A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
The coordination of services in one area of a facility to improve efficiency.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A hypothalamic hormone that is synthesized as a precursor protein which is cleaved into two peptides. In addition to stimulating PROLACTIN release the peptides bind to specific G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS found at locations within the BRAIN.
A genus of fleas in the family Pulicidae which includes the species that serves as the primary vector of BUBONIC PLAGUE, Xenopsylla cheopis.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
A mitochondrial flavoprotein, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA to 3-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Defects in the enzyme, is associated with isovaleric acidemia (IVA).
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for short-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (1/9199)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Structural basis of profactor D activation: from a highly flexible zymogen to a novel self-inhibited serine protease, complement factor D. (2/9199)

The crystal structure of profactor D, determined at 2.1 A resolution with an Rfree and an R-factor of 25.1 and 20.4%, respectively, displays highly flexible or disordered conformation for five regions: N-22, 71-76, 143-152, 187-193 and 215-223. A comparison with the structure of its mature serine protease, complement factor D, revealed major conformational changes in the similar regions. Comparisons with the zymogen-active enzyme pairs of chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and prethrombin-2 showed a similar distribution of the flexible regions. However, profactor D is the most flexible of the four, and its mature enzyme displays inactive, self-inhibited active site conformation. Examination of the surface properties of the N-terminus-binding pocket indicates that Ile16 may play the initial positioning role for the N-terminus, and Leu17 probably also helps in inducing the required conformational changes. This process, perhaps shared by most chymotrypsinogen-like zymogens, is followed by a factor D-unique step, the re-orientation of an external Arg218 to an internal position for salt-bridging with Asp189, leading to the generation of the self-inhibited factor D.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (3/9199)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (4/9199)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105. (5/9199)

The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins.  (+info)

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (6/9199)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (7/9199)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. (8/9199)

Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta.  (+info)

PH-30, a sperm surface protein involved in sperm-egg fusion, is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are synthesized as precursors and processed, during sperm development, to yield the mature forms. The mature PH-30 alpha/beta complex resembles certain viral fusion proteins in membrane topology and predicted binding and fusion functions. Furthermore, the mature subunits are similar in sequence to each other and to a family of disintegrin domain-containing snake venom proteins. We report here the sequences of the PH-30 alpha and beta precursor regions. Their domain organizations are similar to each other and to precursors of snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. The alpha precursor region contains, from amino to carboxyl terminus, pro, metalloprotease, and disintegrin domains. The beta precursor region contains pro and metalloprotease domains. Residues diagnostic of a catalytically active metalloprotease are present in the alpha, but not the beta, precursor region. We propose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Domain map of the LDL receptor. T2 - Sequence homology with the epidermal growth factor precursor. AU - Russell, David W.. AU - Schneider, Wolfgang J.. AU - Yamamoto, Tokuo. AU - Luskey, Kenneth L.. AU - Brown, Michael S.. AU - Goldstein, Joseph L.. PY - 1984/6. Y1 - 1984/6. N2 - The nucleotide sequence of a partial cDNA for the bovine low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor revealed an open reading frame of 264 amino acids that encodes the COOH-terminal 25% of the receptor protein. The sequence predicts a cytoplasmic domain of 50 amino acids at the COOH terminus, followed in order by a membrane-spanning region of 27 hydrophobic amino acids and an externally disposed stretch of 42 amino acids, that is rich in serine and threonine residues and appears to be the site of O-linked glycosylation. This orientation was confirmed by proteolysis experiments in which the relevant fragments were localized by blotting with antipeptide antibodies and a galactose-specific lectin. The ...
Involucrin兔多克隆抗体(ab53112)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human N-Terminal Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProANP) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The clinical utility of serum procalcitonin levels in guiding antibiotic treatment decisions in patients with sepsis remains unclear. This patient-level meta-analysis based on 11 randomized trials investigates the impact of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy on mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with infection, both overall and stratified according to sepsis definition, severity, and type of infection. For this meta-analysis focusing on procalcitonin-guided antibiotic management in critically ill patients with sepsis of any type, in February 2018 we updated the database of a previous individual patient data meta-analysis which was limited to patients with respiratory infections only. We used individual patient data from 11 trials that randomly assigned patients to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin levels (the
In this urban, multiethnic, population-based sample, procalcitonin, a marker of bacterial infection, and MR-proANP, a marker for cardiac dysfunction, were each independently associated with 2 measures of subclinical cerebrovascular damage, SBI and WMHV. However, the association of MR-proANP concentrations with WMHV was less pronounced compared with the association with SBI.. Silent brain infarction serves as an imaging biomarker of vascular brain health. SBI has been associated with traditional vascular risk factors, as well as with future clinical stroke,20 cognitive decline, and dementia.3,21 The independent association of SBI with future stroke, however, after adjusting for vascular risk factors suggest that SBIs reflect either an overall effect of uncontrolled vascular risk factors better than the presence or absence of each individual factor or that other, yet unknown, factors play a role in the association with stroke and dementia. These unknown factors may include underlying chronic ...
By contrast, a marked reduction in the cellular abundance of preprotachykinin gene expression was detected in striatal cells (101 +/- 16 microns2) of these same MPTP animals. These changes in neuropeptide gene expression were not associated with a change in the density (approximately 10 cells per mm2) of messenger RNA-expressing cells. L-DOPA treatment of two of the severely-impaired MPTP monkeys resulted in a dissociation of expression of these two genes: the cellular abundance of preproenkephalin A remained elevated whilst preprotachykinin levels were normalized and comparable with controls. No change in the cellular abundance of preprotachykinin messenger RNA was observed in cells of the insular cortex or a small discrete population of large cells (208 +/- 27 microns2) in the ventral putamen ...
The issue of differentiating patients with severe bacterial sepsis from infants and children with similar non-specific symptoms and signs has generated interest in identifying useful laboratory markers of infection.11-15 Other authors have described unconventional inflammatory markers such as fibronectin, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor, and β integrins, which have been used as research tools but not gained widespread acceptance in routine practice.25-27 Since Assicot and colleagues first proposed procalcitonin as an early marker of bacteraemia, descriptive reports of procalcitonin measurements in children have been reported.16 18 20More recently, several authors have reported the quantitative evaluation of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of bacteraemia and fungaemia, quoting sensitivity and specificity ranging from 57% to 100%, and from 50% to 100%, respectively.19 22 23-30For example, Chiesa et al reported that an abnormal procalcitonin concentration identified early neonatal ...
The issue of differentiating patients with severe bacterial sepsis from infants and children with similar non-specific symptoms and signs has generated interest in identifying useful laboratory markers of infection.11-15 Other authors have described unconventional inflammatory markers such as fibronectin, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor, and β integrins, which have been used as research tools but not gained widespread acceptance in routine practice.25-27 Since Assicot and colleagues first proposed procalcitonin as an early marker of bacteraemia, descriptive reports of procalcitonin measurements in children have been reported.16 18 20More recently, several authors have reported the quantitative evaluation of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of bacteraemia and fungaemia, quoting sensitivity and specificity ranging from 57% to 100%, and from 50% to 100%, respectively.19 22 23-30For example, Chiesa et al reported that an abnormal procalcitonin concentration identified early neonatal ...
PCT is the prohormone of the hormone calcitonin, but PCT and calcitonin are distinct proteins. Calcitonin is exclusively produced by C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to hormonal stimuli, whereas PCT can be produced by several cell types and many organs in response to proinflammatory stimuli, in particular by bacterial products.1. In healthy people, plasma PCT concentrations are found to be below 0.1 μg/L.2 Depending on the clinical background, a PCT concentration above 0.1 μg/L can indicate clinically relevant bacterial infection, requiring antibiotic treatment.3 PCT levels rise rapidly (within 6 to 12 hours) after a bacterial infectious insult with systemic consequences. The magnitude of the increase in PCT concentration correlates with the severity of the bacterial infection.4 At a PCT concentration ,0.5 μg/L, a patient should be considered at risk of developing severe sepsis or septic shock.5,6 On the other hand, the relief of the septic infection is accompanied by a decrease in ...
Downlod pdf Article Sharma SK, Kumar A, Yadav B, Singh AK, Pathak R, Hussain M, Sherma A. Role of Serum Procalcitonin in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis. National Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences 2015; 4(1):62-66. ...
Definition of Procalcitonin in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Procalcitonin? Meaning of Procalcitonin as a legal term. What does Procalcitonin mean in law?
Plasma Concentrations of the Vasoactive Peptide Fragments Mid-Regional Pro-Adrenomedullin, C-Terminal Pro-Endothelin 1 and Copeptin in Hemodialysis Patients: Associated Factors and Prediction of ...
Looking for Procalcitonin? Find out information about Procalcitonin. A protocol from Microsoft that provides secure transactions over the Web. See security protocol Explanation of Procalcitonin
OBJECTIVES: In addition to the acid-stimulatory gastrins, progastrin also release N-terminal fragments. In order to examine the cellular content, secretion and peripheral metabolism of these fragments, we developed an immunoassay specific for the N-terminal sequence of human progastrin.. RESULTS: The concentration of N-terminal progastrin fragments in human antral tissue was 6.7 nmol/g tissue (n=5), which was only half of that of acid-stimulatory gastrins (12 nmol/g tissue). Gel chromatography of antral extracts showed that the progastrin fragment 1-35 and 1-19 constitute the major part of the N-terminal progastrin fragments. The basal concentration of N-terminal fragments in normal human plasma was almost 30-fold higher than that of the amidated, acid-stimulatory gastrins (286 pmol/l versus 9.8 pmol/l, n=26, P,0.001). In contrast, the concentration of N-terminal fragments in hypergastrinemic plasma was only 2.7-fold higher than the concentration of amidated gastrins (540 pmol vs. 198 pmol/l, ...
Pierre Hausfater and Bruno Riou. We thank van Oers and colleagues for their comments. We agree that likelihood ratios (LR) are useful tests in interpretation of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and image studies, although they are little used [3]. However, we do not think that LR is the unique response to a complex issue. First, LR is provided for a given predetermined threshold and we are convinced that the threshold of procalcitonin (PCT) highly depends on the population tested and the type of infection studied. Moreover, we recently observed that this threshold is markedly modified by renal function [4]. It should also be pointed out that the threshold is usually provided without confidence interval whereas this information might be very important [5]. In contrast, the receiver operating curve (ROC) provides a global assessment of diagnostic accuracy without any focus on a given threshold. Second, we do not think that the LR of PCT should be applied to the global population tested and ...
In HAP, CAP and, to a lesser extent, AECB, but not TB, significantly elevated median PCT levels were found compared to controls. However, median PCT levels in all groups were below the recommended cut-off level of 0.5 ng·mL−1. Therefore, according to the present study, PCT concentration seems not to be particularly useful for the detection of lower respiratory tract infections e.g. CRP. Similar results were obtained by Hedlund and Hansson 21, who compared CRP and PCT levels in CAP in adults. However, Moulin etal. 22 described a superiority of PCT over CRP concentration in paediatric patients with CAP. In the recent publication of Brunkhorst et al. 23, different results, with elevated PCT levels in patients with severe pneumonia, were demonstrated. In contrast to the present study, the latter study included only patients with severe pneumonia, who were treated in the intensive care unit. This could also be a reason for the elevated PCT levels. Although diagnostic value has not been proved, PCT ...
[116 Pages Report] Check for Discount on China Procalcitonin (CAS 56645-65-9) Market by Manufacturers, Regions (Province), Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 report by Global Info Research. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a 116 amino acid residue protein with...
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that expands the clinical claims of the Thermo Scientific B·R·A·H·M·S PCT (Procalcitonin) biomarker assay for sepsis risk assessment. Clinicians can now use B·R·A·H·M·S PCT to help assess the response of septic patients to treatment by comparing a baseline PCT measurement with a PCT value taken on day four.. B·R·A·H·M·S PCT cleared for assessing mortality risk of septic patients ›. ...
Corticotropin (ACTH) is biosynthesized in the human pituitary gland as a long polypeptide precursor (pro-opiocortin) of some 240 residues. When ACTH is secreted in response to stress, the peptides derived from the rest or this precursor, pro-γ-melanotropin (γ-MSH) and β-1ipotropin (β-LPH), are also secreted (Fig. 1). This article will describe the search for a biological significance for this phenomenon. ...
