The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein M causes the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins.. Crump CM1, Bruun B, Bell S, Pomeranz LE ... Herpesvirus glycoprotein M (gM) is a multiple-spanning integral membrane protein found within the envelope of mature ... The ability of gM to cause the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins was not restricted to HSV-1 glycoproteins, as other ... These data suggest that herpesvirus gM (gM/N) can alter the membrane trafficking itineraries of a broad range of proteins and ...
GPM6A-induced filopodia formation involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Src signaling pathways. May be involved ... May be involved in regulation of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); enhances ... Plasma membrane. *Cell membrane By similarity; Multi-pass membrane protein By similarity ... Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-aAdd BLAST. 278. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
May be involved in regulation of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); enhances ... Conflictingly, PubMed:22162747 reports that induced cellular protrusions are simple membrane-wrapped tubules without actin or ... Gpm6a-induced filopodia formation involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Src signaling pathways. ... tubulin-based cytoskeletons and with Gpm6a gliding along membrane edges indicative for a function in actin-independent membrane ...
The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ...
Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets ... Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets ... Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets ... Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets ...
Proteins and Glycoproteins Exposed at the External Surface of Rat Liver Mitochondrial Inner and Outer Membranes J. GORDON ... Proteins and Glycoproteins Exposed at the External Surface of Rat Liver Mitochondrial Inner and Outer Membranes. Biochem Soc ... Some differences in the properties of carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities of the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes ... Colicin translocation across the Escherichia coli outer membrane Biochem Soc Trans (November, 2012) ...
Showing Protein T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated (HMDBP02412). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Protein Sequence. ,T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associated ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The ...
DSouza, Marie Patricia (1979) Topography and organisation of proteins and glycoproteins in rat liver mitochondrial membranes. ... Topography and organisation of proteins and glycoproteins in rat liver mitochondrial membranes ... and function of mitochondrial membrane proteins/glycoproteins to a level comparable to the red blood cell plasma membrane. ... an inner membrane protein complex. Estimates of the degree of damage to the outer membrane reveal 3-5% breakage in the M1 ...
Viral membrane fusion glycoprotein (8 families) 1.G (TCDB). *Family: 1.2.43.02. Alphavirus E1 glycoprotein (5 proteins) 1.G.4 ( ... Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus. Nature. 427: 320-5. ... Comments on 1rer » E1 envelope glycoprotein. E1 is a class II viral fusion protein. This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is ... Experimental Verification for 1rer » E1 envelope glycoprotein. Structures of mononers in the trimer are slightly different. The ...
To investigate the involvement of specific apically-located secretory membrane transporters, CPT transport studies were ... inhibition was greater in the presence of PGP and of the breast cancer resistant protein inhibitor, GF120918 (52.5%). The ... in order to understand the possible role of membrane transporters on its oral bioavailability and disposition. The intestinal ... MDCKII wild-type cells and MDCKII cells transfected with human P-glycoprotein (PGP) (ABCB1) or human multidrug resistance ...
3g5u » P-glycoprotein, inward-facing conformation 1a. 3D view in Jmol or Webmol Download Coordinates Topology in Eukaryotic ... Species: Mus musculus (133 proteins). *Localization: Eukaryotic plasma membrane (885 proteins). 3g5u » P-glycoprotein, inward- ... Multidrug resistance exporter (MDR) (13 proteins) 3.A.1.201 (TCDB). * ...
Platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa constitute a receptor for fibrinogen that, together with fibrinogen and ... The platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-like protein in human endothelial cells promotes adhesion but not initial attachment to ... umbilical vein endothelial cells of two proteins structurally and immunologically related to platelet membrane glycoproteins ... umbilical vein endothelial cells of two proteins structurally and immunologically related to platelet membrane glycoproteins ...
Electrophoretic analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins and glycoproteins from different species. Overview of attention for ...
Upon photolysis, each nascent chain species was cross-linked to an integral membrane glycoprotein with a deduced mass of 39 kD ... A nascent membrane protein is located adjacent to ER membrane proteins throughout its integration and translation. ... Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: identification by photocross-linking of a 39-kD integral ... The similarity of the molecular and cross-linking properties of mp39 and the glyco-protein previously identified as a signal ...
Upon photolysis, each nascent chain species was cross-linked to an integral membrane glycoprotein with a deduced mass of 39 kD ... Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: identification by photocross-linking of a 39-kD integral ... membrane glycoprotein as part of a putative translocation tunnel.. Krieg U, Johnson A, Walter P. Protein translocation across ... The similarity of the molecular and cross-linking properties of mp39 and the glyco-protein previously identified as a signal ...
English dictionary definition of Membrane glycoprotein. n. Any of a group of conjugated proteins having a carbohydrate as the ... Membrane glycoprotein synonyms, Membrane glycoprotein pronunciation, Membrane glycoprotein translation, ... glycoprotein. (redirected from Membrane glycoprotein). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. gly·co·pro·tein. (glī′ ... Membrane glycoprotein - definition of Membrane glycoprotein by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Membrane+ ...
