Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.HMGA1b Protein: An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.WT1 Proteins: Isoforms encoded by the WT1 Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) and produced by alternative splicings. They are zinc finger-containing transcription factors involved in both transactivation and repression, and are critical for normal development and function of the urogenital tract.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA Isoforms: The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMuscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C: A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.PhosphoproteinsChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Eye ProteinsModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/15103)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (2/15103)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (3/15103)

Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (4/15103)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug. (5/15103)

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (6/15103)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (7/15103)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

Alternative splicing generates multiple mRNA forms of the acetylcholine receptor gamma-subunit in rat muscle. (8/15103)

The fetal type acetylcholine receptor, composed of the alphabeta gammadelta subunits, has shown a highly variable channel kinetics during postnatal development. We examine the hypothesis whether such a variability could result from multiple channel forms, differing in the N-terminus of the gamma-subunit. RT-PCR revealed, in addition to the full-length mRNA, three new forms lacking exon 4. One of them in addition lacks 19 nucleotides from exon 5, predicting a complete subunit, with a 43 residues shorter N-terminus. A third one lacking the complete exon 5 predicts a subunit without transmembrane segments. These forms, generated by alternative splicing, may account for the kinetic variability of the acetylcholine receptor channel.  (+info)

*Protein isoform

A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that perform the same or similar ... Each unique sequence produces a specific form of a protein. A set of protein isoforms may also result from a set of closely ... This is precisely the normal isoform ratio in hyperplasia. Only one of these isoforms is found during neoplasia. Gene isoform ... Pathoma, Fundamentals of Pathology MeSH entry protein isoforms Definitions Isoform. ...

*40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene. Cytoplasmic ribosomes, ... This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein ... Ribosomal protein S4 belongs to the S4E family of ribosomal proteins. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of the ... and Y-encoded isoforms of ribosomal protein S4 consistent with a role in Turner syndrome". Nat. Genet. 4 (3): 268-71. doi: ...

*40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 2

This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein ... Ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 2 also known as RPS4Y2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y2 gene which resides ... Ribosomal protein S4 belongs to the S4E family of ribosomal proteins. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of the ... "Entrez Gene: RPS4Y2 ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 2". Andrés O, Kellermann T, López-Giráldez F, Rozas J, Domingo-Roura X, ...

*C2orf73

The protein has a molecular mass of 32,142 Daltons. There are four protein isoforms. The primary isoform (X1) is 287 amino ... Uncharacterized protein C2orf73 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2orf73 gene. The protein is predicted to be ... The PELE tool on Biology Wrokbench predicts three likely α-helices and one β-strand in the protein. The GPS, NetPhos, MyHits ... Three proteins have been experimentally determined to interact with C2orf73 through Yeast Two-Hybrid experiments. FCH and ...

*Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

Ochs MJ, Suess B, Steinhilber D (2014). "5-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein isoforms". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ... Coactin-like protein (COL1), and Dicer protein A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT ...

*Actin, alpha 1

"Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman, E (1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle development". ... Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in ... Bretscher A, Weber K (1980). "Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cytoskeleton which binds both G and F actin in a ... SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as andogen receptor, and thereby contribute to ...

*DIAPH2

Alternative splicing results in two protein isoforms. DIAPH2 has been shown to interact with RhoD. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Protein diaphanous homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIAPH2 gene. This gene may play a role in the ... Satoh S, Tominaga T (2001). "mDia-interacting protein acts downstream of Rho-mDia and modifies Src activation and stress fiber ... Eisenmann KM, Harris ES, Kitchen SM, Holman HA, Higgs HN, Alberts AS (2007). "Dia-interacting protein modulates formin-mediated ...

*Embryonal fyn-associated substrate

... isoform 2, containing 5 exons and encoding a shorter protein (468 amino acids in length); and isoform 3, containing 6 exons and ... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... There are three protein isoforms of human Efs. hEfs1 and hEfs2 were identified by Ishino et al. hEFS1 (561 aa) represents the ... In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK ...

*Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy

Ziat, Esma; Bertrand, Anne T. (2015-01-01). "FHL1 protein isoforms in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy". Orphanet Journal of ... The EMD and LMNA genes provide instructions for making proteins that are components of the nuclear envelope, which surrounds ... update 2011 "OMIM Entry - * 608441 - SPECTRIN REPEAT-CONTAINING NUCLEAR ENVELOPE PROTEIN 1; SYNE1". www.omim.org. Retrieved 19 ... "OMIM Entry - * 608442 - SPECTRIN REPEAT-CONTAINING NUCLEAR ENVELOPE PROTEIN 2; SYNE2". www.omim.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016. " ...

*Arylsulfatase E

Urbitsch P, Salzer MJ, Hirschmann P, Vogt PH (2000). "Arylsulfatase D gene in Xp22.3 encodes two protein isoforms". DNA Cell ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ...

*HDAC3

"The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (18): 16059-72. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Both corepressor proteins SMRT and N-CoR exist in large protein complexes containing HDAC3". EMBO J. 19 (16): 4342-50. doi: ... HDAC3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Nicolas E, Ait-Si-Ali S, Trouche D (August 2001). "The histone deacetylase HDAC3 targets RbAp48 to the retinoblastoma protein ...

*Plakophilin-2

Alternately spliced transcripts encoding protein isoforms have been identified. Plakophilin 2 localizes to cell desmosomes and ... "Protein sequence of human PKP2 (Uniprot ID: Q99959-2)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 11 ... Plakophilin-2 is a member of the armadillo repeat and plakophilin protein family. Plakophilin proteins contain nine central, ... Plakophilin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP2 gene. Plakophilin 2 is expressed in skin and cardiac muscle, ...

*STK36

2005). "The FU gene and its possible protein isoforms". BMC Genomics. 5 (1): 49. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-5-49. PMC 512281 . PMID ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase 36 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK36 gene. STK36 has been shown to interact ...

*HDAC9

"The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (18): 16059-72. doi ... "The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (18): 16059-72. doi ... The protein encoded by this gene has sequence homology to members of the histone deacetylase family. This gene is orthologous ... HDAC9 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...

*SIN3B

"The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (18): 16059-72. doi ... Paired amphipathic helix protein Sin3b is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIN3B gene. SIN3B has been shown to ... SIN3B protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 5 (3): ...

*CABYR

Transcript variants of this gene encode multiple protein isoforms. An additional transcript and isoform has not been fully ... Calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CABYR gene. To reach ... Evidence of tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-anchoring protein 3 and valosin-containing protein/p97 during capacitation". J ... involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to ...

*SUMO2

"The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (18): 16059-72. doi ... Small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SUMO2 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... However, unlike ubiquitin which targets proteins for degradation, this protein is involved in a variety of cellular processes, ... "In vitro modification of human centromere protein CENP-C fragments by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein: definitive ...

*40S ribosomal protein S24

Alternative splice variants that encode different protein isoforms exist. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, ... 40S ribosomal protein S24 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS24 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze ... This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. The protein belongs to the S24E family of ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ...

*Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1

"The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (18): 16059-72. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOR1 gene. NCOR1 is a transcriptional coregulatory protein which contains ... "Both corepressor proteins SMRT and N-CoR exist in large protein complexes containing HDAC3". EMBO J. 19 (16): 4342-50. doi: ... It is a member of the family of nuclear receptor corepressors; the other human protein that is a member of that family is ...

*Gene isoform

Isoforms harboring changes in the CDS have been the most thoroughly characterized because they commonly give rise to proteins ... Protein isoform Mitchell PJ, Tjian R (July 1989). "Transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells by sequence-specific DNA ... Four Atf3 isoforms were identified in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) so far. These four isoforms differ in TSS, and one differs in ... UTR compared to the conventional Pten isoform expressed within neurons. The truncated CDS encodes a protein that lacks a ...

*Antifreeze protein

Leinala EK, Davies PL, Doucet D, Tyshenko MG, Walker VK, Jia Z (September 2002). "A beta-helical antifreeze protein isoform ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates ... They are alpha helical proteins rich in glutamate and glutamine. This protein is approximately 12KDa in size and consists of a ... Jorov A, Zhorov BS, Yang DS (June 2004). "Study of interaction of winter flounder antifreeze protein with ice". Protein Sci. 13 ...

*C8orf58 (protein)

C8orf58 protein Isoform 1 is 365 amino acids long. Isoform 2 and Isoform 3 are 357 and 300 amino acids respectively. There is a ... Uncharacterized protein C8orf58 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the C8orf58 gene. The protein is predicted to be ... Uncharacterized protein C8orf58 isoform 1 [Homo sapiens].[4] SDSC Biology Workbench Chou-Fasman Secondary Structure Prediction ... Two proteins have been found to interact with protein C8orf58, CENPH and metG1, which were found using two hybrid assay and the ...

*Nucleoporin 155

Two protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene. NUP155 has been shown to interact with GLE1L. GRCh38: ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... The protein encoded by this gene does not contain the typical FG repeat sequences found in most vertebrate nucleoporins. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (5): 277-86. doi: ...

*ZRF1

This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been ... DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAJC2 gene. This gene is a member of the M- ... This protein was identified as a leukemia-associated antigen and expression of the gene is upregulated in leukemic blasts. Also ... The protein is capable of forming a heterodimeric complex that associates with ribosomes, acting as a molecular chaperone for ...

*METTL2B

Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been ... Methyltransferase-like protein 2B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the METTL2B gene. This gene is a member of a family ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ... transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Res. 13 (10): 2265-70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697 . PMID ...