Despite great advances in AIDS diagnosis and treatment, the continuing devastation of the AIDS epidemic demands continuing efforts to understand all aspects of...
Je recherche des informations sur la nature des deux gènes de linsuline chez le rat pour étoffer létude dun document extrait de CELL vol 18 545-558, octobre 1979 : THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE TWO NONALLELIC RAT PREPROINSULIN GENES. Le texte étant ancien je recherche quelles seraient les techniques utilisées pour résoudre une même problématique 20 ans après. Je vous remercie davance pour vos réponses. Caroline SANDRE -- Caroline SANDRE email: p6lbp269 at cicrp.jussieu.fr WWW : http://www.cicrp.jussieu.fr http://www.cicrp.jussieu.fr/p6lbp269 ...
Receptor for lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.
Cytokine that can act as a growth factor for activated T and NK cells, enhance the lytic activity of NK/lymphokine-activated killer cells, and stimulate the production of IFN-gamma by resting PBMC.
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BRAHMS AG Receives FDA Clearance to Market Automated Procalcitonin (PCT) Test - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Biglycan Preproprotein antibody, C-term (biglycan) for IHC, WB. Anti-Biglycan Preproprotein pAb (GTX89194) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Procalcitonin protein (ab53369). Please download our general protocols booklet
involucrin: soluble precursor protein of cross-linked envelope characteristic of epidermal s. corneum synthesized by keratinocytes in natural & cultured human epithelia; see also related records for prekeratin & stratum corneum basic protein precursor
A method for treating a disorder characterized by salt retention, fluid retention, and combinations thereof. A method for determining the presence of or the progression of a disorder characterized by
Patient subgroups with high MR-proADM concentrations (≥ 1.54 nmol/L) and low biomarker (PCT , 0.25 ng/mL, lactate , 2.0 mmol/L or CRP , 67 mg/L) or clinical score (SOFA , 2 points, qSOFA , 2 points, NEWS , 4 points or CRB-65 , 2 points) values were characterized by a significantly longer length of hospitalization (p , 0.001), rate of ICU admission (p , 0.001), elevated mortality risk (e.g. SOFA, qSOFA and NEWS HR [95%CI], 45.5 [10.0-207.6], 23.4 [11.1-49.3] and 32.6 [9.4-113.6], respectively) and a greater number of disease progression events (p , 0.001), compared to similar subgroups with low MR-proADM concentrations (, 1.54 nmol/L ...
Clone REA577 recognizes the pro-form of the mouse IL-1β antigen, a proinflammatory cytokine which is a member of the interleukin 1 family expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-1β is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a different cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clone REA577 does not detect the active form of IL-1β. Additional information: Clone REA577 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Deutschland
Prothymosin-alpha (ProT[alpha]) is a protein mainly located in the nucleus of the cells. Though its exact function is not known, it is believed to be involved in cell proliferation. The ability of this protein to inhibit ...
In this lesson you will learn what prohormones are, what they do and what the side effects are. Prohormones (pro-steroids) are substances that are precursors to hormones.
ECS progastrin develops and markets an IVD test and innovative solutions against cancer, based on the presence of hPG80 (Circulating Progastrin) in blood for monitoring, diagnosis from a simple blood test and therapy in the near future thanks to an antibody.
Ref-1: Tsuyuki et al., Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 2337-42. Ref-2: Demissei et al., Int J Cardiol 2016; 204: 164-171. Ref-3: Arrigo et al., Eur J Heart Fail 2017 Feb; 19(2): 201-208. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.682. Epub 2016 Oct 28. Ref-4: Alba et al. Am J Med 2016;129 (1): 96-104 e7. Ref-5: Maisel et al., Eur J Heart Fail 2012; 14: 278-86. ...
David: Do you think the https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Talk:Precursor#Neurotransmitter_precursor section should be renamed to https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Talk:Precursor#Amino_acid_precursor ?
Encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group, and contributes to the maturation of the precursor polyproteins. The enzyme is greatly activated by binding of the 54-residue NS4A cofactor protein also derived from the viral polyprotein. Type example of peptidase family S29. The crystallographic structure shows a chymotrypsin-like fold ...
Vince Gironda used half n half in his hormone precursor shake. Is this the same as the half n half you buy in the stores today for your coffee? Or is there a way to better emulate what was being used back in the day when everything was just better?
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:1:86526737:86529527:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000048097 transcript:OTTMUST00000123575 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Ptma description:prothymosin alpha ...
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Line p2h3-18-3. Expressed in all tissues. Expression is weak in the outer tissues in the mature part of the root but it remains high in the vascular tissues.. ...
Elevated plasma natriuretic peptide levels after AMI (acute myocardial infarction) are associated with adverse outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of plasma N-ANP (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide) and N-BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) with mortality and heart failure following AMI. We studied 403 patients with AMI. Blood was sampled for measurement of N-ANP and N-BNP on a single occasion between 72 and 96 h after symptom onset. Natriuretic peptide levels were related to all-cause mortality and heart failure episodes. During follow up (median, 462 days; range 5-764), 43 (10.7%), 25 (6.2%) and 49 (12.2%) patients suffered death, heart failure hospitalization and outpatient heart failure respectively. Only N-BNP (P,0.0005), N-ANP (P=0.005) and previous AMI (P=0.016) were independently predictive of death. N-BNP, but not N-ANP, predicted 30-day mortality. N-ANP, but not N-BNP, predicted mortality after 30 days. N-BNP was the better ...
Background: Anastomotic leaks in colorectal surgery results in a high morbidity and mortality rate. Serum procalcitonin levels is known as a sensitive and specific marker of sepsis and could be use as a marker for early detection of a leak allowing early intervention. It may help a clinician decide to perform a CT scan even earlier especially when the diagnosis of a leak is uncertain. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum procalcitonin is a good predictor of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery. Methodology: Between July 2014 until October 2015, 70 patients undergoing colorectal surgery were prospectively analyzed in a single-center tertiary teaching hospital. Demographic and surgical data were obtained. Serum procalcitonin was taken before surgery and at day 3 (72 hours) postoperatively. During the postoperative period, the patients were observed in the ward for features of anastomotic leak and if present, it was managed accordingly. The primary outcome was to prospectively ...
The endogenous opioid enkephalin neuropeptides are mediators of pain perception and have been implicated in human addictions. The preproenkephalin gene and its mRNA have also provided many examples of tissue- and species-specific variations in mRNA structure produced through a variety of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Resultant differences in mRNA structure, in several cases, have impact on translation of enkephalin prepropeptide. The reports and discussion presented herein describe studies of the preproenkephalin gene and mRNA structure in the guinea pig, an animal that may have specific advantages for modeling the human endogenous opioid system. A guinea pig brain cDNA library was constructed and screened for clones of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin, which were then sequenced. These studies confirmed the predicted mRNA structure that had been previously proposed based on homology with gene sequences and other methods. Multiple transcription initiation sites for each ...
BACKGROUND: The natriuretic peptides are counterregulatory hormones involved in volume homeostasis and cardiovascular remodeling. The prognostic significance of plasma natriuretic peptide levels in apparently asymptomatic persons has not been established.. METHODS: We prospectively studied 3346 persons without heart failure. Using proportional-hazards regression, we examined the relations of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to the risk of death from any cause, a first major cardiovascular event, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and coronary heart disease.. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 119 participants died and 79 had a first cardiovascular event. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, each increment of 1 SD in log B-type natriuretic peptide levels was associated with a 27 percent increase in the risk of death (P=0.009), a 28 percent increase in the risk of a first cardiovascular ...
Introduction: Chorioamnionitis is one of the most important maternal complications in the expectant management of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Procalcitonin (proCT), the precursor of the hormone calcitonin, is used to differentiate bacterial infections from...
Evaluation of: Riedel S, Melendez JH, An AT, Rosenbaum JE, Zenilman JM. Procalcitonin as a marker for the detection of bacteremia and sepsis in the emergency department. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 135(2), 182-189 (2011). In a recent report, Riedel et al. proposed a procalcitonin cutoff of 0.1 ng/ml to rule out bacteremia in adult patients presenting to the emergency department with systemic infections. Procalcitonin levels were higher in patients with true bacteremia than in patients with negative blood cultures or bacteremia due to possible contaminants. For prediction of bacteremia, a procalcitonin level of 0.1 ng/ml had an excellent negative predictive value of 96.3%, and a good sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 70.6% and area under the curve of 0.73, but poor positive predictive value of 12.8%. Based on the results in this study, we propose that a procalcitonin value of 0.1 ng/ml or less could be used to rule out bacteremia (NPV: 96.3 ...
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers reflecting diverse pathophysiological pathways may play an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (aortic diameter ≥30 mm, AAA), levels of many biomarkers are elevated and correlated to aortic diameter among 65-year-old men undergoing ultrasound (US) screening for AAA.. PROBANDS AND METHODS: To evaluate potential relationships between biomarkers and aortic dilatation after long-term follow-up, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), proneurotensin (PNT), copeptin (CPT), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 (Lp-PLA2), cystatin C (Cyst C), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were measured in 117 subjects (114 [97 %] men) aged 47-49 in a prospective population-based cohort study, and related to aortic diameter at US examination of the aorta after 14-19 years of follow-up.. RESULTS: Biomarker levels at baseline did not correlate with aortic diameter after 14-19 years of follow up (CRP [r ...
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis. It was first identified by Leonard J. Deftos and Bernard A. Roos in the 1970s. It is composed of 116 amino acids and is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid and by the neuroendocrine cells of the lung and the intestine. The level of procalcitonin in the blood stream of healthy individuals is below the limit of detection (0.01 µg/L) of clinical assays. The level of procalcitonin rises in a response to a proinflammatory stimulus, especially of bacterial origin. It is therefore often classed as an acute phase reactant. In this case, it is produced mainly by the cells of the lung and the intestine.... It does not rise significantly with viral or non-infectious inflammations. With the derangements that a severe infection with an associated systemic response brings, the blood levels of procalcitonin may rise to 100 µg/L. In serum, procalcitonin has a ...
We demonstrate that JunD, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, activates transcription of the human proenkephalin gene in a fashion that is completely dependent upon the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A. Activation of proenkephalin transcription by JunD is dependent upon a previously characterized cAMP-, phorbol ester-, and Ca(2+)-inducible enhancer, and JunD is shown to bind the enhancer as a homodimer. Another component of the AP-1 transcription complex, JunB, is shown to inhibit activation mediated by JunD. As a homodimer JunB is unable to bind the enhancer; however in the presence of c-Fos, high-affinity binding is observed. Furthermore, JunD is shown to activate transcription of genes linked to both cAMP and phorbol ester response elements in a protein kinase A-dependent fashion, further blurring the distinction between these response elements. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of an AP-1-related protein is regulated by the ...
The novel inflammatory marker procalcitonin (PCT) was assessed as an index of infection in patients with febrile neutropenia. Blood samples were obtained from 115 patients with febrile neutropenia for determination of PCT levels before onset of fever and daily until the resolution of fever. The median PCT level on the first day of fever was 8.23 ng/mL in patients with bacteremia, compared with 0.86 ng/mL in patients with localized bacterial infections (P = .017). The median PCT level on the first day of fever was 2.62 ng/mL in patients with severe sepsis, compared with 0.57 ng/mL in patients with clinically localized infections (P , .001). A dramatic decrease in PCT levels was documented after resolution of the infection; PCT levels were elevated when the infection worsened. Pronounced PCT levels were also found in patients with fever of unknown origin who were responding to antimicrobial chemotherapy, compared with those not responding to treatment with antibiotics. PCT levels were particularly ...
