on the amyloidosis type. ... Cardiac amyloidosis is a subcategory of amyloidosis where there is depositing of the protein amyloid in the cardiac muscle and ... Amyloid, a misfolded and insoluble protein, can become a deposit in the heart's atria, valves, or ventricles. These deposits ...
This protein domain provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. It catalyses the biosynthesis of DNA from RNA. This ... The Stirrup protein domain is found in prokaryotic protein ribonucleotide reductases. It obtains its name due to its ... In molecular biology, the protein domain Stirrup is a domain, found only in found in the domain, archaea. ...
Chen Y, Bodles AM (2007). "Amyloid precursor protein modulates beta-catenin degradation". Journal of Neuroinflammation. 4: 29. ... Beta-catenin-interacting protein 1 is a protein that is encoded in humans by the CTNNBIP1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... CTNNBIP1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CTNNBIP1 genome location ...
"Conserved domains on uncharacterized protein precursor C1orf127". National Center for Biotechnology Information. "PSORT II". ... The protein also appears to have a cleavable signal peptide from Met1 to Pro18. The protein C1orf127 is suggested to be ... Uncharactarized protein C1orf127 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1orf127 gene, the structure and function of ... C1orf127's protein product is a member of the Ensembl protein family TF607005. The primary assembly weighs 89 kDa with an ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRN gene. Each granulin protein is cleaved from the precursor ... The structure of the granulin protein is similar to the structure of proteins from protein families that consist of hormones, ... Progranulin is the precursor protein for granulin. Cleavage of progranulin produces a variety of active 6 kDa granulin peptides ... "The epithelin precursor encodes two proteins with opposing activities on epithelial cell growth". The Journal of Biological ...
"Mannose-binding protein C precursor [Homo sapiens]". Retrieved 2012-01-03. Jensen PH, Laursen I, Matthiesen F, Højrup P (2007 ... the MASP protein functions to cleave the blood protein C4 into C4a and C4b. The C4b fragments can then bind to the surface of ... It is produced in the liver as a response to infection, and is part of many other factors termed acute phase proteins. ... Guo N, Mogues T, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Sastry KN (March 1998). "The human ortholog of rhesus mannose-binding protein-A gene ...
... or the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These disease-linked mutations result in increased production of the longer form of ... "A myristoylated calcium-binding protein that preferentially interacts with the Alzheimer's disease presenilin 2 protein". J. ... Presenilin-2 is a protein that (in humans) is encoded by the PSEN2 gene. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with an inherited ... APH-1 interacts with presenilin and nicastrin and is required for intramembrane proteolysis of amyloid-beta precursor protein ...
Lengths shown are for the precursor proteins. SLC46A3 is an integral membrane protein 461 amino acids (aa) of length with a ... S-palmitoylation can also modulate protein-protein interactions of SLC46A3 by changing the affinity of the protein for lipid ... The protein contains a C-(X)2-C motif (CLLC), which is mostly present in metal-binding proteins and oxidoreductases. A sorting- ... Short for non-structural protein 2, NSP2 is one of the many non-structural proteins encoded in the orf1ab polyprotein. NSP2 ...
Selkoe DJ (1994). "Cell biology of the amyloid beta-protein precursor and the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease". Annu. Rev. ... Pitsi D, Octave JN (June 2004). "Presenilin 1 stabilizes the C-terminal fragment of the amyloid precursor protein independently ... Levesque G (1999). "Presenilins interact with armadillo proteins including neural-specific plakophilin-related protein and beta ... or the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These disease-linked mutations result in increased production of the longer form of ...
Farnesyl and geranyl pyrophosphate also serve as precursors for prenylated proteins. Prenylation is a common type of covalent ... a 10 carbon precursor) and isopentenyl diphosphate (a 5 carbon precursor) whereas its two products are diphosphate and trans, ... A notable example of the former is the farnesylation of small G-proteins including Ras, CDC42, Rho, and Rac. The attachment of ... Ericsson J, Jackson SM, Edwards PA (Oct 1996). "Synergistic binding of sterol regulatory element-binding protein and NF-Y to ...
... mitochondrial protein precursor-processing proteinase, matrix peptidase, matrix processing peptidase, matrix processing ... Mitochondria import the majority of their proteins from the cell cytosol. In order to achieve this, many mitochondrial proteins ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Release of N-terminal targeting peptides from precursor proteins imported ... "Uniform nomenclature for the mitochondrial peptidases cleaving precursors of mitochondrial proteins". Trends Biochem. Sci. 18 ( ...
CE precursor proteins are cross-linked by transglutaminases. The ratio of CE precursor proteins varies from tissue to tissue. ... the cornified envelope precursor family, the S100 protein family and the S100 fused type protein (SFTP) family. It has been ... As its name implies, the cornified envelope (CE) precursor family includes genes that encode the proteins forming the CE. The ... The proteins encoded by EDC genes are closely related in terms of function, and evolutionarily they belong to three distinct ...
It is also a precursor protein for bradykinin. Low-molecular-weight-kininogen (LK) is mainly a precursor protein for kallidin. ... Kininogens are precursor proteins for kinins, biologically active polypeptides involved in blood coagulation, vasodilation, ... T-kininogen (TK) is only found in rats and a protein whose function is still being researched. TK is believed to be a ... Structural relationship of kininogens with major acute phase protein and alpha 1-cysteine proteinase inhibitor". The Journal of ...
... the precursor protein, Gn/Gc, is translated at the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This precursor protein is cleaved by ... The Gn and Gc phlebovirus proteins are encoded on the M-segment and undergo synthesis. The precursor Gn/Gc protein cannot be ... The small segment (S) codes for the viral N protein and a non structural protein, NSs via an ambisense coding strategy. The ... The pH sensing feature in the Gc protein is of note. The membrane fusion activity of the phlebovirus Gc proteins is very ...
Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, which is ... PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... of the protein. The catalytic domain is homologous to mammalian peroxidases such as myeloperoxidase. It has been found that ...
... a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The most variable region of the viral ... FUT2 fucosyltransferase transfers a fucose sugar to the end of the ABO(H) precursor in gastrointestinal cells and saliva glands ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ... The vaccine relies on using a virus-like particle that is made of the norovirus capsid proteins in order to mimic the external ...
In these individuals, activated factor VII, a precursor to factor VIII in the coagulation cascade, can be infused as a ... About 5-10% of people with haemophilia A are affected because they make a dysfunctional version of the factor VIII protein, ...
... the assembly of these precursors into complex molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and nucleic acids. Anabolism ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
It is expressed in 2 forms: a 15kDa precursor protein, the translation product, and a 9kDa cytotoxic protein, which is formed ... It exists in its own granule after translation, and release of the protein is triggered by Protein Kinase C (PKC). Its C- and N ... Orthologs of this protein are found in most mammal species, such as in cows and pigs, however not in rodents. Granulysin is ... It is part of the saponin-like protein family, and its gene is found on the 2nd chromosome in humans. It is distinguished by ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Liu YJ (2005). "IPC: professional type 1 interferon-producing cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors". Annual Review ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ... phosphorylates ribosomal protein s6, which is involved in protein synthesis; and phosphorylates a translational repressor ...