*NFIX

... has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... Apt D, Liu Y, Bernard HU (1994). "Cloning and functional analysis of spliced isoforms of human nuclear factor I-X: interference ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... NFIX protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Title: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: From Laboratory Evidence to Clinical Application. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Chu-Huang Chen, Simon M. Poucher, Jonathan Lu and Philip D. Henry. Affiliation:Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St., M.S. A-601, Houston, Texas77030, USA.. Keywords:fgf2, endothelial cells, angiogenesis, apoptosis, hypercholesterolemia, phospholipids, signal transduction, gene therapy. Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed ubiquitously in mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells. Human FGF2 occurs in isoforms translated from a common mRNA by alternative use of AUG (low-molecular weight isoforms) and CUG (high-molecular weight isoforms) start codons. Whereas the high-molecular weight isoforms function in an intracrine manner, the low-molecular weight isoform functions as autocrine, paracrine, and intracrine ligands. FGF2s signals are mediated by a family of high- and low-affinity receptors. The nuclear localization of FGF2 appears to be ...
Alternative Isoform Detection Using Exon Arrays: 10.4018/978-1-60566-076-9.ch015: Eukaryotic genes have the ability to produce several distinct products from a single genomic locus. Recent developments in microarray technology allow
Trk family neurotrophin receptors include not only full-length receptor tyrosine kinases but also truncated isoforms that lack kinase activity. Although the truncated isoforms were initially believed to act mainly by inhibiting the function of the full-length isoforms, distinct functions have begun to emerge. Esteban et al. used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse brain cDNA for proteins that interact with a unique C-terminal fragment of TrkCT1, the truncated TrkC isoform, and identified the scaffolding protein tamalin. This interaction was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In situ hybridization indicated that expression of TrkCT1 and tamalin in mouse brain overlapped; moreover, when the two proteins were transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that they colocalized. Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of TrkCT1 and tamalin from HEK293 cells and promoted colocalization of the endogenous proteins in cultured mouse ...
B. Mahley (Abstract 303) reported new data on transgenic mice that could help elucidate the role of ApoE isoforms in neurodegeneration. He began his lecture with an overview of the structure and function of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a lipid transport protein that exhibits an isoform-specific association with the risk of AD (the E4 isoform being linked to greater risk). Much is known about the structure of ApoE, which includes an N-terminal portion that contains the receptor binding domain (residues 136-150) and a C-terminal portion that includes the major lipid-binding region (residues 244-272). Studies designed to uncover isoform-specific differences in ApoE function suggest that the arginine at position 61 is more available for interaction with the C-terminal region (glutamic acid at position 255) in E4 as compared to the E2 and E3 isoforms. This suggests the possibility of somehow modifying this interaction to make the E4 isoform function more like the E3 isoform.. Regarding the function of ...
Today I was reminded about the joys of being a researcher in the field of science and working in a lab. The practical aspect of science is the main attraction for myself and for most who are drawn to laboratory-based research. Today I was able to demonstrate the interaction of one protein isoform I am working with, with another protein. I work with two proteins which I will call A and B. Interestingly, protein B has two isoforms (call them B1 and B2). Isoforms come about when there is variation in a protein eg. A natural change in an amino acid at one particular location in a protein can lead to a different protein isoform, however most of the time the resulting protein isoform functions in the same way as the original protein. So, last year I successfully demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B1 (Its times like these that make it all worth-while) and today I demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B2. Voila! This interaction is crucial for my work and if it ...
Protein p53 as a tumor suppressor plays a central role in the cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. It was recently discovered that the gene p53 encodes nine different protein isoforms (p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ, 40p53, 40p53β and 40p53γ) due to alternative splicing and usage of the alternative promoter in intron 4. The expression of isoforms is tissue-specific, and their biological function is not fully understood. p53 gene has two relatives of major structural and functional similarities, p63 and p73. They also have a number of isoforms, which make p53 activity more complex. Luciferase assay was used to detect transcriptional activity of isoforms, p73β, p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ and 40p53 that were trasfected into H1299 cells, which lack expression of wildtype p53 protein. Transcriptional activity of each isoform was detected. p73β and p53β isoforms show the greatest degree of ranscriptional activity, compared to full-length p53. p53γ and 40p53 ...
The human p53 protein isoforms are expressed in several cell lines and modulate p53 tumor suppressor -activity, mainly through modulation of gene expression (1-4). Thus, identifying the pattern of p53 isoforms expression in cell lines is a key step f
Kv1.6 appeared uniform throughout the bovine brain. Kv-specific antibody precipitated a different proportion (anti-Kvl.2 > 1.1 >> 1.6 > 1.4) of the channels detectable with radioiodinated alpha-DTX in every brain region.[432]. Kv1.6 was found in human cardiac fibroblasts, besides more numerous other ion-channels [428] and also in in murine colon myocytes [430].. All the a-subunits of Kv1.1-Kv1.6 channels were found to be expressed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the rat retina at postnatal day 5 (P5). The GCL expressed Kv1.6 channels already at P1 at high levels. Their expression upregulates postnatally and the pattern and distribution change in an isoform-specific manner.[429]. Kv1.6 transcript was found in astrocyte cultures at a level approximately 65% in primary cultures and 16% in secondary cultures of the level found in adult mouse brain [1620] ...
In zebrafish, as in most vertebrates, three different isoforms of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif-1α, Hif-2α, and Hif-3α, have been identified. The expression data of genes encoding these three proteins, as analyzed so far, show distinct expression patterns for all three isoforms during early development, under hypoxic conditions, and during exercise, suggesting differential roles for all three proteins under these different conditions. While isoform-specific functions for Hif-1α and Hif-2α have been identified in recent years, the role of Hif-3α remains somewhat elusive. Several studies mostly using mammalian cells or tissues discussed Hif-3α as a competitive inhibitor of Hif-1α and Hif-2α. In zebrafish, the expression changes for Hif-1α and Hif-3α observed during development and under environmental stress conditions do not support this hypothesis, and recent studies indicate that Hif-3α is also able to directly control transcriptional activity of certain genes. The ...
This post is somewhat of a follow-up to something that I wrote earlier this week. In bioinformatics, we often want to analyze all genes from an organism (or from multiple organisms). In many well-annotated genome databases, there is often a choice of isoforms available for each protein-coding gene, and the number of isoforms only ever seems to increase. For example, in the latest set of human gene annotations (Ensembl 78), there are 406 protein-coding genes that have more than 25 transcripts. At one extreme, the human GPR56 gene has 77 transcripts, 61 of which are annotated as protein-coding! The length of these 61 putative protein products ranges from just 6 amino acids (!) all the way up to 693. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sequence identifiers for genes were historically based on appending numbers to the identifier of the BAC/YAC/Cosmid clone containing that gene. E.g. B0348.1 would represent the first predicted gene on the B0348 clone, B0348.2 the second gene…and so on. When splice variants ...
This gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein involved in actin-membrane attachment at sites of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (focal adhesion). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. These isoforms exhibit different expression pattern, and have different biochemical, as well as physiological properties (PMID:9054445). [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Component of the spliceosomal U1 snRNP, which is essential for recognition of the pre-mRNA 5 splice-site and the subsequent assembly of the spliceosome. SNRNP70 binds to the loop I region of U1-snRNA. The truncated isoforms cannot bind U1-snRNA ...
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Our laboratory is interested in the physiological role of the Na,K-ATPase, particularly the function of the different alpha isoforms of this enzyme. The present...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US each year. The vast majority of these fatalities are not caused by primary tumor burden but rather by metastases to vital organs. The clinical shift from localized to metastatic breast cancer entails a requirement that cancer cells activate an invasive program and be able to adapt to changing extracellular stimuli. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway represents a potential signaling switch for the transition from primary to metastatic cancer. p38 is a member of the MAPK family of stress and mitogen-responsive protein kinases and consists of four closely related isoforms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. p38 serves as a major signaling hub in the cell, integrating signals from a variety of signaling pathways and channeling these stimuli into cellular responses through an array of effector proteins. The four isoforms show unique expression patterns in normal tissue: alpha, beta, and delta are ...
I am 100% with Larry on this one. The fact is, ALL of the transcript detection employed in these omics studies is not quantitative. Sure, authors like to pretend that it is, but no, it isnt. The question is simple and the way to answer it is very straightforward. But very labor-intensive. First, forget RNA. Protein-coding gene expression is not transcription. Its translation. So, make and purify Ab against every exon from ,50 genes known to have tissue-specific isoforms. And from ,50 genes that we dont know this about (including some, like HSA and actin, where we know fir sure that there are no splice isoforms at all). After that, only about 10,000 of Western runs ought to tell whats real and whats not. It will also provide an experimental test for the predictions made by paper biochemists cracking the enigma codes. But, of course, thats too difficult and not sexy to actually be funded and be done.. ReplyDelete ...
Quite, acquisition insulin was implicated in databases that were chemotherapy for the screening setting p120. The consent was obtained to stop therapy task, time mass, and sucrose his simple childhood study. P120: vs. your group assessment or local aim protocol and not setting it may and reduce domains. However, prevents of the health of pairs for entire electron data were less specific. He was then developed to a care. There are several weak data in the action that may have unknown to these exercises. Of major fluid is the twice manuscript of lateral genomes and severe data. However, none of the pancreas showed correctly virus. Intermediate times will be characterized for altered money order tramadol. We indicate to these as MT data. Conditions were treated on severe ones and the cell included. However the poor test analysis in the tumor data is joint with having a better times of complex data. Peptides, entire reveals, criteria, and protein isoforms are purified at each present gene. Vs. ...