5. Summary During the evolutionary evolvement of mitochondria, the mitochondrial genome got reduced and has almost completely been transferred to the host genome. Therefore most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and delivered to the organelle by the help of molecular chaperones in an unfolded state. Cytosolic chaperones like Hsp90 and Hsp70 in mammalian cells act in a large cytosolic complex that helps in the delivery of some mitochondrial proteins to the organelle by docking on the import receptor Tom70. These chaperones are abundant ones, which have many other cellular functions, suggesting that the specificity for the targeting of mitochondrial proteins probably requires addition of specific factors within the targeting complex. Most mitochondrial precursor proteins comprise a cleavable N-terminal targeting sequence, also known as presequence, that targets them to the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20. Many of these proteins associate during or after synthesis with ...
BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of procalcitonin-guided treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections from different clinical settings. METHODS: Based on a prespecified Cochrane protocol, we did a systematic literature search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, and pooled individual patient data from trials in which patients with respiratory infections were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin concentrations (procalcitonin-guided group) or control ...
FRMC Pharmacy Director, Mike Broyles PharmD, has worked diligently for the past several years, crossing the country, educating Healthcare Representatives about Antibiotic Usage and improving patient outcomes. He recently completed a study in which he included data from over 2100 patients that had been treated at Five Rivers Medical Center. The study consisted of comparing data that was found with the patients who were treated with antibiotics prior to the use of a laboratory test called Procalcitonin (PCT) and those that were treated after the test was available. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a Peptide Precursor of the hormone Calcitonin. The level of Procalcitonin will rise in the presence of a bacterial infection. During the course of antibiotic treatment for these bacterial infections, PCT is measured to verify that the antibiotic administered is decreasing the level of PCT found circulating in the patients bloodstream. If not, Antibiotics might need to be adjusted or changed. As PCT decreases, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prothymosin alpha interacts with C-terminal domain of histone H1 and dissociates p53-histone H1 complex. AU - Zakharova, N. I.. AU - Sokolov, V. V.. AU - Suvorova, A. A.. AU - Shiau, Ai Li. AU - Wu, Chao Liang. AU - Evstafieva, A. G.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from the Rus sian Foundation for Basic Research (10 04 92007 HHC_a and 09 04 01246 a), Russian Ministry of Education and Science (Contracts P334 and 14.740.11.0168), and National Science Council (Tai wan) NSC 99 2923 B 006 003 MY3.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - A novel mode of tumor suppressor protein p53 regulation, mediated by recruitment of the linker histone H1 to the promoters of p53 target genes leading to specific repression of p53-dependent transcription, has recently been uncovered. Yet, how this repression could be relieved is not clear. Previously, a histone-binding nuclear protein prothymosin alpha (ProTa) was shown to trigger a p53 response. The histone-binding region of ...
This single-centre, prospective randomized intervention study was conducted in a tertiary neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit in the Childrens Hospital of Lucerne, Switzerland between June 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006. All term and near term infants with suspected early-onset sepsis were randomly assigned either to standard treatment based on conventional laboratory parameters (standard group) or to Procalcitonin-guided treatment (Procalcitonin-group). Minimum duration of antibiotic therapy was (48)-72 hours in the standard group, whereas in the Procalcitonin group antibiotic therapy was discontinued when two consecutive Procalcitonin values were below predefined age-adjusted cut-off values ...
Background : The mortality on sepsis is still high. Its because of delayed ofthe treatment resulted from the diagnosis of sepsis estabilished more frequently imprecise. The inflammatory makers as c reactive protein and leucocyte apparently have high sensitivity and specifity where do contemn whereas blood culture examination required so long time and the result of culture often negatively. Research on Procalcitonin (PCT) formering have important of the role for the establishment diagnosis of sepsis because its utilized as sepsis marker and in reference to severity sepsisdegree . Objective: To determine whether procalcitonin can be used as sepsis marker and severity of sepsis. Method : Patients were assigned as 2 groups, sepsis and without sepsis with their consisting of 21 samples respectively. In the sepsis subgroup separated as sepsis only (8 samples), severe sepsis (6 samples) and sepsis shock (7 samples). All of them were examined by procalcitonin, C reactive protein, blood culture and ...
The invention relates to human procalcitonin and the preparation and use thereof. In particular, a process for preparing human procalcitonin is described wherein a gene coding for a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of human procalcitonin is inserted into a vector; a host organism is transformed with this gene-containing vector; and the polypeptide expressed by the host organism is isolated. Furthermore the use of the polypeptides according to the invention, in particular as medicaments and diagnostic agents is described.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Late immunoneutralization of procalcitonin arrest the progression of lethal porcine sepsis. AU - Martinez, Jose M.. AU - Wagner, Kristin E.. AU - Snider, Richard H.. AU - Nylen, Eric S.. AU - Muller, Beat. AU - Sarani, Babak. AU - Becker, Kenneth L.. AU - White, Jon C.. PY - 2001/9/1. Y1 - 2001/9/1. N2 - Background: Procalcitonin (ProCT) is becoming increasingly recognized as a mediator as well as a marker of sepsis. Serum ProCT concentrations rise soon after induction of sepsis and remain elevated over a prolonged period of time. In contrast, many pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), rise and decline early in the course of sepsis. Researchers have improved survival in animal models of sepsis by prophylactically blocking IL-1β and TNF-α with immunotherapy, but therapeutic treatment has been less successful in clinical trials. We hypothesized that the sustained elevation of ProCT in the serum would allow for ...
Procalcitonin wird auch bei Immunsuppression und unter einer Chemotherapie maligner Tumore gebildet und kann daher auf eine bakterielle Infektion hinweisen, selbst wenn die Leukozyten nicht ansteigen. Procalcitonin reagiert auf eine bakterielle Infektion innerhalb weniger Stunden und eignet sich für kurzfristige Verlaufskontrollen einer Sepsis. Die Höhe des Procalcitonin-Spiegels gibt einen Hinweis auf die Schwere der Infektion. Er ist bei einer Sepsis besonders hoch. ...
BACKGROUND: The results of recent studies suggest the usefulness of PCT for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the behavior of serum PCT concentrations in both unin
Protein import into plant chloroplasts is a fascinating topic that is being investigated by many research groups. Since the majority of chloroplast proteins are synthesised as precursor proteins in the cytosol, they have to be posttranslationally imported into the organelle. For this purpose, most preproteins are synthesised with an N-terminal presequence, which is both necessary and sufficient for organelle recognition and translocation initiation. The import of preproteins is facilitated by two translocation machineries in the outer and inner envelope of chloroplasts, the Toc and Tic complexes, respectively. Translocation of precursor proteins across the envelope membrane has to be highly regulated to react to the metabolic requirements of the organelle. The aim of this review is to summarise the events that take place at the translocation machineries that are known so far. In addition, we focus in particular on alternative import pathways and the aspect of regulation of protein transport at ...
Results Eight completed trials evaluating 1,062 patients with AECOPD met the inclusion criteria. Procalcitonin-based protocols used in all included trials were similar. Antibiotics were recommended for procalcitonin levels ,0.25 μg/L and discouraged for lower levels. All studies were open-labelled or single blinded and the final decision to administer or withhold antibiotic was left to the responsible clinician, who could deviate from the protocol. Adherence to procalcitonin-based protocols ranged between 61.3% and 98.1%. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescription (RR 0.56 [0.43, 0.73]) and the total antibiotic exposure (MD −3.83 [−4.32, −3.35]), without affecting clinical outcomes such as rate of treatment failure (RR 0.81 [0.62, 1.06]), length of hospitalisation (MD −0.76 [−1.95, 0.43]), exacerbation recurrence rate (RR 0.96 [0.69, 1.35]) or mortality (RR 0.99 [0.57, 1.70]). However, the quality of the available evidence is low to moderate because of ...
Bronchitis is one of the top conditions for which patients seek medical care. It is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes (or bronchi), the air passages that extend from the trachea into the small airways and alveoli.
Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins are directed to their destination by N-terminal leader peptides, which are removed by the presequence protease MPP, localized in the mitochondrial matrix. Improper processing of precursor proteins through loss of MPP function is thought to impair protein stability. Using a yeast strain containing a temperature-sensitive MPP, Poveda-Huertes et al. revealed that deactivation of MPP at higher temperatures induced abnormal accumulation of unprocessed precursor proteins that formed insoluble aggregates inside mitochondria but did not alter mitochondrial function or cell survival. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes associated with protein folding and refolding were upregulated. The authors used a synthetic lethality assay to identify nuclear protein Rox1 as a critical mediator of survival upon loss of MPP activity. Loss of MPP function resulted in the translocation of Rox1 into the mitochondria, where it binds mitochondrial DNA, thereby stabilizing de novo ...
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Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid-β-protein precursor (AβPP) by β- and γ-secretases results in production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) that accumulates in the brains of sufferers of Alzheimers disease (AD). We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 2B
Implementation of a procalcitonin diagnostic algorithm improves diagnostic yield and reduces hospital length of stay in bacterial pneumonia.
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Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J., Grecka, P., Poulakou, G., et al. (2001) Assessment of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of underlying infection in patients with febrile neutropenia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 32, 1718-1725. doi10.1086/320744
A new study in the January issue of CHEST examines whether procalcitonin (PCT) testing helps to more effectively manage sepsis care.
Research Report on Europe Procalcitonin Antigen Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Principal Investigator:NAKAMURA Misa, Project Period (FY):2012-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Emergency medicine
The Lancet Infectious Diseases Median consumption of antibiotics was 7.5 daily defined doses (DDD) in the procalcitonin-guided group v 9.3 DDD in the standard-of-care group (absolute difference 2.69, p|0.0001), and median duration of treatment was 5 v 7 days respectively (absolute difference 1.22, p|0.0001).
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As the National Institutes of Health tell it, biomarkers are objective indications of medical signs outside the patient that can be measured. Studies have shown that a biomarker known as procalcitonin (PCT) has been promising to evaluate risk of bacterial infections, such as sepsis. PCT is known as a precursor to a hormone calcitonin, usually…
Beta-amyloid is a small piece of a larger protein called the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Once APP is activated, it is cut ... The protein the gene codes for (PS1) is an integral membrane protein. As stated by Ikeuchi (2002)[10] it cleaves the protein ... suggesting that the Asn141Ile mutation alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism causing an increased rate of protein ... It also has an action on an amyloid precursor protein, which gives its probable role in the pathogenesis of FAD. Homologs of ...
Protein precursors include immunoglobulin-derived light chains and transthyretin mutations. The misfolding of the protein ... The general cause of cardiac amyloidosis is the misfolding of a specific protein precursor depending on the amyloidosis type. ... Cardiac amyloidosis is a subcategory of amyloidosis where there is depositing of the protein amyloid in the cardiac muscle and ... Amyloid, a misfolded and insoluble protein, can become a deposit in the heart's atria, valves, or ventricles. These deposits ...
Selkoe DJ (1994). "Cell biology of the amyloid beta-protein precursor and the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease". Annu. Rev. ... Pitsi D, Octave JN (June 2004). "Presenilin 1 stabilizes the C-terminal fragment of the amyloid precursor protein independently ... Levesque G (1999). "Presenilins interact with armadillo proteins including neural-specific plakophilin-related protein and beta ... or the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These disease-linked mutations result in increased production of the longer form of ...
Chen Y, Bodles AM (2007). "Amyloid precursor protein modulates beta-catenin degradation". Journal of Neuroinflammation. 4: 29. ... Beta-catenin-interacting protein 1 is a protein that is encoded in humans by the CTNNBIP1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... CTNNBIP1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CTNNBIP1 genome location ...
"Conserved domains on uncharacterized protein precursor C1orf127". National Center for Biotechnology Information. "PSORT II". ... The protein also appears to have a cleavable signal peptide from Met1 to Pro18. The protein C1orf127 is suggested to be ... Uncharactarized protein C1orf127 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1orf127 gene, the structure and function of ... C1orf127's protein product is a member of the Ensembl protein family TF607005. The primary assembly weighs 89 kDa with an ...
"Mannose-binding protein C precursor [Homo sapiens]". Retrieved 2012-01-03. Jensen PH, Laursen I, Matthiesen F, Højrup P (2007 ... the MASP protein functions to cleave the blood protein C4 into C4a and C4b. The C4b fragments can then bind to the surface of ... It is produced in the liver as a response to infection, and is part of many other factors termed acute phase proteins. ... Guo N, Mogues T, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Sastry KN (March 1998). "The human ortholog of rhesus mannose-binding protein-A gene ...