By suppressing Jarid1b protein level, miR-137 is believed to play a role in modulating the differentiated state of mouse ESCs. ... It is transcribed as a non-coding primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcript, which is then processed into precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA ... This binding in turn results in an inhibition of translation of the target protein or degradation of the target messenger RNA. ... It is thus postulated that miR-137 plays a tumour suppressive role by negatively modulating LSD1 protein expression. Liu et al ...
The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early ... B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. Cells observed as CD34+ and CD38- are of an undifferentiated, primitive form ... Felschow DM, McVeigh ML, Hoehn GT, Civin CI, Fackler MJ (June 2001). "The adapter protein CrkL associates with CD34". Blood. 97 ... CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein protein encoded by the CD34 gene in humans, mice, rats and other species. CD34 ...
The predicted structures are below for both proteins. MENTHA interacting proteins for FAM178B. STRING interacting proteins for ... There are two isoforms of the gene transcript that exist by alternative splicing, and one gene precursor. SLF2 (FAM178A) is an ... The protein is most readily found in primates, and other non-primate mammals. The protein is also conserved across reptiles, ... There is currently no known structure for the protein. ZNF598 is a zinc finger protein and the value is .13. It plays a key ...
... a polyubiquitin precursor. Conjugation of ubiquitin monomers or polymers leads to different effects within a cell. ... Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTC39B gene. TTC39B is also known as C9orf52 ... "Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". "NCBI". Retrieved 9 May 2013.[permanent dead ... This article focuses on tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B isoform 1, the longest of all of the proteins. When translated, ...
"An extremely acidic amino-terminal presequence of the precursor for the human mitochondrial hinge protein". FEBS Lett. 226 (1 ... Rieske protein), UQCRB, "11kDa protein", UQCRH (cyt c1 Hinge protein), Rieske Protein presequence, "cyt. c1 associated protein ... Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UQCRH gene. Its gene product is ... "Entrez Gene: UQCRH ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein". Liu AY, Bradner RC (1993). "Elevated expression of the ...
These processes are initiated and regulated by biological metabolites such as DNA, hormones and proteins. The initial steps of ... A urinary steroid profile shows the ratio of precursor metabolites within measured urine concentrations and the resultant ... Base testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) levels are precursors in individuals with 46 ...
... including low-abundance proteins like transcription factors and protein kinases. They were also able to identify 131 proteins ... While shotgun proteomics uses data-dependent selection of precursor ions to generate fragment ion scans, the aforementioned ... aberrant proteins, and membrane proteins. Shotgun proteomics emerged as a method that could resolve even these proteins. ... Cells containing the protein complement desired are grown. Proteins are then extracted from the mixture and digested with a ...
... is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein. It is a type of ... if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-dolichol precursor. They are ... Scan the nascent protein in order to recognize and bind sequons. Move these two large substrates into their proper locations ... Zufferey R, Knauer R, Burda P, Stagljar I, te Heesen S, Lehle L, Aebi M (October 1995). "STT3, a highly conserved protein ...
... which can be used as protein tag for fluorescent labeling of proteins. From 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene, a 1,4-monoarine can be ... Owing to its symmetrical structure and reactivity, 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene is a precursor to nematic liquid crystals with ...
A lack of sleep also causes increases in the creation of proteins in the body that cause chronic pain by reducing the body's ... When the body is going through heavy sleep loss, it can form insulin resistance which is a precursor to diabetes. Insulin ... In a laboratory setting, individuals exposed to psychological stressors have had raised IL-6 (an acute-phase protein CRP) ...
Transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TACC3 gene. The function of ... identified in erythroid precursor cells". Br. J. Haematol. 112 (4): 1016-24. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02644.x. PMID ... 2002). "The centrosomal protein TACC3 is essential for hematopoietic stem cell function and genetically interfaces with p53- ... 2003). "AINT/ERIC/TACC: an expanding family of proteins with C-terminal coiled coil domains". Leuk. Lymphoma. 43 (7): 1455-9. ...
Blood 111: 1946-1950 (2008) Liar, a novel Lyn-binding nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences erythropoietin- ... Effect of inhibitors of Ornithine decarboxylase on retrovirus induced transformation of murine erythroid precursors in vitro. ... Nature 507:462-470 (2014) Complementing tissue characterisation by integrating transcriptome profiling from the Human Protein ...
It was its precursor, minstrelsy, which came to be written and royalties paid for the use of popular music. Blackface ... proteins and peptide fragments, expression systems, cells, and antibodies, for the field of plant disease The comparability ...
The most common theory is that the process started in China since they are considered precursors of aquaculture with heavily ... a series of studies show that it also benefits the farmer's diet by integrating fish protein. The use of rice-fish systems has ... were low maintenance since the main appeal was the optimization of space and the possibility to grow additional animal protein ...
"KIR2DL3 - Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL3 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - KIR2DL3 gene & protein". www.uniprot ... The number coming at the end of the name of protein classifies it as a branch of the subset it belongs to. The protein KIR2DL3 ... Tyrosine Kinases are a sub-class of the protein-kinase. Phosphorylation of proteins is a necessary step in transduction of ... proteins in humans. HLA are polymorphic, thus the MHCs of humans differ from an individual to another. KIR2DL3 is a protein ...
Protein sequencing of the material showed it to be collagen. In November 2010, hunter David Bradt stumbled on an elasmosaur ... the precursor to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). The primary purpose of the range was the preservation of wildlife, ... Ledford, heidi (April 12, 2007). "Dinosaur protein sequenced". Nature. doi:10.1038/news070409-11. S2CID 83947782. Retrieved ...
... protease complex responsible for proteolysis of transmembrane proteins such as the Notch protein and amyloid precursor protein ... PEN-2 is a 101-amino acid integral membrane protein likely with a topology such that both the N-terminus and the C-terminus ... PENSEN, formally PEN-2 (presenilin enhancer 2), is a protein that is a regulatory component of the gamma secretase complex, a ... and presenilin protein accumulation". Developmental Cell. 3 (1): 85-97. doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(02)00189-2. PMID 12110170. ...
The secreted protein consists of 133`amino acids (mouse Lect2 consists of two varieties a typical 151 amino acid protein and an ... elevated in individuals not only with diagnosed metabolic syndrome but also with a characteristic of and possible precursor to ... The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. ... LECT2 protein is widely expressed in vascular tissues, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, cerebral neurons, apical squamous ...
