Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
A family of proteins that share a domain with a four transmembrane-helix architecture referred to as the MARVEL domain. The MARVEL domain proteins play important role in vesicular trafficking and in the formation of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A tight junction-associated MARVEL protein that may play a role in separating the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the ORGAN OF CORTI. Defects in the gene that codes for MARVELD2 protein are a cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 49.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Peptides and proteins are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (and sometimes by a few isopeptide bonds). ... Miller BR, Gulick AM (2016). "Structural Biology of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases". Methods in Molecular Biology. 1401: 3-29 ... Conformational protein folding is usually much faster (typically 10-100 ms) than cis-trans isomerization (10-100 s). A ... In the unfolded state of proteins, the peptide groups are free to isomerize and adopt both isomers; however, in the folded ...
... the enzyme is in solution with a smaller amount of proteins than there are in another portion of the cell. The proteins' heat ... The two were similar in NH2-terminal sequence, peptide map, subunit molecular weight, and isoelectronic point. In a different ... Protein Engineering. 4 (7): 801-4. doi:10.1093/protein/4.7.801. PMID 1798702. Maxam AM, Gilbert W (1980). Sequencing end- ... When multiple copies of a polypeptide encoded by a gene form an aggregate, this protein structure is referred to as a multimer ...
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Protein evolution. Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. 75. pp. 1-132, xi. doi:10.1002/9780471224464. ... Similar sequences are often found along protein polypeptide chains in different species. This similarity is directly linked to ... Pauling L, Zuckerkand E, Henriksen T, Lövstad R (1963). "Chemical Paleogenetics: Molecular "Restoration Studies" of Extinct ... Ancient DNA Ancient pathogen genomics Archaeogenetics Molecular clock Paleobiochemistry Paleovirology Benner SA, Sassi SO, ...
Smith SM (2011). "Strategies for the purification of membrane proteins". Protein Chromatography. Methods in Molecular Biology. ... is a method that is used to purify or enrich a specific protein, or a group of proteins, using an antibody from a complex ... The immobilized protein complex can be accomplished either in a single step or successively. IP can also be used in conjunction ... 2008). Encyclopedia of molecular pharmacology (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 585. ISBN 9783540389163. Kahl SD, Sittampalam GS ...
Liang G, Robertson KD, Talmadge C, Sumegi J, Jones PA (September 2000). "The gene for a novel transmembrane protein containing ... Gery S, Koeffler HP (May 2003). "Repression of the TMEFF2 promoter by c-Myc". Journal of Molecular Biology. 328 (5): 977-83. ... Tomoregulin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEFF2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000144339 - Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: TMEFF2 transmembrane protein with EGF-like and two follistatin-like domains 2". Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994 ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 3 (4): 311-26. doi:10.1074/mcp.M300127-MCP200. PMID 14718574. Bruneel A, Labas V, Mailloux A, ... Protein Engineering. 14 (7): 513-9. doi:10.1093/protein/14.7.513. PMID 11522926. Anderson NL, Polanski M, Pieper R, Gatlin T, ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
Weber, A. L.; Miller, S. L. (1981). "Reasons for the occurrence of the twenty coded protein amino acids". Journal of Molecular ... In proteins a cysteine residue can form a disulfide bond with another cysteine residue, thus crosslinking the protein. Two ... are misincorporated translationally into proteins due to infidelity of the protein-synthesis process. Many amino acids, such as ... Methods in Molecular Biology. 340. pp. 95-109. doi:10.1385/1-59745-116-9:95. ISBN 978-1-59745-116-1. PMID 16957334. Boniface, A ...
Humans have a pseudogene for chymosin that does not generate a protein, found on chromosome 1. Humans have other proteins to ... April 1982). "Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for calf preprochymosin". Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (7 ... Protein Engineering. 11 (10): 833-40. doi:10.1093/protein/11.10.833. PMID 9862200. Lopes-Marques M, Ruivo R, Fonseca E, ... Structure and refinement at 2.2 A resolution of bovine chymosin". Journal of Molecular Biology. 221 (4): 1295-309. doi:10.1016/ ...
... protein engineering; drug delivery; molecular biology; structural biology; cell biology; glycobiology; molecular imaging and in ... Ambrosi, M; Cameron, N. R.; Davis, B. G. (2005). "Lectins: Tools for the molecular understanding of the glycocode". Organic and ... These have enabled associated mechanistic details of protein and sugar biology to be elucidated and exploited for ... Lin, Yuya Angel (2013). Olefin metathesis for site-selective protein modification (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC ...
Romero PA, Arnold FH (December 2009). "Exploring protein fitness landscapes by directed evolution". Nature Reviews. Molecular ... As a protein engineering tool, DE has been most successful in three areas: Improving protein stability for biotechnological use ... Rational design of a protein relies on an in-depth knowledge of the protein structure, as well as its catalytic mechanism. ... Directed evolution (DE) is a method used in protein engineering that mimics the process of natural selection to steer proteins ...
Dickerson, R. E. (1997). "Irving Geis, Molecular artist, 1908-1997". Protein Science. 6 (11): 2483-2484. doi:10.1002/pro. ...
"NCBI Protein". National Center for Biotechnology Information. "Protein Molecular Weight Calculator". ... Several other proteins have been predicted to interact with C3orf67: CLK1 Phosphorylates serine/arginine-rich proteins involved ... "The Ikaros gene encodes a family of functionally diverse zinc finger DNA-binding proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 14 ... The protein has been identified as one of seventeen (17) genes that may play a novel role in the intersection of tumor ...
"Glucose-induced autophagy of peroxisomes in Pichia pastoris requires a unique E1-like protein". Molecular Biology of the Cell. ... Through UPS, Ubiquitin will continue to bind to other autophagy-related proteins, E2 conjugation proteins and E3 protein ... "Glucose-induced autophagy of peroxisomes in Pichia pastoris requires a unique E1-like protein". Molecular Biology of the Cell. ... The protein appears to be required for fusion of peroxisomal and vacuolar membranes. Autophagy is an important cellular process ...
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate ... RAV Cdx protein family DNA-binding protein Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein Nuclear receptor, a class of ligand activated ... like all proteins) are transcribed from a gene on a chromosome into RNA, and then the RNA is translated into protein. Any of ... molecular strategies for transcriptional activation". Molecular Endocrinology. 17 (10): 1901-9. doi:10.1210/me.2002-0384. PMID ...
C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 5, also known as C1QTNF5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the C1QTNF5 ... Human Molecular Genetics. 15 (10): 1680-9. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl091. PMID 16600989. Mandal MN, Vasireddy V, Reddy GB, Wang X, ... The CTRP5 protein is a member of the C1q / tumor necrosis factor superfamily, which shows diverse functions including cell ... Shapiro L, Scherer PE (March 1998). "The crystal structure of a complement-1q family protein suggests an evolutionary link to ...
Leader, DP; Milner-White, EJ (2011). "The structure of the ends of alpha-helices in globular proteins". Proteins. 79 (3): 1010- ... Its relationship with alpha-helices and beta-bulge loops". Journal of Molecular Biology. 199 (3): 503-511. doi:10.1016/0022- ... Two websites are available for examining small motifs in proteins, Motivated Proteins: [1]; or PDBeMotif: [2]. The majority of ... Leader, DP; Milner-White (2009). "Motivated Proteins: A web application for studying small three-dimensional protein motifs". ...
Gunasekaran, K; Nagarajam HA (1998). "Sterochemical punctuation marks in protein structure" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Biology ... Doig, AJ; MacArthur MW (1997). "Structures of N-termini of helices in proteins". Protein Science. 6 (1): 147-155. doi:10.1002/ ... Leader, DP; Milner-White EJ (2011). "The structure of the ends of helices in globular proteins". Proteins. 79 (3): 1010-1019. ... The term N cap (N-cap, Ncap) describes an amino acid in a particular position within a protein or polypeptide. The N cap ...
Dickerson, R. E. (1997). "Irving Geis, Molecular artist, 1908-1997". Protein Science. 6 (11): 2483-2484. doi:10.1002/pro. ... Geis's hand-drawn work depicts many structures of biological macromolecules, such as DNA and proteins, including the first ... Geis Digital Archive by the educational portal of the Protein Data Bank.. ...
... is a superfamily of proteins used in protein folding complexes. It is classified as a heterohexameric molecular chaperone in ... Prefoldin is triggered only to bind to nonnative target proteins in the cytosol so that it will only bind to unfolded proteins ... Once the prefoldin is in contact with the chaperonin protein, it loses its affinity for the unfolded target protein. ... began to form and the molecular weight of the complex was observed. Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the protein complex ...
The protein encoded by MDH2 exists as a dimer, which indicate the important connection between protein stability and enzymatic ... A complex of the apoenzyme and citrate at 1.87 A resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. 226 (3): 867-82. doi:10.1016/0022- ... The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondria and may play pivotal roles in the malate-aspartate shuttle ... The active sites in these dimeric proteins are well separated from each other. Because malate dehydrogenase is closely tied to ...
Mucin-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MUCL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172551 - ... The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. 6 (2): 90-5. doi:10.1016/S1525-1578(10)60495-3. PMC 1867472. PMID 15096563. Zhang Z, ... 2003). "The Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), a Large-Scale Effort to Identify Novel Human Secreted and ... Henzel WJ (2005). "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites". Protein Sci. 13 (10 ...
Sauer, Ursula (2011). "Impact of Substrates for Probe Immobilization". Protein Microarrays. Methods in Molecular Biology. 785. ... because it binds a great deal more protein, and protects the tertiary structure of the protein (and other biological material, ... A method for protein quantitation on nitrocellulose coated glass slides uses near-IR fluorescent detection with quantum dots. ... Hollas, M; Jallerat, E; Pflanz, K; Praulich, I; Walter, J; Stahl, F; Scheper, T (2006). "New 3D black substrate for protein ...
Neuroligin-4, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLGN4X gene. In the human brain, the synaptic protein ... April 2005). "Analysis of the neuroligin 3 and 4 genes in autism and other neuropsychiatric patients". Molecular Psychiatry. 10 ... The encoded protein interacts with discs, large (Drosophila) homolog 4 (DLG4). Mutations in this gene have been associated with ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (5): 337-45. ...
The protein consists of an 18 β-stranded β-barrel in contrast to proteins of the general bacterial porin family (GBP) and the ... The porins act as molecular filters for hydrophilic compounds. They are responsible for the 'molecular sieve' properties of the ... Protein Eng. 10 (6): 699-706. doi:10.1093/protein/10.6.699. PMID 9278284. Chong, Zhi-Soon; Woo, Wei-Fen; Chng, Shu-Sin (2015-12 ... The Rhodobacter PorCa Protein, the only well characterized member of the RPP family, was the first porin to yield its three- ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 380 (5): 869-85. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.05.043. PMID 18572193. Chen L, Dong W, Zou T, Ouyang L, ... Polyubiquitin-C is a protein encoded by the UBC gene in humans. Polyubiquitin-C is one of the sources of ubiquitin, along with ... Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (January 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate ...
Journal of Molecular Biology. 286 (5): 1651-1662. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.2551. PMID 10064721. Motivated Proteins PDBeMotif [1] [ ... An analysis of backbone mimicry by polar side chains in proteins". Protein Engineering. 12 (6): 447-455. doi:10.1093/protein/ ... Richardson, JS (1981). "The anatomy and taxonomy of protein structure". Advances in Protein Chemistry Volume 34. Advances in ... and ST-turns of the four main types of β-turn in proteins". Protein Science. 13 (11): 3051-3055. doi:10.1110/ps.04920904. PMC ...