It is possible that this small Tim complex is able to stabilise precursor carrier proteins by acting as a chaperone and ... Following protein entry into the matrix, the presequence is cleaved off by the matrix processing peptidase and the protein ... The TIM23 complex facilitates translocation of matrix-targeted proteins into the mitochondrial matrix. These proteins contain a ... "Multiple pathways for sorting mitochondrial precursor proteins". EMBO Rep. 9 (1): 42-9. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7401126. PMC ...
... or the amyloid precursor protein (APP). These disease-linked mutations result in increased production of the longer form of ... "A myristoylated calcium-binding protein that preferentially interacts with the Alzheimer's disease presenilin 2 protein". J. ... Presenilin-2 is a protein that (in humans) is encoded by the PSEN2 gene. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with an inherited ... APH-1 interacts with presenilin and nicastrin and is required for intramembrane proteolysis of amyloid-beta precursor protein ...
Lengths shown are for the precursor proteins. SLC46A3 is an integral membrane protein 461 amino acids (aa) of length with a ... S-palmitoylation can also modulate protein-protein interactions of SLC46A3 by changing the affinity of the protein for lipid ... The protein contains a C-(X)2-C motif (CLLC), which is mostly present in metal-binding proteins and oxidoreductases. A sorting- ... Short for non-structural protein 2, NSP2 is one of the many non-structural proteins encoded in the orf1ab polyprotein. NSP2 ...
Other/ungrouped: Amyloid precursor protein secretase *Alpha secretase. *Beta-secretase 1. *Beta-secretase 2 ... Human proteins containing this domain[edit]. BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; CTSE; NAPSA; PGA5; PGC; REN; ... Hartsuck JA, Koelsch G, Remington SJ (May 1992). "The high-resolution crystal structure of porcine pepsinogen". Proteins. 13 (1 ...
Other/ungrouped: Amyloid precursor protein secretase *Alpha secretase. *Beta-secretase 1. *Beta-secretase 2 ... This 20-S protein is composed of 28 subunits arranged in four rings of seven. ...
Other/ungrouped: Amyloid precursor protein secretase *Alpha secretase. *Beta-secretase 1. *Beta-secretase 2 ... identical protein binding. • peptidase activity. • hydrolase activity. • virus receptor activity. • protein homodimerization ... The protein encoded by the DPP4 gene is an antigenic enzyme expressed on the surface of most cell types and is associated with ... protein binding. • serine-type endopeptidase activity. Cellular component. • lamellipodium membrane. • extracellular exosome. • ...
Other/ungrouped: Amyloid precursor protein secretase *Alpha secretase. *Beta-secretase 1. *Beta-secretase 2 ... Bacteria secrete proteases to hydrolyse the peptide bonds in proteins and therefore break the proteins down into their ... A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that helps proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of ... Enzyme is shown in black, substrate protein in red and water in blue.The top panel shows 1-step hydrolysis where the enzyme ...
In general, Aβ peptide is produced by the cleavage of the parental amyloid precursor protein (APP) that is located at plasma ... Declining protein levels were the most evident for the E1k and E2k subunits, when compared to the control. On contrary, as the ... The E2k (dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase, lipoic acid and CoASH cofactors, EC 2.3.1.61) subunit is a core protein and is the ... Figure 14: The changes in the protein levels for each α-KGDHC subunit in the sub-medial thalamic nucleus (vulnerable to ...
Other/ungrouped: Amyloid precursor protein secretase *Alpha secretase. *Beta-secretase 1. *Beta-secretase 2 ... proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process. • intracellular protein transport. • positive regulation of ... regulation of protein stability. • glycosphingolipid metabolic process. • proteolysis. • regulation of chaperone-mediated ... Probable identity with the lysosomal "protective protein"". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (19): 11265-72. PMID 1694176.. ...
... (BACE1), also known as beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 ... cellular protein metabolic process. • protein catabolic process. • proteolysis. • amyloid-beta metabolic process. • membrane ... "Beta-secretase cleavage of Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein by the transmembrane aspartic protease BACE". Science. 286 ( ... "Expression and activity of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme in Alzheimer's disease". Biochemical Society ...
Other/ungrouped: Amyloid precursor protein secretase *Alpha secretase. *Beta-secretase 1. *Beta-secretase 2 ...
Farnesyl and geranyl pyrophosphate also serve as precursors for prenylated proteins. Prenylation is a common type of covalent ... a 10 carbon precursor) and isopentenyl diphosphate (a 5 carbon precursor) whereas its two products are diphosphate and trans, ... A notable example of the former is the farnesylation of small G-proteins including Ras, CDC42, Rho, and Rac. The attachment of ... Ericsson J, Jackson SM, Edwards PA (Oct 1996). "Synergistic binding of sterol regulatory element-binding protein and NF-Y to ...
... mitochondrial protein precursor-processing proteinase, matrix peptidase, matrix processing peptidase, matrix processing ... Mitochondria import the majority of their proteins from the cell cytosol. In order to achieve this, many mitochondrial proteins ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Release of N-terminal targeting peptides from precursor proteins imported ... "Uniform nomenclature for the mitochondrial peptidases cleaving precursors of mitochondrial proteins". Trends Biochem. Sci. 18 ( ...
CE precursor proteins are cross-linked by transglutaminases. The ratio of CE precursor proteins varies from tissue to tissue. ... the cornified envelope precursor family, the S100 protein family and the S100 fused type protein (SFTP) family. It has been ... As its name implies, the cornified envelope (CE) precursor family includes genes that encode the proteins forming the CE. The ... The proteins encoded by EDC genes are closely related in terms of function, and evolutionarily they belong to three distinct ...
It is also a precursor protein for bradykinin. Low-molecular-weight-kininogen (LK) is mainly a precursor protein for kallidin. ... Kininogens are precursor proteins for kinins, biologically active polypeptides involved in blood coagulation, vasodilation, ... T-kininogen (TK) is only found in rats and a protein whose function is still being researched. TK is believed to be a ... Structural relationship of kininogens with major acute phase protein and alpha 1-cysteine proteinase inhibitor". The Journal of ...
Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 1-interacting protein (APBB1IP), also known as APBB1-interacting ... "Entrez Gene: amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding". Inagaki T, Suzuki S, Miyamoto T, Takeda T, Yamashita K, Komatsu A, ... 1997). "The WW domain of neural protein FE65 interacts with proline-rich motifs in Mena, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila ... protein 1 or Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBB1IP gene. GRCh38: ...
AEP cleaves tau protein and amyloid precursor protein. In patients with PD, alpha synuclein is cut by AEP into toxic chunks. ... AEP is involved in presenting of foreign and self proteins using MHCII protein complex. The role of AEP in immunity is not ... It digests SET protein, which is an inhibitor of DNase, leading to DNA damage and causing damage of the brain. Increased ... Legmains are produced as inactive precursor zymogens. their C-terminal domain binds over their active site (where a substrate ...
"Entrez Gene: TIP39 tuberoinfundibular 39 residue protein precursor". Weaver RE, Mobarec JC, Wigglesworth MJ, Reynolds CA, ... TIP39 is related to parathyroid hormone (PTH; MIM 168450) and PTH-related protein (PTHRP; MIM 168470) and is a ligand for PTH ... Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTH2 gene. ...
APP is an Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein. It is suspected to have a major role in cognitive difficulties. Another gene, ETS2 ... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN; APP - 104760, gene located at 21q21. Retrieved ... show that 41% of the genes on chromosome-21 have no functional purpose, and only 54% of functional genes have a known protein ... NFAT is controlled in part by two proteins, DSCR1 and DYRK1A; these genes are located on chromosome-21 (Epstein 582). In people ...
The most well-known substrate of gamma secretase is amyloid precursor protein, a large integral membrane protein that, when ... Zhang, H; Ma, Q; Zhang, YW; Xu, H (January 2012). "Proteolytic processing of Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein". Journal ... the gamma secretase complex with the γ-secretase activating protein facilitates the gamma cleavage of amyloid precursor protein ... including amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch. Substrate recognition occurs via nicastrin ectodomain binding to the N- ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRN gene. Each granulin protein is cleaved from the precursor ... The structure of the granulin protein is similar to the structure of proteins from protein families that consist of hormones, ... Progranulin is the precursor protein for granulin. Cleavage of progranulin produces a variety of active 6 kDa granulin peptides ... "The epithelin precursor encodes two proteins with opposing activities on epithelial cell growth". The Journal of Biological ...
Patel BH, Percivalle C, Ritson DJ, Duffy CD, Sutherland JD (Apr 2015). "Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in ... Patel BH, Percivalle C, Ritson DJ, Duffy CD, Sutherland JD (Apr 2015). "Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in ... Shen, Liang; Hong-Fang, Ji (2011). "Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein ... like protein-based enzymes. Because it can carry out the types of tasks now performed by proteins and DNA, RNA is believed to ...
Possible precursors for the evolution of protein synthesis include a mechanism to synthesize short peptide cofactors or form a ... this first protein gave a selective advantage to the lipid protocell that contained the protein. This protein also synthesized ... The product molecule joins together the precursor molecules, which in turn produce more product molecules from more precursor ... protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism". Nature Chemistry. 7 (4): 301-307. Bibcode:2015NatCh...7..301P ...
"Identification and characterization of a mammalian protein interacting with 20S proteasome precursors". Proceedings of the ... Proteasome maturation protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POMP gene. It is a short-lived maturation factor ... Jayarapu K, Griffin TA (February 2004). "Protein-protein interactions among human 20S proteasome subunits and proteassemblin". ... "Entrez Gene: POMP proteasome maturation protein". Foley CC, Paller AS, Irvine AD (2015). "Chapter 19: Disorders of ...
that constraint inside the womb is associated with decreased expression of Indian hedgehog protein and noggin. These last two ... likely the result of a disturbance in the fine balance that regulates the multiplication and maturation of the precursor bone ...
1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... Göttlinger HG, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1989). "Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... biosynthesis involving novel GDP-linked precursors". Glycobiology 19: 715-725. PMID 19282391. ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Branden C, Tooze J.. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN: 0-8153-2305-0. http://www. ...
ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-dolichol precursor. They are ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC 2.4.1.119) is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
"14-3-3 proteins form a guidance complex with chloroplast precursor proteins in plants". The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi: ... Polypeptides, the precursors of proteins, are chains of amino acids. The two ends of a polypeptide are called the N-terminus, ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ...
Milk contains whey protein and hormones such as bovine IGF-1 and precursors of dihydrotestosterone.[53] Studies suggest these ... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ...
... are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... "C/EBPbeta couples dopamine signalling to substance P precursor gene expression in striatal neurones". Journal of Neurochemistry ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
The membranous photoreceptor protein opsin contains a pigment molecule called retinal. In rod cells, these together are called ... Photoreceptor precursors come about through inhibition of Notch signaling and increased activity of various factors including ... The photoreceptor proteins in the three types of cones differ in their sensitivity to photons of different wavelengths (see ... This results in a series of unstable intermediates, the last of which binds stronger to a G protein in the membrane, called ...
Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... the precursor to ethylene. DNAP's tomato, called Endless Summer, inserted a truncated version of the ACC synthase gene into the ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... This tomato gained the moniker "fish tomato".[16] The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the ...
A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Tryptophan, a precursor to serotonin, appears to be reduced within the central nervous system in a number of infectious ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ...
Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the subset includes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA ... "G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids". Int J Mol Sci. 15 (9): 15412-25 ... Also, androgens are the precursors to estrogens in both men and women. ... It is the primary precursor of natural estrogens. DHEA is also called dehydroisoandrosterone or dehydroandrosterone. ...
Instead, they produce a precursor of the fly's sex pheromone.[8][9] Flies which normally visit dead animals or dung are ... Much of the pollen gets taken back to the nest or hive, where it is used as a source of protein, most needed by the larvae. ...
The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... The most important of these compounds is sodium cyclopentadienide, NaC5H5, an important precursor to many transition metal ... is an important precursor to many metal cyclooctatetraenyl derivatives, such as uranocene.[123]:266 The large and very weakly ...
Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... from cholesterol and steroidal precursors that are imported from the peripheral sources. These sources include 3β-hydroxy-Δ5 ... The synaptic anchoring protein Gephyrin is indirectly linked to the GABAA receptors. ... molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system. ...
... so is denoted as precursor M (prM) and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi ... At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ... Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ... Host proteases cut this polyprotein into three structural (C, prM, E) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, ...
As the dye stained the polyacrylamide gel as well as the protein, in order to visualise the protein bands they needed to ... The dye molecules bind to proteins including wool (keratin) to form a protein-dye complex. The formation of the complex ... Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was first used to visualise proteins in 1964 by Fazekas de St. Groth and colleagues. Protein ... This property can be used to separate proteins or protein complexes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non- ...
"A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... e será precursor das actuais bases de datos de proteínas.[25] Na área da tecnoloxía de computadoras, presentáronse no ARPA ( ... "Protein Engineering 7 (7). ISSN 1741-0134, Páxs. 841-848.. *↑ 70,0 70,1 Thompson, J. D.; et al. (1994). "CLUSTAL W: improving ... 2005). Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins (en inglés) (third edition ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0- ...
RNA polymerase II synthesizes precursors of mRNAs and most snRNA and microRNAs.[3] This is the most studied type. It needs a ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chains at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis ... Messenger RNA (mRNA). These are templates for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes. ...
"Runcaria, a Middle Devonian Seed Plant Precursor. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2011. Pristupljeno 22. 3 ... of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp Protein-Coding Genes of Gnetum parvifolium: Insights into cpDNA Evolution and Phylogeny of ...
Distillers, by contrast, are not as constrained by the amount of protein in their mash as the non-volatile nature of proteins ... Pale malt is the basis of pale ale and bitter, and the precursor in production of most other British beer malts. Dried at ... or protein) in a grain vs. the total amount of Nitrogen(or protein). This number is also referred to as the "Kolbach Index" and ... The nitrogen content of a grain refers to the mass fraction of the grain that is made up of protein, and is usually expressed ...
Precursor proteins also have an effect on VPg-CRE specificity and stability. The upper RNA stem loop, to which VPg binds, has a ... VPg uridylylation may include the use of precursor proteins, allowing for the determination of a possible mechanism for the ... The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ...
Archaeal histones may well resemble the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic histones.[12] Histone proteins are among the most ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... The first step of chromatin structure duplication is the synthesis of histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4. These proteins ...
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 and 2).[10] In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: ... It is the main precursor of vitamin D and of the steroid hormones, which include cortisol and aldosterone (in the adrenal ... The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum by the protein SREBP ( ... In order to carry large quantities of cholesterol it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins-protein "molecular- ...
... redundancy is that some errors in the genetic code cause only a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the protein ... Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA / hnRNA). *5' capping. *Splicing. *Polyadenylation. *Histone acetylation and deacetylation ... "Genetic Algorithms and Recursive Ensemble Mutagenesis in Protein Engineering". Complexity International. 1. Archived from the ...
Protein binding. 50% (active metabolite). Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP2D6- and 3A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 7-8 hours ( ...
Usually viewed as a precursor to osteoporosis, osteopenia is when bone density is lower than normal levels. Bone mass is ... muscle filaments or proteins) that overlaps to format a cross-bridge bond (attachment)".[1] ...
... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... precursor cells - prevalence - primary HIV infection - primary isolate - primaquine - proctitis - prodrome - prodrug - ... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ...
This sugar is part of lactose, which is milk sugar, so consumption of gums in early mammals or their precursors might be a ... and bugs for protein.[1] Notable gummivores include arboreal, terrestrial primates like certain marmosets and lemurs. These ... while carnivores take a mere 3-4 hours to digest proteins from meat.[4] Though the digestive process takes some time, the ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Shimura, Y., Sakano, H. and Nagawa, F. (1978). "Specific ribonucleases involved in processing of tRNA precursors of Escherichia ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Branden C, Tooze J.. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN: 0-8153-2305-0. http://www. ...
A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an ... Protein precursors are often used by an organism when the subsequent protein is potentially harmful, but needs to be available ... Some protein precursors are secreted from the cell. Many of these are synthesized with an N-terminal signal peptide that ... Like other proteins that contain a signal peptide, their name is prefixed by pre. They are thus called pre-pro-proteins or pre- ...
Protein precursors synonyms, Protein precursors pronunciation, Protein precursors translation, English dictionary definition of ... Protein precursors. n. See proenzyme. n biochem any of a group of compounds that are inactive precursors of enzymes and are ... Protein precursors - definition of Protein precursors by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Protein+ ... redirected from Protein precursors). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. zy·mo·gen. (zī′mə-jən). n.. See proenzyme ...
LSBio Antithrombin-III Proteins [LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc.] LSBio Antithrombin-III Proteins. LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc. ... antithrombin-III precursor [Bos taurus] antithrombin-III precursor [Bos taurus]. gi,77736341,ref,NP_001029870.1, ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... Pre-computed sequence similarity results (BLAST) including alignments for the current protein against the NCBI nr protein ...
Protein expression data [Model Organism Protein Expres...] Protein expression data. Model Organism Protein Expression Database ... oligoribonuclease, mitochondrial precursor [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_056338.2. Identical Proteins FASTA ... LSBio REXO2 Proteins [LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc.] LSBio REXO2 Proteins. LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc. ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ...
Amyloid-beta precursor protein is an ancient and highly conserved protein. In humans, the gene APP is located on chromosome 21 ... Amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses ... "Association of a novel human FE65-like protein with the cytoplasmic domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein". Proceedings ... a novel protein that binds to the carboxyl-terminal region of the amyloid precursor protein". The Journal of Biological ...
Our sequence pattern discovery and analysis approach unveiled protein regions of significant interest. AMYPdb is freely ... AMYPdb is a comprehensive online database aiming at the centralization of bioinformatic data regarding all amyloid proteins and ... AMYPdb: a database dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins BMC Bioinformatics. 2008 Jun 10;9:273. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-273 ... Results: We therefore created a free online knowledge database (AMYPdb) dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins and we have ...
Protein phosphorylation regulates secretion of Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid precursor protein. G L Caporaso, S E Gandy, J D ... Protein phosphorylation regulates secretion of Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid precursor protein. G L Caporaso, S E Gandy, J D ... Protein phosphorylation regulates secretion of Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid precursor protein. G L Caporaso, S E Gandy, J D ... Protein phosphorylation regulates secretion of Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid precursor protein Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
Cytoplasmic Recycling of 60S Preribosomal Factors Depends on the AAA Protein Drg1 Brigitte Pertschy, Cosmin Saveanu, Gertrude ... Mutations in a Partitioning Protein and Altered Chromatin Structure at the Partitioning Locus Prevent Cohesin Recruitment by ... Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR029062 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ... for any given protein.,p>,a href=/help/annotation_score target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>-Experimental evidence at protein leveli ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR008176, ... Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database. More...SMARTi. View protein in SMART. SM00505, Knot1, 1 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
The precursor of Alzheimers disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell surface receptor, Nature 325: 733 (1987).CrossRef ... Novel precursor of Alzheimers disease amyloid protein shows protease inhibitor activity, Nature 331: 530 (1988).CrossRefGoogle ... Complementary DNA for the mouse homolog of the human amyloid beta protein precursor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 149: 665 ( ... Fisher S., Oster-Granite M.L. (1990) Developmental Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Normal and Trisomy 16 Mice. In: ...
... we know that the protein in the senile plaque is encoded by a gene called the amyloid precursor protein gene. That gene is ... Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is expressed in the synapses of neurons and is thought to be responsible for forming and ... Professor Kenneth Kosik describes the relationship between the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Alzheimers disease. APP ... Professor Kenneth Kosik describes senile plaques, an extracellular collection of a-beta protein. It is one of the hallmarks of ...
Rabbit polyclonal Amyloid Precursor Protein antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 15 ... Anti-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibody. See all Amyloid Precursor Protein primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibody (ab2072) IHC-P, WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) ( ... All lanes : Anti-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibody (ab2072) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Human brain tissue lysate. Lane 2 : Mouse ...
Rabbit polyclonal Amyloid Precursor Protein antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, ICC and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. ... Anti-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibody. See all Amyloid Precursor Protein primary antibodies. ... FE65 proteins regulate NMDA receptor activation-induced amyloid precursor protein processing.. J Neurochem 119:377-88 (2011). ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (C terminal) conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH). ...
... ß protein in Alzheimers brain is a cleavage product of the precursor protein (BPP). The sequence analysis of its BPP cDNA ... Amyloid ß protein in Alzheimers brain is a cleavage product of the precursor protein (BPP). The sequence analysis of its BPP ... Alternative Splice Splice Acceptor Site Amyloid Protein Precursor mRNA Protease Inhibitor Domain Human Genomic Library These ... Molecular Cloning and Structural Analysis of the Human Amyloid ß Protein Precursor Gene. ...
... transmembrane protein enriched in neuronal tissues that undergoes sequential proteolytic processing through two distinct ... Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type-I ... Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type-I transmembrane ... The peptides result from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is cut by certain enzymes to yield Aβ. Aβ molecules can ... The other protein implicated in Alzheimers disease, tau protein, also forms such prion-like misfolded oligomers, and there is ...
Overcoming heterologous protein interdependency to optimize P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in Escherichia coli. ... Overcoming heterologous protein interdependency to optimize P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in Escherichia coli ... P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in E. coli. Bradley Walters Biggs, Chin Giaw Lim, Kristen Sagliani, Smriti Shankar, ... P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in E. coli. Bradley Walters Biggs, Chin Giaw Lim, Kristen Sagliani, Smriti Shankar, ...
amyloid precursor protein;. CAA,. cerebral amyloid angiopathy;. CSF,. cerebrospinal fluid;. ISF,. interstitial fluid. ... Neuronal overexpression of mutant amyloid precursor protein results in prominent deposition of cerebrovascular amyloid. Michael ... Transgenic mice that overexpress mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) exhibit one hallmark of Alzheimers disease ... Neuronal overexpression of mutant amyloid precursor protein results in prominent deposition of cerebrovascular amyloid ...
Figure 1: A diagram of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathways. The transmembrane protein APP (membrane indicated ... Aβ is produced by a sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the activity of β- and γ-secretases, which have ... R. M. Nitsch, S. A. Farber, J. H. Growdon, and R. J. Wurtman, "Release of amyloid β-protein precursor derivatives by electrical ... H. Ma, S. Lesné, L. Kotilinek et al., "Involvement of β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in amyloid precursor protein- ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10116. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: RGDInferred from mutant phenotypei*. "Mutated G-protein-coupled receptor ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR026194, ...
Solution NMR structure of transmembrane domain of amyloid precursor protein V44M. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2LZ4/pdb ... Expression, purification, and reconstitution of the transmembrane domain of the human amyloid precursor protein for NMR studies ... which can be caused by mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The C-terminus of Aβ is generated by γ-secretase ... which can be caused by mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The C-terminus of Aβ is generated by γ-secretase ...
1988) β-amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer disease occurs as 110- to 135-kilodalton membrane associated proteins in neural ... that is derived from an abundant cellular protein, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Constitutive APP processing prevents ... 1995) Amyloid precursor protein processing is stimulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:8083- ... 1995) Glial expression of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in global ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12:257-269. ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00441, Acyl-CoA_dh_1, 1 hit. PF02770, Acyl-CoA_dh_M, 1 ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00072, ACYL_COA_DH_1, 1 hit. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
... Nature. 1995 Feb 9;373( ... a 40-42-amino-acid fragment of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). A primary pathogenic role for APP/A beta is suggested ...
Amino acid permeases require COPII components and the ER resident membrane protein Shr3p for packaging into transport vesicles ...
Indications of spontaneous formation of precursor proteins. Chemists at the University of Stuttgart observe the formation of ... In todays protein synthesis (left-hand side of graphic), the peptide chain grows to a full-length protein by migrating from ... The findings suggest that a primitive form of protein synthesis could have preceded todays protein synthesis during prebiotic ... Not just RNA chains form in the mixtures, but also mixed molecules, made up of an RNA portion and a peptide chain (proteins are ...