1838 - Proteins are discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. 1836 - Chatsworth Head found near Tamassos on Cyprus. 1838 - Chatsworth ... This invention was an important precursor to cinema. August 1835 - H. Fox Talbot exposes the world's first known photographic ...
Factors influencing secretion of gastrin can be divided into 2 categories: Stimulatory factors: dietary protein and amino acids ... inactive precursor) and then gastrin in various forms, primarily the following three: gastrin-34 ("big gastrin") gastrin-17 (" ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 17, Protein pages needing a ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 996 (1-2): 82-8. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(89)90098-8. PMID 2736261. Lund T, Geurts van ...
Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), Presenilin (PS) 1 and PS2 genes can result in increased rates of cleavage of ... Since CAA can be caused by the same amyloid protein that is associated with Alzheimer's dementia, brain bleeds are more common ...
e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being ... "LDLR - Low-density lipoprotein receptor precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - LDLR gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved ... This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like ... This precludes the movement of the receptor from the ER to the Golgi, and leads to degradation of the receptor protein. Class 3 ...
2020). "Albumin is the major carrier protein for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA in human plasma". Environ Int. 137: 105324. ... Several hundred salts and precursors of PFHxS fall within the scope of the restriction. Food Standards Australia New Zealand ... and Related Precursors: Focus on the Life Cycle of C6- and C10-Based Products". Environmental Science & Technology Letters. 6 ( ... and their potential precursors". Environment International. 60: 242-248. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.021. ISSN 0160-4120. PMID ...
Typically, UBLs are expressed as inactive precursors and must be activated by proteolysis of the C-terminus to expose the ... Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are a family of small proteins involved in post-translational modification of other proteins in ... "The dual role of ubiquitin-like protein Urm1 as a protein modifier and sulfur carrier". Protein & Cell. 2 (8): 612-9. doi: ... One additional protein, known as FUBI, is encoded as a fusion protein in the FAU gene, and is proteolytically processed to ...
Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors Emerging Drugs Chapters This segment of the Amyloid precursor protein secretase ... Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors Understanding Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors: Overview According ... Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors Report Insights • Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors Pipeline ... How many companies are developing Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors drugs? • How many Amyloid precursor protein ...
Spider wrapping silk fibre architecture arising from its modular soluble protein precursor ... Spider wrapping silk fibre architecture arising from its modular soluble protein precursor.. Tremblay, M.L., Xu, L., Lefevre, T ... Spider wrapping silk fibre architecture arising from its modular soluble protein precursor. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb2MU3/pdb ...
Processing Of Precursor 4 Human Recombinant, Processing Of Precursor 7 Human Recombinant. ... About POP / Processing of Precursor:. Processing of precursor - also known as POP - is a gene that encodes for the ribonuclease ... POP exists in several protein chain variants - POP1, POP4, POP5, and POP7 - alongside other protein chains in the ribonuclease ... Processing of Precursor Function. The POP4 gene is a component of the ribonuclease P complex. Cells use this structure to ...
... proteins and the other outlining the discovery of a novel IRF9 protein. AD is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease ... A novel protein, primate-specific (PS)-IRF9, was identified by the Zhang lab, and this experiment was done to confirm its ... showing a potential link between cell latency and different IRF9 proteins. ... one focusing on increasing levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimers disease (AD) ...
A total of 451 sEOAD samples were screened for known causative mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein ( ... Screening exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein gene in sporadic early-onset Alzheimers disease Neurobiol Aging. ... A total of 451 sEOAD samples were screened for known causative mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein ( ...
protein coding gene. Chr7:64151308-64403626 (+). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0032339. protein coding gene. Chr7:65646611- ... protein coding gene. Chr7:67286145-67518754 (+). CAST/EiJ MGP_CASTEiJ_G0031372. protein coding gene. Chr7:57046864-57311838 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr7:66384452-66629392 (+). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0032823. protein coding gene. Chr7:68490268-68768190 ... protein coding gene. Chr7:66895421-67140650 (+). NOD/ShiLtJ MGP_NODShiLtJ_G0032156. protein coding gene. Chr7:70943765-71206651 ...
1999) Biology of β-amyloid precursor protein and the mechanism of Alzheimers disease. in Alzheimer disease, Ed 2, eds Terry RD ... Evidence for Seeding of β-Amyloid by Intracerebral Infusion of Alzheimer Brain Extracts in β-Amyloid Precursor Protein- ... Evidence for Seeding of β-Amyloid by Intracerebral Infusion of Alzheimer Brain Extracts in β-Amyloid Precursor Protein- ... Evidence for Seeding of β-Amyloid by Intracerebral Infusion of Alzheimer Brain Extracts in β-Amyloid Precursor Protein- ...
G-protein α subunit Giα2 mediates erythropoietin signal transduction in human erythroid precursors. / Miller, Barbara A.; Bell ... G-protein α subunit Giα2 mediates erythropoietin signal transduction in human erythroid precursors. In: Journal of Clinical ... G-protein α subunit Giα2 mediates erythropoietin signal transduction in human erythroid precursors. Journal of Clinical ... title = "G-protein α subunit Giα2 mediates erythropoietin signal transduction in human erythroid precursors", ...
Protein (Myc-DYKDDDDK Tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: HEK-293 Cells. Jetzt Produkt ABIN2714676 bestellen. ... precursor protein, beta amyloid protein precursor-like, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein a, amyloid beta precursor protein L ... Amyloid beta (A4) Precursor Protein (APP) (AA 18-286) protein (rho-1D4 tag) Crystallography grade APP Spezies: Maus Wirt: ... Amyloid beta (A4) Precursor Protein (APP) (AA 672-713) protein (rho-1D4 tag) Crystallography grade APP Spezies: Maus Wirt: ...
Anti-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), Peptide #5 IgY Antibody (APP5) by Aves Labs ...
Absence of PS2 does not detectably alter processing of amyloid precursor protein and has little or no effect on physiologically ... Presenilin 2 deficiency causes a mild pulmonary phenotype and no changes in amyloid precursor protein processing but enhances ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ...
Hsiao, K. K. (1995). Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice. Neurobiology of Aging, 16(4 ... Hsiao, Karen K. / Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice. In: Neurobiology of Aging. 1995 ... Hsiao, KK 1995, Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice, Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 16 ... Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice. Neurobiology of Aging. 1995;16(4):705-706. doi: ...
... regulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein processing and amyloid beta protein production Ly, Philip T.T. Abstract. Glycogen ... regulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein processing and amyloid beta protein production ... The Aβ peptide is generated through sequential cleavages of the β-amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ- ... The Aβ peptide is generated through sequential cleavages of the β-amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ- ...
Dive into the research topics of Alcadein cleavages by amyloid β-precursor protein (APP) α- and γ-secretases generate small ... The Alcs express in neurons dominantly and largely colocalize with the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. ... The Alcs express in neurons dominantly and largely colocalize with the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. ... T1 - Alcadein cleavages by amyloid β-precursor protein (APP) α- and γ-secretases generate small peptides, p3-Alcs, indicating ...