Gunasekaran, K; Nagarajam HA (1998). "Sterochemical punctuation marks in protein structure" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Biology ... Motivated Proteins: [1] PDBeMotif [2]. Leader, DP; Milner-White EJ (2009). "Motivated Proteins: A web application for studying ... Doig, AJ; MacArthur MW (1997). "Structures of N-termini of helices in proteins". Protein Science. 6 (1): 147-155. doi:10.1002/ ... Lee, J; Dubey VK (2008). "A logical OR redundancy within the asx-pro-asx-gly type I beta turn motif". Journal of Molecular ...
"Carbonic anhydrase as a model for biophysical and physical-organic studies of proteins and protein-ligand binding". Chemical ... Unless else specified: Boron WF (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1- ... Homologs of the ι-CA have been also confirmed in gram-negative bacteria, where can be present as a protein homodimer. Several ... It was found that many of them contain proteins that are homologous to the CDCA found in T. weissflogii. This includes species ...
Rao ST, Rossmann MG (May 1973). "Comparison of super-secondary structures in proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 76 (2): ... Li L, Lok SM, Yu IM, Zhang Y, Kuhn RJ, Chen J, Rossmann MG (March 2008). "The flavivirus precursor membrane-envelope protein ... In 1970 his laboratory found the structure of dogfish lactate dehydrogenase, one of the largest early proteins to be solved. In ... This work laid the foundation for a molecular understanding of cell entry of enteroviruses and for the development of capsid- ...
We know from molecular biology that distinct parts of the nervous system release distinct chemical cues, from growth factors to ... proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. ...
Watson, JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann A, Levine M, Losick R. (2004). "Ch9-10", Molecular Biology of the Gene, 5th ed., Peason ... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
"Human Molecular Genetics. 6 (10): 1647-56. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.10.1647. PMID 9300656.. ... that constraint inside the womb is associated with decreased expression of Indian hedgehog protein and noggin. These last two ... Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology. 82 (2): 78-85. doi:10.1002/bdra.20426. PMID 18050313.. ... Advances in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, as well as the use of animal models have been of great importance in ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... Molecular function. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... N-myristoyltransferase 2 Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ... Zhou W, Resh MD (1997). "Differential membrane binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein". J. Virol. 70 ...
Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... 1/4 protein food as meat, ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Trends in molecular medicine. 2004, 9 (9): 370-5. PMID 13129702. doi:10.1016/S1471-4914(03)00162-X.. ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ...
"Journal of Molecular Biology. 354 (4): 789-800. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.09.095. PMC 1403828. PMID 16277992.. ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 10 (4): 276-86. doi:10.1038/nrm2654. PMID 19305417. MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X (July ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... "Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... it had exactly the same molecular weight.[11][12] How something of such a large molecular mass could be consistently found, ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Gerhard Michal, Dietmar Schomburg (2012). Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2nd izd.). ... Branden C, Tooze J.. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN: 0-8153-2305-0. http://www. ...
... where he is a full professor of cell and molecular biology and head of the Center for Protein Chemistry of Hemocentro de ... "Protein Science. 8 (1): 13-24. doi:10.1110/ps.8.1.13. PMC 2144112. PMID 10210179.. ... Protein Expression and Purification. 21 (1): 134-140. doi:10.1006/prep.2000.1353. PMID 11162398.. ... "Expression and the purification of a disulphide rich protein in a hydrophobic resin environment, bothropstoxin-I a Lys49- ...
The software has been cited in thousands of scientific molecular biology publications and is one of several tools for systems ... IPA also lets researchers search for information on genes, proteins, chemicals, drugs, and reagents. Resulting information can ... "Best of Show Award Winners Named at the Fifteenth International Molecular Medicine Tri-Conference" (Press release). Cambridge ... "Ingenuity Systems releases IPA™ 5.0 software, offering new biomarker and molecular toxicology capabilities" (PDF) (Press ...
Proteins in the membraneEdit. Main article: Membrane protein. Proteins within the membrane are key to its working. These ... Molecular cell biology. 4th ed, New York: Scientific American Books. ISBN 0716731363 ... It is estimated that up to a third of the human proteome[4] may be membrane proteins.[5] Some of these proteins are linked to ... Some proteins are always stuck into it, these are called integral membrane proteins. It also has some which are only sometimes ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Gerhard Michal, Dietmar Schomburg (2012). Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2nd izd.). ... Branden C, Tooze J.. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN: 0-8153-2305-0. http://www. ...
J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi:10.1007/BF01024882. تحقق من التاريخ في: ,date=. (مساعدة) ... Molecular function. • follicle-stimulating hormone activity. • ربط بروتيني. • فعالية الهرمون. Cellular component. • ...
A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, with ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution". 1 (2), s. 148-146, 1992. DOI: 10.1016/1055-7903(92)90026-D. PMID: 1342928 (ang.). ... Molecular Biology and Evolution". 22 (9), s. 1869-86, 09-2005. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msi180. PMID: 15930153 (ang.). ... A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record. „Science". 307 (5709), s. 580-4, 01-2005. DOI: ...
The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... cellular and molecular responses to depressed metabolism and low temperature". Physiol. Rev. 83 (4): 1153-81. doi:10.1152/ ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ...
Microbial degradation of styrene: biochemistry, molecular genetics, and perspectives for biotechnological applications. Appl. ... which is supported by fusion protein of a monooxygenase and reductase (StyA2B). The latter one is the source of reduced FAD for ... PubMed Identifier,PMID]] 16712999] Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... Avery's work marked the birth of the molecular era of genetics.[14] ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
Molecular function. • molecular function. Cellular component. • cellular component. Biological process. • multicellular ...
Função molecular. •extracellular matrix structural constituent. •protein binding. •extracellular matrix constituent conferring ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... 2010). «Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin». J. Biol. ...
Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364-375. ISBN ... as well as a protein inside mesolimbic neurons called delta FosB. An associative process may contribute to addiction, for ... as ΔFosB accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is ...
The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... On the basis of molecular genetics, Eckardt and Baum (2010) concluded that "it is now generally accepted that compound leaves ... further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural ... chemicals which hinder the digestion of proteins and have an unpleasant taste. Animals that are specialized to eat leaves are ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg viruses: molecular and cellular biology (Limited preview). ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ... EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex, ...
ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... Karaoglu D, Kelleher DJ, Gilmore R (October 2001). "Allosteric regulation provides a molecular mechanism for preferential ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Molecular function. • ion channel activity. • benzodiazepine receptor activity. • chloride channel activity. • extracellular ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ... GABRA4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Soll J, Schleiff E (March 2004). "Protein import into chloroplasts". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 5 (3): 198-208. ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ... Seyfizadeh, Narges; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Hasenkamp, J; Huerta-Yepez, S (2016). "A molecular perspective on rituximab: A ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... In contrast, when the B cell lacked this asymmetric protein cluster, it was killed only 40% of the time.[36][37] ...
negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of JAK-STAT ... Human Molecular Genetics. 16 (14): 1676-81. PMID 17517696. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm115. الوسيط ,التاريخ=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ... a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12212-21. ... a novel member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family closely related to decorin and biglycan". The Journal of Biological ...
Volume 110 of UCLA symposia on molecular and cellular biology. Protein and pharmaceutical engineering: proceedings of a UCLA ... Protein engineering. Protein engineering - Congresses. Proteins - congresses. Science / Biotechnology. Science / Chemistry / ... 43kD protein Acad Sci USA AChR active active site aldimine alkali-stripped amines amino acid analog analysis antigen aspartate ... Protein and pharmaceutical engineering: proceedings of a UCLA Symposium held at Park City, Utah January 17-22, 1989. ...
Molecular mechanisms underlying RB protein function.. Dick FA1, Rubin SM.. Author information. 1. London Regional Cancer ... Inactivation of the RB protein is one of the most fundamental events in cancer. Coming to a molecular understanding of its ... a , Schematic depiction of the F box protein S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) recognizing phosphorylated p27. Binding ... a , Model of active and complexes with E2F and an L-X-C-X-E peptide (Protein Data Bank (PDB) codes: 2QDJ, 1GUX, 1N4M and 2AZE ...
Given function annotations for 3% of the proteins in the deaminase family, SIFTER achieves 96% accuracy in predicting molecular ... accurately predicts molecular function for members of a protein family given a reconciled phylogeny and available function ... Our method produced specific and consistent molecular function predictions across 100 Pfam families in comparison to the Gene ... function for experimentally characterized proteins as reported in the literature. The accuracy of SIFTER on this dataset is a ...
... leading experts provide a roadmap for solving the complex challenges that are currently faced while monitoring protein-protein ... and data analysis of numerous types of protein interactions. Topics covered include: -Types of biomolecular interactions - ... This book is the first of its kind in the field of protein microarrays and addresses novel strategies for constructing highly ... functional and biocompatible microarrays for screening proteins. The list of authors consisting of world ...
The study, published in issue 14 of Molecular Systems Biology, describes the development of the tool and its successful use on ... which decodes where on proteins specific sugars are attached -- a possible modification due to disease. ... Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have developed a new molecular tool they call EXoO, ... New molecular tool identifies sugar-protein attachments. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Journal. Molecular Systems Biology. Funder. ...
Molecular biology and mutation of green fluorescent protein.. Zacharias DA1, Tsien RY. ...
Learn more about the Protein Biochemistry & Molecular Modeling Group and its key staff. ... Protein Biochemistry & Molecular Modeling Group key staff. Key staff table Name. Title. Email. Phone. ... Protein Stability and Functional Characterization of Intra-Melanosomal Domain of Human Recombinant Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1 ... Y. V. Sergeev, S. Vitale, P. A. Sieving, A. Vincent, A. G. Robson, A. T. Moore, A. R. Webster and G. E. Holder: Molecular ...
Molecular Modeling of Proteins, Second Edition provides a theoretical background of various methods available and enables non- ... Biomolecule simulation Computational methods Membrane proteins Molecular modeling Protein structure prediction Simulation ... Molecular Modeling of Proteins, Second Edition provides a theoretical background of various methods available and enables non- ... Current Status of Protein Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics Simulations Pedro E. M. Lopes, Olgun Guvench, Alexander D. ...
These pathways include the participation of such protein kinases as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase ... Focus should be placed on investigating subcellular or protein compartments, macromolecular complexes, and protein-protein ... Posttranslational Protein Modifications Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics ... Use of reverse phase protein microarrays and reference standard development for molecular network analysis of metastatic ...
A Label-free Mass Spectrometry Method to Predict Endogenous Protein Complex Composition Zachary McBride, Donglai Chen, Youngwoo ... At least one third of soluble proteins are predicted to exist in a stable oligomeric state. However, the compositions of the ... This paper describes a biochemical method to predict protein complex composition based on orthogonal chromatographic ... and provides a new way to analyze protein complexes in any organism with a well-annotated proteome. ...
The protein was found to be glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 31 500, determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel ... A new low molecular weight protein was purified from the urine of uraemic patients. ... A new low molecular weight protein was purified from the urine of uraemic patients. The protein was found to be glycoprotein ... alpha1-Microglobulin, a new low molecular weight plasma protein Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Dec;73(3):415-22. doi: 10.1016/0009-8981( ...
Here we decipher the molecular mechanism of this unconventional heterogeneous oligomerization by performing discrete molecular ... We identify the most probable oligomer conformations and the molecular regions that can be targeted to destabilize them. Our ... transcellular transfer of mutated huntingtin proteins which are able to seed oligomers involving wild type forms of the protein ... of cells co-transfected with huntingtin proteins containing short and large polyglutamine tracts. Our work clarifies the ...
... the Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide through the basic molecular processes and genetic phenomena of both prokaryotic and ... Molecular Biology: Genes to Proteins. Tropp,Burton E. Tropp. No preview available - 2011. ... Molecular Biology: Genes to Proteins. Burton E. Tropp. No preview available - 2011. ... Newly revised and updated, the Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide through the basic molecular processes and genetic ...