Two proteins that presented free thiol(s) on the activated platelet surface were protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and ... glycoprotein 1balpha (GP1balpha). PDI contains two active site dithiols/disulfides. The active sites of 26% of the PDI on ... Platelet activation resulted in 440% increase in surface protein thiol groups. ... proximity and functional association of glycoprotein 1balpha and protein-disulfide isomerase on the platelet plasma membrane.. ...
EBOLA VIRUS ENVELOPE PROTEIN CHIMERA CONSISTING OF A FRAGMENT OF GCN4 ZIPPER CLONED N-TERMINAL TO A FRAGMENT OF GP2Chloride ... Ebola Virus Envelope Protein Chimera Consisting of a Fragment of Gcn4 Zipper Cloned N-terminal to a Fragment of GP2 ... 1EBO: Crystal Structure Of The Ebola Virus Membrane-Fusion Subunit, Gp2, From The Envelope Glycoprotein Ectodomain. ...
... of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed ... G protein, vesicular stomatitis virus * Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments * Membrane Glycoproteins * Viral Envelope Proteins ... Microinjected antibodies against the cytoplasmic domain of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein block its transport to the ... of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed ...
Neisseria meningitidis pili are filamentous protein structures that are essential adhesins in capsulate bacteria. Pili of ... Fimbriae Proteins * Fimbriae, Bacterial / chemistry* * Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis* * Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry ... Meningococcal pilin: a glycoprotein substituted with digalactosyl 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyhexose Mol Microbiol. 1995 Sep; ... Instead, a novel O-linked trisaccharide substituent, not previously found as a constituent of glycoproteins, is present within ...
Intramembrane proteolysis at a glance: from signalling to protein degradation. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and ... The Chlamydomonas flagellar membrane glycoprotein FMG-1B is necessary for expression of force at the flagellar surface ... The Chlamydomonas flagellar membrane glycoprotein FMG-1B is necessary for expression of force at the flagellar surface ... The Chlamydomonas flagellar membrane glycoprotein FMG-1B is necessary for expression of force at the flagellar surface ...
CD59 glycoprotein,MACIF,MAC-inhibitory protein,MAC-IP,Membrane attack complex inhibition factor,Protectin,Rat,Rattus norvegicus ... Product name : CLIA kit Cd59,CD59 glycoprotein,MACIF,MAC-inhibitory protein,MAC-IP,Membrane attack complex inhibition factor, ... Index / EIAab / CLIA kit Cd59,CD59 glycoprotein,MACIF,MAC-inhibitory protein,MAC-IP,Membrane attack complex inhibition factor, ... We have also other products like : CLIA kit Cd59,CD59 glycoprotein,MACIF,MAC-inhibitory protein,MAC-IP,Membrane attack complex ...
... anchored glycoprotein highly expressed in neurons and glial cells, as well as immune and reproductive \ 65-902 for more ... Prion protein PrP is a membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI) ... anti_prion antibody(clone 2C5_5) Prion protein PrP is a membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI) anchored glycoprotein highly ... 65-902 anti_prion antibody(clone 2C5_5) Prion protein PrP is a membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI) anchored glycoprotein ...
... and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ubiquitous basement membrane proteins, ... 0/Laminin; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/nidogen From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry*, metabolism, physiology. Mice. Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry*, metabolism, physiology. ... 8518229 - Altered cytoplasmic/nuclear distribution of the c-myc protein in differentiating ml-1 h.... 21062959 - Role of the ...
... radioautographic studies showed that colchicine or vinblastine inhibited intracellular migration of glycoproteins out of the ... Glycoproteins / metabolism*. Intracellular Membranes / metabolism*. Liver / cytology, metabolism*. Membrane Proteins / ... In the present work, the effects of these drugs on migration of membrane glycoproteins have been examined at the ... This indicates that the drugs inhibited migration of membrane glycoproteins from the Golgi region to the various portions of ...
... but it is unclear whether they are all involved directly in membrane fusion, and it is possible that other membrane proteins ... Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHgL of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Are Necessary and Sufficient To Mediate Membrane Fusion in a Cos ... Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHgL of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Are Necessary and Sufficient To Mediate Membrane Fusion in a Cos ... Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHgL of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Are Necessary and Sufficient To Mediate Membrane Fusion in a Cos ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum outer membrane protein a interacts with sialylated glycoproteins to promote infection of mammalian ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum outer membrane protein a interacts with sialylated glycoproteins to promote infection of mammalian ... Anaplasma phagocytophilum outer membrane protein a interacts with sialylated glycoproteins to promote infection of mammalian ... Dive into the research topics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum outer membrane protein a interacts with sialylated glycoproteins to ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Membrane glycoprotein UL18. Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5). Loading... F5HHH2 Membrane glycoprotein UL142. Human ... Proteins matched: G3DSA:3.30.500.10 (G3DSA:3.30.500.10) This signature appears in the following proteins: Showing 1 to 20 of ...