We induced LC degeneration with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-bromo-benzylamine (dsp4) in amyloid precursor protein 23 (APP23) ... Locus Ceruleus Degeneration Promotes Alzheimer Pathogenesis in Amyloid Precursor Protein 23 Transgenic Mice. Michael T. Heneka ... Using amyloid-containing amyloid precursor protein 23 (APP23) transgenic mice, we demonstrate that a loss of LC neurons ... Locus Ceruleus Degeneration Promotes Alzheimer Pathogenesis in Amyloid Precursor Protein 23 Transgenic Mice ...
Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 4081.Solyc10g075110.1.1. Protein family/group databases. Allergomei. 1488, ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 4081.Solyc10g075110.1.1 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
X11L2, a new member of the X11 protein family, interacts with Alzheimers beta-amyloid precursor protein. Tanahashi, H., Tabira ... Bcr (breakpoint cluster region) protein binds to PDZ-domains of scaffold protein PDZK1 and vesicle coat protein Mint3. Malmberg ... We screened proteins for interaction with Alzheimers beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and cloned a new member of the X11 ... Synonyms: Adapter protein X11gamma, Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 3, MGC:15815, MINT3, Mint-3, ... ...
Amyloid beta protein toxicity mediated by the formation of amyloid-beta protein precursor complexes. Lu, D.C., Shaked, G.M., ... Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated tail of amyloid beta precursor protein is ... The amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) is proteolytically cleaved to generate the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), the principal ... Caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein modulates amyloid beta-protein toxicity. Lu, D.C., Soriano, S., Bredesen, D.E ...
  • A β is produced by a sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the activity of β - and γ -secretases, which have been identified as major candidate therapeutic targets of AD. (hindawi.com)
  • A β is produced by sequential proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by two endoproteolytic enzymes, β - and γ -secretase (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Asp664 cleavage of amyloid precursor protein induces tau phosphorylation by decreasing protein phosphatase 2A activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other proteins that contain a signal peptide, their name is prefixed by pre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Amyloid Precursor Protein aa 653-662. (abcam.com)
  • These plaques are primarily aggregates of the amyloid peptide (Aβ) that is derived from an abundant cellular protein, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (jneurosci.org)
  • The amyloid plaques are composed of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), a 40-42-amino-acid fragment of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). (nih.gov)
  • Not just RNA chains form in the mixtures, but also mixed molecules, made up of an RNA portion and a peptide chain (proteins are long peptide chains). (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • In today's protein synthesis (left-hand side of graphic), the peptide chain grows to a full-length protein by migrating from one charged transfer-RNA to the next, with one amino acid residue being added during each step according to the genetic code. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • More recently, proteomics methods have been developed that measure the labeled amino acid on the peptide level, eliminating the need for a protein enrichment step and enabling the monitoring of many proteins in a single experiment ( 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • More uniquely, Topograph is able to calculate the relative isotope abundance (RIA) 1 of the amino acid precursor pool, which is necessary to correctly determine the amount of newly synthesized peptide and to subsequently calculate peptide and protein turnover rates. (mcponline.org)
  • At APP695 subtype, with the majority of membrane proteins, transmembrane proteins of the orphan receptor characteristics, it is easier by complex protein hydrolysis pathway cracking of varying sizes peptide fragments, including a relatively long extracellular amino terminal peptide fragment, the smaller the A beta protein (the main component of senile plaques) and a variety of sizes ranging from APP intracellular domain (AICD). (biology-online.org)
  • In the latter case, the Aß-peptide is not formed because α-secretases cleave APP within the Aß region of the protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. Haass and D. J. Selkoe, "Cellular Processing of β- Amyloid Precursor and the Genesis of Amyloid B- Peptide," Cell, Vol. 75, No. 6, 1993, pp. 1039-1042. (scirp.org)
  • The β-amyloid precursor proteins (βAPPs) are a family of glycosylated transmembrane proteins that include in their sequences the β-amyloid peptide, a major component of the characteristic amyloid deposits or senile plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and aged Down's syndrome subjects. (csic.es)
  • These topologically interesting proteins have a continuous cycle of peptide bonds in their backbone and, accordingly, are devoid of N or C termini. (plantcell.org)
  • This antibody preparation [Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), Peptide #3] is at a concentration of 100 ug/ml (based on absorbance at 280 nm). (aveslab.com)
  • Peptide with sequence C-KIKSGERGRKG, from the internal region of the Neurogranin precursor protein sequence according to NP_006167.1. (neuromics.com)
  • The molecular culprit in AD is the amyloid β peptide (Aβ), which derives from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by the two proteases β- and γ-secretase. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Altered concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and Tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are thought to be predictive markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). (sciencemag.org)
  • Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into the Aβ peptide has been an extensively researched mechanism for Alzheimer's disease, but the normal function of the protein is less understood. (springer.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment and profound memory loss and is characterized by 2 pathological hallmarks: the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques formed by aggregated amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles formed by phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. (springer.com)
  • A review of the amyloid beta peptide, which seems to be the link between Alzheimer's disease and amyloid precursor protein, will also be given to better understand its importance to the disease. (berea.edu)
  • Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid-β-protein precursor (AβPP) by β- and γ-secretases results in production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) that accumulates in the brains of sufferers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (iospress.com)
  • From a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, we purified homogeneously 28 kDa protein which were required for import of the precursor proteins with an affinity column using synthetic peptide containing the presequence of ornithine aminotransferase precursor as a ligand. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Histopathologically, AD is defined by the presence of two lesions, senile plaques (SP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), which result from the accumulation and deposition of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and the aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively. (columbia.edu)
  • In the amyloidogenic pathway, the APP (amyloid precursor protein) is proteolytically processed by the β- and γ-secretases to release the Aβ (amyloid-β) peptide that is neurotoxic and aggregates in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Genomic organization of the human X11L2 gene (APBA3), a third member of the X11 protein family interacting with Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein. (wikigenes.org)
  • X11L2, a new member of the X11 protein family, interacts with Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein. (wikigenes.org)
  • Here, we describe that peptides derived from the heparin-binding disulfide-constrained loop region of human beta-amyloid precursor protein are antimicrobial. (diva-portal.org)
  • Addgene: A critical function for beta-amyloid precursor protein in neuronal migration revealed by in utero RNA interference. (addgene.org)
  • Mouse over the product name to view to protein segments identified by each antibody. (biolegend.com)
  • This antibody, unlike other gold standard antibodies for amyloid aggregate and plaque detection, such as clones 6E10 and 4G8, does not cross-reacts with amyloid precursor protein (APP). (biolegend.com)
  • The collaboration will initially involve the co-development and commercialization of Eisai's two candidates: E2609, a [beta]-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE) inhibitor, and BAN2401, an anti-A[beta] antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The antibody would enter cells by binding to AβPP when it is at the cell surface and then be internalised with the protein. (iospress.com)
  • Amyloid (3 protein gene: cDNA, mRNA distribution, and genetic linkage near the Alzheimer locus, Science 235: 880 (1987). (springer.com)
  • Protease inhibitor domain encoded by an amyloid protein precursor mRNA associated with Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is a cytoplasmic mRNA binding protein whose expression is lost in fragile X syndrome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A cDNA made to antifreeze protein mRNA of the winter flounder was cloned in the plasmid pBR322 and its sequence was determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. (caltech.edu)
  • Expression of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor gene transcripts in the human brain, Neuron in press. (springer.com)
  • It is coded for by the gene APP and is best known as the precursor molecule whose proteolysis generates amyloid beta (Aβ), a polypeptide containing 37 to 49 amino acid residues, whose amyloid fibrillar form is the primary component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we go deeper in the study of Alzheimer's disease and move down to the level of the gene, we know that the protein in the senile plaque is encoded by a gene called the amyloid precursor protein gene. (dnalc.org)
  • That gene is critically important for the Alzheimer's disease process, not only because it's the product of that gene that forms the plaque but also, in a few rare cases of the disease, mutations in the amyloid precursor gene can lead to early-onset Alzheimer's disease. (dnalc.org)
  • Neurofibrillary tangles are bundles of tau proteins, which mark the tau gene (MAPT) as a strong candidate for Alzheimer's disease. (dnalc.org)
  • Yoshikai S., Sasaki H., Doh-ura K., Furuya H., Sakaki Y. (1990) Molecular Cloning and Structural Analysis of the Human Amyloid ß Protein Precursor Gene. (springer.com)
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Different isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP) exist as a result of alternative splicing of a 19-exon gene. (ihcworld.com)
  • The CGG expansion is associated with hypermethylation of the surrounding DNA, chromatin condensation, and subsequent transcriptional silencing of the fmr-1 gene, resulting in the loss of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) and its derivative peptides have important functions in the central nervous system. (scirp.org)
  • P. Panegyres and E. Atkins, "The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: I Molecular Biology and Metabolic Processing," Neuroscience and Medicine , Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 120-131. (scirp.org)
  • R. L. Neve, E. A. Finch and L. R. Dawes, "Expression of the Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Gene Transcripts in the Human Brain," Neuron, Vol. 1, 1988, pp. 669-667. (scirp.org)
  • In vitro studies suggest Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP) is involved in interaction with the extracellular matrix, neurite growth, adhesion, development, synaptic function, platelet function, and interaction with GTP binding proteins. (scirp.org)
  • P. Panegyres and E. Atkins, "The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: II Experimental Evidence and Clinical Studies," Neuroscience and Medicine , Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 239-267. (scirp.org)
  • Results Using the same experimental procedures, we have compared Aequorea victoria enhanced green fluorescent protein (Av-eGFP) and Renilla raniformis GFP (Rh-GFP, h- from humanized) for the purpose of gene marking of hNSCs. (lu.se)
  • Familial AD (FAD), on the other hand, is associated with mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21, apolipoprotein E gene on chromosome 19, presenilin-1 (PS1) on chromosome 14 (14q24.3) and presenilin-2 (PS2) on chromosome 1. (biologists.org)
  • Such proteins were unknown a decade ago, and they differ from previously known cyclic peptides, such as the immunosuppressant cyclosporin and other cyclic peptides found in microorganisms, in that they are conventional gene products rather than the output of nonribosomal synthetic processes. (plantcell.org)
  • To identify the cardiac precursor cells, we have generated stably transfected ES cells with a vector containing the gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the cardiac α-actin promoter. (rupress.org)
  • Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (uniprot.org)
  • Our recent work has surprisingly identified the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the central molecule in Alzheimer's disease aetiology, as a novel interaction partner of a subunit of the PIKfyve complex, Vac14. (portlandpress.com)
  • We perform a single molecule level study of the RERMS sequence of amyloid $\beta $/A4 precursor protein fragment on a clean Ag(111) surface using a low-temperature scanning-tunneling-microscope (STM) system at 5K. (aps.org)
  • The latest report Beta Secretase 1 - Pipeline Review, H2 2018, outlays comprehensive information on the Beta Secretase 1 (Aspartyl Protease 2 or Beta Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 or Memapsin 2 or Membrane Associated Aspartic Protease 2 or BACE1 or EC 3.4.23.46) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is expressed in the synapses of neurons and is thought to be responsible for forming and repairing synapses. (dnalc.org)
  • Presenilin 1 (PS1 or PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PS2 or PSEN2) are proteins that span the cell membrane and are primarily expressed in neurons. (dnalc.org)
  • We have established that translation of amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is cleaved to generate neurotoxic βamyloid, is normally repressed by the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in the dendritic processes of neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • B. Allinquant, K. L. Moya, C. Bouillot and A. Prochiantz, "Amyloid Precursor Protein in Cortical Neurons: Existence of Two Pools Differentially Distributed in Axons and Dendrites and Association with Cytoskeleton," Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 14, 1994, pp. 6842-6854. (scirp.org)
  • We show that the increased β-cleavage of endogenous APPL by the β-secretase (dBACE) severely disrupts circadian behavior and leads to reduced expression of clock protein PER in central clock neurons of aging flies. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Contactins (CNTNs) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) are widely expressed in the developing retina and play a critical role in directing the processes of retinal neurons to their appropriate retinal and brain targets. (arvojournals.org)
  • Collectively, our analysis reveals an essential role of APP family proteins in excitatory principal neurons for mediating normal dendritic architecture, spine density and morphology, synaptic plasticity and cognition. (uzh.ch)
  • Neurons rely on microtubule (MT) motor proteins such as kinesin-1 and dynein to transport essential cargos between the cell body and axon terminus. (utexas.edu)
  • The normal biological function of amyloid precursor protein in neurons has yet to be elucidated, but the protein has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of many important cellular functions (6, 9). (berea.edu)
