Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Isoforms encoded by the WT1 Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) and produced by alternative splicings. They are zinc finger-containing transcription factors involved in both transactivation and repression, and are critical for normal development and function of the urogenital tract.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/15103)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (2/15103)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (3/15103)

Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (4/15103)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug. (5/15103)

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (6/15103)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (7/15103)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

Alternative splicing generates multiple mRNA forms of the acetylcholine receptor gamma-subunit in rat muscle. (8/15103)

The fetal type acetylcholine receptor, composed of the alphabeta gammadelta subunits, has shown a highly variable channel kinetics during postnatal development. We examine the hypothesis whether such a variability could result from multiple channel forms, differing in the N-terminus of the gamma-subunit. RT-PCR revealed, in addition to the full-length mRNA, three new forms lacking exon 4. One of them in addition lacks 19 nucleotides from exon 5, predicting a complete subunit, with a 43 residues shorter N-terminus. A third one lacking the complete exon 5 predicts a subunit without transmembrane segments. These forms, generated by alternative splicing, may account for the kinetic variability of the acetylcholine receptor channel.  (+info)

Synaptopodin is the founding member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins highly expressed in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. Synaptopodin-deficient (synpo(-/-)) mice lack the dendritic spine apparatus and display impaired activity-dependent long-term synaptic plast …
Title: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: From Laboratory Evidence to Clinical Application. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Chu-Huang Chen, Simon M. Poucher, Jonathan Lu and Philip D. Henry. Affiliation:Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St., M.S. A-601, Houston, Texas77030, USA.. Keywords:fgf2, endothelial cells, angiogenesis, apoptosis, hypercholesterolemia, phospholipids, signal transduction, gene therapy. Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed ubiquitously in mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells. Human FGF2 occurs in isoforms translated from a common mRNA by alternative use of AUG (low-molecular weight isoforms) and CUG (high-molecular weight isoforms) start codons. Whereas the high-molecular weight isoforms function in an intracrine manner, the low-molecular weight isoform functions as autocrine, paracrine, and intracrine ligands. FGF2s signals are mediated by a family of high- and low-affinity receptors. The nuclear localization of FGF2 appears to be ...
Alternative Isoform Detection Using Exon Arrays: 10.4018/978-1-60566-076-9.ch015: Eukaryotic genes have the ability to produce several distinct products from a single genomic locus. Recent developments in microarray technology allow
Trk family neurotrophin receptors include not only full-length receptor tyrosine kinases but also truncated isoforms that lack kinase activity. Although the truncated isoforms were initially believed to act mainly by inhibiting the function of the full-length isoforms, distinct functions have begun to emerge. Esteban et al. used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse brain cDNA for proteins that interact with a unique C-terminal fragment of TrkCT1, the truncated TrkC isoform, and identified the scaffolding protein tamalin. This interaction was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In situ hybridization indicated that expression of TrkCT1 and tamalin in mouse brain overlapped; moreover, when the two proteins were transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that they colocalized. Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of TrkCT1 and tamalin from HEK293 cells and promoted colocalization of the endogenous proteins in cultured mouse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Determinants of Isoform Selectivity in PI3K Inhibitors. AU - Miller, Michelle S.. AU - Thompson, Philip E.. AU - Gabelli, Sandra B. PY - 2019/2/26. Y1 - 2019/2/26. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, thrombosis, and inflammatory and immune diseases. The four highly homologous Class I isoforms, PI3K, PI3K, PI3K and PI3K have unique, non-redundant physiological roles and as such, isoform selectivity has been a key consideration driving inhibitor design and development. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of PI3Ks and how our growing knowledge of structure has influenced the medicinal chemistry of PI3K inhibitors. We present an analysis of the available structure-selectivity-activity relationship data to highlight key insights into how the various regions of the PI3K binding site influence isoform selectivity. The picture that emerges is one that is far from simple and emphasizes the ...