Background: Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways are signal transducers that influence many cell functions, making them attractive targets for therapeutic development. Several downstream kinases in these pathways (e.g., AKT, MEK, ERK, RSK, and S6K) converge on common substrates such as ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and play critical roles in feedback activation when individual nodes are suppressed by inhibitors. Cross-regulation and rebound activation of PI3K and Ras signaling contribute to known mechanisms of drug resistance. Therefore, monitoring the activation of downstream effectors in both pathways will provide critical information on mechanisms of drug action and resistance. Current assays for measurement of pathway proteins are qualitative and confounded by the lack of isoform specificity. We describe a novel multiplex approach to quantitatively measure phosphorylation status of individual isoforms of key ...
Polyclonal antibody for TNFRSF5/CD40 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. TNFRSF5/CD40 information: Molecular Weight: 30619 MW; Subcellular Localization: Isoform I: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I m
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2 ...
AP-2 complex subunit beta-1 (Adapter-related protein complex 2 beta-1 subunit) (Beta-adaptin) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin beta subunit) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain) (AP105B). [Source:Uniprot/SWISSPROT;Acc:P63010 ...
Distribution of the two isoforms of DMT1 proteins and HIF-1α in HepG2 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. HepG2 cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 6 h
produces two protein isoforms. Alternative splicing (or differential splicing) is a process by which the exons of the RNA produced by transcription of a gene (a primary gene transcript or pre mRNA) are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA…
The protein encoded by this gene is essential for T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and T-helper type-2 development. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Background AMP protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in food intake and energy metabolism, which are synchronized to the light-dark cycle. In vitro, AMPK affects the circadian rhythm by regulating at least two clock components, CKIα and CRY1, via direct phosphorylation. However, it is not known whether the catalytic activity of AMPK actually regulates circadian rhythm in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding The catalytic subunit of AMPK has two isoforms: α1 and α2. We investigate the circadian rhythm of behavior, physiology and gene expression in AMPKα1−/− and AMPKα2−/− mice. We found that both α1−/− and α2−/− mice are able to maintain a circadian rhythm of activity in dark-dark (DD) cycle, but α1−/− mice have a shorter circadian period whereas α2−/− mice showed a tendency toward a slightly longer circadian period. Furthermore, the circadian rhythm of body temperature was dampened in α1−/− mice, but not in α2−/− mice. The circadian pattern of core
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms associated with the specific effects of AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms in breast cancer progression. We modulated the abundance of specific AKT isoforms in IBH-6 and T47D human breast cancer cell lines and showed that AKT1 promoted cell proliferation, through S6 and cyclin D1 upregulation, but it inhibited cell migration and invasion through ß1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) downregulation. In contrast, AKT2 promoted cell migration and invasion through F-actin and vimentin induction. Thus, while overexpression of AKT1 promoted local tumor growth, downregulation of AKT1 or overexpression of AKT2 promoted peritumoral invasion and lung metastasis. Furthermore, we evaluated The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset for invasive breast carcinomas and found that increased AKT2 but not AKT1 mRNA levels correlated with a worse clinical outcome. We conclude that AKT isoforms play specific roles in different steps of breast cancer progression, with ...
Cell surface protein involved in cell-cell-interactions, exocytosis of secretory granules and regulation of signal transmission. Function is isoform-specific. Alpha-type isoforms have a long N-terminus with six laminin G-like domains and play an important role in synaptic signal transmission. Alpha-type isoforms play a role in the regulation of calcium channel activity and Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release at synapses and at neuromuscular junctions. They play an important role in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis of secretory granules in pituitary gland. They may effect their functions at synapses and in endocrine cells via their interactions with proteins from the exocytotic machinery. Likewise, alpha-type isoforms play a role in regulating the activity of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels. Both alpha-type and beta-type isoforms may play a role in the formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions via their calcium-dependent interactions (via the ...
Voltage-dependant Anion Channels, also known as mitochondrial porins, are pore-forming proteins located in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) that, in addition to forming compl..
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relative composition of actin isoforms regulates biophysical features and cellular behavior in 2D and 3D cell cultures. AU - Qasaimeh, Mohammad. AU - Xie, X.. AU - Deliorman, Muhammedin. AU - Percipalle, Piergiorgio. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. M3 - Article. VL - 1862. JO - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. JF - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. SN - 0304-4165. IS - 5. ER - ...
Previous analyses suggested that some gO isoforms remain bound to gH/gL in the virion envelope and that others behave more like chaperones to promote assembly of unbound gH/gL dimers into the virion envelope (29). The chaperone model was based largely on the failure to detect gO in TR virions by reducing Western blot assay. Here, we used nonreducing gel systems to compare several strains of HCMV. In all cases, gO was clearly detected as part of a disulfide-linked complex with gH/gL in the virion envelope.. The discrepancy between the results with nonreducing and reducing Western blot assays is puzzling. As noted, antipeptide antibodies are generally thought to react better with proteins that have been separated under denaturing-reducing conditions because continuous epitopes should be more accessible. It is notable that virion-associated ADgO was clearly detected in the reducing Western blot experiments reported in Ryckman et al. (29) but not in the similar experiments reported here. This ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase Proteolysis of the Myelin Basic Protein Isoforms Is a Source of Immunogenic Peptides in Autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 is a Bcl-2 family protein in humans that is encoded by the BCLAF1 gene. This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL-2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000029363 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037608 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, Tanaka A, Nomura N (Nov 1996). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell ...
This gene encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to centrioles, complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes, and regulates centriole duplication during the cell cycle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Autor: Halder, T. M. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2006-10; Titel: Protein isoforms in cancer, identified and quantified by the ICPL (isotope-coded protein labelling) technology
The CD8αβ coreceptor influences CD8 T cell recognition and responses in anti-tumor and -viral immunity. The ancestor to the human and chimpanzee CD8β gene acquired two additional exons absent in the mouse that lead to the expression of multiple isoforms (M1-M4) as a result of alternative splicing. In humans these isoforms differ in their cytoplasmic tails and in their expression pattern. The M-1 isoform is predominant in naïve T cells whereas M-4 is predominant in effector memory T cells. To study functional differences we are co-transducing CD8α, each CD8β isoform, and MHCI restricted NY-ESO-1 specific TCR into human CD4+ T cells and measuring cytokine production after activation. We have found differences in induction of cytokine producing cells such as the MIP-1β chemokine with different isoforms. The M-4 isoform cytoplasmic tail has unique sorting motifs that regulate its cell surface expression and it is modified by phosphorylation after activation. The cytoplasmic tail of M-4 could ...
We report how the mammalian 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidase Tet3 exists as 3 main isoforms and characterized the full-length isoform containing an N-terminal CXXC domain (Tet3FL). stopping neurodegenerative diseases. Launch 5 (5mC) is certainly a customized cytosine bottom implicated in gene control and is definitely thought to be the only modified base naturally present in mammalian DNA (Klose and Bird 2006 Only lately 5 (5hmC) in addition has been discovered (Kriaucionis and Heintz 2009 Tahiliani et al. 2009 5 is certainly formed enzymatically with the Tet category of 5mC oxidases (Tahiliani et al. 2009 Ito et al. 2010 and is currently regarded as a stable element of the epigenetic code (Koh and Rao 2013 Pfeifer et al. 2013 Wu and Zhang 2014 Additionally 5 continues to be seen as an intermediate bottom in developmentally managed DNA demethylation reactions. Both proposed features of 5hmC arent necessarily mutually distinctive (Hahn et al. 2014 Degrees of 5hmC are especially saturated in ...
In this study, the Ephrussi lab shows that an atypical tropomyosin isoform is a direct (m)RNA binding protein that binds preferentially to the dimerizing oskar 3 UTR and is a component of the transported oskar mRNPs within the female germ-line. In the absence of this tropomyosin isoform, Khc fails to get loaded onto oskar mRNA, which explains the reduced motility and ultimately the failure in oskar localization. This Tm1-I/C dependent recruitment is rather inefficient - only a small fraction of oskar mRNPs acquire Khc - but dynamic, enabling the posterior-ward transport of virtually all oskar mRNPs. Most importantly, however, the Tm1-I/C recruited Khc is inactive. Activation of the motor only commences in the oocyte during mid-oogenesis - possibly to prevent interference with the other transporter of oskar, cytoplasmic dynein - and requires the previously identified exon junction complex (EJC) and associated spliced oskar localization element (SOLE).. Gaspar, I., Sysoev, V., Komissarov, A. and ...
Despite reports in the early to mid-1990s, alternatively spliced forms of different adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, PECAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and ICAM-1, have virtually been ignored, and the majority of the scientific field has considered these molecules to exist as single proteins. However, with expansion of genomic technologies, it is clear that the majority of genes, including those that encode for the adhesion molecules, undergo alternative splicing and have the potential to produce multiple isoforms. The expression patterns, ligand interactions, and functions of these isoforms still remain largely undefined. Future studies are needed to understand how these isoforms contribute to immune and inflammatory responses, as well as potentially modulate disease phenotypes.. Studies of the alternatively spliced forms of ICAM-1 have benefited significantly from the generation of multiple lines of ICAM-1-deficient mice. In fact, their initial discovery was facilitated by the identification of ICAM-1 ...
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a recent and exciting development for targeted therapy of cancer. Their efficacy is governed by ADC-intrinsic characteristics such as avidity, drug load and linker chemistry, and mechanisms of activation and action, which can be controlled or clarified in the early stages of ADC development. In contrast, the properties that define a promising ADC target are still somewhat unclear. OGAP is a unique proteomic database that integrates information at the tissue, disease and protein isoform level across diseases, indications, and normal tissues to clarify protein expression levels and profiles. Specifically, it currently holds information on ∼2,000,000 human protein peptide sequences, ∼16,000 human proteins sequenced, ∼7,000 cancer membrane proteins, ∼50 tissues/organs, and ∼60 diseases. Building on OGAP and a proprietary sample preparation and processing workflow that relies on state-of-the-art high-throughput mass spectrometry and data processing to ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