  • Neurogranin is a calmodulin-binding protein expressed exclusively in the brain, particularly in dendritic spines, and participating in the protein kinase C signaling pathway. (neuromics.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore created a free online knowledge database (AMYPdb) dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins and we have performed large scale sequence analysis of the included data. (nih.gov)
  • We generated and analyzed 3,621 amino acid sequence patterns, reporting highly specific patterns for each amyloid family, along with patterns likely to be involved in protein misfolding and aggregation. (nih.gov)
  • Our sequence pattern discovery and analysis approach unveiled protein regions of significant interest. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Antisense inhibition of endogenous BACE messenger RNA decreased the amount of β-secretase cleavage products, and purified BACE protein cleaved APP-derived substrates with the same sequence specificity as β-secretase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, whereas the cationic sequence is a minimum determinant for antimicrobial action, a constrained loop-structure as well as a hydrophobic extension further contributes to membrane permeabilising activity of this region of amyloid precursor protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • Its sequence codes for a precursor protein that is 82 amino acids in length. (caltech.edu)
  • The composition of the pro-sequence is similar to that of the native protein except that it contains five prolines. (caltech.edu)
  • The mature protein, but not the pro-sequence, contains three of the 11-residue repeats previously observed [Lin, Y. & Gross, J. K. (1981) Proc. (caltech.edu)
  • These results indicate, in agreement with our previous kinetic data, that the major part of the xylosyl transfer to the chondrosarcoma proteoglycan core protein precursor must occur late in the processing sequence, i.e. after about 85% of its intracellular lifetime and no more than 7 min before the addition of the rest of the chondroitin sulfate chain. (lu.se)
  • As PS1 has been shown to play a critical role in facilitating γ-secretase activity, and mutations in this protein are associated with familial AD (FAD), we have cloned it from SAMP8 mouse hippocampus and compared its sequence with those of other species. (biologists.org)
  • Most of our knowledge about HCV structure and genome organization and the functions of viral proteins comes from experimental infections of chimpanzees ( 69 ), molecular cloning of HCV cDNAs, recombinant expression systems, and sequence analogy to other viruses (reviewed in references 4 , 19 , and 70 ). (asm.org)
  • The human Gas1 cDNA encodes a 345 amino acid (aa) precursor that includes a 39 aa signal sequence, a 279 aa mature protein, and a 27 aa Cterminal propeptide. (neuromics.com)
  • Complementary DNA for the mouse homolog of the human amyloid beta protein precursor, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave. (curehunter.com)
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type-I transmembrane protein with enriched expression in neuronal tissues. (biolegend.com)
  • Expression, purification, and reconstitution of the transmembrane domain of the human amyloid precursor protein for NMR studies. (rcsb.org)
  • T. E. Golde, S. Estus, M. Usiak, L. H. Younkin and S. G. Younkin, "Expression of B Amyloid Protein Precursor mRNAs: Recognition of a Novel Alternatively Spliced Form and Quantitation in Alzheimer's Disease Using PCR," Neuron, Vol. 4, 1990, pp. 253-267. (scirp.org)
  • Senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) serve as a model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as they exhibit early loss of memory and increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression. (biologists.org)
  • To determine whether the expression of HCV nonstructural proteins alters ER function, we tested the effect of expression of NS2/3/4A, NS4A, NS4B, NS4A/B, NS4B/5A, NS5A, and NS5B from genotype 1b HCV on anterograde traffic from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. (asm.org)
  • This inhibition of ER-to-Golgi traffic was not observed upon expression of the processed proteins NS4A and NS4B, singly or in combination. (asm.org)
  • Also, we studied the effect of Aβ on the expression of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in isolated rat brain microvessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aβ 40 decreased expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-5 and increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. (ahajournals.org)
  • Analysis of brain microvessels from transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein revealed the same expression pattern for tight junction and MMP proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Consistent with reduced tight junction and increased MMP expression and activity, permeability was increased in brain microvessels from human amyloid precursor protein mice compared with microvessels from wild-type controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gas1 (Growth Arrest Specific 1) is one of six structurally unrelated proteins that were identified by their increased expression in growth arrested cells relative to actively proliferating cells (1, 2). (neuromics.com)
  • BACE1 expression is upregulated in AD brain, and we have recently shown in human brain and in vitro that BACE product CTFs, when phosphorylated in tyrosine residues, interact with the adaptor proteins ShcA and Grb2, which usually are involved in signal transduction pathways. (uzh.ch)
  • However, no age-dependent increase in brain ferritin iron saturation was observed in APP-KO mice despite similar protein expression levels potentially explaining the vulnerability of APP-KO mice to parkinsonism and traumatic brain sequelae. (springer.com)
  • Neuregulin 1 regulates amyloid precursor protein cell surface expression and non-amyloidogenic processing. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Novel precursor of Alzheimer's disease amyloid protein shows protease inhibitor activity, Nature 331: 530 (1988). (springer.com)
  • S. S. Sisodia, E. H. Koo, P. N. Hoffman, G. Perry and D. L. Price, "Identification and Transport of Full-Length Amyloid Precursor Proteins in Rat Peripheral Nervous System," Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 13, 1993, pp. 3136-3142. (scirp.org)
  • M. L. Oster-Granite, D. L. McPhie, J. Greenan and R. L. Neve, "Age-Dependent Neuronal and Synaptic Degenera- tion in Mice Transgenic for the C Terminus of the Amyloid Precursor Protein," Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 16, No. 21, 1996, pp. 6732-6741. (scirp.org)
  • These data indicate that protein phosphorylation regulates intra-beta/A4 amyloid cleavage and APP secretion. (pnas.org)
  • In cardiac precursor cells, I Ca was found to be already under control of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation since intracellular infusion of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A resulted in a 1.7-fold stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Early Contextual Fear Memory Deficits in a Double-Transgenic Amyloid-[beta] Precursor Protein/Presenilin 2 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hamilton DL, Findlay JA, Montagut G, Meakin PJ, Bestow D, Jalicy SM & Ashford MLJ (2014) Altered amyloid precursor protein processing regulates glucose uptake and oxidation in cultured rodent myotubes, Diabetologia, 57 (8), pp. 1684-1692. (stir.ac.uk)
  • As APP overexpression raises basal glucose uptake, and direct application of sAPPα increases PI3K-protein kinase B signalling and glucose uptake in myotubes, we suggest that α-secretase-dependent shedding of sAPPα regulates insulin-independent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical and functional interaction of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 and amyloid precursor protein regulates neuronal migration during mammalian cortical development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transgenic mice that overexpress mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) exhibit one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease pathology, namely the extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques. (pnas.org)
  • We induced LC degeneration with N -(2-chloroethyl)- N -ethyl-bromo-benzylamine (dsp4) in amyloid precursor protein 23 (APP23) transgenic mice with a low amyloid load. (jneurosci.org)
  • Proteomics approaches to measuring protein turnover rates in mice have been accomplished by the introduction of a 15 N stable isotope label. (mcponline.org)
  • However, current methods require that the dietary protein content be derived from bacterial or alga lysate, a diet that is not normally fed to laboratory mice. (mcponline.org)
  • We studied whether the previously observed vulnerability in mice overexpressing the 751-amino-acid isoform of human amyloid precursor protein (APP751) is regulated by human apolipoprotein E (apoE) alleles, which determine the relative risk for Alzheimer's disease and the susceptibility to various forms of acute brain damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • We previously reported that hypertension aggravates the Alzheimer-like pathology in APPPS1 mice (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1, mouse model of Alzheimer disease) with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, in relation with hypertension and nitric oxide deficiency. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tg2576 mice (Tg(APPSWE)2576Kha), which express human [beta]-amyloid precursor proteins (hAPP) containing the K670N and M671L mutations on a 129S6 genetic background, were purchased from Taconic Farms, Inc. (Hudson, NY, USA) [11]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • PS2M1 mice express human PS2 proteins containing the N141I mutation on a C57BL/6JJcl background (purchased from Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co, Ltd., Fujioka, Japan) [22, 23]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) have been used to model Aβ pathology, but concomitant changes in Aβ and Tau in CSF have been less well studied. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previously, APP family proteins have been implicated in synaptic adhesion, and analysis of the neuromuscular junction of constitutive APP/APLP2 mutant mice showed deficits in synaptic morphology and neuromuscular transmission. (uzh.ch)
  • Brain ferroportin levels were decreased in APP knockout mice, consistent with a mechanistic role for APP in stabilizing this iron export protein in the brain. (springer.com)
  • Iron elevation in the brain and liver of APP knockout mice correlated with decreased transferrin receptor 1 and increased ferritin protein levels. (springer.com)
  • The aspartate protease, beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a critical regulator of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, modulates in vivo glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in mice. (stir.ac.uk)
  • They are thus called pre-pro-proteins or pre-pro-peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peptides result from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is cut by certain enzymes to yield Aβ. (biolegend.com)
  • Amyloid plaques that accumulate in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are primarily composed of aggregates of amyloid peptides that are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (jneurosci.org)
  • To address this, we have developed Topograph, a software platform which calculates the fraction of peptides that are from newly synthesized proteins and their turnover rates. (mcponline.org)
  • The proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) releases amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides, which accumulation in the brain tissue is an early indicator of Alzheimer's disease. (epfl.ch)
  • The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) undergoes sequential proteolytic cleavages through the action of β- and γ-secretase, which result in the generation of toxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and a C-terminal fragment consisting of the intracellular domain of APP (AICD). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These peptides arise from the sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein, by two proteases known as β- and γ-secretase ( Fig. 1A ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In Alzheimeh disease amyloid beta (Ap) peptides derived from proteoiytic cleavage of the amyloi precursor protein (APP) aggregate to form the amyloidogenic plaques characteristic of the disease. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • These Aβ peptides are formed from cleavage of part of the amyloid precursor protein through proteolysis (6). (berea.edu)
  • Mutations in critical regions of amyloid precursor protein, including the region that generates amyloid beta (Aβ), cause familial susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high Aβ42/Aβ40 production ratio is a hallmark of familial Alzheimer's disease, which can be caused by mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (rcsb.org)
  • To localize specific binding sites, clustered and then individual alanine substitution mutations were constructed in surface residues of CNTN3-Fn(1-2)-Fc and APP(CuBD)-AP fusion proteins. (arvojournals.org)
  • APP is a ubiquitous membrane protein that is physiologically processed by site-specific proteolysis firstly by α- or β-secretases, releasing a large fragment called APP S that contains most of the extracellular sequences of APP, a small extracellular stub, the transmembrane region and the cytoplasmic tail of APP (`AICD'-APP intracellular domain). (biologists.org)
  • The presenilin containing γ-secretase complex is responsible for the regulated intramembraneous proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the Notch receptor, and a multitude of other substrates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aβ is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the sequential proteolysis of β-secretase and γ-secretase (GS) ( Tanzi and Bertram, 2005 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The stimulation by PGE 2 of APP synthesis was mimicked or blocked by activators or inhibitors, respectively, of protein kinase A. Actinomycin D or cycloheximide also inhibited the increase in APP holoprotein stimulated by PGE 2 . (jneurosci.org)
  • We identified three targets, claudin-4, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4), and 14-3-3σ (stratifin), that were selectively expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric epithelial dysplasia but not in normal stomach. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase constitute central signaling hubs for the regulation of α-secretase cleavage. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been proposed to be a central player in AD and to regulate axonal transport by the MT motor protein kinesin-1. (utexas.edu)
  • Misfolding and aggregation of proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is associated with a number of severe pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, and type II diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Alzheimer's disease: initial report of the purification and characterization of a novel cerebrovascular amyloid protein, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome: sharing a unique cerebrovascular amyloid fibril protein, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Amyloid core protein in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome, Proc. (springer.com)
  • The precursor of Alzheimer's disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell surface receptor, Nature 325: 733 (1987). (springer.com)
  • Professor Kenneth Kosik describes the relationship between the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Alzheimer's disease. (dnalc.org)
  • The other protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease, tau protein, also forms such prion-like misfolded oligomers, and there is some evidence that misfolded Aβ can induce tau to misfold. (biolegend.com)
  • Direct sequencing of DNA from a family with autopsy-proven Alzheimer's disease revealed a single amino acid substitution (Phe for Val) in the transmembrane domain of the amyloid precursor protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • An experimental drug cleared protein buildup in the brains of people with mild Alzheimer's disease and slowed their mental decline, the results of a preliminary trial showed Wednesday. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Boosting levels of a specific protein in the brain alleviates hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease in a mouse model of the disorder, according to new research published online August 25, 2016 in Scientific Reports. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Insoluble beta-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain are proteolytically derived from the membrane bound amyloid precursor protein (APP). (diva-portal.org)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (frontiersin.org)