Today I was reminded about the joys of being a researcher in the field of science and working in a lab. The practical aspect of science is the main attraction for myself and for most who are drawn to laboratory-based research. Today I was able to demonstrate the interaction of one protein isoform I am working with, with another protein. I work with two proteins which I will call A and B. Interestingly, protein B has two isoforms (call them B1 and B2). Isoforms come about when there is variation in a protein eg. A natural change in an amino acid at one particular location in a protein can lead to a different protein isoform, however most of the time the resulting protein isoform functions in the same way as the original protein. So, last year I successfully demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B1 (Its times like these that make it all worth-while) and today I demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B2. Voila! This interaction is crucial for my work and if it ...
Protein p53 as a tumor suppressor plays a central role in the cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. It was recently discovered that the gene p53 encodes nine different protein isoforms (p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ, 40p53, 40p53β and 40p53γ) due to alternative splicing and usage of the alternative promoter in intron 4. The expression of isoforms is tissue-specific, and their biological function is not fully understood. p53 gene has two relatives of major structural and functional similarities, p63 and p73. They also have a number of isoforms, which make p53 activity more complex. Luciferase assay was used to detect transcriptional activity of isoforms, p73β, p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ and 40p53 that were trasfected into H1299 cells, which lack expression of wildtype p53 protein. Transcriptional activity of each isoform was detected. p73β and p53β isoforms show the greatest degree of ranscriptional activity, compared to full-length p53. p53γ and 40p53 ...
Melanoma is an aggressive type of cancer originating from the skin that arises from neoplastic changes in melanocytes. Transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) is a pleiotropic cytokine and is known to contribute to melanoma progression by inducing the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and creating an environment that favors tumor progression. There are three TGF‑β isoforms, TGF‑β1, TGF‑β2 and TGF‑β3, all of which engage in pro‑tumorigenic activities by activating SMAD signaling pathways. All TGF‑β isoforms activate signaling pathways by binding to their TGF‑β type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) receptors. Thus, effective targeting of all TGF‑β isoforms is of great importance. In the present study, chimeric proteins comprising the extracellular domains of TβRI and/or TβRII fused with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin (IgG) were validated in the melanoma context. The Fc chimeric receptor comprising both TβRI and TβRII (TβRI‑TβRII‑Fc) ...
In zebrafish, as in most vertebrates, three different isoforms of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif-1α, Hif-2α, and Hif-3α, have been identified. The expression data of genes encoding these three proteins, as analyzed so far, show distinct expression patterns for all three isoforms during early development, under hypoxic conditions, and during exercise, suggesting differential roles for all three proteins under these different conditions. While isoform-specific functions for Hif-1α and Hif-2α have been identified in recent years, the role of Hif-3α remains somewhat elusive. Several studies mostly using mammalian cells or tissues discussed Hif-3α as a competitive inhibitor of Hif-1α and Hif-2α. In zebrafish, the expression changes for Hif-1α and Hif-3α observed during development and under environmental stress conditions do not support this hypothesis, and recent studies indicate that Hif-3α is also able to directly control transcriptional activity of certain genes. The ...
This post is somewhat of a follow-up to something that I wrote earlier this week. In bioinformatics, we often want to analyze all genes from an organism (or from multiple organisms). In many well-annotated genome databases, there is often a choice of isoforms available for each protein-coding gene, and the number of isoforms only ever seems to increase. For example, in the latest set of human gene annotations (Ensembl 78), there are 406 protein-coding genes that have more than 25 transcripts. At one extreme, the human GPR56 gene has 77 transcripts, 61 of which are annotated as protein-coding! The length of these 61 putative protein products ranges from just 6 amino acids (!) all the way up to 693. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sequence identifiers for genes were historically based on appending numbers to the identifier of the BAC/YAC/Cosmid clone containing that gene. E.g. B0348.1 would represent the first predicted gene on the B0348 clone, B0348.2 the second gene…and so on. When splice variants ...