The artificial system is not about to displace natures ribosome, a complex of proteins... ... the molecular machine that translates our genetic code to build the bodys proteins, is a mechanical marvel. Now, chemists have ... Molecular Robot Mimics Lifes Protein-Builder 53 Posted by Soulskill on Friday January 11, 2013 @01:06PM. from the robots-are- ... the molecular machine that translates our genetic code to build the bodys proteins, is a mechanical marvel. Now, chemists have ...
... cerevisiae protein set. The yeast nitrogen-assimilatory protein set consists of the proteins involved in the conversion of ... Molecular Evolution of Protein Atomic Composition. By Peggy Baudouin-Cornu, Yolande Surdin-Kerjan, Philippe Marlière, Dominique ... Molecular Evolution of Protein Atomic Composition. By Peggy Baudouin-Cornu, Yolande Surdin-Kerjan, Philippe Marlière, Dominique ... T. E. Creighton, Proteins: Structures and Molecular Properties (Freeman, New York, 1983). ...
Ludo Van Den Bosch (VIB-KU Leuven) have zoomed in on the protein structure of FUS to gain more insight into how it causes ... The mutated and aggregated protein FUS is implicated in two neurodegenerative diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ... Molecular culprits of protein aggregation in ALS and FTLD. VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology) ... "We found that the FUS protein that is misbehaving in ALS and FTLD can form liquid droplets via specific molecular interactions ...
Molecular interactions and inhibition of the staphylococcal biofilm-forming protein SdrC Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Molecular interactions and inhibition of the staphylococcal biofilm-forming protein SdrC. Cécile Feuillie, Cécile Formosa-Dague ... cMolecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Irish Centre for Vascular Biology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, ... Molecular modeling suggests that this blocking activity may originate from binding of the peptide to a sequence of SdrC ...
High-resolution protein complexes from integrating genomic information with molecular simulation. Alexander Schug, Martin Weigt ... High-resolution protein complexes from integrating genomic information with molecular simulation. Alexander Schug, Martin Weigt ... High-resolution protein complexes from integrating genomic information with molecular simulation Message Subject (Your Name) ... High-resolution protein complexes from integrating genomic information with molecular simulation. Alexander Schug, Martin Weigt ...
Transmembrane Molecular Pump Activity of Niemann-Pick C1 Protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We provide evidence that the NPC1 protein has homology with the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family of prokaryotic ...
Molecular Perspectives on Protein-Protein Interactions. Molecular Perspectives on Protein-Protein Interactions. The conference ... The particular focus of the conference will be on molecular aspects of protein-protein interactions. Topics will include theory ... membrane protein complexes, emerging & single molecule techniques, evolution & design as well as large multi-protein complexes ... biophysics and bioinformatics to explore the important field of protein-protein interactions. ...
Definition of low molecular weight proteins. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ...
Our section of Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences focuses on RNA interactions with proteins and transcripts and aims to unveil ... Protein and RNA Networks welcomes submissions of the following article types: Brief Research Report, Correction, Editorial, ... All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Protein and RNA Networks, where they are peer-reviewed by the ... Articles published in the section Protein and RNA Networks will benefit from the Frontiers impact and tiering system after ...
This item: Photosynthetic Protein Complexes: A Structural Approach. Cardiovascular Hormone Systems: From Molecular Mechanisms ... Photosynthetic Protein Complexes: A Structural Approach. Petra Fromme (Editor). ISBN: 978-3-527-31730-1 October 2008 Wiley- ... This item: Photosynthetic Protein Complexes: A Structural Approach. The Sugar Code: Fundamentals of Glycosciences (Hardcover $ ... Most chapters are dedicated to one protein, while a few also summarize general associated concepts. The book also has an ...
Responses of phoshorylated proteins to hypoxia-induced stress are isoform and protein specific. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... This review article discusses the impact of tumor pre-analytics on molecular pathology focusing on biospecimen protein ... A review of preanalytical factors affecting molecular, protein, and morphological analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ... Tumor Pre-Analytics in Molecular Pathology: Impact on Protein Expression and Analysis. ...
Our antibody could detect much lower levels of Vangl2Lp protein in mutant mice compared to the wild type mice. Conclusion Our ... How precisely Vangl2 and Vangl1 proteins interact and crosstalk has remained a difficult issue to address, with the main ... The Vangl2 antibody is able to acutely assess differential expression levels of Vangl2 protein in culture cell lines, as ... Epitope-tagged Vangl2 and Vangl1 confirmed that both proteins interact and colocalize at the plasma membrane. ...
Keywords: 4D-QSAR; Molecular dynamics; PK inhibitors; X-ray crystallographic data; docking; free energy calculations; protein ... That enables them to follow and understand structure and dynamics of protein-ligand systems with extreme molecular detail on ... Protein kinases (PKs) are key components of protein phosphorylation based signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. They have ... Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations present a convenient way to study PK-inhibitor complexes and have been ...
Purchase The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128021675, ... The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins 1st Edition. A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series. 0.0 star rating ... 9.7 The Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Muscle Protein Breakdown by Amino Acid and Insulin ... Section III: Cellular and Molecular Actions of Amino Acids in non Protein Metabolism *Chapter 15. Dietary Protein and Colonic ...
... Neal L. Millar1 and George A. C. Murrell2 ... Neal L. Millar and George A. C. Murrell, "Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators," Mediators of ...
Challenges in developing protein crystals. First, growing protein crystals, as many molecular biologists will say, is more an ... Medical importance of protein crystals. Protein crystals bear great medical and scientific relevance. For decades, they have ... to capture the birth of a protein crystal by visualizing the process of nucleation at molecular resolution. Dr. Heiner ... have for the first time uncovered the molecular details of protein crystal nucleation, a process with great medical and ...
Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences, Volume 183 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121820848, ... Molecular Evolution: Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences, Volume 183 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a ... W.-H. Li and M. Gouy, Statistical Tests of Molecular Phylogenies.. R.F. Doolittle and D.-F. Feng, Nearest Neighbor Procedure ... G.J. Barton, Protein Multiple Sequence Alignment and Flexible Pattern Matching.. D. Sankoff, R. Cedergren, and Y. Abel, Genomic ...
  • The study, published in issue 14 of Molecular Systems Biology , describes the development of the tool and its successful use on human blood, tumors and immune cells. (
  • Molecular biology and mutation of green fluorescent protein. (
  • Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include thorough introductions, step-by-step instructions, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding common pitfalls. (
  • For the most part, research in PTM as it relates to biomarker discovery has required the study of discreet modifications on specific proteins of importance to cancer biology. (
  • The conference aims to gather scientists from molecular cell biology, biochemistry, structural biology, biophysics and bioinformatics to explore the important field of protein-protein interactions. (
  • It then delves into the molecular biology of the cell and genetic machinery and its function. (
  • A team of researchers led by Dr. Mike Sleutel from the VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology in collaboration with scientists from the Institute for Complex Molecular Systems of the Eindhoven University of Technology, and the CNRS in Grenoble, have for the first time uncovered the molecular details of protein crystal nucleation, a process with great medical and scientific relevance. (
  • That, in turn, means proteins can be separated more efficiently, which should help scientists learn more about these crucial molecules, said Han, who also has appointments in MIT's Research Laboratory of Electronics, Computational and Systems Biology Initiative, Center for Materials Science and Engineering and Microsystems Technology Laboratories. (
  • Dr. Xu's research lies in machine learning, optimization and computational biology (especially protein bioinformatics and biological network analysis). (
  • Providing our customers with innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology for over 30 years. (
  • In the first study, a group of researchers from the Structural Biology Center, which is funded by DOE 's Office of Science, mapped out a protein responsible for breaking down organic compounds in soil bacteria, an important process for recycling carbon in the ecosystem. (
  • Ning Qian and Terrnece J. Sejnowski (1988), "Predicting the Secondary Structure of Globular Proteins Using Neural Network Models" in Journal of Molecular Biology 202, 865-884. (
  • Forman JR, Clarke J (2007) Mechanical unfolding of proteins: insights into biology, structure and folding. (
  • Galera-Prat A, Gomez-Sicilia A, Oberhauser AF, Cieplak M, Carrion-Vazquez M (2010) Understanding biology by stretching proteins: recent progress. (
  • The study appears in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology on Nov. 13. (
  • The Chp1-Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS," appears in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology on Nov. 13. (
  • CSHL is ranked number one in the world by Thomson Reuters for impact of its research in molecular biology and genetics. (
  • The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology ( ) is one of the most international, broad and prominent biomolecular institutions in Europe. (
  • The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology comprises seven research programs and this service is associated with the program in Molecular Biology which includes internationally renowned research in protein synthesis. (
  • The subject is protein synthesis, a complicated process central for cell growth and for all biology. (
  • The studies utilize techniques in molecular biology. (
  • Professor Neil Hunter from the University of Sheffield's Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology and lead author of the study, said: "Photosynthesis is the major source of energy for all life on Earth, so it is important to learn the limits of this process so we can understand how to increase spectral coverage and to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis. (
  • The research was conducted in collaboration with the Electron Bio-Imaging Centre, Diamond Source and the Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology at the University of Leeds. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews article. (
  • We use a number of molecular biology and structural biology techniques, with a focus on X-ray diffraction crystallography. (
  • These different conformational changes inhibit specific RB-protein interactions. (
  • The list of authors consisting of world leading experts provide a roadmap for solving the complex challenges that are currently faced while monitoring protein-protein interactions over a wide range of microarray platforms. (
  • In doing so, they also offer a comprehensive overview of microarray surface chemistry, detection technologies, fabrication options for array development, and data analysis of numerous types of protein interactions. (
  • Y. V. Sergeev, M. B. Dolinska and P. T. Wingfield: Thermodynamic analysis of weak protein interactions using sedimentation equilibrium. (
  • This detailed volume opens by featuring classical and advanced simulation methods as well as methods to set-up complex systems such as lipid membranes and membrane proteins, and continues with chapters devoted to the simulation and analysis of conformational changes of proteins, computational methods for protein structure prediction, usage of experimental data in combination with computational techniques, as well as protein-ligand interactions, which are relevant in the drug design process. (
  • We found that the FUS protein that is misbehaving in ALS and FTLD can form liquid droplets via specific molecular interactions between hydrophobic and charged amino acids," explains Steven Boeynaems, another researcher involved in the study. (
  • Boeynaems: "We showed that the interactions between exactly these two protein domains could explain toxicity in our fruit fly ALS model, suggesting how the protein may be misregulated in patients as well. (
  • In this study, we dissect the homophilic interactions at play during S. aureus cell-cell adhesion, focusing on the key surface protein SdrC. (
  • We discover that SdrC is engaged in low-affinity homophilic bonds that promote intercellular adhesion, and that it also favors strong hydrophobic interactions with surfaces, emphasizing that this protein is a multifunctional adhesin. (
  • There is growing evidence that specific homophilic interactions between these proteins represent an important mechanism of cell accumulation during biofilm formation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well-understood. (
  • The complex between these two proteins is ruled by transient interactions, which provides a challenge to experimental structure determination techniques. (
  • The particular focus of the conference will be on molecular aspects of protein-protein interactions. (
  • Focusing on the physico-chemical determinants of protein-RNA interactions and functional characterization of ribonucleoprotein networks, the section particularly welcomes theoretical and experimental insights into the regulation of gene expression and cellular pathways. (
  • Our section of Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences focuses on RNA interactions with proteins and transcripts and aims to unveil implications for cell function and dysfunction. (