Developmental expression of dystrophin, dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and other membrane cytoskeletal proteins in human ... Developmental expression of dystrophin, dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and other membrane cytoskeletal proteins in human ... Developmental expression of dystrophin, dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and other membrane cytoskeletal proteins in human ... Developmental expression of dystrophin, dystrophin-associated glycoproteins and other membrane cytoskeletal proteins in human ...
... are platelet membrane glycoproteins, important for platelet adhesion and aggregation ... Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex (Integrin alpha-IIb beta-3) ... Proteins (Protein Science). ⌊Protein Classes. ⌊Membrane Protein Class (Membrane Proteins). ⌊Membrane Glycoproteins (Cell ... In our body, Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex (Integrin alpha-IIb beta-3) are a platelet membrane glycoprotein complex ...
  • In rat hepatic cells, LIMP-2 exhibited a half-life for internalization and lysosomal transport of 32 min and 2.0 h, respectively, which resembled that of well-known lysosomal proteins, lamp-1 and lamp-2, albeit different amino acid sequences in their cytoplasmic tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • To analyze the involvement of the endosomal/lysosomal system in the processing of APP695 into βA4, we created APP695 chimeras by exchanging the cytoplasmic domain of APP695 with that of the human lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (hLAMP-1) and the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR). (jneurosci.org)
  • Different studies have shown that the cytoplasmic tail of the gp41 and the N-terminal part of Gag are both necessary for Env incorporation into virions, suggesting therefore an interaction of these two proteins, whether direct or through a cellular protein intermediate (for review see Murakami, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • required for normal flexibility and stability of the erythrocyte membrane and for normal erythrocyte shape via the interactions of its cytoplasmic domain with cytoskeletal proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and hemoglobin. (rcsb.org)
  • a) Structure of the amphiesma, including a continuous outermost membrane, an outer plate membrane, a single-membrane bounded thecal vesicle, and a cytoplasmic membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • This branched heptasaccharide is synthesized by sequential addition of nucleotide-activated sugars on the lipid carrier undecaprenyl pyrophosphate on the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Consistent with a role for the KKXX retrieval motif found at the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of p53/58 in retrograde traffic, inhibition of transport through VTCs correlates with the ability of the antibody to block recruitment of COPI coats to the p53/58 cytoplasmic tail and to p53/58-containing membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Electron microscopy indicates that Gp2 folds into a rod-like structure like influenza HA2 and HIV-1 gp41, providing further evidence that viral fusion proteins from diverse families such as Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza), Retroviridae (HIV-1), and Filoviridae (Ebola) share common structural features, and suggesting a common membrane fusion mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • The Adaptor Protein 3 complex (AP-3) sorts transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and deficiency in AP-3 results in missorting of proteins from the lysosomal to plasma membrane. (bl.uk)
  • Anchors various transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. (rcsb.org)
  • Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that promote. (studystack.com)
  • Intrinsic proteins may be found in the inner layer, the outer layer or, most commonly, spanning the whole membrane, in which case they are known as transmembrane proteins. (mindmeister.com)
  • In transmembrane proteins, the hydrophobic regions which cross the membrane are often made up of one or more α-helical chains. (mindmeister.com)
  • Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins , where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecules ANS: B Proteins directly attached to the membrane bilayer can be removed by the action of integral membrane proteins that dissolve the bilayer. (coursehero.com)
  • NASDAQ: RCKT), is developing its first adeno-associated viral vector -based gene therapy, RP-A501, that is designed to restore the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP-2) gene which is defective in patients afflicted with Danon disease, the company said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lysosomal integral membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that belongs to the CXC chemokine receptor family. (cancerindex.org)
  • What does this gene/protein do? (cancerindex.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • Among these proteins are the homologs of the UL10 (gM) and UL11 gene products of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). (asm.org)
  • In particular, acetylation and deacetylation of the lysine residues on histone proteins play a key role in the regulation of gene transcription [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pgp, a 170-kDa membrane glycoprotein with 12 transmembrane spanning domains, is encoded by the mdr1 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BCRP, encoded by the mxr gene, is a 655-amino acid, 72-kDa protein with a N-terminal ATP-binding site and six transmembrane domains. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes an integral membrane protein that is secreted from intracellular zymogen granules and associates with the plasma membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. (genecards.org)
  • The C-terminus of this protein is related to the C-terminus of the protein encoded by the neighboring gene, uromodulin (UMOD). (genecards.org)
  • GP2 (Glycoprotein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. (genecards.org)
  • Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. (genecards.org)
  • LAMP2 (Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and protein domain specific binding . (genecards.org)
  • The Campylobacter jejuni pgl gene cluster encodes a complete N-linked protein glycosylation pathway that can be functionally transferred into Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Metabolism of proteins and Post-translational modification- synthesis of GPI-anchored proteins . (genecards.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER ) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Asparagine-linked (N-linked) protein glycosylation is essential and conserved in eukaryotic organisms. (asm.org)