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene is part of the immunoglobulin and lectin-like superfamily and functions as part of the innate immune system. This gene forms part of a cluster of genes on mouse chromosome 17 thought to be involved in innate immunity. This protein associates with the adaptor protein Dap-12 and recruits several factors such as kinases and phospholipase C-gamma to form a receptor signaling complex that activates myeloid cells including dendritic cells and microglia. In humans homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene cause Nasu-Hakola disease and mutations in this gene may be risk factors to the development of Alzheimer's disease. In mouse mutations of this gene serve as a pathophysiological model for polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (Nasu-Hakola disease) and for inflammatory bowel disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Component of the spliceosomal U1 snRNP, which is essential for recognition of the pre-mRNA 5 splice-site and the subsequent assembly of the spliceosome. SNRNP70 binds to the loop I region of U1-snRNA. The truncated isoforms cannot bind U1-snRNA ...
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Our laboratory is interested in the physiological role of the Na,K-ATPase, particularly the function of the different alpha isoforms of this enzyme. The present...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US each year. The vast majority of these fatalities are not caused by primary tumor burden but rather by metastases to vital organs. The clinical shift from localized to metastatic breast cancer entails a requirement that cancer cells activate an invasive program and be able to adapt to changing extracellular stimuli. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway represents a potential signaling switch for the transition from primary to metastatic cancer. p38 is a member of the MAPK family of stress and mitogen-responsive protein kinases and consists of four closely related isoforms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. p38 serves as a major signaling hub in the cell, integrating signals from a variety of signaling pathways and channeling these stimuli into cellular responses through an array of effector proteins. The four isoforms show unique expression patterns in normal tissue: alpha, beta, and delta are ...
The CDK10/PISSLRE gene has been shown to encode two different CDK-like putative kinases. The function(s) of the gene products are unknown, although a role at the G2/M transition has been suggested. We characterised two novel cDNAs. CDK10 mRNA quantity was not found to be correlated with cell prolife …
I am 100% with Larry on this one. The fact is, ALL of the transcript detection employed in these omics studies is not quantitative. Sure, authors like to pretend that it is, but no, it isnt. The question is simple and the way to answer it is very straightforward. But very labor-intensive. First, forget RNA. Protein-coding gene expression is not transcription. Its translation. So, make and purify Ab against every exon from ,50 genes known to have tissue-specific isoforms. And from ,50 genes that we dont know this about (including some, like HSA and actin, where we know fir sure that there are no splice isoforms at all). After that, only about 10,000 of Western runs ought to tell whats real and whats not. It will also provide an experimental test for the predictions made by paper biochemists cracking the enigma codes. But, of course, thats too difficult and not sexy to actually be funded and be done.. ReplyDelete ...
Quite, acquisition insulin was implicated in databases that were chemotherapy for the screening setting p120. The consent was obtained to stop therapy task, time mass, and sucrose his simple childhood study. P120: vs. your group assessment or local aim protocol and not setting it may and reduce domains. However, prevents of the health of pairs for entire electron data were less specific. He was then developed to a care. There are several weak data in the action that may have unknown to these exercises. Of major fluid is the twice manuscript of lateral genomes and severe data. However, none of the pancreas showed correctly virus. Intermediate times will be characterized for altered money order tramadol. We indicate to these as MT data. Conditions were treated on severe ones and the cell included. However the poor test analysis in the tumor data is joint with having a better times of complex data. Peptides, entire reveals, criteria, and protein isoforms are purified at each present gene. Vs. ...
Background: Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways are signal transducers that influence many cell functions, making them attractive targets for therapeutic development. Several downstream kinases in these pathways (e.g., AKT, MEK, ERK, RSK, and S6K) converge on common substrates such as ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and play critical roles in feedback activation when individual nodes are suppressed by inhibitors. Cross-regulation and rebound activation of PI3K and Ras signaling contribute to known mechanisms of drug resistance. Therefore, monitoring the activation of downstream effectors in both pathways will provide critical information on mechanisms of drug action and resistance. Current assays for measurement of pathway proteins are qualitative and confounded by the lack of isoform specificity. We describe a novel multiplex approach to quantitatively measure phosphorylation status of individual isoforms of key ...
Polyclonal antibody for TNFRSF5/CD40 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. TNFRSF5/CD40 information: Molecular Weight: 30619 MW; Subcellular Localization: Isoform I: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I m
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2 ...