  • The researchers showed that they can confer molecular capturing capabilities on both the cylindrical wall and one-dimensional space interior using ligand protein interactions. (
  • The mechanism by which a chaperone can inhibit inappropriate protein:protein interactions is most easily seen in the chaperonins. (
  • This work demonstrates that kinetic data concerning protein - protein interactions between subunits within Type I R-M enzymes are accessible via AFM . (
  • Whereas interactions of ordered proteins have been analyzed in great detail, complexes of intrinsically unstructured/disordered proteins (IUPs) have hardly been addressed so far. (
  • Overall, our findings provide a structural rationale to the prior suggestions that many IUPs are specialized for functions realized by protein-protein interactions. (
  • Like other growth factors, insulin uses phosphorylation and the resultant protein-protein interactions as essential tools to transmit and compartmentalize its signal. (
  • These intracellular protein-protein interactions are pivotal in transmitting the signal from the receptor to the final cellular effect, such as translocation of vesicles containing GLUT4 glucose transporters from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, activation of glycogen or protein synthesis, and initiation of specific gene transcription (Figure 1 ). (
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. (
  • This paper reviews the methods used in examination of molecular interactions in protein films and discusses how these intermolecular interactions can be quantified. (
  • To quantify molecular interactions involved, two methods were found to be the most suitable: protein film swelling and solubility. (
  • The importance of non-covalent and covalent interactions in protein films can be investigated using different solvents. (
  • Schmid, M. Determination and Quantification of Molecular Interactions in Protein Films: A Review. (
  • 2014. "Determination and Quantification of Molecular Interactions in Protein Films: A Review. (
  • To uncover shared pathogenic mechanisms among the highly heterogeneous autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), we developed a protein interaction network that identified hundreds of new interactions among proteins encoded by ASD-associated genes. (
  • Protein structures are stabilized by non-covalent interactions and disulfide bonds between two cysteine residues. (
  • Ionic interactions form between an anion and a cation and form salt bridges that help stabilize the protein. (
  • Interactions between amino acid residues in a specific protein are very important in that protein's final structure. (
  • When there are changes in the non-covalent interactions, as may happen with a change in the amino acid sequence, the protein is susceptible to misfolding or unfolding. (
  • When the sequence is affected, a different amino acid may change the interactions between the side chains that affect the folding of the protein. (
  • This can also lead to less stable interactions and result in protein unfolding. (
  • This can affect the non-covalent interactions that hold the protein together correctly, which can cause protein destabilization, and may cause the protein to unfold. (
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying RB protein function. (
  • Cells have evolved mechanisms to prevent misfolding and aggregation of proteins, thereby preventing or reducing the occurrence of disease. (
  • However, the molecular-level mechanisms, such as how ATP binding and hydrolysis change the ClpB structure and how the changes induce disaggregation, are not known. (
  • Both active power-stroke and purely passive mechanisms in which Hsp70 captures spontaneous fluctuations in a substrate have been proposed, while a third proposed mechanism-entropic pulling-may be able to generate forces larger than seen in ATP-driven molecular motors without the conformational coupling required for a power-stroke. (
  • Disaggregating chaperones are strongly auto-repressed, and are regulated by co-chaperones which recruit them to protein substrates and activate the disaggregases via mechanisms involving either sequential transfer of substrate from one chaperone to another and/or simultaneous interaction of substrate with multiple chaperones. (
  • The goal of this study was to purify histone deacetylase, a protein that plays a biologically important role in cells and is closely related to disease mechanisms such as cancer," explains Dr. James Murray, the first author of the paper and a researcher from CSC. (
  • In this article, we review some of our current understanding about early insulin signal transduction through the network of IRS interacting proteins and the mechanisms that may modify insulin signal transduction in insulin-resistant states, especially obesity and type 2 diabetes. (
  • Bartlett AI, Radford SE (2009) An expanding arsenal of experimental methods yields an explosion of insights into protein folding mechanisms. (
  • CTS-induced increases in RGS2 protein levels and function should modify several deleterious mechanisms in hypertension and heart failure. (
  • In the paper, Shorter and colleagues define the mechanisms by which small heat-shock proteins (hsp) collaborate with other molecular chaperones to regulate the assembly and disassembly of a beneficial yeast prion (an amyloid that can spread between individuals). (
  • In the absence of any obvious chemical landmarks at these sites, the mechanisms by which these destinations are identified by bacterial proteins have been mysterious. (
  • We are now trying to understand the molecular mechanisms by which this geometric cue is sensed and are investigating whether sensing membrane curvature is a conserved strategy for protein localization. (
  • Our research focuses on the three-dimensional structure of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes with the aim to further our understanding of several essential mechanisms in the cell. (
  • Ric-8A (resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8A) and Ric-8B are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that enhance different heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) signaling pathways by unknown mechanisms. (
  • Despite its potential importance, little is known about mechanisms of cobalamin acquisition in diatoms or the impact of cobalamin scarcity on diatom molecular physiology. (
  • Cells have mechanisms that can refold or degrade protein aggregates. (
  • The device relies on a rotaxane - a large molecular ring threaded onto another molecule that acts as an axle ( abstract ). (
  • Model of active and complexes with E2F and an 'L-X-C-X-E' peptide (Protein Data Bank (PDB) codes: 2QDJ, 1GUX, 1N4M and 2AZE). (
  • The validated method predicts hundreds of novel homo- and heterooligomeric complexes, and provides a new way to analyze protein complexes in any organism with a well-annotated proteome. (
  • Here, we describe a method capable of generating structural models of such transient protein complexes. (
  • Topics will include theory & computation, thermodynamics & kinetics, intrinsically unstructured protein complexes, PPI in disease & drug development, protein interaction networks, signaling complexes, membrane protein complexes, emerging & single molecule techniques, evolution & design as well as large multi-protein complexes. (
  • This book was very enjoyable and informative to read and should prove to be an invaluable resource for graduate students and other scientists with interests in structure and function of membrane protein complexes, in general, and photosynthetic electron-transport phenomena, in particular. (
  • Molecular Dynamics of Protein Kinase-Inhibitor Complexes: A Valid. (
  • Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations present a convenient way to study PK-inhibitor complexes and have been increasingly used in recent years in structure-based drug design. (
  • The ClpB/Hsp104 and Hsp70 classes of molecular chaperones use ATP hydrolysis to dissociate protein aggregates and complexes, and to move proteins through membranes. (
  • Here, we have collected a database of 39 complexes of experimentally verified IUPs, and compared their interfaces with those of 72 complexes of ordered, globular proteins. (
  • The characteristic differences found between the two types of complexes suggest that IUPs represent a distinct molecular implementation of the principles of protein-protein recognition. (
  • Proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes are then crystallized and analysed by X-ray diffraction, using synchrotron radiation. (
  • We study several transcription factors and their complexes with other proteins and DNA promoter regions. (
  • Protein complexes, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cancer. (
  • As a partner of the European Consortium 3D-REPERTOIRE and coordinator of the Spanish Structural Genomics Consortium GENES , our group studies several protein complexes and molecular machines, some of which are related to the epigenetic control of gene expression. (
  • The role of Ric-8 in regulation of mitotic spindle pole movements with complexes containing Gα i/o and GoLoco proteins has been dissected in detail and is conserved in worms, flies, and mammals ( 7 - 12 ). (
  • Here we decipher the molecular mechanism of this unconventional heterogeneous oligomerization by performing discrete molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • By using existing structures of the individual proteins, our method combines bioinformatically derived contact residue information with molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • To furnish a deeper and detailed mechanistic understanding of the photoisomerization reaction of those green fluorescent protein chromophore based molecular switches, semiclassical nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a molecule 4-benzylidene-2-methyloxazol-5(4H)-one (BMH, named as 2e in [ 27 ]) in our group. (
  • Molecular simulations offer a unique avenue for better understanding of IDPs and unfolded proteins. (
  • Both are studied using complementary membrane elastic, continuum electrostatics and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • Molecular dynamics simulations are iterative calculations performed using Newton's equations of motion to predict the movement of atoms or particles over time. (
  • Brodie NI, Konstantin I, Petrochenko EV, Dokholyan NV, Brochers CH (2017) Solving protein structures using short-distance cross-linking constraints as a guide for discrete molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • Caflisch A, Paci E (2005) Molecular dynamics simulations to study protein folding and unfolding. (
  • Daggett V, Levitt M (1993) Protein unfolding pathways explored through molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • There is an exciting opportunity to apply for a PhD studentship in the area of protein NMR and molecular dynamics simulations methodologies to support chemical probes development. (
  • This work shows that a deep-sea protein, 3LEZ, with known in vitro β -lactamase activity, proved stable, substantially in the conformation detected by X-ray diffraction of the crystal, when subjected to molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations under conditions compatible with shallow seas. (
  • That enables them to follow and understand structure and dynamics of protein-ligand systems with extreme molecular detail on scales where motion of individual atoms can be tracked. (
  • We used a restrained molecular dynamics strategy to rank mutations predicted to strengthen the pentamer interfaces and applied the results to produce stabilized capsids. (
  • Combined continuum and molecular dynamics results predict a 15 kcal/mol free energy decrease on binding of each trimer of dengue envelope protein to a membrane with 30% anionic phosphatidylglycerol lipid. (
  • Ding F, Tsao D, Nie H, Dokholyan NV (2008) Ab initio folding of proteins with all-atom discrete molecular dynamics. (
  • Dokhoylan NV, Buldyrev SV, Stanley HE, Shakhnovich EI (1998) Discrete molecular dynamics studies of the folding of a protein-like model. (
  • Doshi U, Hamelberg D (2015) Towards fast, rigorous and efficient conformational sampling of biomolecules: advances in accelerated molecular dynamics. (
  • The group combines several cutting-edge single molecule imaging techniques to study how protein organization, dynamics and stoichiometry relate to protein function in several fundamental biological processes, such as intracellular transport, autoimmune neurological disorders or stem cell reprogramming. (
  • The inherently hydrophobic surfaces of MPs complicates protein expression, purification, and characterization. (
  • OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants through the aqueous fluid within olfactory sensilla to the underlying receptor proteins. (
  • The fusion loop of the envelope protein inserts exactly at the level of the interface between the membrane's hydrophobic and head-group regions. (
  • Stimulates folding by interacting with nascent chains, binding to short, largely hydrophobic sequences exposed by unfolded proteins, thereby stabilizing longer, more slowly translated, and aggregation-prone nascent polypeptides and domains that cannot fold stably until fully synthesized. (
  • This folding process is driven by the hydrophobic effect: a tendency for hydrophobic (water-fearing) portions of the protein to shield themselves from the hydrophilic (water-loving) environment of the cell by burying into the interior of the protein. (
  • Thus, the exterior of a protein is typically hydrophilic, whereas the interior is typically hydrophobic. (
  • In these cases, if the cell does not assist the protein in re-folding, or degrade the unfolded protein, the unfolded/misfolded protein may aggregate, in which the exposed hydrophobic portions of the protein may interact with the exposed hydrophobic patches of other proteins. (
  • This can lead to exposed hydrophobic regions of the protein that aggregate with the same misfolded/unfolded protein or a different protein. (
  • 1.1.1 Protein Therapeutics. (
  • Additionally, our results support the concept of small-molecule modulation of RGS2 protein levels as a new strategy for cardiovascular therapeutics. (
  • This innovative strategy of controlling protein proximity to enable targeted protein degradation represents a powerful approach to potentially develop therapeutics for what have been otherwise intractable diseases of the brain," says Stephen J. Haggarty, PhD, of MGH Department of Neurology , the co-senior author of the paper with Nathanael Gray, PhD, of Dana-Farber. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Molecular Cancer Therapeutics article. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. (