  • It is the most prevalent of all posttranslational protein modifications, affecting nearly 70% of the eukaryotic proteome ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The attachment of N-glycans to eukaryotic secretory and membrane proteins can influence their folding and stability, oligomerization, resistance to proteolysis, sorting, and transport ( 23 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • 22162747 reports that induced cellular protrusions are simple membrane-wrapped tubules without actin or tubulin-based cytoskeletons and with Gpm6a gliding along membrane edges indicative for a function in actin-independent membrane deformation. (uniprot.org)
  • The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycoprotein anchored to the plasma membrane by GPI (Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol). (usp.br)
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (nyas.org)
  • Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 (PC-1) inhibits insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent cellular signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • resembles cellular membranes. (brainscape.com)
  • Mitochondria is associated with cellular respiration, while ribosomes are involved with protein manufacturing. (coursehero.com)
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Molecular and cellular biological mechanism of the deteriorated spermatogenesis : analysis of glycoprotein in basal membrane of seminiferous tubules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As another projects, we tried to establish the immortalized cell line derived from human testis to investigate the synthesis of glycoproteins under cellular level. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Most cellular membranes are made by the. (studystack.com)
  • Nucleic acid molecules that are not in organisms, cells, or viruses and have not been modified or manipulated (e.g., encapsulated into synthetic or natural vehicles) to render them capable of penetrating cellular membranes. (uvm.edu)
  • Furthermore, expression of PRV gM or HSV-1 gM/UL49A, which are themselves localized to the TGN, caused both gD and gH/L to be relocalized from the plasma membrane to a juxtanuclear compartment, suggesting that fusion inhibition is caused by the removal of 'fusion' proteins from the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • A new antithrombotic strategy: inhibition of the C-terminal active site of protein disulfide isomerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inhibition of intracellular migration of membrane glycoproteins in rat intestinal columnar cells and hepatocytes as visualized by light and electron-microscope radioautography after 3H-fucose injection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 inhibition of insulin receptor function occurs via direct interaction with the receptor alpha-subunit. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • N-linked, glycosylation can prevent proper glycoprotein folding and full inhibition can be toxic to an individual cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, myristoylation and palmitoylation are conserved in the pUL11 homologs and are required for their targeting to membranes ( 52 , 53 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • its substrate specificity depends on the amino acid sequence of the protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, the process of lysosomal maturation appears to involve the progressive delivery of lysosomal enzymes to various types of endosomes that may have already received some of the lysosomal membrane proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Although endolyn-78 would be one of the proteins added early to endosomes, other lysosomal membrane proteins may be added only to multivesicular endosomes that represent very advanced stages of maturation. (rupress.org)
  • The secreted Ebola Gp dimer interacts with neutrophils through a Fc γ receptor III (CD16b) ( 9 ) and the membrane-anchored form binds to a number of target cells, including endothelial cells ( 9 , 10 ) and liver cells ( 11 ), and is thought to mediate viral entry. (pnas.org)
  • Platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa constitute a receptor for fibrinogen that, together with fibrinogen and calcium, is largely responsible for mediating the formation of the primary hemostatic plug. (rupress.org)
  • The similarity of the molecular and cross-linking properties of mp39 and the glyco-protein previously identified as a signal sequence receptor (Wiedmann, M., T. V. Kurzchalia, E. Hartmann, and T. A. Rapoport. (rupress.org)
  • SIMILARITY: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Dynamics of four rat liver plasma membrane proteins and polymeric IgA receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding. (abcam.com)
  • It is worth noting that they identified two unexpected O-glycosylation modifications on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein subunit S1. (news-medical.net)
  • 1 The typical modus operandi of such neutralizing antibodies is recognition with high affinity and blocking by steric hinderance of conserved regions of viral proteins that are important for receptor binding or entry into host cells. (nature.com)
  • The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids, but varies between ER and cell type and cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the intimate interaction of Gag and lipids at the plasma membrane as well as its consequences, in terms of lipids lateral organization and virus assembly, is still under debate. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we propose to revisit the role of plasma membrane lipids in HIV-1 Gag targeting and assembly, at the light of lipid membranes biophysics and literature dealing with Gag-lipid interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many proteins and lipids have short, branching carbohydrate chains attached to that side of the molecule which faces the outside of the membrane, thus forming glycoproteins and glycolipids, respectively. (mindmeister.com)
  • Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide containing the 15 carboxy-terminal amino acids (497-511) of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed along the 15-residue peptide, whereas the monoclonal antibody (P5D4) reacted with one epitope containing the five carboxy-terminal amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present evidence that this antibody arrests the anterograde transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and leads to the accumulation of p58 in pre-Golgi intermediates. (nih.gov)