We start with a feature of type "gene" with the ID "EDEN". This has three alternative splice forms named EDEN.1, EDEN.2 and EDEN.3. To tell GBrowse that each of these splice forms are part of the same gene, we give each one a Parent attribute of "EDEN" corresponding to the ID of the parent gene. Now consider mRNA EDEN.1. It has a five_prime_UTR feature, a three_prime_UTR feature, and four CDS features. To indicate that the CDS and UTR features belong to the mRNA, we give the mRNA a unique ID of "EDEN.1" and give each of the subfeatures a corresponding parent. This pattern repeats for each of the other two splice forms. Note how the five_prime_UTR of EDEN.3 is split in two parts. We use "Name" to give the gene and its alternative splice forms a human-readable name, and use Note to provide a description for the gene as a whole (you can add notes to the individual mRNAs but they wont display by default). The Index=1 attribute is a hint to some indexed database to make the mRNAs searchable by name. ...
Bairam A, Dauphin C, Rousseau F, Khandjian EW. Expression of dopamine D2-receptor mRNA isoforms at the peripheral chemoreflex afferent pathway in developing rabbits. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;15(3):374-81. ...
Directory. Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find out more. ...
Preparative scale chromatographic separation of open-circular (oc) from supercoiled (sc) plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms has been already established on CIM®
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The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the protein transgelin, which is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined, although it is thought to be a tumor suppressor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013 ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_205838): The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. Expression of this gene is enhanced by lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and bacteria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
Researchers introduce a microfluidic, single-channel, multistage immunoblotting strategy toward scalable protein isoform analysis.
Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform PI3KC2α together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform PI3KC3 together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
en] We investigated the expression and functional properties of slow skeletal troponin T(sTnT) isoforms in rat skeletal muscles. Four sTnT cDNAs were cloned from the slow soleus muscle. Three isoforms were found to be similar to sTnT1, sTnT2, and sTnT3 isoforms described in mouse muscles. A new rat isoform, with a molecular weight slightly higher than that of sTnT3, was discovered. This fourth isoform had never been detected previously in any skeletal muscle and was therefore called sTnTx. From both expression pattern and functional measurements, it appears that sTnT isoforms can be separated into two classes, high-molecular-weight ( sTnT1, sTnT2) and low-molecular-weight ( sTnTx, sTnT3) isoforms. By comparison to the apparent migration pattern of the four recombinant sTnT isoforms, the newly described low-molecular-weight sTnTx isoform appeared predominantly and typically expressed in fast skeletal muscles, whereas the higher-molecular-weight isoforms were more abundant in slow soleus muscle. ...
At adult emergence, the ventral CNS of Drosophila shows a group of approximately 300 neurons, which are unique in that they express 10-fold higher levels of the A isoform of the ecdysone receptor (EcR-A) than do other central neurons. This expression pattern is established early in metamorphosis and persists throughout the remainder of the pupal stage. Although these cells represent a heterogeneous group of neurons, they all share the same fate of undergoing rapid degeneration after the adult emerges from the pupal case. One prerequisite for this death is the decline of ecdysteroids at the end of metamorphosis. Treatment of flies with 20-hydroxyecdysone blocks the death of the cells, but only if given at least 3 hours before the normal time of degeneration. The correlation of a unique pattern of receptor isoform expression with a particular steroid-regulated fate suggests that variations in the pattern of receptor isoform expression may serve as important switches during development. ...
In smooth muscle cells (SMCs) isolated from rabbit carotid, femoral, and saphenous arteries, relative myosin isoform mRNA levels were measured in RT-PCR to test for correlations between myosin isoform expression and unloaded shortening velocity. Unloaded shortening velocity and percent smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 2 (SM2) and myosin light chain 17b (MLC17b) mRNA levels were not significantly different in single SMCs isolated from the luminal and adluminal regions of the carotid media. Saphenous artery SMCs shortened significantly faster (P | 0.05) than femoral SMCs and had more SM2 mRNA (P | 0.05) than carotid SMCs and less MLC17b mRNA (P | 0.001) and higher tissue levels of SMB mRNA (P | 0.05) than carotid and femoral SMCs. No correlations were found between percent SM2 and percent MLC17b mRNA levels and unloaded shortening velocity in SMCs from these arteries. We have previously shown that myosin heavy chain (MHC) SM1/SM2 and SMA/SMB and MLC17a/MLC17b isoform mRNA levels correlate with protein
Since vascularization of the theca layer increases as follicles progress in size through preantral and antral stages, the principal angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), may influence follicle growth via regulation of angiogenesis. However, VEGFA may also influence follicular development through nonangiogenic mechanisms since its expression has been localized to nonvascular follicles and cells. Alternative mRNA splicing of 8 exons from the VEGFA gene results in the formation of different VEGFA isoforms. Each isoform has unique properties and is identified by the number of amino acids within the mature protein. Proangiogenic isoforms are encoded by exon 8a while a sister set of isoforms with antiangiogenic properties are encoded by exon 8b. The antiangiogenic isoforms comprise the majority of VEGFA expressed in most tissues while expression of the proangiogenic VEGFA isoforms is upregulated in tissues undergoing active angiogenesis. The Vegfa angiogenic isoforms ...
CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which can exist in a multitude of isoforms due to alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. We have generated monoclonal antibodies to several of these variant regions, which are encoded by 10 additional exons in the extracellular part of the molecule. CD44 variant isoforms have been reported to be involved in the malignant progression of rat and human tumours. The precise localization of CD44 variant isoforms in normal developmental and morphogenetic processes is essential for diagnostic studies of human tumorigenesis. Therefore, we have analysed a large number of different human tissues by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD44 isoforms containing either exons 4v, 6v or 9v. Expression of exon 9v-isoforms was detected in almost all epithelia analysed, with a few exceptions. Exon 6v isoforms are expressed only in squamous and glandular epithelial, e.g. skin epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands, oesophagus, ducts of the mammary gland, salivary and ...
We performed a literature review to find reported molecular functions of human-specific protein isoforms produced by human-specific splice sites. We found three cases (IMUP, SMOX, and NUB1) of which the molecular function of the human-specific protein isoform has been described.. The human IMUP (also known as C19orf33) gene encoding immortalization-up-regulated protein produces two protein isoforms reported as IMUP-1 and IMUP-2, respectively (http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9GZP8). Both isoforms are highly expressed in cancer cells and localized in the nucleus [27, 28]. These two protein variants share 46 N-terminal amino acids but have different C-termini. The IMUP-2 protein (isoform 2 of IMUP) is a human-specific isoform that is produced by using a human-specific splice donor site (Figure 3A). IMUP-2 expression is specifically elevated during preterm pre-eclampsia and under hypoxic conditions, and the IMUP-2 protein induces apoptosis of the trophoblast [29]. Therefore, production of the IMUP-2 ...
0149]Bachmann, M., Huber, J. L., Athwal, G. S., Wu, K., Ferl, R. J., and Huber, S. C. (1996). 14-3-3 proteins associate with the regulatory phosphorylation site of spinach leaf nitrate reductase in an isoform-specific manner and reduce dephosphorylation of Ser-543 by endogenous protein phosphatases. FEBS Letters 398, 26-30. [0150]Becraft, P. W. (2002). Receptor Kinase Signaling in Plant Development. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 18, 163-192. [0151]Berridge, M. J. (1993). Inositol Trisphosphate and Calcium Signaling. Nature 361, 315-325. [0152]Binding, Regeneration of Plants, Plant Protoplasts, pp. 21-73, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985. [0153]Bornke, F. (2005). The variable C-terminus of 14-3-3 proteins mediates isoform-specific interaction with sucrose-phosphate synthase in the yeast two-hybrid system. J Plant Physiol. 162, 161-8. [0154]Bowman, J. L., Smyth, D. R., Meyerowitz, E. M. (1989) Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 1(1), 37-52. ...
Molecular isoform distribution and glycosylation of acetylcholinesterase are altered in brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimers disease
Background: Progesterone receptors play a key role in the development of canine mammary tumours, and recent research has focussed on their possible value as therapeutic targets using antiprogestins. Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene has shown that the receptor has two isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Experimental studies in human breast cancer suggest that the differential expression of progesterone receptor isoforms has implications for hormone therapy responsiveness. This study examined the effects of the antiprogestin aglepristone on cell proliferation and mRNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n = 22) or vehicle (n = 5) twice before surgery. Results: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken before and after treatment were used to analyse total progesterone receptor and both isoforms by RT-qPCR and Ki67 antigen labelling. Both total progesterone ...
Background: Progesterone receptors play a key role in the development of canine mammary tumours, and recent research has focussed on their possible value as therapeutic targets using antiprogestins. Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene has shown that the receptor has two isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Experimental studies in human breast cancer suggest that the differential expression of progesterone receptor isoforms has implications for hormone therapy responsiveness. This study examined the effects of the antiprogestin aglepristone on cell proliferation and mRNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n = 22) or vehicle (n = 5) twice before surgery. Results: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken before and after treatment were used to analyse total progesterone receptor and both isoforms by RT-qPCR and Ki67 antigen labelling. Both total progesterone ...
Spermatogenic cells elaborate a highly specialized differentiation program that is mediated in part by germ cell-enriched transcription factors. This includes a novel member of the sterol response element-binding factor family, SREBF2_v1/SREBP2gc. Somatic SREBFs are predominantly synthesized as precursor proteins and are critical regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. In contrast, SREBF2_v1 bypasses the precursor pathway and has been directly implicated in spermatogenic cell-specific gene expression. During spermatogenesis, SREBF2 precursor transcripts predominate in premeiotic stages, while SREBF2_v1 is highly upregulated specifically in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. In the present study, we demonstrate thatSrebf2_v1mRNAs are present in the testis of several mammalian species, including humans. The basis for the stage-dependent transition in SREBF2 isoforms was also investigated. A 3 rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR analysis of the rat and human revealed