  • The disaggregase activity of these chaperones is required for thermotolerance, but unrestrained protein complex/aggregate dissociation is potentially detrimental. (
  • Molecular chaperones carry out a wide variety of cellular protein processing reactions, but are most familiar for their roles in preventing protein aggregation. (
  • The latter observation highlights the fact that chaperones are involved not only in inhibiting general, heterogeneous protein aggregation, but also in inhibiting the formation of specific misassembles and, by doing so, facilitate the formation of functional assemblies. (
  • Several solutions, such as different host strains, different vectors, and incubation with co-chaperones, have been developed to minimize protein aggregation and ensure high-quality protein production. (
  • Methods for the production of high-quality, high-quantity proteins have largely been established by trial and error by changing various parameters, such as host strain, expression vector, protein sequences (without affecting the functional domain), chemical additions, and incubation with chaperones. (
  • In this review, we summarize several strategies commonly used to increase protein solubility with a focus on the effects of incubation with chaperones, especially pneumococcal ClpL, to improve protein production. (
  • In this study, Shorter and colleagues establish that in the absence of Hsp104, the yeast small heat shock proteins collaborate with other molecular chaperones to slowly depolymerize the amyloid fibers by removing one fiber subunit at a time from the tips of the fibers. (
  • This activity was extremely surprising as traditionally the small heat shock proteins and other molecular chaperones are famous for their duties in preventing protein clumping. (
  • Thus, even without Hsp104, human small heat shock proteins can collaborate with human molecular chaperones to slowly depolymerize amyloid fibers. (
  • Functional specificity among Hsp70 molecular chaperones. (
  • Together, these data suggest that Ric-8 proteins are molecular chaperones required for the initial association of nascent Gα subunits with cellular membranes. (
  • In addition to mutations in the affected proteins themselves, protein aggregation could also be caused indirectly through mutations in proteins in regulatory pathways such as the refolding pathway (molecular chaperones) or the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (ubiquitin ligases). (
  • Chaperones help with protein refolding by providing a safe environment for the protein to fold. (
  • M. B. Dolinska, K. L. Young, 2nd, C. Kassouf, E. K. Dimitriadis, P. T. Wingfield and Y. V. Sergeev: Protein Stability and Functional Characterization of Intra-Melanosomal Domain of Human Recombinant Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1. (
  • Here, we apply a new approach for the expedited protein characterization of the TBDT ShuA from Shigella dysenteriae , and elucidate the protein's initial steps during heme-uptake. (
  • To reveal the potential functions of TLPs in plants, extensive bioinformatics and molecular characterization of TLPs in Arabidopsis were performed in this report. (
  • Misfolding (altered structure) of proteins and protein aggregation responsible for many diseases. (
  • Help to determine if and whether controlling the process of protein folding and aggregation could one day prevent diseases caused by misfolding. (
  • Although protein misfolding and aggregation is typically associated with disease, there are many instances in nature where these protein aggregates have beneficial purposes from a functional point of view . (
  • Many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and various prion and amyloid diseases are now known to be caused by protein misfolding or by aggregation of intermediate conformational states, with a tendency for misfolding enhanced by certain mutations . (
  • There is still no successful strategy to treat Huntington's disease, an inherited autosomal disorder associated with the aggregation of mutated forms of the huntingtin protein containing polyglutamine tracts with more than 36 repeats. (
  • Conformational diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, are part of an increasingly common class of neurological disorders characterized by the aggregation of aberrant conformations of proteins. (
  • Mutations in the FUS gene cause familial ALS and aggregation of the FUS protein is observed in both ALS and FTLD. (
  • One FUS protein domain was generally considered to mediate aggregation, but the new findings indicate that arginine residues in another region of the protein are also required for maturation of FUS in cellular stress granules. (
  • Protein aggregation is closely related to various diseases including Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The formation of protein aggregation is also problematic in the use of proteins in medical and industrial fields. (
  • Protein aggregation is a biological phenomenon in which intrinsically disordered proteins or mis-folded proteins aggregate (i.e., accumulate and clump together) either intra- or extracellularly. (
  • Protein aggregation can occur due to a variety of causes. (
  • Protein aggregation can be caused by problems that occur during transcription or translation. (
  • If problems arise during either step, making an incorrect mRNA strand and/or an incorrect amino acid sequence, this can cause the protein to misfold, leading to protein aggregation. (
  • Environmental stresses such as extreme temperatures and pH or oxidative stress can also lead to protein aggregation. (
  • The hypothesis that protein aggregation is a causative process in aging is testable now since some models of delayed aging are in hand. (
  • Biophysical study of protein models can offer insights into how altered protein structure can give rise to new functions, some of which may be crucial and might give a better understanding of how organisms evolved over the ages, according to a study conducted by scientists at Emory University and Georgia Tech. (
  • To test their hypothesis, the scientists generated a chemical system of peptides and coupled it to a physical system involving an alteration in the structure or other words misfolding of proteins. (
  • This in part follows from the fact that scientists don't understand the early stages of protein crystal formation. (
  • The group of scientists lead by Dr. Mike Sleutel have used state-of-the-art cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) to capture the birth of a protein crystal by visualizing the process of nucleation at molecular resolution. (
  • Scientists used an experimental targeted molecular therapy to block a matrix-forming protein in heart cells damaged by heart attack, reducing levels of scarred muscle tissue and saving mouse models from heart failure. (
  • Joshua Shaevitz , an assistant professor from the Department of Physics and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics at Princeton University, along with Mingzhai Sun, a postdoctoral associate at Princeton, and scientists from the Université Aix-Marseille in France, have discovered a new type of molecular machine used by bacteria for intracellular protein transport and gliding motility. (
  • Once the proteins are separated, scientists can isolate and capture the proteins of interest. (
  • By probing the three dimensional structure of this protein complex, called RNA-Induced Initiation of Transcriptional gene Silencing (RITS), scientists from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) and their collaborators at St. Jude's Research Hospital have discovered new details of how its various parts or "domains" contribute to heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. (
  • Using state-of-the-art technology, scientists at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research at the University of Copenhagen and their international collaborators have successfully obtained molecular snapshots of tens of thousands processes involved in DNA damage repair. (
  • Harnessing a probe used to image the brain in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia, scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have successfully cleared patient-derived brain cells of an abnormal protein associated with dementia and other neurogenerative disorders. (
  • Scientists from the University of Sheffield have solved the structure of a photosynthetic protein to reveal how it converts near-infrared light into an electrical charge. (
  • Cells from human, animals and fungi all have three different types of motor proteins that scientists refer to as myosin, kinesin and dynein . (
  • The ability to determine protein stoichiometry and monitor changes in the balance between monomeric, dimeric and multi-meric proteins can allow scientists to see the differences between a properly functioning cell and a diseased cell. (
  • The scientists have shown that when the three proteins interact, certain areas open up on the ribosome, which allows the ribosome to dock onto another complex. (
  • Knowing the structure of the molecular machine helps scientists to understand how secretory and membrane proteins in a cell are expressed and sorted (Science, May 5, 2006). (
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have developed a new molecular tool they call EXoO, which decodes where on proteins specific sugars are attached--a possible modification due to disease. (
  • The researchers found 56 proteins that were different in O-glycan attachment when comparing normal to tumor kidney tissues, whereas two well-known proteins not associated with kidney cancer showed new changes in tumor cells compared to normal cells. (
  • The researchers say these results suggest that O-glycan attachments to proteins is dynamic and can be very specific to disease. (
  • Update-to-date and authoritative, Molecular Modeling of Proteins, Second Edition aims to aid researchers in the physical, chemical, and biosciences interested in utilizing this powerful technology. (
  • Using a newly developed fruit fly model, researchers led by prof. Ludo Van Den Bosch (VIB-KU Leuven) have zoomed in on the protein structure of FUS to gain more insight into how it causes neuronal toxicity and disease. (
  • Editor Dominique Dardevet has assembled a collection of chapters written by leading researchers and top professors that provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of amino acids and proteins. (
  • The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins also features reference guides for terms and bullet-point summaries, making it readily accessible to novices while still providing the most up-to-date and detailed information that experienced researchers need. (
  • PRIMARY AUDIENCE: Nutrition researchers, graduate students in molecular nutrition programs, molecular biologists and chemists studying proteins and amino acids. (
  • Researchers at the Cincinnati Children's Heart Institute report in the journal Circulation testing a manufactured peptide called pUR4 to block the fibronectin protein in human heart cells donated by heart failure patients. (
  • CSC researchers used SAHA as a molecular bait to capture HDAC and successfully fished out the caught proteins using a bead previously developed at the Center. (
  • Inside the lab researchers labeled a protein of interest with a high-affinity guest for their bead and extracted it from cell lysate using CB[7] beads. (
  • With many probes being seriously flawed, Probe Miner helps researchers find those that are most specific and effective for manipulating their chosen proteins. (
  • Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's ( DOE 's) Argonne National Laboratory have mapped out two very different types of protein. (
  • Researchers at Argonne modeled the HcaR protein complex, above, a sort of molecular policeman that controls when to activate genes that code for enzymes used by Acinetobacter bacteria to break down compounds for food. (
  • In order to uncover the structure of these proteins, researchers used a technique called protein crystallography. (
  • The findings, reported in the journal eLife , provide a new tool to study the accumulation of abnormal tau protein that occurs in the brain cells of patients with Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia, researchers say. (
  • To equip T807 for its new use, researchers left off the radioactive label and instead linked the compound to a molecule called an E3-ligase recruiting ligand, which binds to the cell's machinery for destroying unwanted proteins. (
  • It did show some off-target effects, interfering with a small number of proteins other than abnormal tau, but researchers have strategies for reducing such effects. (
  • Researchers are now exploring this strategy in animal models of dementia and expanding the work to target additional proteins that drive neurodegeneration. (
  • Researchers now aim to establish the most important factors that determine the function of this complex, in terms of the proteins and pigments involved. (
  • Through the use of localization-based super-resolution microscopy, researchers are able to photoactivate, image and follow these genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, one at a time, to study what is happening inside a cell at the molecular level. (
  • Table I lists many of the more prominent examples where PTM of specific proteins has relevance toward these aspects of clinical practice in oncology. (
  • Phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. (
  • The serum level was normal in 5 patients with severe reduction of plasma protein synthesis caused by cirrhosis of the liver but elevated in patients with a decreased glomerular filtration rate. (
  • The protein sets used for the statistical analyses include, for both organisms, the inorganic sulfur transporters, the enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of methionine and cysteine from sulfate, and the transcriptional activators specifically required for the expression of the corresponding genes ( 6 , 7 , 11 ). (
  • Oxazolone analogs, as well-known intermediates in the synthesis of green fluorescent protein derivatives, have attracted relatively little attention in terms of their photoswitching ability. (
  • We generated several HSA-based nanotubes by template synthesis using a nanoporous plastic (polycarbonate) membrane and characterized the molecular capturing capabilities of their cylindrical walls and one-dimensional pore space interiors. (
  • PI3-kinase is critical for metabolic actions of insulin, such as glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis, whereas Grb-2/SOS complex, which activates the MAP kinase cascade, is critical in mitogenic response. (
  • Protein synthesis is also important in biomedical research and biotechnology. (
  • Mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis. (