  • A study of properties and abundance of the components of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferases in mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Direct agglutination and binding studies with[125I]-WGA demonstrate the presence of integral carbohydrate on the external surfaces of mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The intestinal transport kinetics of CPT were characterized using Caco-2 cells, MDCKII wild-type cells and MDCKII cells transfected with human P-glycoprotein (PGP) (ABCB1) or human multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) (ABCC2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the decrease in the efflux ratio of CPT in MDCKII/MRP2 cells (2.31 to 1.03) suggests that CPT efflux was completely inhibited by MK571, a potent inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein transporter family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of protein synthesis and degradation in the post-transcriptional regulation of rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2), an organic anion transporter present in the apical membrane of hepatocytes, renal epithelial cells, and enterocytes, is postulated to undergo post-transcriptional regulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Modulation of expression and activity of intestinal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 by xenobiotics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Absolute difference of hepatobiliary transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2/Mrp2) in liver tissues and isolated hepatocytes from rat, dog, monkey, and human. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of rat multidrug resistance protein 2 by classes of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers that activate distinct transcription pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Consequences of bile duct obstruction on intestinal expression and function of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins, including P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance (MDR) protein (MRP-1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is a well-characterized mechanism of MDR in tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In general, cannabinoids are usually well tolerated, but bidirectional effects may be expected with concomitant administered agents via affected membrane transporters (Glycoprotein p, breast cancer resistance proteins, and multidrug resistance proteins) and metabolizing enzymes (Cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases). (mdpi.com)
  • This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is fusion active, and promotes release of viral nucleocapsid in cytoplasm after cell and viral membrane fusion. (umich.edu)
  • The conserved membrane-associated tegument protein pUL11 and envelope glycoprotein M (gM) are involved in secondary envelopment of herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • Final tegumentation and envelopment start after intranuclear nucleocapsids gain access to the cytoplasm by budding at the inner nuclear membrane, thereby acquiring a primary envelope, and subsequent fusion of the primary envelope with the outer nuclear membrane. (asm.org)
  • Cells are organized into three main regions: Nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • Immunization with hTERT mRNA-transfected DCs favors the induction of class I-restricted T-cell responses because the transfected mRNA is translated into protein in the cytoplasm. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nucleus Cytoplasm ANS: C The region of the cell that contains genetic material, including a large amount of ribonucleic acid, most of the DNA, and DNA-binding proteins, is the nucleolus, which is located within the cell's nucleus. (coursehero.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Upon photolysis, each nascent chain species was cross-linked to an integral membrane glycoprotein with a deduced mass of 39 kD (mp39) via photoreactive lysines located in either the signal sequence or the mature prolactin sequence. (rupress.org)
  • Sequence similarity to proteins bearing onco-differentiation antigens. (eagle-i.net)
  • Sequence based analysis demonstrated substantial changes in the HA protein over the last decade. (springer.com)
  • These proteins gave positive identification of protein orthologues in the protein database using de novo sequence analysis and homology-based search. (hindawi.com)
  • Influence of colchicine and vinblastine on the intracellular migration of secretory and membrane glycoproteins: III. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1984), light-microscope radioautographic studies showed that colchicine or vinblastine inhibited intracellular migration of glycoproteins out of the Golgi region in a variety of cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microtubules may, therefore, be necessary for intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins, although the possibility of a direct action of these drugs on Golgi or plasma membranes must also be considered. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Virions lacking glycoprotein B, D, H, or L fail to infect cells, but infectivity can be partially restored by the artificial fusogen polyethyleneglycol, implying that the glycoproteins are all required for membrane fusion ( 3 , 7 , 13 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • It recruits the constituents of HIV virions and orchestrates their assembly while multimerizing onto the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • After fusion of the transport vesicle with the plasma membrane, virions are released into the extracellular space. (asm.org)
  • The student will study the structure of the cell membrane by constructing it using the correct molecules. (merlot.org)
  • 3. Name the types of molecules in the cell membrane and the three examples of globular-shaped proteins. (merlot.org)
  • 7. How do water molecules pass through the membrane? (merlot.org)
  • Secretory lysosomes are then able to polarise along microtubules, fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their effector molecules to the IS. (bl.uk)
  • The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. (shutterstock.com)
  • Mechanisms for the transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. (shutterstock.com)
  • Peripheral membrane proteins reside at the surface while cell adhesion molecules are on the outside of the membrane. (coursehero.com)
  • Ligands ANS: D Ligands are the only specific molecules that can bind with receptors on the cell membrane. (coursehero.com)
  • Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large negative binding free energies correspond to molecules that tightly bind to the protein, and thus can effectively stop the viral protein from functioning. (worldcommunitygrid.org)
  • The word 'mosaic' describes the pattern produced by the scattered protein molecules when the surface of the membrane is viewed from above. (mindmeister.com)