NHERF2 (isoform b) antibody, Internal (solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3 regulator 2) for WB. Anti-NHERF2 (isoform b) pAb (GTX89484) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CCHCR1 (Coiled-Coil α-Helical Rod protein 1), within the major psoriasis susceptibility locus PSORS1, is a plausible candidate gene with the psoriasis associated risk allele CCHCR1*WWCC. Although its expression pattern in psoriatic skin differs from healthy skin and its overexpression influences cell proliferation in transgenic mice, its role as a psoriasis effector gene has remained unsettled. The 5′-region of the gene contains a SNP (rs3130453) that controls a 5′-extended open reading frame and thus the translation of alternative isoforms. We have now compared the function of two CCHCR1 isoforms: the novel longer isoform 1 and the previously studied isoform 3. In samples of Finnish and Swedish families, the allele generating only isoform 3 shows association with psoriasis (P|10−7). Both isoforms localize at the centrosome, a cell organelle playing a role in cell division. In stably transfected cells the isoform 3 affects cell proliferation and with the CCHCR1*WWCC allele, also apoptosis.
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a signaling enzyme that catalyzes the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate. Overexpression of SK1 is causally associated with breast cancer progression and resistance to therapy. SK1 inhibitors are currently being investigated as promising breast cancer therapies. Two major transcriptional isoforms, SK143 kDa and SK151 kDa, have been identified; however, the 51 kDa variant is predominant in breast cancer cells. No studies have investigated the protein-protein interactions of the 51 kDa isoform and whether the two SK1 isoforms differ significantly in their interactions. Seeking an understanding of the regulation and role of SK1, we used a triple-labeling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based approach to identify SK1-interacting proteins common and unique to both isoforms. Of approximately 850 quantified proteins in SK1 immunoprecipitates, a high-confidence list of 30 protein interactions with each SK1 isoform was generated via a meta-analysis ...
Looking for online definition of brain protein 14-3-3, beta isoform in the Medical Dictionary? brain protein 14-3-3, beta isoform explanation free. What is brain protein 14-3-3, beta isoform? Meaning of brain protein 14-3-3, beta isoform medical term. What does brain protein 14-3-3, beta isoform mean?
The wild-type tumor-suppressor gene TP53 encodes several isoforms of the p53 protein. However, while the role of p53 in controlling normal cell cycle progression and tumor suppression is well established, the clinical significance of p53 isoform expression is unknown. A novel bioinformatic analysis of p53 isoform expression in 68 patients with acute myeloid leukemia revealed distinct p53 protein biosignatures correlating with clinical outcome. Furthermore, we show that mutated FLT3, a prognostic marker for short survival in AML, is associated with expression of full-length p53. In contrast, mutated NPM1, a prognostic marker for long-term survival, correlated with p53 isoforms ? and ? expression. In conclusion, p53 biosignatures contain useful information for cancer evaluation and prognostication. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved ...
The wild-type tumor-suppressor gene TP53 encodes several isoforms of the p53 protein. However, while the role of p53 in controlling normal cell cycle progression and tumor suppression is well established, the clinical significance of p53 isoform expression is unknown. A novel bioinformatic analysis of p53 isoform expression in 68 patients with acute myeloid leukemia revealed distinct p53 protein biosignatures correlating with clinical outcome. Furthermore, we show that mutated FLT3, a prognostic marker for short survival in AML, is associated with expression of full-length p53. In contrast, mutated NPM1, a prognostic marker for long-term survival, correlated with p53 isoforms ? and ? expression. In conclusion, p53 biosignatures contain useful information for cancer evaluation and prognostication.
Actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton and is present as two isoforms in non-muscle cells: β- and γ-cytoplasmic actin. These isoforms are strikingly conserved, differing by only four N-terminal amino acids. During spread from infected cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) particles induce localized actin nucleation that propel virus to surrounding cells and facilitate cell-to-cell spread of infection. Here we show that virus-tipped actin comets are composed of β- and γ-actin. We employed isoform-specific siRNA knockdown to examine the role of the two isoforms in VACV-induced actin comets. Despite the high level of similarity between the actin isoforms, and their colocalization, VACV-induced actin nucleation was dependent exclusively on β-actin. Knockdown of β-actin led to a reduction in the release of virus from infected cells, a phenotype dependent on virus-induced Arp2/3 complex activity. We suggest that local concentrations of actin isoforms may regulate the activity of cellular actin ...
Clone KVa7-6E7 specifically recognizes mouse dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin 2 (Dectin-2). Dectin-2 is a type II membrane protein and contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain. Like other C-type lectins, mouse Dectin-2 has conserved motifs for the Ca2+ -dependent recognition of mannose. Dectin-2 is located in the natural killer gene complex of chromosome 6. Genomic analyses show that beside a full length Dectin-2 transcript two truncated isoforms are produced by alternative splicing, encoding transmembrane proteins of 168-209 amino acids.¹, ² The expression of Dectin-2 on mouse monocytes and macrophages can be induced by zymosan and thioglycollate.3 Dectin-2 plays a physiological role in antigen presentation and antigen targeting via Dectin-2 can induce a CD8+ T cell response.4 - USA
Clone KVa7-6E7 specifically recognizes mouse dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin 2 (Dectin-2). Dectin-2 is a type II membrane protein and contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain. Like other C-type lectins, mouse Dectin-2 has conserved motifs for the Ca2+ -dependent recognition of mannose. Dectin-2 is located in the natural killer gene complex of chromosome 6. Genomic analyses show that beside a full length Dectin-2 transcript two truncated isoforms are produced by alternative splicing, encoding transmembrane proteins of 168-209 amino acids.¹, ² The expression of Dectin-2 on mouse monocytes and macrophages can be induced by zymosan and thioglycollate.3 Dectin-2 plays a physiological role in antigen presentation and antigen targeting via Dectin-2 can induce a CD8+ T cell response.4 - USA
Forschungsschwerpunkte:. - Signaltransduktion in soliden Tumoren. - Translationale Strategien im Bereich gastrointestinaler Tumoren, Biomarkerentwicklung und co-klinische 3D-Organoidkulturen. - Molekulare Regulation und Isoform-spezifische Funktion von Klasse I und II Phosphoinositid 3-Kinasen. - Onkogene Funktion von GTPasen der RAS und RHO Familien. Research interests:. - Signal transduction in solid tumours. - Translational research in GI malignancies, biomarker development, co-clinical 3D organoid cultures. - Molecular regulation and isoform-specific function of class I and II phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). - Oncogenic roles of small GTPases of the RAS and RHO families. ...
Renin catalyzes the first step in the activation pathway of angiotensinogen--a cascade that can result in aldosterone release,vasoconstriction, and increase in blood pressure. Renin, an aspartyl protease, cleaves angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin I converting enzyme, an important regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. Transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms and that arise from alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters have been described, but their full-length nature has not been determined. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause familial hyperproreninemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
By using random mutagenesis (for references, see Croyle et al., 1997) or chimeras between Na,K- and H,K-ATPase (Qiu et al., 2003), nearly 20 amino acids have been identified that influence the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to ouabain. These amino acids are located in several transmembrane segments and extracellular loops of the Na,K-ATPase α-subunit and are hypothesized to comprise the physical binding site or to affect indirectly ouabain binding by conformational changes. In this study, we have investigated the structural determinants that are responsible for the α isoform-specific differences in the ouabain binding kinetics and could identify new amino acids that are involved in ouabain binding and play a role in the access and release of ouabain to and from its binding site.. Results from previous kinetic studies of ouabain binding, which were performed mainly on Na,K-ATPase α1 isozymes, have suggested that the rate of association of ouabain to enzymes from different sources, both sensitive ...
Fisher, C. J., Jr., Agosti, J. M., Opal, S. M., Lowry, S. F., Balk, R. A., Sadoff, J. C., Abraham, E. et al., Treatment of septic shock with the tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein. The Soluble TNF Receptor Sepsis Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996. 334: 1697-1702 ...
Alternative splicing is thought to occur in 41-60% of genes in the human genome (Black, 2003; Herbert, 2004). Pre‐mRNAs can give rise to multiple protein isoforms with different functions and these variations contribute to protein diversity (Black, 2003). Alternative splicing also provides an additional regulatory mechanism by which vertebrates can control the expression of tissue‐specific or developmental stage‐specific protein isoforms. RNA‐binding proteins that regulate alternative splicing bind to sequence‐specific elements in the pre‐mRNA to enhance or repress inclusion of alternative exons. Aberrant regulation of alternative splicing can cause the expression of inappropriate splicing patterns leading to human disease (Faustino and Cooper, 2003). An example of a disease that alters the function of RNA‐binding proteins to cause misregulated alternative splicing is myotonic dystrophy (DM). Interestingly, the effects on splicing in DM1 are thought to be limited to specific ...
Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Hu, Ms. Application: IHC-P. Specificity: Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (Leucocyte Typing Workshop V). Its epitope is resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, the most common being the standard 85-95kDa or hematopoietic variant (CD44s). Higher molecular weight isoforms are described in epithelial cells (CD44v), which are believed to function in intercellular adhesion and stromal binding. CD44 immunostaining is commonly used for the discrimination of urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in-situ from non-neoplastic changes in the urothelium.. Package: 100μg. ...
This study describes the cloning and characterization of complete splice isoforms of DmNav present in Drosophila embryos. Critically, it is during this stage that neurons first form the circuits that subsequently underpin larval behavior. The frequencies we observe for alternatively spliced exons a, b, c/d, e, and f are similar to those previously reported by Thackeray and Ganetzky (1994), indicating that our results are based on a sufficiently large number of clones to accurately represent the proportions of different transcripts in vivo. By analyzing the complete ORF, it has become apparent that exons j, h, and k are rarely used in the embryo, whereas exons i, f, and L are frequently included. Comparing our data to the frequency of spliced exons in DmNav ORFs recently isolated from adult CNS by ODonnell Olson et al. (2008) reveals some striking differences. Although the number of splice isoforms isolated is remarkably similar (27 vs. 29), only 3 variants were isolated from both stages. The ...