Alternatively, the amyloid precursor protein can be processed via the non-amyloidogenic pathway which, through the action of ... These neurotoxic peptides are generated from the amyloid precursor protein via sequential cleavage by β- and γ-secretases in ... Over-expression of the amyloid precursor protein partly ablated the effect of dichloroacetate on amyloidogenic and non- ... In the current study, we investigated whether the orphan drug, dichloroacetate, could alter amyloid precursor protein ...
Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of ... Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of ... The processing pattern of virus-specific precursor polypeptides is the same in X. laevis oocytes as in chick embryo fibroblasts ... After microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with RNA from avian myeloblastosis virus, viral structural proteins p27, p19, ...
Aβ is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases ... Aβ is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases ... Aβ is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases ... Aβ is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases ...
... gamma-secretase is known to process multiple substrates in addition to amyloid precursor protein (APP), most notably Notch, ... From: Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimers disease ...
The similar gamma-secretase cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) results in the secretion of amyloid beta- ... The similar gamma-secretase cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) results in the secretion of amyloid beta- ... Presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein at a site corresponding to the S3 cleavage of ...
These animals produce intracellular Aβ independent of amyloid precursor protein (APP) but do not develop extracellular Aβ ... From: The type of Aβ-related neuronal degeneration differs between amyloid precursor protein (APP23) and amyloid β-peptide ( ...
Processing of the hepatitis C virus precursor protein. K. Shimotohno, Y. Tanji, Y. Hirowatari, Y. Komoda, N. Kato, M. Hijikata ... Dive into the research topics of Processing of the hepatitis C virus precursor protein. Together they form a unique ...
... that ABCA2 modulation of sphingolipid metabolism activates a signaling pathway that regulates amyloid precursor protein ... Sphingosine is a physiological inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Pharmacological inhibition of ceramidase activity ... c-jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) and HDAC3 and this complex was reduced in ABCA2 overexpressing cells. Activation of the ... is a member of a family of multipass transmembrane proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport substrates ...
Dive into the research topics of Three-dimensional structure of the human protective protein: structure of the precursor form ... T1 - Three-dimensional structure of the human protective protein. T2 - structure of the precursor form suggests a complex ... Three-dimensional structure of the human protective protein: structure of the precursor form suggests a complex activation ... Three-dimensional structure of the human protective protein : structure of the precursor form suggests a complex activation ...
Fe65 and X11β co-localize with and compete for binding to the amyloid precursor protein ... Fe65 and X11β co-localize with and compete for binding to the amyloid precursor protein ...
Ez az antitest felismeri az APP695, APP751 és APP770 amyloid precursor fehérjéket. Az amyloid precursor fehérje és az APP- ... Ez az antitest felismeri az APP695, APP751 és APP770 amyloid precursor fehérjéket. Az amyloid precursor fehérje és az APP- ...
Insights into the physiological function of the β-amyloid precursor protein: beyond Alzheimers disease ... The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) ... Insights into the physiological function of the β-amyloid precursor protein: beyond Alzheimers disease. You are here *UTAS ... Dawkins, E and Small, DH, Insights into the physiological function of the β-amyloid precursor protein: beyond Alzheimers ...
We hypothesized that committed progenitor or precursor cells at later ontogenetic stages might have a higher probability of ... Furthermore, we use genetically tagged post-mitotic rod precursors expressing the transcription factor Nrl (ref. 6) (neural ... to show that successfully integrated rod photoreceptors are derived only from immature post-mitotic rod precursors and not from ... Transplanted photoreceptor precursors transfer proteins to host photoreceptors by a mechanism of cytoplasmic fusion. *Mandeep S ...
The amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein, is the precursor protein in beta protein ... The secondary protein structures of most soluble precursor proteins (except for SAA and chromosomal prion protein [Prpc]) have ... The precursor protein is the normal- or mutant-sequence transport protein transthyretin (TTR), a transport protein synthesized ... The precursor protein is a normal-sequence apo-SAA (serum amyloid A protein) now called "A", which is an acute phase reactant ...
The AMN gene provides instructions for making a protein called amnionless. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... protein amnionless. *protein amnionless precursor. *visceral endoderm-specific type 1 transmembrane protein ... The AMN gene provides instructions for making a protein called amnionless. This protein is involved in the uptake of vitamin ... The amnionless protein is primarily found embedded in the outer membrane of kidney cells and cells that line the small ...
  • Two projects are featured in this thesis, one focusing on increasing levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) proteins and the other outlining the discovery of a novel IRF9 protein. (unl.edu)
  • To determine whether the deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), a key pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be induced in vivo , we infused dilute supernatants of autopsy-derived neocortical homogenates from Alzheimer's patients unilaterally into the hippocampus and neocortex of 3-month-old β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP)-transgenic mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Absence of PS2 does not detectably alter processing of amyloid precursor protein and has little or no effect on physiologically important apoptotic processes, indicating that Alzheimer's disease-causing mutations in PS2, as in PS1, result in gain of function. (mcw.edu)
  • Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is an early, toxic event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Aβ is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases. (elsevier.com)
  • ABCA2 modulates the expression of the Alzheimer's disease gene, amyloid precursor protein (APP). (growkudos.com)
  • An understanding of the regulators of amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key molecule implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease will aid in the development of potential therapeutic targets to mitigate the effects of Alzheimer's disease. (growkudos.com)
  • Dawkins, E and Small, DH, Insights into the physiological function of the β-amyloid precursor protein: beyond Alzheimer's disease, Journal of Neurochemistry, 129, (5) pp. 756-769. (edu.au)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) takes a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. (acrobiosystems.com)
  • A β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation has been identified in some familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) cases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Maligned peptides such as the Alzheimer's-associated amyloid precursor protein may have critical roles in the healthy brain. (the-scientist.com)
  • N eurodegenerative diseases have long been associated with aggregations of apparently toxic proteins, whether that's amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's, or huntingtin in Huntington's. (the-scientist.com)
  • Amyloid-β, which is made when amyloid precursor protein (APP) breaks down, forms plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease, and has long been viewed by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as the cause of neurodegeneration. (the-scientist.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal loss and accumulation of β-amyloid-protein (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma. (jbc.org)
  • In Alzheimer's disease (AD), tau, a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), becomes hyperphosphorylated, aggregates, and accumulates in the somato-dendritic compartment of neurons. (jbc.org)
  • The role of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been well studied. (figshare.com)
  • Furthermore, while a few genetic mutations, such as those in the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-2 genes, have been found to be associated with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, most cases of dementia occur in older adults in whom no definitive genetic risk has been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the best-known is that of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where the gamma-secretase enzyme cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to create free amyloid. (rpi.edu)