  • The membrane is a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipid molecules. (mindmeister.com)
  • Most of the intrinsic protein molecules float like mobile icebergs in the phospholipid layers, although some are fixed like islands to structures inside or outside the cell and do not move about. (mindmeister.com)
  • Molecules of cholesterol are also found in the membrane. (mindmeister.com)
  • Like phospholipids, cholesterol molecules have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, so they fit neatly between the phospholipid molecules with their heads at the membrane surface. (mindmeister.com)
  • The interaction of the phospholipid tails with the cholesterol molecules also helps to stabilise cells at higher temperatures when the membrane could otherwise become too fluid. (mindmeister.com)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether human DCs transfected with mRNA encoding a chimeric hTERT/lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP-1) protein, carrying the endosomal/lysosomal sorting signal of the LAMP-1, are capable of stimulating concomitant hTERT-specific CD8 + and CD4 + T-cell responses in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Synthesis by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells of two proteins structurally and immunologically related to platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. (rupress.org)
  • The presence of GPIIb-IIIa analogues in cultured endothelial cells may provide an opportunity to examine the structure, function, and synthesis of these two membrane glycoproteins, as well as provide a source of genetic material with which to begin detailed molecular genetic studies. (rupress.org)
  • The outer ( cytosolic ) face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes that are the sites of protein synthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized that Mrp2 protein undergoes altered rates of protein synthesis or degradation consistent with different Mrp2 protein expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They represent sites of protein synthesis in the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Moreover, this simple glycosylation tag strategy expands the glycoengineering toolbox and opens the door to bacterial synthesis of a wide array of recombinant glycoprotein conjugates. (asm.org)
  • 2. Cell membranes consist of a double layer of what? (merlot.org)
  • They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein. (harvard.edu)
  • Which of the following can bind to plasma membrane receptors? (coursehero.com)
  • Mammalian cells in culture express membrane receptors for C3b when infected with HSV-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Many glycoproteins on the host cell membrane display sialic acid, thus serving as receptors for attachment of the virus. (nature.com)
  • EC 2.7.1.112) that may be responsible for these phosphorylation events, we analyzed the expression of seven Src-family PTKs and examined the association of these kinases with known platelet membrane glycoproteins. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, glycoprotein IV (GPIV, CD36), one of the major platelet membrane glycoproteins, was associated in a complex with the Fyn, Yes, and Lyn proteins in platelet lysates. (pnas.org)
  • At the beginning of this century, a number of researchers conducted systematic reviews on the association of platelet membrane glycoprotein polymorphisms and risk of CAD. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In our body, Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex (Integrin alpha-IIb beta-3) are a platelet membrane glycoprotein complex, important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Using highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as probes, we could detect the presence of both of these glycoproteins in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to the focus of therapeutic and vaccine design, this S glycoprotein is the key target of neutralizing antibodies upon infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Pathogens with high levels of genetic variability, such as HIV-1 and influenza virus, evade the immune system by constantly changing their proteins vulnerable to neutralization by antibodies Consequently, these highly evolvable viruses are notoriously elusive targets for vaccines. (nature.com)
  • The principal targets of influenza virus recognized by neutralizing antibodies are the envelope glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (nature.com)
  • HA is the immunodominant envelope protein, i.e., most antibodies produced during infection recognize epitopes on it. (nature.com)
  • We developed a recombinant N-glycan acceptor peptide tag that permits N-linked glycosylation of diverse recombinant proteins expressed in the periplasm of glycosylation-competent E. coli cells. (asm.org)
  • Several glycoproteins have previously been identified as biomarkers, including Her2/Neu in breast cancer ( 14 ), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer ( 15 ), and CA125 in ovarian cancer ( 16 , 17 ), which highlights the clinical importance of identifying glycoproteins as indicators or biomarkers of diseases. (mcponline.org)
  • Therefore, OmpA interacts with sialylated glycoproteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses discovered that LIMP-2 interacts with N-cadherin at intercalated discs, a function outside of lysosomal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). PrPc also interacts with proteins of the extracellular matrix such as laminin and vitronetin. (usp.br)
  • To determine the mechanism whereby PC-1 regulates the IR, we studied how PC-1 interacts with this protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interacts with HBV capsid protein. (rcsb.org)
  • The virus genome is negative-stranded and encodes for seven structural and regulatory proteins ( 3 , 4 ), including a surface glycoprotein (Gp) that is synthesized as a precursor molecule and then cleaved into two subunits ( 5 , 6 ), Gp1 and Gp2, the latter of which is anchored in the membrane. (pnas.org)
  • This structural organization that places the membrane anchor in close proximity to the hydrophobic fusion peptide, at the same end of a long rod-shaped molecule, was proposed to facilitate the membrane fusion process ( 17 ) and thus viral entry. (pnas.org)
  • Instead, a novel O-linked trisaccharide substituent, not previously found as a constituent of glycoproteins, is present within a peptide spanning amino acid residues 45 to 73 of the PilE molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Serving as the basic structural molecule of all the tissues in the body, protein makes up nearly 17 percent of the total body weight. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In glycation , also known as non-enzymatic glycosylation, sugars are covalently bonded to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme, but through a Maillard reaction . (wikipedia.org)