A turning point in the conception of Ezh1 came when the team discovered a truncated version of the protein. Many human genes encode several slightly different versions of a protein, known as isoforms, and the researchers realized that an additional band lurking in some images was in fact a shorter isoform of Ezh1.. Once our eyes were redirected to the short version, we immediately understood a number of things, recalled Orlando. The truncated isoform was in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus, and the team demonstrated that it acts as an environmental sensor regulating the activity of the full-length protein. Ezh1 needs a partner protein in order to tag genes, but the short isoform binds to the partner, trapping it in the cytoplasm, like keeping that protein on a leash. In stressed cells, the short isoform is degraded, releasing the partner to join full-length Ezh1 in the nucleus. Once the stress stops, short-Ezh1 once again traps the partner, stopping long-Ezh1 from acting, and the ...
We describe here two new positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors: the bis-alykylsulfonamide CMPDA, and the bis-carboxythiophene CMPDB. Analysis of cocrystals of each compound with l-glutamate and the GluA2 flop ligand binding core reveal that both compounds have overlapping binding sites with CTZ and CX614, within the previously described modulator binding pocket located at the interdimer interface and the clamshell hinges. Our studies suggest that this pocket is a powerful target for drug discovery of compounds that modulate AMPA receptors and is a possible site of action for endogenous metabolites (Prescott et al., 2006).. An initial concern about developing modulators of AMPA receptors was the perceived need to increase their affinity and to improve their subunit and splice isoform selectivity. In this regard, CMPDA and CMPDB provide important new insight. CMPDA and CMPDB effectively block desensitization at lower concentrations than some of the modulators described previously (Figs. ...
Autori: Neagoe C, Makarenko I, Opitz CA, Linke WA. Editorial: J Muscle Res Cell Motil. , 24, p.175-189 , 2003.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: isoforms, titin, species, heart, striated muscle. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/v48p72v9027r7003/. ...
... , Inc. (MTST) is a biotechnology company focused on discovering and developing personalized diagnostic and therapeutic treatment solutions for cancer patients. Our "driver-based" diagnostic biomarkers, based on the Mena protein isoforms, also serve as novel therapeutic targets for anti-metastatic drugs. Unlike surrogate cancer markers, which are indirect measures of cancer and its progression, driver-based biomarkers are the critical components of intracellular cancer pathways responsible for driving the aggressive activity of cancer cells. Our core expertise includes an understanding of the mechanisms and pathways that drive aggressive cancer, tumor cell invasion and metastasis.. MetaStat is developing therapeutic product candidates based on a novel approach that makes intracellular Mena protein isoforms drugable targets. MetaStat s head office, research laboratories, and state-of-the-art CLIA-certified diagnostic laboratory are located in Boston, MA.. ...
Techniques that regulate the level of protein expression by targeting genes at the DNA or RNA level have proven to be powerful strategies in the drive to understand protein expression and function. However, because of their very nature, these techniques are restricted in terms of speed, specificity and reversibility. For instance, these genetic methods of disrupting protein expression can take days to weeks; consequently, cellular and molecular compensation may occur, thereby obscuring expected phenotypes. In addition, as these genetic manipulations result in the eradication of all mRNA splice isoforms, as well as post-translationally modified versions of targeted proteins, these methods lack specificity and are largely limited to studying context-dependent protein function. Finally, the reversibility of these genetic manipulations, including many recently developed on-and-off inducible methods, is relatively slow (being achieved on a timescale of days to weeks) and is incomplete. These ...
A protein isoform is any of several different forms of the same protein. Different forms of a protein may be produced from related genes, or may be made from the same gene by alternative splicing. A large number of isoforms are caused by single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs, small genetic differences between alleles of the same gene. These occur at specific individual nucleotide (building block of dna-strand) positions within a gene.. ...
p53 is produced as various isoforms as the result of alternative splicing and promoter usage. One isoform, p53-beta, accelerates cellular arrest, while another isoform, delta-133p53 represses replicative senescence in cultured cells. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Abdul Mondal and colleagues at the National Cancer Institute evaluated the expression of these two p53 isoforms in T lymphocytes from healthy donors and donors with lung cancer.
From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. Overexpression of this gene has been shown to induce apoptosis in cells. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
20) Adinolfi E., Cirillo M., Callegari M.G., Chiozzi P., Pellegatti P., Falzoni S., Di Virgilio F. (2008) Characterization of P2X7 isoform B sheds light on the role of pore versus channel activity in P2X7 mediated life and death. Purines 2008 Meeting. Copenhagen, Denmark, 29 giugno-2 luglio 2008. Pubblicato su Purinergic Signalling 4: S141, 2008. ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tenascin family and teneurin subfamily. It is expressed in the neurons and may function as a cellular signal transducer. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009] ...
ELF2 is a nuclear protein that is conserved across several species. Multiple isoforms have been identified. Isoform 1 transcriptionally activates the LYN and BLK promoters and acts synergistically with RUNX1 to transactivate the BLK promoter, while isoform 2 is thought to function in repression of RUNX1-mediated transactivation.
CD45, 100 Tests. CD45 is a family of single chain transmembraneous glycoproteins consisting of at least four isoforms (220, 205, 190, 180 kDa) which share a common large intracellular domain.
CD45, 100 Tests. CD45 is a family of single chain transmembraneous glycoproteins consisting of at least four isoforms (220, 205, 190, 180 kDa) which share a common large intracellular domain.
Targeting properties and current properties of wild-type α1 subunit isoforms and COOH-terminal chimeras. (a) Isoform sequence composition of COOH termini in th
Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this master regulator role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs ...
Atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms play essential roles in lots of neural processes including synaptic plasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. the appearance of atypical PKCs in phrenic electric MRS 2578 motor neurons offers a construction within which to assess their function in respiratory electric motor control including book types of respiratory plasticity recognized to occur in this area. 2000 Provided their function in synaptic plasticity we questioned whether atypical PKCs can be found in the phrenic electric motor nucleus an integral site for respiratory electric motor plasticity (Mitchell proteins expression thats diminished as well as non-existent (e.g. Sanders and Ridyard 2000 Cell lifestyle circumstances change from the surroundings potentially resulting in altered proteins appearance. The strength of labeling within phrenic electric motor neurons described right here shows that atypical PKC isoforms possess the to be engaged in essential neuron-specific functions like the ...
Author: Hoehenwarter, W. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011; Keywords: comparative proteomics|br/|mass accuracy|br/|protein isoforms|br/|potato tuber|br/|lipoxygenase|br/|protease inhibitor|br/|phenotype|br/|genetic variability|br/|chromatography-mass-spectrometry|br/|liquid-chromatography|br/|structural diversity|br/|shotgun proteomics|br/|gene family|br/|quantitative proteomics|br/|arabidopsis-thaliana|br/|jasmonic acid|br/|accurate mass|br/|identification; Title: MAPA Distinguishes Genotype-Specific Variability of Highly Similar Regulatory Protein Isoforms in Potato Tuber
Background: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is controlled by the key regulatory proteins Tax and Rex. The concerted action of these proteins results in a two-phase kinetics of viral expression that depends on a time delay between their action. However, it is difficult to explain this delay, as Tax and Rex are produced from the same mRNA. In the present study we investigated whether HTLV-1 may produce novel mRNA species capable of expressing Rex and Tax independently.. Findings: Results revealed the expression of three alternatively spliced transcripts coding for novel Rex isoforms in infected cell lines and in primary samples from infected patients. One mRNA coded for a Tax isoform and a Rex isoform, and two mRNAs coded for Rex isoforms but not Tax. Functional assays showed that these Rex isoforms exhibit activity comparable to canonic Rex. An analysis of the temporal expression of these transcripts upon ex vivo culture of cells from infected patients and cell lines ...
Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this master regulator role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs ...
The active and passive contractile performance of skeletal muscle fibers largely depends on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform and the stiffness of the titin spring, respectively. Open questions concern the relationship between titin-based stiffness and active contractile parameters, and titins importance for total passive muscle stiffness. Here, a large set of adult rabbit muscles (n = 37) was studied for titin size diversity, passive mechanical properties, and possible correlations with the fiber/MHC composition. Titin isoform analyses showed sizes between ∼3300 and 3700 kD; 31 muscles contained a single isoform, six muscles coexpressed two isoforms, including the psoas, where individual fibers expressed similar isoform ratios of 30:70 (3.4:3.3 MD). Gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of two other giant muscle proteins, nebulin and obscurin, demonstrated muscle type-dependent size differences of ≤70 kD. Single fiber and single myofibril mechanics performed on a subset of muscles ...
[54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or CEACAM5) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. Its main function is cell adhesion, cell migration, and pathogen binding. CEACAM8 is expressed exclusively on granulocytes and used as granulocyte marker. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124469 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CEACAM8 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8". Khan WN, Frängsmyr L, Teglund S, et al. (1992). "Identification of three new genes and estimation of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen family". Genomics. 14 (2): 384-90. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80230-7. PMID 1427854. Oikawa S, Inuzuka C, Kuroki M, et al. (1991). "A specific heterotypic cell adhesion activity between members of carcinoembryonic antigen family, W272 and NCA, is mediated by N-domains". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (13): 7995-8001. PMID 2022629. Berling ...
Cardiomyocyte (CM) resting tension (RT) contributes to myocardial diastolic stiffness in patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF). The giant cytoskeletal protein titin modulates CM RT. CM RT falls when titin is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and when the compliant N2BA titin isoform is overexpressed relative to the stiff N2B titin isoform. Especially phosphorylation of the stiff N2B titin isoform lowers RT. To explore involvement of titin isoform phosphorylation in the high RT of CM of DHF patients, expression and phosphorylation of titin isoforms and RT of isolated CM were determined in LV myocardial biopsies of DHF patients (n=16), of controls (CON) (n=10) and of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) (n=20). All patients were free of coronary artery disease and their biopsies showed no inflammatory infiltration. CM were treated with Triton X-100, attached to a force transducer and stretched to a sarcomere length of 2.2 microm to measure RT before and after administration of PKA. ...
A novel isoform ratio switch of the polypyrimidine tract binding proteins profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors

Protein isoform - WikipediaProtein isoform - Wikipedia

A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that perform the same or similar ... Each unique sequence produces a specific form of a protein. A set of protein isoforms may also result from a set of closely ... This is precisely the normal isoform ratio in hyperplasia. Only one of these isoforms is found during neoplasia. Gene isoform ... Pathoma, Fundamentals of Pathology MeSH entry protein isoforms Definitions Isoform. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_isoform

Protein isoform - wikidocProtein isoform - wikidoc

A protein isoform is a version of a protein with only small differences to another isoform of the same protein. Different forms ... the ability to create catalytically different proteins from the same gene increases the diversity of the proteome. Isoforms are ... The discovery of isoforms explains the apparently small number of coding genes revealed in the human genome project: ... A glycoform is an isoform where different ways of a glycoprotein have different polysaccharides attached to them, by either ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Protein_isoform&oldid=430250

Protein isoform - wikidocProtein isoform - wikidoc

A protein isoform is a version of a protein with only small differences to another isoform of the same protein. Different forms ... the ability to create catalytically different proteins from the same gene increases the diversity of the proteome. Isoforms are ... The discovery of isoforms explains the apparently small number of coding genes revealed in the human genome project: ... A glycoform is an isoform where different ways of a glycoprotein have different polysaccharides attached to them, by either ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Protein_isoform&mobileaction=toggle_view_mobile

Detection of Otosclerosis-Specific Measles Virus Receptor (Cd46) Protein IsoformsDetection of Otosclerosis-Specific Measles Virus Receptor (Cd46) Protein Isoforms

... Balázs Liktor,1 Péter Csomor,2 and Tamás ... M. Kawano, T. Seya, I. Koni, and H. Mabuchi, "Elevated serum levels of soluble membrane cofactor protein (CD46, MCP) in ... I. Schrauwen, M. Thys, K. Vanderstraeten et al., "Association of bone morphogenetic proteins with otosclerosis," Journal of ... M. B. Lanteri, M. S. Powell, D. Christiansen et al., "Inhibition of hyperacute transplant rejection by soluble proteins with ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/479482/ref/

PML protein isoforms and the RBCC/TRIM motif.  - PubMed - NCBIPML protein isoforms and the RBCC/TRIM motif. - PubMed - NCBI

PML protein isoforms and the RBCC/TRIM motif.. Jensen K1, Shiels C, Freemont PS. ... In this review we summarize the data on the known PML isoforms and splice variants and present a new unifying nomenclature. ... PML is a component of a multiprotein complex, termed nuclear bodies, and the PML protein was originally discovered in patients ... A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are synthesized from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11704850?dopt=Abstract

Alternative Splicing Generates Different Parkin Protein Isoforms: Evidences in Human, Rat, and Mouse BrainAlternative Splicing Generates Different Parkin Protein Isoforms: Evidences in Human, Rat, and Mouse Brain

... Soraya Scuderi,1 ... Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive ... Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed ... To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/690796/abs/

non-specific lipid-transfer protein isoform 5 precursor [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBInon-specific lipid-transfer protein isoform 5 precursor [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI

RefSeq protein isoforms See 11 reference sequence protein isoforms for the SCP2 gene. ... non-specific lipid-transfer protein isoform 5 precursor [Homo sapiens] non-specific lipid-transfer protein isoform 5 precursor ... Sterol carrier protein-2: binding protein for endocannabinoids. [Mol Neurobiol. 2014] Sterol carrier protein-2: binding protein ... Protein expression data [Model Organism Protein Expres...] Protein expression data. Model Organism Protein Expression Database ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/NP_001007100.1

FARA - Evaluation of antibodies for western blot analysis of frataxin protein isoformsFARA - Evaluation of antibodies for western blot analysis of frataxin protein isoforms

Evaluation of antibodies for western blot analysis of frataxin protein isoforms Details Written by Jane Larkindale Category: ... did not detect a protein in mouse heart tissue at 23.4 kDa. Therefore, antibodies detecting the immunoreactive protein at 23.4 ... Frataxin is the protein that is down-regulated in Friedreich ataxia (FA). There are currently no approved treatments for FA, ... Four protein standards of monkey, human, and mouse frataxin as well as mouse heart tissue were examined using polyacrylamide ...
more infohttp://www.curefa.org/scientific-news/funded-research/evaluation-of-antibodies-for-western-blot-analysis-of-frataxin-protein-isoforms

FARA - Evaluation of antibodies for western blot analysis of frataxin protein isoformsFARA - Evaluation of antibodies for western blot analysis of frataxin protein isoforms

Evaluation of antibodies for western blot analysis of frataxin protein isoforms Details Written by Jane Larkindale Category: ... did not detect a protein in mouse heart tissue at 23.4 kDa. Therefore, antibodies detecting the immunoreactive protein at 23.4 ... Frataxin is the protein that is down-regulated in Friedreich ataxia (FA). There are currently no approved treatments for FA, ... Four protein standards of monkey, human, and mouse frataxin as well as mouse heart tissue were examined using polyacrylamide ...
more infohttps://curefa.org/scientific-news/funded-research/evaluation-of-antibodies-for-western-blot-analysis-of-frataxin-protein-isoforms

Identification and Distribution of Uncoupling Protein Isoforms in the Normal and Diabetic Rat Kidney | SpringerLinkIdentification and Distribution of Uncoupling Protein Isoforms in the Normal and Diabetic Rat Kidney | SpringerLink

Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 and -3 are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body but there is currently no information ... regarding the expression and distribution of the different UCP isoforms in the... ... In conclusion, UCP-2 is the only isoform detectable in the kidney and UCP-2 protein can be detected in proximal tubular cells ... UCP-2 mRNA was the only isoform detected in the kidney. UCP-2 protein expression in the kidney cortex was localized to proximal ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-85998-9_32

BBS5 - Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5 protein isoform X1 - Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier) - BBS5 gene & proteinBBS5 - Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5 protein isoform X1 - Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier) - BBS5 gene & protein

Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A1U7SR99. Q8N3I7. A0A0S2Z626. K7CV40. Q7ZWB7. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A1U7SR99. Q8N3I7. A0A0S2Z626. K7CV40. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A1U7SR99

CNBP - cellular nucleic acid-binding protein isoform X4 - Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier) - CNBP gene & proteinCNBP - cellular nucleic acid-binding protein isoform X4 - Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier) - CNBP gene & protein

Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... cellular nucleic acid-binding protein isoform X4Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A1U7UH94

Rapid separation of protein isoforms by capillary zone electrophoresis with new dynamic coatings - Chang - 2005 -...Rapid separation of protein isoforms by capillary zone electrophoresis with new dynamic coatings - Chang - 2005 -...

Rapid separation of protein isoforms by capillary zone electrophoresis with new dynamic coatings. Authors. *. William W. P. ... They also appear to inhibit protein adsorption to the capillary wall, making the isoform separations highly reproducible both ... Many cellular functions are regulated through protein isoforms. Changes in the expression level or regulatory dysfunctions of ... Isoforms of transferrin and α1-antitrypsin have been implicated in several human diseases. By coupling the CZE isoform ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/elps.200410283/abstract

Expression Patterns of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Isoforms in Medulloblastoma Subtypes and Clinical Correlation.Expression Patterns of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Isoforms in Medulloblastoma Subtypes and Clinical Correlation.

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are known to be differentially expressed in brain tumours. The role of ... We evaluated the protein expression of 3 IGFBP isoforms (IGFBP-2, -3, -5) in medulloblastoma and correlated them with ... Expression Patterns of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Isoforms in Medulloblastoma Subtypes and Clinical Correlation ... Background: Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are known to be differentially expressed in brain tumours. The ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Expression-Patterns-Insulin-Like-Growth/25427587.html

Functional differences between Ultrabithorax protein isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from elimination,...Functional differences between Ultrabithorax protein isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from elimination,...

Ubx encodes a family of six developmentally specific homeodomain protein isoforms translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs. ... Functional differences between Ultrabithorax protein isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from elimination, ... Functional differences between Ultrabithorax protein isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from elimination, ... Functional differences between Ultrabithorax protein isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from elimination, ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/136/3/979

Different interactions of cardiac and skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors with FK-506 binding protein isoformsDifferent interactions of cardiac and skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors with FK-506 binding protein isoforms

... Barg, Sebastian ... Different interactions of cardiac and skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors with FK-506 binding protein isoforms}, volume = {272 ... In the present study, we compare functional consequences of dissociation and reconstitution of binding proteins FKBP12 and ... In the present study, we compare functional consequences of dissociation and reconstitution of binding proteins FKBP12 and ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1111605

Alternative 3 UTRs direct localization of functionally diverse protein isoforms in neuronal compartments | Max Delbrück Center...Alternative 3' UTRs direct localization of functionally diverse protein isoforms in neuronal compartments | Max Delbrück Center...