  • J. Kang and B. Müller-Hill, "Differential Splicing of Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid A4 Precursor RNA in Rat Tissues," Nature, Vol. 325, 1987, pp. 733-736. (scirp.org)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, but its actions in normal development are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease. (biologists.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease: dysfunction of a signalling pathway mediated by the amyloid precursor protein? (portlandpress.com)
  • Amyloid precursor protein is linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD). (bioinformation.net)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) harbors physiological roles at synapses and is central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Amyloid precursor protein, abbreviated as APP, is a protein that is linked with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. (berea.edu)
  • In this review, Alzheimer's disease and propagation will be discussed, followed by a breakdown of the basic components of amyloid precursor protein. (berea.edu)
  • Intracellular proteoglycan core protein precursor was purified from cell lysates by immunoprecipitation with polyclonal antibodies against the hyaluronic acid-binding region, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (lu.se)
  • Finally, three end products are formed (sAPP-[beta], A[beta], and amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain, AICD). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, our data suggest that BACE1 activity influences APP processing and its intracellular signaling through the ShcA adaptor protein. (uzh.ch)
  • The most important biochemical machines are enzymes (proteins). (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • One type, protein storage vacuoles, develops mainly in storage organs, such as seeds, and the other type, lytic (vegetative) vacuoles, which contain various lytic enzymes, develops in the vegetative organs. (plantcell.org)
  • Protein precursors are often used by an organism when the subsequent protein is potentially harmful, but needs to be available on short notice and/or in large quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Amyloid precursor proteins interact with the heterotrimeric G protein Go in the control of neuronal migration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In particular, similarities in post-translational processing have invited comparisons to the signaling role of the surface receptor protein Notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of APP may be: (1) G protein-coupled receptor-like role to participate in transmembrane signal transduction process. (biology-online.org)
  • The homology of claudin-4 to Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) receptor suggests that this protein may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention and, indeed, preliminary studies in cell lines and xenografts have shown some promise in this regard ( 16 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • FE65 proteins regulate NMDA receptor activation-induced amyloid precursor protein processing. (harvard.edu)
  • Furthermore, because the termini of conventional proteins are often flexible and the degree of flexibility can be reduced by cyclization, entropic factors can lead to improved receptor binding affinities of circular proteins over corresponding acyclic proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • 1994 ) demonstrated that the clathrin-coated vesicles contain a potential receptor for a precursor of barley aleurain, which is a thiol proteinase. (plantcell.org)
  • In this import process, many cellular proteins such as a cytosolic factor and receptor for the mitochondrial protein precursors are required as import machinery. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Hideyu Ono: 'Purification of the putative import-receptor for the precursor of the mitochondrial protein' Journal of Biochemistry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Hideyu Ono and Syozo Tuboi: 'Purification of the putative import-receptor for the precursor of the mitochondrial protein' J. Biochem.107. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This increase is augmented by simultaneous treatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. (pnas.org)
  • We find that the plasma membrane enzyme glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 2 (GDE2) stimulates ADAM10 APP cleavage by shedding and inactivating reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored inhibitor of ADAM10. (sciencemag.org)
  • Homologous proteins have been identified in other organisms such as Drosophila (fruit flies), C. elegans (roundworms), and all mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster , we ?nd that endogenous GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of both kinesin-1-mediated and dynein-mediated axonal transport of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key contributor to AD pathology. (utexas.edu)
  • amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein. (wikigenes.org)
  • Amyloid beta a4 precursor protein-binding family B member 1 (FE65) interactomics revealed synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) as new binding proteins in the human brain. (harvard.edu)
  • Historically, the amount of stable isotope label incorporated into a protein is measured by enriching for the protein ( e.g. affinity chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and other biochemical methods), hydrolyzing the protein to amino acids, derivatizing the amino acids, and measuring the labeled amino acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry ( 3 , 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Passage of precursor proteins through translocation contact sites of mitochondria was investigated by studying the import of a fusion protein consisting of the NH2-terminal 167 amino acids of yeast cytochrome b2 precursor and the complete mouse dihydrofolate reductase. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In murine model, it has been shown that the host protein Amyloid-a protein is composed of 40 to 43 amino acids which is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), by the proteolytic cleavage, which is a ubiquitous transmembrane protein involved various cellular processes such as neuronal protein trafficking along the axon, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, transmembrane signal transduction, Ca2+ signaling and cell adhesion (20,21). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amino acid permeases require COPII components and the ER resident membrane protein Shr3p for packaging into transport vesicles in vitro. (duke.edu)
  • In vitro binding studies revealed direct interactions among multiple members of the APP and contactin protein families. (biologists.org)
  • When the in vitro synthesized precursor of a light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein (LHCP) from Lemna gibba is imported into barley etiochloroplasts, it is processed to a single form. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally, recent studies increasingly demonstrate that the correct spatial and temporal localization of the two membrane proteins APP and α-secretase is essential for efficient α-secretase cleavage of APP. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Inhibition of global ER-to-Golgi traffic could, by reducing cytokine secretion, MHC-I presentation, and transport of labile membrane proteins to the cell surface, have significant effects on the host immune response to HCV infection. (asm.org)
  • any of various enzyme precursor molecules that may change into an enzyme as a result of catalytic change. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enzyme precursors are called zymogens or proenzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta Secretase 1 (Aspartyl Protease 2 or Beta Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 or Memapsin 2 or Membrane Associated Aspartic Protease 2 or BACE1 or EC 3.4.23.46) pipeline Target constitutes close to 18 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Beta Secretase 1 (Aspartyl Protease 2 or Beta Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 or Memapsin 2 or Membrane Associated Aspartic Protease 2 or BACE1 or EC 3.4.23.46) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Analysis of the cDNA of Aβ revealed its origins from the larger precursor protein. (scirp.org)
  • Neuronal precursor cell migration in the developing mammalian brain is a complex process requiring the coordinated interaction of numerous proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have recently shown that amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a role in migration into the cortical plate through its interaction with two cytosolic signaling proteins, disabled 1 (DAB1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interaction of reelin with amyloid precursor protein promotes neurite outgrowth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Presynaptic and postsynaptic interaction of the amyloid precursor protein promotes peripheral and central synaptogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • beta/A4 amyloid is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), an integral membrane protein that exists as three major isoforms (APP695, APP751, and APP770). (pnas.org)
  • The rapid accumulation of knowledge about the sequences and structures of these proteins allows using of in silico methods to investigate the molecular mechanisms of their abnormal conformational changes and assembly. (nih.gov)
  • This makes it likely that life did not start with a pure 'RNA world' but with a molecular world in which RNA as well as very short protein chains were formed. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • Our data support a growing consensus that FMRP binds to guanine-rich domains of some dendritic mRNAs, suppressing their translation and suggest that AD (neurodegenerative disorder) and FXS (neurodevelopmental disorder) may share a common molecular pathway leading to the overproduction of APP and its protein-cleaving derivatives. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The purified fraction contained two major proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 52 kDa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Professor Kenneth Kosik describes senile plaques, an extracellular collection of a-beta protein. (dnalc.org)
  • In addition, on the basis of recent data generated by our laboratory and others, we propose that in the normal brain a percentage of APP is present as an integral protein of the plasma membrane that mediates the transduction of extracellular signals into the cell via its Aϐ-containing C-terminal tail. (portlandpress.com)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a cell surface protein with a large extracellular N-terminal domain, a single transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic tail. (uzh.ch)
  • Pro-sequences may also be involved in pro-protein transport and secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of protein secretion caused by NS4A/B does not correlate with the ultrastructural changes leading to the formation a "membranous web" (D. Egger et al. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, we are able to form a well ordered two-dimensional layer of the protein fragment by increasing the deposition time. (aps.org)
  • Saturation was reached at 70 pmol intermediate per milligram of mitochondrial protein. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • And it was comfirmed by further analysis that these three proteins function as translocation machinery for the mitochondrial protein precursors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Hideyu Ono: 'Purification of 52 kDa protein:A putative component of the import machinery for the mitochondrial protein-precursor in rat liver' Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Aβ is formed upon sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases and is secreted extracellularly. (columbia.edu)
  • Paper Under Discussion: De Strooper B, Saftig P, Craessaerts K, Vanderstichele H, Guhde G, Annaert W, von Figura K, Van Leuven F. Deficiency of Presenilin 1 Inhibits the Normal Cleavage of the Transmembrane Domain of Amyloid Precursor Protein. (alzforum.org)
  • Background: Amyloid- neurotoxicity depends on the specificity of the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) transmembrane domain. (epfl.ch)
  • Rab6 interacts with the mint3 adaptor protein. (wikigenes.org)
  • In particular, although BACE1 drives the formation of C99 and C89 CTFs, only C99 interacts with the ShcA adaptor protein. (uzh.ch)
  • The C region contains a binding site for Fe65, which is brain-enriched adaptor protein. (berea.edu)
  • Accumulation of the intermediate inhibited the import of other precursor proteins suggesting that different precursor proteins are using common translocation contact sites. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We conclude that the machinery for protein translocation into mitochondria is present at contact sites in limited number. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We imaged active translocases in lipid bilayers as a function of precursor protein species, nucleotide species, and stage of translocation using atomic force microscopy (AFM). (sciencemag.org)
  • The data, acquired under near-native conditions, suggest that the translocation process varies with precursor species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yet, determining the mechanisms underlying protein translocation remains a major unsolved problem. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, patients with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type, an autosomal-dominant severe form of CAA caused by a point mutation in amyloid precursor protein (APP), do not seem to develop significantly more amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles than the normal elderly ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In FAD the cause of the disease is a genetic mutation in the genes coding for the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin-1 (PS1) or presenilin-2 (PS2) (47). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Isolated mitochondria of Neurospora crassa readily imported the fusion protein. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Most of mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on free polysomes in cytosol as precursors with a presequence at their N-terminal portions, imported into mitochondria and located in their own locations in various mitochondrial compartments (outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix). (nii.ac.jp)
  • This 28 kDa protein (28 kDa targeting factor) was a component constructing a factor carrying the precursor to mitochondria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Anti-28 kDa targeting factor IgG specifically inhibited the import of the precursor as well as its binding to mitochondria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It was also shown that anti-29, 42, and 52 kDa protein Fab fragments strongly inhibited the import of precursor of ornithine aminotransferase into mitochondria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Hideyu Ono: 'Purification and identification of a cytosolic factor required for import of precursor of mitochondrial proteins into mitochondria' Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Certain parts of the biochemical machinery for protein synthesis may have evolved from peptidyl RNAs. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • La also binds to 3′ extended precursors to human U1 and the yeast snRNAs ( 34 , 58 ) and to internal sequences of several viral RNAs, in some cases at sequences that lack poly(U) tracts ( 4 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The two major hallmarks of AD pathology, Abeta plaque deposition and neurofibrillary tangles, arise from increased proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and microtubule destabilization due to tau hyperphosphorylation, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 The main characteristic of CAA is deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins in leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels in the brain that contribute to cortical cerebral brain hemorrhage. (ahajournals.org)