  • This was verified by investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the SA-protein networks employing single-molecule tracking. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • For protein as class of molecule, see protein . (wikipedia.org)
  • A second type of protein molecule is the extrinsic protein (or peripheral protein). (mindmeister.com)
  • To directly examine the Rab5-mediated endosomal trafficking in ALS2(-/-) neurons, we introduced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Rab5 into cultured hippocampal neurons to monitor the morphology and motility of Rab5-associated early endosomes. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of rat liver mitoctiondria pre-labelled in vivo with D-[6-3H]-glucosamine confirm that 70-80% of the carbohydrate is released in a soluble form on disruption of the organelle, the remainder being distributed equally between inner and outer membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with low levels of digitonin (0.01mg/mg protein) releases approx. (gla.ac.uk)
  • from rat liver lysosomes, LIMP-2 was cloned in 1992 by two groups, one isolated LIMP-2 from human metastatic pancreatic islet tumor cells, and one from rat liver lysosomal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tracer kinetic study of two rat liver plasma membrane glycoproteins in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A monoclonal antibody (2C5) raised against rat liver lysosomal membranes was used to identify a 78-kD glycoprotein that is present in the membranes of both endosomes and lysosomes and, therefore, is designated endolyn-78. (rupress.org)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. (hmdb.ca)
  • Does not play a role in the presentation of exogenous and membrane-derived antigens by MHCII. (genecards.org)
  • M1 preparations contain 5.0% acid phosphatase (lysosomes), 5.4% glue ose-6-phosphate (microsomes) and 4.4% 5'-nucleotidase (plasma membrane), while analogous values for the PM1 fractions are 1,1%, 1.7% and 0.6% respectively. (gla.ac.uk)
  • LIMP-2 in a membrane protein in lysosomes that functions to regulate lysosomal/endosomal transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemical experiments showed that endolyn-78 is present in the limiting membranes and the interior membranous structures of morphologically identifiable secondary lysosomes that contain the lysosomal hydrolase beta-glucuronidase, lack the MPR, and could not be labeled with alpha-2-macroglobulin at 18.5 degrees C, a temperature which prevents appearance of endocytosed markers in lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • A. phagocytophilum binding to sialyl Lewis x (sLe x ) and other sialylated glycans that decorate P selectin glycoprotein 1 (PSGL-1) and other glycoproteins is critical for infection of mammalian host cells. (elsevier.com)
  • N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains ( glycans ) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this, membrane glycans are first metabolically labeled with azido sugars and then tagged with biotin by copper-free click chemistry. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Each of the 22 glycans on the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were identified, and 18 of those N-glycosides were conserved between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 S proteins, as seen in Figure 1. (news-medical.net)
  • This showed the N-glycosylation profile of SARS-CoV-2 S proteins at the levels of intact N-glycopeptides and glycosites, in addition to the glycan composition and site-specific number of glycans, as seen in Figure 3. (news-medical.net)
  • Notably, the human cell-produced protein possessed up to 140 N-glycans, most of which are complex type, whereas insect cell-produced SARS-CoV-2 S protein had 38 N-glycans, which were mostly high-mannose type N-glycans, as seen in Figure 4. (news-medical.net)
  • Even though O-glycosylation has been expected on the spike protein of SARS-Cov-2, this is the first report of the site of O-glycosylation and identity of the O-glycans attached on the subunit S1. (news-medical.net)
  • N-linked glycosylation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involves the assembly of glycans on a lipid carrier in the ER membrane followed by transfer to specific asparagine residues of target polypeptides. (asm.org)
  • Studies of the similar protein in mice and rat suggested that this protein may participate in membrane transportation and the reorganization of endosomal/lysosomal compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic tubular proteinuria observed in LIMP-2 knockout mice has been shown to be due to a failure of in lysosomal/endosomal fusion, thus proteins reabsorbed in the proximal tubule of the kidney are not properly proteolyzed, causing the proteinuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we targeted APP695 chimeric proteins directly into the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. (jneurosci.org)
  • Endolyn-78, a membrane glycoprotein present in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal and lysosomal compartments: implications for lysosome biogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Endolyn-78 was present at low levels in the plasma membrane and in peripheral tubular endosomes, but was prominent in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal compartment (vacuolar endosomes and various types of multivesicular bodies) which acquired alpha-2-macroglobulin at 18.5 degrees C, and frequently contained substantial levels of the MPR and variable levels of beta-glucuronidase. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular environment of secretory proteins during translocation across the ER membrane was examined by photocross-linking. (rupress.org)
  • LIMP-2 was isolated as a protein of approximate molecular weight 85 kDa, synthesized from a precursor oform of approximately 77 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993 [PubMed 8402908]) through an interaction with a collapsin response mediator protein of relative molecular mass 62K (CRMP62) (Goshima et al. (cancerindex.org)
  • Recombinant EGR1 proteins was incubated with 32P-tagged FAP promoter oligonucleotides (?225 ~ ?205) and led to the forming of a unitary DNA-binding organic whose strength was depleted by pre-incubation with unlabeled wild type oligonucleotides and particular anti-EGR1 antibody however not by mutant oligos (Shape 7). (labourlists.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Sars Membrane Protein Antibody [NBP2-21628] - Epithelial cells fixed and stained using PFA 20 hours post infection. (novusbio.com)