  • The effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I on amyloid precursor protein phosphorylation in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. (shefayekhatam.ir)
  • Presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein at a site corresponding to the S3 cleavage of Notch. (escholarship.org)
  • The similar gamma-secretase cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) results in the secretion of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). (escholarship.org)
  • ABBR: APP An integral membrane protein concentrated at neuron synapses that is cleaved biochemically into components, one of which is the Alzheimer disease-associated beta amyloid. (tabers.com)
  • Most forms of HCHWA (Dutch, Arctic, Piedmont, Iowa, Flemish and Italian) are due to a point-mutation in the APP gene on chromosome 21q21.2, which encodes the beta-amyloid precursor protein. (cdc.gov)
  • These neurotoxic peptides are generated from the amyloid precursor protein via sequential cleavage by β- and γ-secretases in the 'amyloidogenic' proteolytic pathway. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, dichloroacetate enhanced sAPPα generation whilst inhibiting β-secretase processing of endogenous amyloid precursor protein and the subsequent generation of amyloid beta-peptides. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Polymorphisms that slightly vary native peptides or inflammatory processes set the stage for abnormal protein folding and amyloid fibril deposition. (medscape.com)
  • While the protein has been better studied than some peptides involved in neurodegeneration, researchers are still discovering new physiological functions for it (a selection of which are highlighted below), some of which may be important in understanding its role in disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • This review summarizes some immunological factors involved in the development and control of this oral disease, such as: the participation of inflammatory cells in local inflammation, the synthesis of chemotaxis proteins with activation of the complement system and a range of antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins, cathelicidin and saposins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we report generation of a non-human primate (NHP), common marmoset model ubiquitously expressing Amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) transgenes with the Swedish (KM670/671NL) and Indiana (V717F) mutations. (elsevier.com)
  • Dietary proteins provide the amino acids necessary for the growth and repair of animal tissue. (tabers.com)
  • About 20 different amino acids make up human proteins, which may contain other minerals such as iron or copper. (tabers.com)
  • A protein consists of from 50 to thousands of amino acids arranged in a specific sequence. (tabers.com)
  • An incomplete protein lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. (tabers.com)
  • All 10,000 types of protein are made from amino acids , which are molecules that form the basis for all sorts of biological material. (gainful.com)
  • Amino acids are particularly important in the creation of proteins. (gainful.com)
  • There are around over 20 different amino acids that combine in various ways to create the vast amount of proteins that make up the human body. (gainful.com)
  • Seeing how these amino acids are critical precursors to the creation of proteins, it's important that we have a steady supply of them. (gainful.com)
  • The body has two ways to get the amino acids it needs to build proteins: produce them on its own, or get them from the food we eat. (gainful.com)
  • The combinations of these amino acids create the proteins that are so critical to our body. (gainful.com)
  • When a protein contains all nine of the essential amino acids your body can't make on its own, it is considered a "complete" protein. (gainful.com)
  • Complete proteins are a one-stop-shop for your body's protein intake because they contain all of the different amino acids that you need from your diet. (gainful.com)
  • Incomplete proteins, on the other hand, are protein sources that do not contain all the necessary amino acids your body needs. (gainful.com)
  • These kinds of proteins only have some or even none of the nine essential amino acids that are found in complete proteins. (gainful.com)
  • The fascinating thing about incomplete proteins is that even though they don't contain the full package of amino acids that complete proteins do, the right combination of certain incomplete proteins can in fact supply you with all the amino acids you need. (gainful.com)
  • If you're on the hunt for a high quality vegan protein that ticks all of the boxes we would look for, such as providing you with adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids, then RAW Nutrition has you covered! (priceplow.com)
  • However, the magnitudes of C-terminal alteration of p3-Alc α , p3-Alc β , and p3-Alc γ were not equivalent, suggesting that one type of γ-secretase dysfunction does not appear in the phenotype equivalently in the cleavage of type I membrane proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteolytic cleavage of the precursor form of HPP involves removal of a 2 kDa excision peptide and results in a carboxypeptidase activity. (utmb.edu)
  • Molecule 'Spike protein S2'': Acts as a viral fusion peptide which is unmasked following S2 cleavage occurring upon virus endocytosis. (ucsc.edu)
  • This states that the over-accumulation of Aβ, either by enhanced cleavage of the parent protein amyloid precursor protein (APP), or by decreased clearance, is a critical step in developing AD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The γ/β secretases release the Aβ fragment and the N-terminal fragment sAPPβ, whereas α-secretase cleavage within the Aβ peptide sequence prevents its production and releases the larger N-terminal fragment soluble amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα). (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-6 induction was dependent on the intracellular redox-oxidative state, since intracellular hydroxyl scavengers and N-acetylcysteine, a precursor of glutathione, abrogated IL-6 secretion by asbestos or H2O2. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, proteolytic processing of Alc proteins appears highly similar to that of APP. (elsevier.com)
  • Gamma secretase is a protease complex that cleaves, or divides, multiple transmembrane protein complexes, including Notch, which, when dysregulated, can play a role in activating pathways that contribute to desmoid tumor growth. (reportlinker.com)
  • The Aβ peptide is generated through sequential cleavages of the β-amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase. (ubc.ca)
  • Alternatively, the amyloid precursor protein can be processed via the 'non-amyloidogenic' pathway which, through the action of the α-secretase a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10, both precludes amyloid beta-peptide formation and has the additional benefit of generating a neuroprotective soluble amyloid precursor protein fragment, sAPPα. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The main constituent of the amyloid deposits is an amphiphilic peptide, derived by proteolysis from a large membrane spanning precursor protein, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (springer.com)
  • Plaques are formed mostly from the deposition of amyloid beta (Ab) a peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP). (springer.com)
  • It is characterised by a build-up of toxic soluble oligomers of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide (both intra- and extracellularly), aggregation of the Aβ into extracellular insoluble plaques, hyper-phosphorylation of tau proteins with associated generation of toxic neurofibrillary tangles, and impaired cerebrovasculature [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the c-terminal membrane-binding portion contributes to the Golgi disassembly and, therefore, functionally similar to the picornavirus 2B protein" /protein_id="YP_009238492.1" mat_peptide 995. (cdc.gov)
  • the calicivirus NTPase was found in membranous replication complexes" /protein_id="YP_009238487.1" mat_peptide 2093. (cdc.gov)
  • the FCV ortholog was detected in membranous replication complexes" /protein_id="YP_009238488.1" mat_peptide 2630. (cdc.gov)
  • Using a double quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer, precursor ion scanning was combined with detection of MS(3) fragment ions from the immonium ions and collisionally-activated decomposition peptide sequencing to achieve selectivity for the oxPTMs. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Hsiao, KK 1995, ' Understanding the biology of β-amyloid precursor proteins in transgenic mice ', Neurobiology of Aging , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 705-706. (umn.edu)
  • reabsorption chaperones via precursor virus Protease Activated Receptors( PARs). (erik-mill.de)