  • This review presents a description of the numerous eukaryotic protein synthesis factors and their apparent sequential utilization in the processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. (
  • The translation machinery and 70 kd heat shock protein cooperate in protein synthesis. (
  • It is made from an active ribosome - that is, the protein synthesis machine in the cell - called the signal recognition particle (SRP), and its corresponding receptor. (
  • After synthesis, proteins typically fold into a particular three-dimensional conformation that is the most thermodynamically favorable: their native state. (
  • These substrates are commonly referred to as docking proteins, since several other intracellular proteins bind to the phosphorylated substrates, thereby transmitting the signal downstream. (
  • MAPKs phosphorylate specific serines and threonines on target protein substrates and function in signaling cascades that convey external stimuli from the cell surface to cellular targets such as translational machinery, cytoskeletal proteins, and transcription factors. (
  • Using Ras- and G[gamma]-specific peptide substrates and competition assays we showed that tomato protein extracts have both farnesyl-protein transferase and geranylgeranyl-protein transferase 1 activities. (
  • Compared with the heterologous synthetic peptide substrates, the plant-specific CaaX sequence of the ANJ1 protein is a less efficient substrate for LeFTase in vitro. (
  • F-box proteins can interact with SKP1-related proteins via an N-terminal F-box domain and with the substrates via a protein-protein interaction domain in C termini ( Xiao and Jang, 2000 ). (
  • Intracellular transport had not been observed previously in bacteria and our results show that the class of molecular motors used for transport in higher organisms is conserved among bacteria. (
  • The team's manuscript went on to clarify, "We demonstrated that affinity-labeled intracellular proteins can be enriched from cell lysates by use of a strong host-guest pair. (
  • The molecular mechanism of Huntington's disease has not been completely elucidated, but the general consensus is that the polyQ expansion in the HTT gene's first exon is susceptible to atypical folding behaviors that somehow interfere with normal neuronal functions or survival 6 . (
  • 21 ] found that cis -to- trans photoisomerization should be a general mechanism of green fluorescent protein chromophores whose efficiency can be modulated by the detailed mutant-specific protein environment. (
  • 22 ] investigated two green fluorescent protein chromophore analogs and proposed a multicoordinate relaxation mechanism. (
  • The members of this family shared AAA+ domains as ATPase cores, and the results of this research can be expected to lead to elucidation of the common mechanism of these AAA+ family proteins. (
  • While the ClpB/Hsp104 mechanism appears to embody a true power-stroke in which an ATP powered conformational change in one protein is directly coupled to movement or structural change in another, the mechanism of force generation by Hsp70s is distinct and less well understood. (
  • CTS increase RGS2 protein levels through a posttranscriptional mechanism by slowing protein degradation. (
  • A, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activate PKD1 via an allosteric mechanism involving lipid cofactors and phosphorylation by nPKC isoforms. (
  • Recent studies indicate that the common stereotypic PKD1 activation mechanism involving activation loop phosphorylation by nPKCs does not account for PKD1 activation in all cell types (or even by all G protein-coupled receptors). (
  • Unraveling the Molecular Mechanism of pH-Induced Misfolding and Oligomerization of the Prion Protein. (
  • Misfolded oligomeric forms of PrP are associated with neurotoxicity and/or infectivity, but the molecular mechanism by which they form is still poorly understood. (
  • Newly revised and updated, the Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide through the basic molecular processes and genetic phenomena of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (
  • Protein kinases (PKs) are key components of protein phosphorylation based signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. (
  • A significant fraction, more than 1/3rd, of eukaryotic proteins are fully or partially disordered. (
  • Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in eukaryotic tissues. (
  • Using an analogy to a metropolitan city, the interior of eukaryotic cells contain a railway-like structure called the cytoskeleton and tiny vehicles called motor proteins. (
  • The prenylation of membrane-associated proteins involved in the regulation of eukaryotic cell growth and signal transduction is critically important for their subcellular localization and biological activity. (
  • Although bacteria are much more architecturally simple than eukaryotic cells, it has been evident for over a decade now that they are very highly organized on a molecular level. (
  • The team developed EXoO by combining different reactions and taking advantage of a process the team had developed for studying other sugar-linked proteins and a bacterial enzyme called OpeRATOR known to cut proteins at the attachment sites of O-glycans. (
  • Bacterial molecular chaperone ClpB and its yeast homologue Hsp104 have an ability to disentangle and reactivate the aggregated proteins. (
  • This makes the identification of normal C-reactive proteins synonymous with the onset of viral or bacterial infections. (
  • Molecular model showing the structure of a bacterial homolog of the animal iron containing protein ferritin. (
  • Protein expression using bacterial systems has advanced substantially over the past few decades, but Escherichia coli is still the most commonly utilized expression host, despite issues related to protein solubility. (
  • Secreted tyrosine phosphatase that plays a critical role during infection as a bacterial effector protein that counteracts host defenses. (
  • Recently, significant advancement has been made in the in vitro display technologies (phage, bacterial, yeast, ribosome and mRNA displayed technology) and rational protein engineering. (
  • We have been studying the assembly of a thick protective protein shell that surrounds bacterial spores. (
  • At least one third of soluble proteins are predicted to exist in a stable oligomeric state. (
  • INSECT odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small, soluble proteins found in the aqueous lymph that fills the olfactory sensilla on the antenna ( P elosi and M aida 1995 ). (
  • It is much simpler, and only about about one-tenth of the size - and, it is achingly slow, destroys the code it reads and can produce only very short chunks of protein, known as peptides. (
  • Among the evaluated probes Affibody molecules and analogs, cystine knot peptides, and nanobodies have shown especially good characteristics as protein scaffold platforms for development of in vivo molecular probes. (
  • The small proteins and peptides typically show rapid clearance from blood, non-target tissues and the body, leading to a low background signal. (
  • With many desirable properties, small proteins and peptides represent excellent molecular platforms for molecular probe development. (
  • Studies of the energetics and determinants of transit peptide binding have led to the hypothesis that import occurs through sequential recognition of transit peptides by components of TOC and TIC during protein import. (
  • The glutaredoxin-related protein is known to be produced by Aspergillus during oxidative stress conditions, and the presence of this protein in the tears of patients with mycotic keratitis indicates that this pathogen undergoes stress-related gene expression during infection. (
  • We have identified a TUBBY-like protein gene family with 11 members in Arabidopsis, named AtTLP1-11 . (
  • Sorting proteins is fundamental to the gene expression of every organ. (
  • Peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 (PGLYRP3, formerly PGRP-Iα) is an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory innate immunity protein that in humans is encoded by the PGLYRP3 gene. (
  • Subsequently, the Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature Committee changed the gene symbols of PGRP-S, PGRP-L, PGRP-Iα, and PGRP-Iβ to PGLYRP1 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 1), PGLYRP2 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 2), PGLYRP3 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 3), and PGLYRP4 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 4), respectively, and this nomenclature is currently also used for other mammalian PGRPs. (
  • W.C. Barker, D.G. George, and L.T. Hunt , Protein Sequence Database. (
  • S. Henikoff, J.C. Wallace, and J.P. Brown , Finding Protein Similarities with Nucleotide Sequence Databases. (
  • M.S. Waterman and R. Jones , Consensus Methods for DNA and Protein Sequence Alignment. (
  • S. Karlin, B.E. Blaisdell, and V. Brendel , Identification of Significant Sequence Patterns in Proteins. (
  • G.J. Barton , Protein Multiple Sequence Alignment and Flexible Pattern Matching. (
  • J.F. Collins and A.F.W. Coulson , Significance of Protein Sequence Similarities. (
  • Here is presented the NIST Mass Calculator to provide both a relative molecular mass value (Mr) and an associated uncertainty value of a given protein sequence. (
  • The calculation of a protein Mr based on its amino acid residue sequence is performed by many software applications. (
  • Recently contact-assisted folding has made some progress on this problem, but it requires accurate inter-residue contact prediction, which by existing methods can only be achieved on some proteins with a very large number of sequence homologs. (
  • To deal with proteins without many sequence homologs, we have developed a novel deep learning (DL) method for contact prediction by concatenating two deep residual neural networks (ResNet). (
  • Experimental results suggest that our DL method greatly outperforms existing contact prediction methods and almost doubles the accuracy of pure co-evolutionary methods on proteins without many sequence homologs and that we can fold many more proteins than ever before using predicted contacts. (
  • The idea is to take a linear sequence of amino acids and to predict, for each of these amino acids, what secondary structure it is a part of within the protein. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Their clearance rate and route of excretion can be optimized by modification of the protein sequence and labeling strategies. (
  • Molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons. (
  • The key element to this machine's functioning is a signal sequence located at the N-terminal end of the protein to be sorted. (
  • The SRP reads th e sequence as soon as the newly built protein chain leaves the ribosome. (
  • Mutations that occur in the DNA sequence may or may not affect the amino acid sequence of the protein. (
  • Furthermore, ClpB belongs to AAA+ protein family that contains various important proteins contributing to such as DNA replication, membrane fusion, protein degradation, and circadian clock maintenance. (
  • The new, dual-action form of T807 - called QC-01-175 - grabs onto both abnormal tau and the protein-degradation machinery, bringing them close together. (
  • They also highlight how targeted protein degradation technology can be used to transform a protein binder into a functional molecule with pharmacological effects on cells. (
  • Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic degradation. (
  • Finally, Gα i , Gα q , and Gβ 1 proteins exhibited accelerated rates of degradation in Ric-8A −/− cells compared to those in wild-type cells. (
  • Ubiquitin ligases target proteins for degradation through ubiquitin modification. (
  • An interesting example is the storage of peptide and protein hormones in the form of amyloid fibrils by the secretory granules in the pituitary gland. (
  • Studies to date have focused primarily on the canonical membrane-delimited pathway for PKD1 activation by G protein-coupled receptors or peptide growth factors. (
  • They belong to the peptide and small protein platform with distinct properties. (
  • The small protein and peptide-based molecular platforms usually possess high tumor penetration ability, low toxicity, and low immunogenicity because of its relatively small size. (
  • Chloroplast protein import is directed by the interaction of the targeting signal (transit peptide) of nucleus-encoded preproteins with translocons at the outer (TOC) and inner (TIC) chloroplast envelope membranes. (
  • Our results demonstrate the close cooperativity of the TOC and TIC machinery at each stage of transit peptide recognition and membrane translocation during protein import. (
  • In the G1 phase of the cell cycle, RB is phosphorylated at low levels and associates with E2F transcription factors, which are dimeric proteins containing E2F and differentiation-related polypeptide (DP) subunits. (
  • This globular protein consists of 24 subunits and is from the bactrium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • Human glycine receptor, which has a well-defined subunit stoichiometry of two "beta" and three "alpha"-subunits was used as a nanotemplate by attaching fluorescent proteins to these subunits to measure photoactivation efficiency at the single molecule level. (
  • The abundances of mRNAs encoding the G protein α subunits were largely unchanged by loss of Ric-8A or Ric-8B . (
  • however, the reduced amounts of G protein α subunits that reached the membrane still bound to nascent Gβγ. (
  • Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8A (Ric-8A) and Ric-8B are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the α subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Ric-8A stimulates the intrinsic nucleotide exchange rates of three of the four classes of G protein α subunits, Gα i , Gα q , and Gα 12/13 , whereas Ric-8B is a GEF for Gα s . (
  • In many cases mammalian cells are the only option to produce recombinant proteins with correct post-translational modifications, e.g. glycosylation, which are required for proper function of the therapeutic protein. (
  • Thus, we suggest that it is highly feasible to produce recombinant proteins in E. coli by co-expressing ClpL. (
  • Separating proteins from complex biological fluids such as blood is becoming increasingly important for understanding diseases and developing new treatments. (
  • The key to the molecular sieve, which is made using microfabrication technology, is the uniform size of the nanopores through which proteins are separated from biological fluids. (
  • A biological sample containing proteins is put through the sieve for separation. (
  • Komatsu is confident that the results of this work will lead to the development of a new field of smart protein nanotubes, which can provide not only enhanced biological properties but also electronic, photonic, and/or magnetic performances. (