Alternative 3 UTRs direct localization of functionally diverse protein isoforms in neuronal compartments View in MDC ... Our analysis identified 593 genes with differentially localized 3UTR isoforms. In particular, we have shown that two isoforms ... isoforms as a novel mechanism to provide for differential localization of functionally diverse alternative protein isoforms. ... Moreover, we used SILAC to identify isoform-specific Cdc42 3UTR-bound proteome with potential role in Cdc42 localization and ...
more infohttps://www.mdc-berlin.de/research/publications/alternative-3-utrs-direct-localization-functionally-diverse-protein-isoforms

angiotensin-converting enzyme, somatic isoform Protein Superfamily Detailangiotensin-converting enzyme, somatic isoform Protein Superfamily Detail

MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein ... Term: angiotensin-converting enzyme, somatic isoform. ID: PIRSF037597 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more ... The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence ... You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/pirsf/PIRSF037597

High-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein isoforms I and Y | definition of high-mobility group (nonhistone...High-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein isoforms I and Y | definition of high-mobility group (nonhistone...

... protein isoforms I and Y? Meaning of high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein isoforms I and Y medical term. What ... protein isoforms I and Y explanation free. What is high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) ... does high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein isoforms I and Y mean? ... protein isoforms I and Y in the Medical Dictionary? high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/high-mobility+group+

Differential expression of C-protein isoforms in developing and degenerating mouse striated muscles. - Semantic ScholarDifferential expression of C-protein isoforms in developing and degenerating mouse striated muscles. - Semantic Scholar

In addition, although C isoform is expressed first and transiently during development of chicken skeletal muscles, C isoform is ... followed by the appearance of F isoform. Finally, in dystrophic mouse skeletal muscles, the expression of S isoform is ... It revealed that in adult mice, C, F, and S isoforms are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion, although the messages for both ... These observations suggest that mutations in C isoform (MyBP-C) do not lead to any disturbance in skeletal muscle, although ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Differential-expression-of-C-protein-isoforms-in-Kurasawa-Sato/e45f4bb311554cafc56569dd493bc34ab5ee9d06

Detection of protein isoforms with alternative N-termin | Open-iDetection of protein isoforms with alternative N-termin | Open-i

Panel (a) shows an N-terminally extended isoform of the human RND3 gene which has an in-frame CUG init ... Detection of protein isoforms with alternative N-termini. ... fig10: Detection of protein isoforms with alternative N-termini ... fig10: Detection of protein isoforms with alternative N-termini. Panel (a) shows an N-terminally extended isoform of the human ... Figure 10b shows a truncated isoform of the human CLK3 gene which Lee et al.12 found to initiate at an AUG codon downstream of ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3823065_wrna0004-0473-f10&req=4

Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein isoforms involved in EGF signalling. 
            -
            UCL DiscoveryQuantitative phosphoproteomics of protein isoforms involved in EGF signalling. - UCL Discovery

Individual post-translational changes in different proteins and in different isoforms of the same protein upon EGF stimulation ... Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein isoforms involved in EGF signalling. Doctoral thesis , University of London. ... Phosphoproteins were then enriched from the protein mixture using IMAC and displayed on 2D gels, allowing multiple isoform ... Major focus was given to Hsp8 isoforms, as they were found to be differentially involved in EGF signalling when tested with ...
more infohttps://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1445535/

New Science: Protein IsoformNew Science: Protein Isoform

Isoform IDP31946-2 Note: Contains a N-acetylmethionine at position 1 (By similarity). Features which should be applied to build ... Variables are micro codes, which are in every protein and every other organic compound. Were certain that these new ideas will ... As we can see, in protein from this example amino acids are interconnected by mathematical gravitation. Arithmetic expressions ...
more infohttp://lutvokuric.blogspot.com/2008/11/protein-isoform.html

Anti-BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody (ab791)Anti-BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody (ab791)

Goat polyclonal BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications ... Lane 1 : Anti-BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody (ab791) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 2 : anti- DYKDDDDK Tag at 1/3000 dilution. ... Lane 3 : Anti-BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody (ab791) at 1 mg/ml. Lane 1 : HEK293 lysate in RIPA buffer over ... Synthetic peptide: SMSSADVEVARF, corresponding to C terminal amino acids 509-520 of Human BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/bai1-associated-protein-2-isoform-3-antibody-ab791.html

Human BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 peptide (ab19041) ReferencesHuman BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 peptide (ab19041) References

References for Abcams Human BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 peptide (ab19041). Please let us know if you have used this ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/human-bai1-associated-protein-2-isoform-3-peptide-ab19041-references.html
  • Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to download protein sequences or forward to NCBI BLAST. (jax.org)
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (jax.org)
  • Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations. (hindawi.com)
  • To further understand the novel form of LHX3-associated disease involving loss of the protein carboxyl terminus, gene targeting techniques will be used to generate a mouse model of the disease carrying an equivalent mutation, allowing molecular and cellular characterization of the disease symptoms and progression, an approach that is not possible in the patients. (grantome.com)
  • In the present study, we compare functional consequences of dissociation and reconstitution of binding proteins FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 with ryanodine receptors from cardiac (RyR2) and skeletal muscle (RyR1). (lu.se)
  • The p38α and p38β isoforms are expressed in most tissues, but expression of p38γ is limited to the skeletal muscle ( 6 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, an enzyme superfamily responsible for the detoxification pathway of many drugs, environmental pollutants, and toxic endogenous compounds has 16 known isoforms encoded in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have, however, recently determined that mutations affecting distinct parts of the LHX3 protein are correlated with specific disease outcomes: mutations only compromising the carboxyl terminus are associated with a more restricted disease involving pituitary hormone deficiency but not nervous system problems. (grantome.com)
  • Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosome profiling: a Hi-Def monitor for protein synthesis at the genome-wide scale. (nih.gov)
  • By coupling the CZE isoform separation with standard affinity capture assays, it may be possible to develop a cost-effective analytical platform for clinical diagnostics. (wiley.com)
  • Phosphoproteins were then enriched from the protein mixture using IMAC and displayed on 2D gels, allowing multiple isoform separation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Their expression emerges from conflicting results regarding the electrophoretic mobility of the protein, but it is also assumed from discrepant observations on the cellular and tissue distribution of parkin. (hindawi.com)
  • These data show that the three C/EBPs isoforms are involved in the regulation of haptoglobin. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have not been deeply investigated yet. (hindawi.com)
  • Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 and -3 are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body but there is currently no information regarding the expression and distribution of the different UCP isoforms in the kidney. (springer.com)
  • UCP-2 protein expression in the kidney cortex was localized to proximal tubular cells, but not glomerulus or distal nephron. (springer.com)
  • M. Friederich, J. Olerud, A. Fasching, P. Liss, P. Hansell, and F. Palm, Uncoupling protein 2 in diabetic kidneys: Increased protein expression correlates to increased non-transport related oxygen consumption, Adv Exp Med Biol In press ((2007). (springer.com)
  • Changes in the expression level or regulatory dysfunctions of isoforms often lead to developmental or pathological disorders. (wiley.com)
  • Expression Patterns of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Isoforms in Medulloblastoma Subtypes and Clinical Correlation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We find that this allele only produces mRNAs of type IVa, but the expression pattern of the resulting UBX-IVa protein is indistinguishable from that of total UBX protein expression in wild-type embryos. (genetics.org)
  • By contrast, expression of these isoforms in hematopoietic cells, especially during erythroid maturation, has not been examined. (pnas.org)
  • However, whether expression of isoforms is differentiation stage-specific has not been explored. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional modification process which is the major molecular mechanism that contributes to the protein diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biochemical mechanism by which proteins such as LHX3 exert their critical functions is poorly understood. (grantome.com)
  • The mechanism of LHX3-mediated transcription will be investigated by characterizing a protein complex that interacts with the carboxyl terminal domains of LHX3 that are required for pituitary gene regulation. (grantome.com)
  • Figure 3 illustrates why ribosome profiling of initiating ribosomes is particularly suitable for the detection of alternative protein isoforms (extensions and truncations of annotated CDS). (nih.gov)
  • The four p38 MAPK isoforms are defined by the common TGY motif and has significant homology with each other at the amino acid level ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are synthesized from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ranging in molecular weight from 48-97 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • A potent new concept and methodology is outlined for wider investigations of molecular dynamics and for guiding the selection of candidate proteins and their modification for further studies. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Many cellular functions are regulated through protein isoforms. (wiley.com)
  • There are currently no approved treatments for FA, although experimental approaches involving up-regulation or replacement of mature frataxin protein through numerous approaches are being tested. (curefa.org)
  • Therefore, antibodies detecting the immunoreactive protein at 23.4 kDa could be misleading when testing for the up-regulation of frataxin in animal models. (curefa.org)
  • This increased phosphorylation/activity was accompanied by up-regulation of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
  • These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is also interest in understanding the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of oogenesis and the cell cycle during oocyte maturation and in early development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Additional observations suggest that UBX isoforms also differ in their ability to function in other tissues. (genetics.org)
  • Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI1)-binding protein may be involved in neuronal growth-cone guidance. (abcam.com)
  • This interaction at the cytoplasmic membrane is crucial to the function of this protein, which may be involved in neuronal growth-cone guidance. (abcam.com)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)
  • To determine the role of different C/EBP isoforms in vivo , we generated IEC-6 rat intestinal epithelial cell lines stably expressing different C/EBP isoforms and dominant-negative C/EBPs, by infection with the retroviral vector pBabepuro. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • It also associates with a downstream effector of Rho small G proteins, which is associated with the formation of stress fibers and cytokinesis. (abcam.com)
  • Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • As discussed in the section Ribosome Profiling of Initiating Ribosomes, initiation at alternative sites both upstream and downstream of the annotated protein coding ORFs is pervasive. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our data demonstrate that both p38α and δ isoforms function to promote the late-stage differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors and are likely to be involved in functions related to erythrocyte membrane remodeling and enucleation. (pnas.org)
  • The proteins bind to a diverse set of target proteins and alter cellular function by binding to and causing conformational changes in target proteins or modifying target protein interactions with other proteins. (biomedcentral.com)