  • Other factors that stimulate Protein-C activation are thrombomodulin, endothelial protein-C receptors (present in the blood vessels) etc. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Identification of novel transmembrane proteins in scirrhous-type gastric cancer by the Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap (CAST) method: TM9SF3 participates in tumor invasion and serves as a prognostic factor. (nih.gov)
  • Secretion monitor precursor protein (SecM) [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The cytochrome c'' gene codes for a pre-protein with a typical prokaryotic 20-residue signal sequence, suggesting that the protein is synthesised as a precursor which is processed during its secretion into the periplasm. (unl.pt)
  • After microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with RNA from avian myeloblastosis virus, viral structural proteins p27, p19, p15, and p12 are formed by a sequence of posttranslational cleavages of a high-molecular-weight precursor polypeptide. (duke.edu)
  • This track shows protein sequence annotations from the UniProt/SwissProt database, mapped to genomic coordinates. (ucsc.edu)
  • Native or wild-type quaternary protein structure is usually born from a single translated protein sequence with one ordered conformation with downstream protein interactions. (medscape.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Molecule 'Spike protein S2': mediates fusion of the virion and cellular membranes by acting as a class I viral fusion protein. (ucsc.edu)
  • Briefly, rabbits were immunized with recombinant viral proteins expressed in bacteria and the resulting hyperimmune serum samples were collected and affinity purified. (cdc.gov)
  • First, because structural proteins are usually produced in greater amounts than nonstructural ones during viral replication, we chose only 2 regions on the corresponding putative open reading frame (ORF), ORF2, similar to ORF2-con and ORF2-var described in the previous study. (cdc.gov)
  • The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. (clustermed.info)
  • The viral proteins are then transferred onto nitrocellulose paper and reacted with the patient's serum. (cdc.gov)
  • Positive and negative control serum specimens are run simultaneously to allow identification of viral proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in a recent study, the protein with a mobility of 160 kilodaltons (kd) present in commercially available Western blots and in viral lysate antigen preparations was identified as a multimer of the gp41 protein (10,11). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Western blot for detection of antibodies to the various viral proteins are high, there has been substantial debate regarding the interpretive criteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Alcadeins (Alcs) constitute a family of neuronal type I membrane proteins, designated Alc α , Alc β , and Alc γ . (elsevier.com)
  • Soluble amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα) is a regulator of neuronal and memory mechanisms, while also having neurogenic and neuroprotective effects in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that has been localised to synaptic membranes, including both the postsynaptic density and adhesion patches, suggesting that neuronal APP plays a role in both signal transduction and cell adhesion [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over-expression of the amyloid precursor protein partly ablated the effect of dichloroacetate on amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic processing whilst over-expression of the β-secretase only ablated the effect on amyloidogenic processing. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, dichloroacetate can inhibit amyloidogenic and promote non-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Amyloidogenic Processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein Drives Stretch-Induced Disruption of Axonal Transport in hiPSC-Derived Neurons. (amedeo.com)
  • The mainstay of current treatment employs various chemotherapy regimens, all of which aim to suppress the underlying plasma cell dyscrasia and reduce the production of amyloidogenic precursor proteins. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Protein sequences from SwissProt mapped onto the genome. (ucsc.edu)
  • The phylogenetic tree was constructed from amino acid sequences of the astrovirus capsid proteins by maximum- likelihood using the PHYML plug-in in Geneious with 100 bootstraps. (cdc.gov)
  • cDNA and protein sequences coding for the precursor of phospholipase A2 from Taiwan cobra, Naja naja atra. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Processing of precursor - also known as POP - is a gene that encodes for the ribonuclease P complex and the endoribonuclease for mitochondrial RNA processing complex. (prospecbio.com)
  • The APP gene encodes a transmembrane precursor protein involved in nuclear signalling and has multiple isoforms generated by alternative splicing. (medscape.com)
  • Studies on murine Ss protein: demonstration that S region encodes structural gene for fourth component of complement. (wikidata.org)
  • In addition, the HPP precursor cap domain contains a 'maturation' subdomain of 49 residues which fills the active-site cleft. (utmb.edu)
  • Migration, integration and maturation of photoreceptor precursors following transplantation in the mouse retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of Tenascin-C (TN-C) knockout mice revealed novel roles for this extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in regulation of the developmental programme of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), their maturation into myelinating oligodendrocytes and sensitivity to growth factors. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Comparative analysis of TN-C knockout OPCs with wild-type OPCs reveals an accelerated rate of maturation in the absence of TN-C, with earlier morphological differentiation and precocious expression of myelin basic protein. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant human Amyloid beta A4 protein / APP (transcript variant 2) protein expressed in HEK293 cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Preparation of Antibodies against Soluble Recombinant Dengue E Proteins Fused with Glutathione's Transferase. (who.int)
  • The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) is a member of a family of multipass transmembrane proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport substrates across membrane bilayers. (growkudos.com)
  • This is the first report on the use of microinjection to study erythropoietin signal transduction in normal precursor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These data directly demonstrate a physiologic function of G- proteins in hematopoietic cells and show that Giα2 is required in erythropoietin modulation of [Ca(i)] via influx through calcium channels. (elsevier.com)
  • In N2a cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that a repressive complex forms at the AP-1 site in the human APP promoter, consisting of c-jun, c-jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) and HDAC3 and this complex was reduced in ABCA2 overexpressing cells. (growkudos.com)
  • It is shown that transplanted rod precursors can reform an anatomically distinct and appropriately polarized outer nuclear layer of photoreceptor cells, and visual function was restored in animals with zero rod function at baseline, suggesting that a cell therapy approach may reconstitute a light-sensitive cell layer de novo and repair a structurally damaged visual circuit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The amnionless protein is primarily found embedded in the outer membrane of kidney cells and cells that line the small intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without amnionless acting as an anchor, cubilin is not attached to cells in the small intestine or kidneys and cannot bind to vitamin B12 and other molecules and proteins needed in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human Amyloid Precursor, His Tag (AMR-H52H4) is expressed from human 293 cells (HEK293). (acrobiosystems.com)
  • These proteins either arise from proteins expressed by cells at the deposition site (localized), or they precipitate systemically after production at a local site (systemic). (medscape.com)
  • PASCUAL, A. Thyroid hormone regulation of APP ( β -amyloid precursor protein) gene expression in brain and brain cultured cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Finally, direct activation of isolated murine splenic CD4+ T cells via anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 stimulation led to the up-regulation of mRNA (Figure 1C) and protein (Figure 1D). (bioinf.org)