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (
  • Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a stress-activated serine/threonine kinase that plays a vital role in various physiologically important biological processes, including cell growth, apoptosis, adhesion, motility, and angiogenesis. (
  • The highly conserved tubby domain in different species suggests that these proteins must have fundamental biological functions in multicellular organisms. (
  • ClpB/Hsp104 are members of the AAA+ family of proteins which form ring-shaped hexamers. (
  • A second paper focuses on a family of proteins identified as DUF 89 , which stands for ​ " domain unknown function. (
  • The chromophore of the green fluorescent protein, as a biomolecule from jellyfish Aequorea victoria , has been widely used as a genetically encoded noninvasive fluorescence marker in bioimaging [ 20 ]. (
  • The Odyssey One-Color Protein MW Marker provides a ladder of convenient, consistent sizes for both visible and 700 channel near-infrared detection. (
  • Thus, this protein represents a new molecular marker of oncoviral transformation. (
  • First, we have controlled the molecular capturing property of the protein nanotubes using recombinant HSA mutant, in which the molecular binding ability was enhanced by a genetic engineering technique. (
  • The recombinant form of Protein G, which does not include the binding site for albumin, was used as the standard for the following data unless otherwise noted. (
  • Recombinant Protein G and Purified Protein G were purchased from CalBiochem (catalog #539303, and catalog #539302, respectively), San Diego, CA, tel: 800-854-3417 or 619-450-9600. (
  • Polyclonal chicken anti-Protein G antibody (raised against recombinant Protein G and immunoaffinity purified) was purchased from OEM Concepts, Toms River, New Jersey, tel: 908-341-3570. (
  • Additionally, extensive genetic tools have been developed to facilitate the production of recombinant proteins. (
  • Thus, E. coli has been the first choice for the production of recombinant proteins [1]. (
  • However, the use of E. coli as a host has a few limitations: 1) recombinant proteins may fail to form an appropriate conformational structure and 2) proteins that are produced in a large quantity tend to aggregate to form an insoluble inclusion body, which lacks structure and function. (
  • When a recombinant protein is induced in high quantities with a strong promoter or a high concentration of an inducer, it tends to become degraded or to aggregate to form an inclusion body, and accordingly it does not regain its original conformation. (
  • It is important to choose an appropriate vector system to overexpress a recombinant protein . (
  • C. L. McCafferty and Y. V. Sergeev: Global computational mutagenesis provides a critical stability framework in protein structures. (
  • For decades, they have been essential for structural biologists to solve the three-dimensional structures of proteins, but protein crystals are also used as bio-pharmaceutical delivery agents. (
  • PH domains, which are found in most of the proteins that interact with the insulin receptor, bind to charged headgroups of specific phosphatidylinositides and are thereby targeted preferentially to membrane structures. (
  • the structures and free energies of protein-assisted membrane fusion. (
  • The team found that other proteins that had similar structural features were associated with telomeres, the cap-like structures at the end of chromosomes. (
  • Amyloid fibers are among the most stable protein-based structures in nature, and so when they are detrimental, as in Parkinson's disease, they are notoriously difficult for cells to break down. (
  • For example, bacteria are able to distinguish between different subcellular regions that display no evident chemical uniqueness and routinely sort proteins to these locations in order to establish polarity or build localized supramolecular structures and machines. (
  • The final outcome is a detailed 3D view of the molecular structures at atomic resolution. (
  • By virtue of neutralizing surface charges on lysine residues, acetylation can regulate protein function or its association with other proteins. (
  • Unlike the highly diverse N-terminal region of animal TUBBY-like proteins, all AtTLP members except AtTLP8 contain a conserved F-box domain (51-57 residues). (
  • Indeed, the elements used in the construction of proteins are not only funneled through metabolic pathways but are also subject to geochemical cycles at the surface of Earth. (
  • Duan Y, Kollman PA (1998) Pathways to a protein folding intermediate observed in a 1-microsecond simulation in aqueous solution. (
  • We discovered unexpectedly high connectivity between SHANK and TSC1, previously implicated in syndromic autism, suggesting that common molecular pathways underlie autistic phenotypes in distinct syndromes. (
  • The protein interaction network thus provides a framework for identifying causes of idiopathic autism and for understanding molecular pathways that underpin both syndromic and idiopathic ASDs. (
  • We developed an autism protein interaction network that provides a framework for studying autism pathogenesis and reveals shared molecular pathways among distinct autism spectrum disorders. (
  • From the beginning of transcription through splicing and translation, RNAs are associated with proteins and RNAs that regulate their stability, transport, and function. (
  • F-box proteins regulate diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle transition, transcriptional regulation, and signal transduction. (
  • Genetically, the single C. elegans Ric-8 protein was predicted to act upstream of, or in parallel with, Gα q and Gα s to regulate synaptic vesicle priming and to work with Gα o to control centrosome movements ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • A widely accepted principle is that protein evolution is mainly determined by constraints on activity, specificity, folding, and stability ( 1-4 ). (
  • There were notable studies paving the way for atomistic MD studies of protein folding and unfolding. (
  • In: Buchner J, Kiefhaber T (eds) Protein folding handbook. (
  • Daggett V (2006) Protein folding - simulation. (
  • Day R, Daggett V (2007) Direct observation of microscopic reversibility of single-molecule protein folding. (
  • Fersht AR, Daggett V (2002) Protein folding and unfolding at atomic resolution. (
  • Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key component of a multichaperone complex involved in the posttranslational folding of a number of client proteins, many of which play essential roles in tumorigenesis. (
  • Ribosome-bound, Hsp70-type chaperone that assists in the cotranslational folding of newly synthesized proteins in the cytosol. (
  • Further experiments immediately hinted at the importance of this protein interaction. (
  • He has developed several popular bioinformatics programs such as the CASP-winning RaptorX ( ) for protein structure prediction and IsoRank/HubAlign for comparative analysis of protein interaction networks. (
  • A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk) family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. (
  • In 2011, our research group developed a replacement for the existing streptavidin-biotin binding pair, which was used for the separation and purification of proteins, by taking advantage of a strong artificial host-guest interaction pair based on supramolecular chemistry, which was used to capture cell surface proteins with high purification efficiency. (
  • The two modes of interaction also differ in that IUPs usually use only a single continuous segment for partner binding, whereas the binding sites of ordered proteins are more segmented. (
  • These noted molecular differences are also manifested in the interaction energies of IUPs. (
  • Some of the best-characterized protein interaction domains involved in insulin signaling are the PH (pleckstrin homology), PTB (phosphotyrosine binding), SH2, and SH3 domains ( 1 ) (Table 1 ). (
  • These interaction domains exist in the natural tertiary structure of proteins. (
  • In other cases, the domains for interaction are created by posttranslational covalent modification of the protein. (
  • These studies highlight potential regions of functional significance in the OS-E and OS-F proteins, which may include a region required for interaction with receptor proteins. (
  • The Hsp70-protein substrate interaction depends on ATP-binding and on allosteric regulation between the NBD and the SBD. (
  • This is a data set used by Ning Qian and Terry Sejnowski in their study using a neural net to predict the secondary structure of certain globular proteins [1]. (
  • Cataracts in the human eye have also been shown to be caused by an accumulation of misfolded proteins and associated with mutations that increase the risk of misfolding. (
  • C. L. McCafferty and Y. V. Sergeev: In silico Mapping of Protein Unfolding Mutations for Inherited Disease. (
  • Y. V. Sergeev, R. C. Caruso, M. R. Meltzer, N. Smaoui, I. M. MacDonald and P. A. Sieving: Molecular modeling of retinoschisin with functional analysis of pathogenic mutations from human X-linked retinoschisis. (
  • In particular, Huntington's disease (HD) has autosomal dominant inheritance and is caused by mutations leading to an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine (polyQ) tract of the huntingtin (HTT) protein, leading to the formation of HTT inclusion bodies in the brain 1 , 2 . (
  • Nair S, Hagberg H, Krishnamurthy R, Thornton C, Mallard C. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury. (
  • p38 MAPK is a member of the mitogen- activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. (
  • Interdomain rotations and conformational changes in these loops coupled to ATP hydrolysis unfold and pull proteins through the pore. (
  • These protein polymers can fold into a seemingly endless array of forms, and sometimes behave like origami, Lynn explains. (
  • Thus isolated, the enclosed protein is free to fold but is prevented from aggregating with other proteins. (
  • RGS2 mRNA levels in primary vascular smooth muscle cells are unaffected by CTS treatment while protein levels are increased 2-3 fold. (
  • Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. (
  • A key insight is his proposal that the engineering problem of designing proteins to fold in a predetermined way is much easier than the scientific problem of predicting how natural proteins fold. (
  • One previously uncharacterized protein, cobalamin acquisition protein 1 (CBA1), was up to 160-fold more abundant under low cobalamin availability in both diatoms. (
  • , 6305 protein sequences) and the Colibri E. coli database ( , 4116 protein sequences). (
  • We first investigated sulfur usage in sequences of proteins involved in the assimilation of sulfur in S. cerevisiae and E. coli . (
  • R. Staden , Finding Protein Coding Regions in Genomic Sequences. (
  • R. Staden , Searching for Patterns in Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences. (
  • P. Argos and M. Vingron , Sensitivity Comparison of Protein Amino Acid Sequences. (
  • D.-F. Feng and R.F. Doolittle , Progressive Alignment and Phylogenetic Tree Construction of Protein Sequences. (
  • G.M. Landau, U. Vishkin, and R. Nussinov , Fast Alignment of DNA and Protein Sequences. (
  • I looking at different plasmid and the cDna sequences are all different and then there are two transcripts for this protein, one thats encodes for 187 AA and another that encodes for 415 AA. (
  • These proteins all feature an approximately 270-amino acid tubby domain at their C-terminal region, but their N-terminal sequences are more divergent both in length and in amino acid sequences. (
  • In the second part of this report, evolutionary relationships among the 13 herpesvirus genomes are evaluated on the basis of recent methods of amino acid alignment applied to four essential protein sequences. (
  • Here, we aim to discuss and review the effects of tumor pre-analytics on protein expression resulting in modification of in vivo protein status. (
  • Here, we posit and then verify that proteomic discovery in in vitro tissue culture models can identify proteins with concordant in vivo behavior and further, can be a valuable approach for identifying tumor-derived serum proteins. (
  • Finally, we show that in vivo treatment with digoxin leads to increased RGS2 protein levels in heart and kidney. (
  • For the purpose of development of new generation molecular probes, various protein scaffold molecules have been labeled with imaging moieties and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The in vivo behavior of these mutants is likely to have many similarities with the parent protein they are derived from. (
  • This approach relies on that developed by Karlin and collaborators for the analysis of amino acid distribution in large protein data sets ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • The protein structure determines the ability of protein chains to form intra- and intermolecular bonds, whereas the degree of cross-linking depends on the amino acid composition and molecular weight of the protein, besides the conditions used in film preparation and processing. (
  • This proximity enables the abnormal tau to be ubiquitinated - bound to ubiquitin proteins - a modification that essentially labels as cellular trash. (
  • In prion diseases, these misfolded protein aggregates are functional i.e. self-replicate, and move from cell to cell causing neurodegeneration. (
  • Misfolded protein models explain how altered protein structure might also have important functional implications, critical for phylogenetic evolution. (
  • This book is the first of its kind in the field of protein microarrays and addresses novel strategies for constructing highly functional and biocompatible microarrays for screening proteins. (
  • Our molecule also has a functional group capable of forming a permanent bond with the captured protein when irradiated with ultraviolet light. (
  • Sometimes, proteins must be in an "oligomeric" state to be functional, although "oligomerization" of certain proteins can also lead to diseases. (
  • With its extensive use of color, it surveys the most important proteins involved in photosynthesis, discussing the structural information we have at our disposal. (
  • Within the Structural Genomics European Consortium VIZIER , the replication enzymes and ancillary proteins of human pathogenic RNA virus are currently being structurally characterized. (
  • Thus the protein models in the study inspired by the protein misfolding disease show how altered protein structure can bring about newer and useful functions as well which is critical for the phylogenetic evolution of species. (