  • This Sars Membrane Protein Antibody was prepared by repeated immunizations with a BSA-coupled synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus (amino acid residues 204-221, C-KLNTDHAGSNDNIALLVQ) of the Human SARS Coronavirus M (Membrane protein) (GenBank: AAP13444). (novusbio.com)
  • There are no publications for Sars Membrane Protein Antibody (NBP2-21628). (novusbio.com)
  • Previously, we showed that inner layer of thickened lamina propria had glycoproteins recognized by PNA-lectin and included progesterone detected by antiprogesterone antibody. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Viruses undergo dramatic structural reorganizations at many critical stages of their life cycles including during host cell invasion, membrane fusion, genome expulsion, assembly, and cell egress. (washington.edu)
  • In studies of HIV, we seek to understand the structural determinants of Env glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity as a means of helping development of HIV vaccine immunogens. (washington.edu)
  • Transformation can include embedding of new proteins in membrane as well as structural changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in protein content may occur without noticeable structural changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural glycoproteins, which occur in connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions both as a transporter that mediates electroneutral anion exchange across the cell membrane and as a structural protein. (rcsb.org)
  • The majority of the prominent CWPs identified were hypothetical or putative proteins with unknown function or no annotation, while cell wall modification enzymes, cell wall structural proteins, transporter/binding proteins, and signaling and defense proteins were tentatively identified in agreement with the expected role of the extracellular matrix in cell physiology. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body, especially muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gag, the major structural protein, forms the viral capsid. (mdpi.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encodes at least 10 glycoproteins ( 18 ), and many attempts have been made to identify those that are responsible for membrane fusion. (asm.org)
  • Membrane fusion is essential for the entry, cell-associated spread, and syncytial formation of enveloped viruses and is mediated by envelope glycoproteins ( 19 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: identification by photocross-linking of a 39-kD integral membrane glycoprotein as part of a putative translocation tunnel. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, retention of APP695 proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum led to neither βA4 secretion nor to processing by β-secretase in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • [2] [3] With electron microscopy , the lacy membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 by Keith R. Porter , Albert Claude , Brody Meskers and Ernest F. Fullam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes called cisternae . (wikipedia.org)
  • An animation showing how a protein destined for the secretory pathway is synthesized into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (which appears at upper right in animation when approximately half of animation is done). (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (often abbreviated RER or Rough ER) (also called granular endoplasmic reticulum ) is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance (hence its name). (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double membrane sheets that are located near, and continuous with, the outer layer of the nuclear envelope . (wikipedia.org)
  • Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web-based NetNglyc to predict N-Glycosylation sites and finally, the BEAST software package to calculate evolution and substitution rates. (springer.com)
  • The nucleocapsid is embedded in a proteinaceous tegument which is surrounded by a cell-derived lipid bilayer envelope containing virally encoded (glyco)proteins ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Cell membrane (Lipid bilayer), Micelle, Liposome. (shutterstock.com)
  • Activation of platelets with thrombin and other agonists causes a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of multiple proteins on tyrosine. (pnas.org)
  • Since PTKs appear to be involved in stimulus-response coupling at the plasma membrane, these results suggest that ligand interaction with GPIV may activate signaling pathways that are triggered by tyrosine phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
  • While research in this area is still in the preliminary stage and remains mixed in terms of results, vanadium may help to increase our body's sensitivity to insulin by inhibiting a group of enzymes called protein tyrosine phosphatases. (whfoods.com)
  • Physical proximity and functional association of glycoprotein 1balpha and protein-disulfide isomerase on the platelet plasma membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two proteins that presented free thiol(s) on the activated platelet surface were protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and glycoprotein 1balpha (GP1balpha). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dystrophin, utrophin and the dystrophin-associated glycoproteins, β-dystroglycan and adhalin, were analyzed, together with the membrane cytoskeletal proteins β-spectrin, vinculin and talin, and adult and fetal myosin heavy chains, in 25 normal human fetuses from 8 to 24 weeks of gestation. (elsevier.com)
  • Tegument and envelope each comprise more than 10 different virally encoded proteins ( 57 ). (asm.org)
  • Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. (mdpi.com)
  • The studies of mutant viruses therefore implicate multiple HSV type 1 (HSV-1) membrane glycoproteins in the fusion process, but the assays used are indirect, and it is uncertain how many species are directly involved. (asm.org)
  • Alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein M causes the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of gM to cause the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins was not restricted to HSV-1 glycoproteins, as other viral and non-viral proteins were also affected. (nih.gov)
  • Minimal cross-contamination (less than 10%) of individual fractions is achieved as assessed by specific marker enzymes, namely cytochrome c oxidase for the inner membrane, monoamine oxidase for the outer membrane and adenylate kinase for the soluble fraction. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Membrane carriers resemble enzymes except for the fact that ___ do not chemically change their ligands. (studystack.com)

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