  • Scientists believe that the movement of the mRNAs in the cells from the nucleus to another location is vital for controlling the spatial distribution of the various critical cellular proteins. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Researchers have now found that the cells are better off if they transport the precursor mRNAs to the appropriate sites of the function of their respective proteins rather than if they make the proteins at any random location. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Since the production of one copy of a given protein requires a lot of energy, it is a better strategy for the cells to send and target the precursor mRNAs to the site of action of the corresponding proteins rather than producing the proteins before mRNA arrives on-site. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Consequently, cells have to unnecessarily produce a lot of proteins to compensate for this mislocalization on-site. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Activated protein-C (APC) other than regulating blood clotting, and apoptosis (programmed cell death), has Cytoprotective effects (anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and leucocytes), and it is also involved in process inflammation, thus it has a modulatory role in inflammation (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Melanoma develops from atypically transformed melanocytes whose fetal precursor cells originate from the neural crest. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies to the HIV-1 major group-specific antigen (GAG) protein p24, and its precursor p55, are the earliest detected after infection by Western blot and tend to decrease or become undetectable with onset or progression of clinical symptoms (4-9). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, antibodies to the envelope (ENV) precursor protein gp160 and the final ENV proteins (gp120 and gp41) can be detected in specimens from virtually all HIV-infected persons regardless of clinical stage (4-9). (cdc.gov)
  • Additional tests include chromogen (amidolytic) based assay - the formation of chromogenic colour is proportional to the amount of Activated protein-C - APC (hence Protein-C) in the plasma sample specimen (test results can be interfered with by hemolysis, lipemia, icterus etc), partially activated Protein-C test, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, antiphospholipid antibodies, factor V Leiden test, prothrombin test etc. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Like many other protein coding genes, POP4 has diseases associated with it when it does not function correctly. (prospecbio.com)
  • The discovery of specific genes and proteins associated with AD, and the development of new technologies for the production of transgenic animals, has helped researchers to overcome the lack of natural models. (springer.com)
  • But I'm also excited about all the work being done on genetics to take wild type genes and further tune not only the content of the protein, but sometimes the functionality. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Hence about 20 genes are involved in the regulation of Protein-C activation (i.e up-regulation and down-regulation). (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type 1 membrane protein with an NH2 -terminal extracellular domain and a COOH-terminal cytosolic tail. (acrobiosystems.com)
  • The iodocyanopindolol and SM-11044 binding protein belongs to the TM9SF multispanning membrane protein superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • protein_coding" "AAC76562","bcsF","Escherichia coli","DUF2636 family cellulose production small membrane protein [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Table 1 lists the major structural proteins coded for by the HIV genome. (cdc.gov)
  • In the current study, we investigated whether the orphan drug, dichloroacetate, could alter amyloid precursor protein proteolysis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Similar enhancement of ADAM-mediated amyloid precursor protein processing by dichloroacetate was observed in unrelated cell lines and the effect was not exclusive to the amyloid precursor protein as an ADAM substrate, as indicated by dichloroacetate-enhanced proteolysis of the Notch ligand, Jagged1. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Despite altering proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein, dichloroacetate did not significantly affect the expression/activity of α-, β- or γ-secretases. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Many mechanisms of protein function contribute to amyloidogenesis, including "nonphysiologic proteolysis, defective or absent physiologic proteolysis, mutations involving changes in thermodynamic or kinetic properties, and pathways that are yet to be defined. (medscape.com)
  • In this report, we hypothesized that ABCA2 modulation of sphingolipid metabolism activates a signaling pathway that regulates amyloid precursor protein transcription. (growkudos.com)
  • Biogenesis of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins : the POTRA domain is involved in precursor release from the SAM complex. (edu.au)
  • Ischemic stroke is followed by a series of events, such as inflammation, increased oxidative stress, and the spread of damage, that can lead to mitochondrial damage, protein degradation, and cellular apoptosis. (shefayekhatam.ir)
  • protein_coding" "AAC73596","tesA","Escherichia coli","acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 and protease I and lysophospholipase L1 [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Protein-C is a pro-enzyme (zymogen precursor) of serine protease synthesized by the liver which has multiple domains. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Protein-C activity: Protein-C serine protease pro-enzyme is converted to activate form i.e activated protein-C (APC) by thrombin and thrombomodulin. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II - two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure - revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. (elifesciences.org)
  • Protein-C is homologous to factors VII, IX and X. The gene for Protein-C is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Only one form of HCHWA, Icelandic type, is due to a mutation in the CST3 gene on chromosome 20p11.2, encoding the precursor protein cystatin C. (cdc.gov)
  • The cytotoxicity mechanisms are complex and differ between soluble protein and insoluble amyloid fibrils. (medscape.com)
  • Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA. (duke.edu)
  • Polypeptide chain in mature protein after post-processing. (ucsc.edu)
  • Another AD hallmark are the NFT, composed by neurofilaments and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, a microtubule associated polypeptide. (springer.com)
  • Adapter proteins participate in the immune response by acting as a bridge for enzymes in the signaling pathway needed to activate lymphocytes and initiate a response to an antigen. (tabers.com)
  • The Western blot assay is a method in which individual proteins of an HIV-1 lysate are separated according to size by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, other associated tests include Protein-C antigenic assay (which is not based on function or activity and helps to distinguish between type-1 and type-2 PC abnormalities) is performed by ELISA, radial immunodiffusion - RID etc. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo . (elifesciences.org)
  • This generalisable approach provides unprecedented temporal control over the dose of endogenous proteins in mouse models, with implications for studying essential biological pathways and modelling drug activity in mammalian tissues. (elifesciences.org)
  • These are known as complementary proteins. (gainful.com)
  • Unlike dairy-based protein powders like whey and casein, vegan protein powder should have multiple sources of complementary proteins and create a complete amino acid profile . (priceplow.com)
  • Some of the purported functions of three of these proteins, assessed primarily through in vitro and animal studies, are shown below. (the-scientist.com)
  • infected bisecting proteins re-enter endosomal body chains to promote with the SAMM50 regulator and extracellular plasma metazoans to have with the TIMM22 superpathway. (erik-mill.de)
  • Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the abnormal sequestration of disease-specific proteins in the brain, but the events that initiate this process remain unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • The results show that cerebral β-amyloid can be seeded in vivo by a single inoculation of dilute AD brain extract, demonstrating a key pathogenic commonality between β-amyloidosis and other neurodegenerative diseases involving abnormal protein polymerization. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Alcs express in neurons dominantly and largely colocalize with the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • But when not mutated, misfolded, or otherwise misbehaving, these proteins seem to play critical roles in brain development and function, leading some researchers to suspect that the loss of those normal functions may play a role in disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • However, researchers are focusing more and more on the roles of the regular protein in healthy brain function (several of which are highlighted below) and on how better understanding these roles might shine a light on how the disease develops. (the-scientist.com)
  • When Wasiq was diagnosed with PA, we were informed about the damage already done in brain by protein intake. (pafoundation.com)
  • In addition to protein, salmon also contains essential omega-3 fatty acids which may benefit the brain. (travelanimaldr.com)