  • Thus, we previously proposed that metabolic flows and geochemical budgets might be constraints that were imprinted on protein evolution ( 5 ). (
  • To assess the hypothesis that nutritional constraints might have influenced the evolution of protein structure, we computed the atomic composition of enzymes involved in elemental assimilation processes in the two model microorganisms E. coli and S. cerevisiae . (
  • A research team led by an Oregon State University biophysicist and a plant biologist from University of California, Davis has discovered a novel motor protein that significantly expands current understanding of the evolution and design principle of motor proteins. (
  • Land plants offer a rich source for us to understand the entire evolution of these molecular motors. (
  • Future study of CBA1 and other molecular signatures of cobalamin scarcity identified here will yield insight into the evolution of cobalamin utilization and facilitate monitoring of cobalamin starvation in oceanic diatom communities. (
  • The diverse realm of posttranslational modification (PTM) 1 of proteins encompasses many of the critical signaling events occurring during neoplastic transformation. (
  • Through investigation of several spectral modification of synthetic chromophore analogues of wild-type green fluorescent protein, Voliani et al. (
  • The Golgi apparatus is a part of the cellular structure that assists in the modification and delivery of proteins and other macromolecules. (
  • We want to emphasize that this prediction does not use any information from the protein complex crystal, which is used as comparative reference only. (
  • This DL method also works well on membrane proteins and inter-protein contact prediction even if trained by single-chain non-membrane proteins. (
  • In doing so, we also were able to identify which proteins might be useful as markers for monitoring response and which proteins might be useful as markers for a priori prediction of response. (
  • Appended to this paper is a short perspective written by Drexler in 1988 in which he notes substantial progress made in the area of protein structure design compared to protein structure prediction . (
  • Inhibition of proteins involved in disease is an important strategy in the development of a drug. (
  • Molecular Weight protein markers are used as standards in gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine the molecular size of analysed protein samples. (
  • In contrast, the current technique used for separating proteins, gel electrophoresis, is time-consuming and less predictable. (
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) was used for the separation of fractionated tear proteins, and selected protein spots, which showed differential expressions, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. (
  • The [ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. (
  • This results in activation of the receptor kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of a family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. (
  • The first is the global control of translation, which is effected by protein phosphorylation. (
  • Half of all proteins made in human cells have sugar molecules attached to them, the most common of which are N-glycans and O-glycans. (
  • Molecules with the ability to undergo photoisomerization under radiation would have potential applications in molecular switches and other molecular devices. (
  • With our nanopore system, we control the pore size precisely, so we can control the sieving process of the protein molecules. (
  • In order for Acinetobacter to break down the aromatic compounds, it needs to produce catabolic enzymes, molecular machines built from an organism's DNA that break down molecules into smaller parts that can be digested. (
  • Central to this process is a large protein complex that physically anchors various molecules involved in heterochromatin assembly to the chromatin fibers. (
  • Protein scaffold molecules are powerful reagents for targeting various cell signal receptors, enzymes, cytokines and other cancer-related molecules. (
  • In doing so, genes and processes were identified and further studied to gain insight into the molecular basis of these traits in potato. (
  • The Drosophila olfactory genes OS-E and OS-F are members of a family of genes that encode insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). (
  • The family contains on the order of 100 genes predicted to encode a highly divergent family of seven-transmembrane-domain proteins. (
  • Whether or not membrane transporters and catabolic enzymes are produced falls to the HcaR regulator, a sort of molecular policeman that controls when the genes that code for these enzymes can be activated. (
  • Our approach usually starts with the cloning of relevant genes and the expression and purification of the encoded proteins. (
  • Stress granules are basically liquid droplets in the cell, similar in content to the toxic protein aggregates found in ALS and FTLD, but different in that their assembly is dynamic and reversible. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices using a variety of cell-surface proteins. (
  • In this paper, we show that bacteria possess molecular motors that are used for transporting proteins along the length of a cell. (
  • The CB[7] beads enriched guest-labeled HDACs from a cell lysate, the team also reported that the method may be useful for enriching proteins labeled from live cells. (
  • These proteins are widely conserved among eukaryotes and are involved in many cellular processes such as cell proliferation, cell movement and cell death. (
  • So unraveling the molecular details of how a cell communicates when its DNA is broken will help us understand how cells protect their genomes," Associate Professor Chunaram Choudhary from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research says. (
  • The article Proteomic Investigations Reveal a Role for RNA Processing Factor THRAP3 in the DNA Damage Response is published online in the journal Molecular Cell on 15 March. (
  • Serum and tumor cell surface proteins whose abundance, or change in abundance in response to therapy, differentiates patients responding to a therapy from patients not responding to a therapy could be usefully incorporated into tools for monitoring response. (
  • To bridge this gap, we first assessed the broad protein network effects of inhibiting EGFR kinase with gefitinib in an epidermoid cancer cell line (A431) that overexpresses EGFR. (
  • Motor proteins act on the cytoskeleton tracks to generate forces and directional movement for many essential processes, such as transportation of cellular "cargoes" and separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division. (
  • The proteins that make up the shell are deposited by the larger cell onto the surface of the smaller, inner cell. (
  • Long filaments of a protein known as actin run through every cell in the body, serving as a kind of railroad along which another protein called myosin transports vital materials to locations throughout the cell. (
  • The molecular post office inside the cell ( For most proteins there is a particula. (
  • For most proteins there is a particular place inside a cell where the. (
  • Particularly important during biosynthesis is sorting secretory and membrane proteins, which have to find the way to their final destination inside or outside the cell. (
  • Secretory proteins are those that later on leave the cell, like anti-bodies. (
  • Understanding this key event during protein sorting is essential to understanding how secretory and membrane proteins are expressed in a cell. (
  • Our computational findings are complemented experimentally by fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) of cells co-transfected with huntingtin proteins containing short and large polyglutamine tracts. (
  • MD is a very useful computational method and a great counterpart for experimentalists, which helps them to derive important additional molecular information. (
  • MD can be used to sample dynamic molecular processes, and can be complemented with more advanced computational methods (e.g., free energy calculations, structure-activity relationship analysis). (
  • Here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein-protein interfaces and used it to design improved candidate vaccines for two poorly stable, but globally important, serotypes of FMDV: O and SAT2. (
  • This review article discusses the impact of tumor pre-analytics on molecular pathology focusing on biospecimen protein expression and analysis. (
  • The "tumor promoter" phobol myristate acetate, which is known to induce many of the alterations associated with neoplastic cells, also induced 3T3 fibroblasts to release the 45K protein in amounts comparable to that of transformed cells. (
  • Isolated mitochondria from adult rat cardiac myocytes and H9c2 were used to examine the effect of adenosine on mitochondrial PKCε and the role of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). (
  • Remarkably, the human small heat shock protein, HspB5, stimulates other heat shock proteins, Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, to gradually depolymerize amyloid fibers formed by alpha-synuclein, which are implicated in Parkinson's disease, from their ends on a biologically relevant timescale. (
  • For both S. cerevisiae and E. coli , we compared the quantile distribution of the sulfur metabolism protein set to the quantile distribution of the total protein set ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • The topical area of fatty acid transport and metabolism was the focus of the Third International Conference on Lipid-Binding Proteins held at the University of Minnesota in May 1997. (
  • The phosphorylated insulin receptor binds and phosphorylates IRS proteins and Shc, which bind differentially to various downstream signaling proteins. (
  • In this study, we use stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) with proteomic technologies to quantitatively analyze the gefitinib-related protein changes in a model system for sensitivity to EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (
  • To do this, they used a nanotemplate of known stoichiometry (the human Glycine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes) and studied several fluorescent proteins to see the percentage of proteins that was photoactivated. (
  • This "machine" is made up of a single active ribosome, plus a special signal recognition protein and a matching receptor. (
  • 2. Protein Microarray Surface Chemistry and Coupling Schemes (Michael Schaeferling and Dev Kambhampati). (
  • We believe that our nanotubes could have a significant impact on biosupramolecular chemistry, as well as protein nanotechnology' he says. (
  • It has been postulated that almost all organisms may have used the toxic properties associated with protein aggregates to their advantage and developed defensive tools against pathogenic micro-organisms. (
  • Prof. Ludo Van Den Bosch underscores the importance of figuring out the exact process of this so-called phase separation of droplets, that mature into aggregates: "Deciphering how and why proteins such as FUS start aggregating in the brain will be key to understand neurodegenerative diseases and could lead to novel therapeutic strategies. (
  • Mis-folded protein aggregates are often correlated with diseases. (
  • In fact, protein aggregates have been implicated in a wide variety of disease known as amyloidoses, including ALS, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion disease. (
  • There are three main types of protein aggregates that may form: amorphous aggregates, oligomers, and amyloid fibrils. (
  • Y. V. Sergeev, S. Vitale, P. A. Sieving, A. Vincent, A. G. Robson, A. T. Moore, A. R. Webster and G. E. Holder: Molecular modeling indicates distinct classes of missense variants with mild and severe XLRS phenotypes. (
  • Note that Spo0B along with SK proteins are structurally distinct from Hpt-type phosphotransferases, commonly utilized as intermediary proteins in phosphorelays. (
  • Coming to a molecular understanding of its function in normal cells and how it impedes cancer development has been challenging. (
  • Although the recent developments and use of genomics and proteomics offer much promise in the search for molecular markers of early stage cancers, these methods are inadequate to probe the dynamic nature of signaling processes that cells exhibit during their transformation to become neoplastic. (
  • A key question in the current Circulation study was verifying the results of pUR4 targeted molecular therapy in both the mouse models and human heart failure cells. (
  • Once we understand the molecular consequences of chemotherapy on cancer cells, we could begin to work on ways to protect healthy cells during treatment of patients with cancer," postdoc Petra Beli explains. (
  • We first damaged the DNA of cells using radiation or chemical drugs and then used a technique called mass spectrometry, which is a way of precisely determining the identity of proteins and their chemical modifications," Petra Beli says. (
  • Na/K-ATPase is required for the increase in RGS2 protein levels as the effect is lost in Na/K-ATPase knock-down cells. (
  • It can help examine the effects of the rapid removal of abnormal tau from cells and may even suggest ways of preventing or reversing a build-up of the protein. (
  • The results demonstrate QC-01-175's value as a research tool, the paper's authors say, useful for exploring the process of abnormal tau accumulation and the effects on cells of rapid removal of the protein. (
  • In contrast to mammalian cells and yeast, however, the function of protein prenylation in plants is not well understood and only a few prenylated proteins have been identified. (
  • In mammals, TUBBY-like proteins play an important role in maintenance and function of neuronal cells during postdifferentiation and development. (
  • Altering the morphology of the cells so that convex surfaces are eliminated abrogated the proper localization of this protein. (
  • In fact, mice in whom myosin VI is defective are deaf, suggesting the critical importance of the variant motor protein to the so-called hair cells of the inner ear upon which hearing depends. (
  • The amounts of Gα s and total Gβ protein were partially reduced in Ric-8A −/− cells compared to those in wild-type cells, and only the amount of Gα s was reduced substantially in Ric-8B −/− cells. (
  • The plasma membrane residence of G proteins persisted in the absence of Ric-8 but was markedly reduced compared to that in wild-type cells. (
  • p38 MAPK is activated in response to a variety of stimuli including growth hormones, ligands for G-protein coupled receptors, inflammatory cytokines and stresses such as osmotic shock and heat shock. (
  • Membrane proteins are proteins embedded into the cell's membranes - for example, signalling receptors. (