  • What Are Complete Proteins? (gainful.com)
  • The "completeness" of complete proteins refers to their particular amino acid profile. (gainful.com)
  • Including complete proteins as part of a well-balanced diet ensures that you're supplying your body with all the components you need to sustain your body. (gainful.com)
  • Complete proteins can be either animal or plant based, depending on the specific food. (gainful.com)
  • So, while complete proteins are more often found in animal products, there are meat-free alternatives - like the Three Sisters - that can supply you with complete protein. (gainful.com)
  • Basically, the difference between incomplete and complete proteins comes down to the quality of their nutritional content. (gainful.com)
  • Complete proteins contain everything you need in a protein, making them a more effective protein resource. (gainful.com)
  • If you're a vegan or vegetarian, then you already may know the importance of combining various plants to create complete proteins. (priceplow.com)
  • The role of G-proteins in regulation of the erythropoietin-modulated Ca 2+ channel was delineated here by microinjection of G-protein modulators or subunits into human erythroid precursors. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein-C has an important role in the regulation of blood clots. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • This mutation causes increased accumulation of amyloid-beta protein in the walls of cerebral arteries and capillaries. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurofibrillary tangles develop when abnormal tau proteins accumulate inside neurons and form insoluble filaments, and amyloid plaques develop when the amyloid β protein (Aβ) accumulates in increasingly insoluble forms. (ubc.ca)
  • Of note, a monoclonal protein and abnormal free light chain ratios have been consistently detected at least 4 years before the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] Because of the high sensitivity of these biomarkers, experts suggest that they be included in the regular follow-up panel for patients with a monoclonal protein and abnormal free light chain ratios, as they may represent the first sign of organ involvement. (medscape.com)
  • Molecule 'Spike protein S1': attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection. (ucsc.edu)
  • The ordered aggregation of fibrillogenic proteins into amyloid is most efficient above a critical protein concentration ( Harper and Lansbury, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Only 10% of amyloidosis deposits consist of components such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), apolipoprotein-E (apoE), and serum amyloid P-component (SAP), while nearly 90% of the deposits consist of amyloid fibrils that are formed by the aggregation of misfolded proteins. (medscape.com)
  • problems are G-protein associated rounds secreted by a Cerebrotendinous aggregation in an human ICA( Vu, 1991)( 3). (erik-mill.de)
  • In the kidneys, amnionless and cubilin are involved in the reabsorption of certain proteins that would otherwise be released in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Much work since has focused on how the resulting mutant protein, which aggregates inside neurons and invades cell nuclei, contributing to the pathology of the disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • Master's thesis: Synthesis of 3-Ethynyl-ornithine, A precursor for site-specific posttranslational protein modification. (clickgene.eu)
  • To date, the transthyretin tetramer stabilizer tafamidis is the only approved treatment for both wild-type and mutant ATTR cardiomyopathy without polyneuropathy, while ATTRv with associated neuropathy can benefit from treatment with patisiran, an inhibitor of hepatic protein synthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the synthesis of the protein cannot take place directly from the gene. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • synthesis VI is the most PLK1 s expression signaling circulation browser, an migration defined from its breast with the FcRI protein pro-IL1B. (erik-mill.de)
  • [ 5 ] In humans, about 23 different unrelated proteins are known to form amyloid fibrils in vivo. (medscape.com)
  • A vegetarian diet can compensate for dietary protein deficiencies by combining vegetable groups that complement each other in their basic amino acid groups. (tabers.com)
  • Acute-phase proteins include C-reactive protein, several complement and coagulation factors, transport proteins, amyloid, and antiprotease enzymes. (tabers.com)
  • Amyloid fibrils are protein polymers comprising identical monomer units (homopolymers). (medscape.com)
  • Lomitapide is a small-molecule inhibitor of the enzymatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) that is vital to the formation of LDL precursor particles. (2minutemedicine.com)
  • A sex-limited serum protein variant in the mouse: inheritance and association with the H-2 region. (wikidata.org)
  • A single chain precursor of C4 in human serum. (wikidata.org)
  • In clinical medicine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate or serum C-reactive protein level sometimes is used as a marker of increased amounts of acute-phase proteins. (tabers.com)
  • However, soon after, evidence of recovery became apparent on serum amyloid protein component scintigraphy, measurement of serum free light chains, and measurement of renal parameters. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors - Pipeline Insight, 2022" report provides comprehensive insights about 5+ companies and 5+ pipeline drugs in Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors pipeline landscape. (reportlinker.com)
  • The companies and academics are working to assess challenges and seek opportunities that could influence Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors R&D. The therapies under development are focused on novel approaches for Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors. (reportlinker.com)
  • This segment of the Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors report encloses its detailed analysis of various drugs in different stages of clinical development, including phase III, II, I, preclinical and Discovery. (reportlinker.com)
  • It is currently in Phase II stage of development for the treatment of Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors and is being developed by Ayala Pharmaceuticals. (reportlinker.com)
  • 5+ key companies which are developing the Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors. (reportlinker.com)
  • The companies which have their Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors drug candidates in the most advanced stage, i.e. (reportlinker.com)
  • Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors pipeline report provides the therapeutic assessment of the pipeline drugs by the Route of Administration. (reportlinker.com)
  • Filamentous neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) are formed from paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein. (springer.com)
  • AMN gene mutations that cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome reduce the amount or function of the amnionless protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, without amnionless function in the kidneys, proteins are not reabsorbed into the body and are instead released in the urine, leading to proteinuria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Altered expression and function of astroglial gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) has increasingly been associated to neurotoxicity in Alzheimer disease (AD). (jbc.org)
  • This suggests that APPL loss of function does not generally disrupt axonal transport but that APPL has a selective role in the effectiveness of retrograde transport of proteins it co-traffics with. (figshare.com)
  • Protein of unknown function (DUF1471) [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Since every protein in the cell has a function in a particular location in the cell, a given protein must be present in a large concentration at that site for its optimum action. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • The latter possibility would lead to the risk of sending a specific protein to the wrong cellular sites, which interferes with the protein's function and also costs the cell a considerable amount of additional energy. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Amnionless attaches (binds) to another protein called cubilin, anchoring cubilin to the cell membrane. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Protein-C is activated when it binds to thrombin. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Inhibition of this response to erythropoietin by pertussis toxin suggests involvement of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial regulatory proteins [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (eneuro.org)
  • About half of affected individuals also have excess protein in their urine (proteinuria), and some have neurological problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Excess protein in the diet results in increased nitrogen excretion in the urine. (tabers.com)