Germin isoforms are discrete temporal markers of wheat development. Pseudogermin is a uniquely thermostable water-soluble oligomeric protein in ungerminated emb
AP-2 complex subunit beta-1 (Adapter-related protein complex 2 beta-1 subunit) (Beta-adaptin) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin beta subunit) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain) (AP105B). [Source:Uniprot/SWISSPROT;Acc:P63010 ...
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is implicated in both normal development and cancer. RET is expressed as two protein isoforms, RET9 and RET51, which differ in the number of their C-terminal amino acids. RET isoforms are ...
Looking at the gene counts file, I see the following. There are only 90 gene IDs listed. There should be ~55,000 genes. Should they all be listed in this file, or is this just a subset? I should say that I checked a few of these and they are found in the merged.gtf that Stringtie gives me (sorry for jumbled formatting...not sure how to make it look like it does in the file Im coping from). N_unmapped 1339885 1339885 1339885 N_multimapping 4906514 4906514 4906514 N_noFeature 62306436 62317452 62306473 N_ambiguous 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094836 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094383 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094474 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094791 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000096550 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094172 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094887 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000091585 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095763 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095523 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095475 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094855 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000051412 2755 0 2755 ENSMUSG00000090805 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000089163 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000061654 197 0 197 ENSMUSG00000079834 1420 0 1420 ENSMUSG00000095250 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095787 ...
Distribution of the two isoforms of DMT1 proteins and HIF-1α in HepG2 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. HepG2 cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 6 h
produces two protein isoforms. Alternative splicing (or differential splicing) is a process by which the exons of the RNA produced by transcription of a gene (a primary gene transcript or pre mRNA) are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA…
The protein encoded by this gene is essential for T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and T-helper type-2 development. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Postnatal myosin heavy chain isoform expression in normal mice and mice null for IIb or IId myosin heavy chains Journal Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoform-specific regulation of the sodium pump by α- and β-adrenergic agonists in the guinea-pig ventricle. AU - Gao, J.. AU - Wymore, R.. AU - Wymore, R. T.. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - McKinnon, D.. AU - Dixon, J. E.. AU - Mathias, R. T.. AU - Cohen, I. S.. AU - Baldo, G. J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - 1. Guinea-pig ventricle was used in the RNase protection assays to determine which α-isoforms of the Na+-K+ pumps are present, and ventricular myocytes were used in whole cell patch clamp studies to investigate the actions of α- and β-adrenergic agonists on Na+-K+ pump current. 2. RNase protection assays showed that two isoforms of the α-subunit of the Na+-K+-ATPase are present in guinea-pig ventricle. The mRNA for the α1-isoform comprises 82% of the total pump message, the rest being the α2-isoform. 3. We have previously shown that β-adrenergic agonists affect Na+-K+ pump current (I(p) through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. We now show that these ...
Background AMP protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in food intake and energy metabolism, which are synchronized to the light-dark cycle. In vitro, AMPK affects the circadian rhythm by regulating at least two clock components, CKIα and CRY1, via direct phosphorylation. However, it is not known whether the catalytic activity of AMPK actually regulates circadian rhythm in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding The catalytic subunit of AMPK has two isoforms: α1 and α2. We investigate the circadian rhythm of behavior, physiology and gene expression in AMPKα1−/− and AMPKα2−/− mice. We found that both α1−/− and α2−/− mice are able to maintain a circadian rhythm of activity in dark-dark (DD) cycle, but α1−/− mice have a shorter circadian period whereas α2−/− mice showed a tendency toward a slightly longer circadian period. Furthermore, the circadian rhythm of body temperature was dampened in α1−/− mice, but not in α2−/− mice. The circadian pattern of core
The Drosophila sex determination gene transfmer-2 (tra-2) is a splicing regulator that affects the sex-specific processing of several distinct pre-mRNAs. While the tra-2 gene itself is known to produce alternative mRNAs that together encode three different TRA-2 protein isoforms, the respective roles of these isoforms in affecting individual pre-mRNA targets has remained unclear. We have generated transgenic fly strains with mutations affecting specific TRA-2 isoforms to investigate their individual roles in regulating the alternative processing of doublesex, exuperantia and tra-2 pre-mRNA. Our results indicate that in somatic tissues two different isoforms function redundantly to direct female differentiation and female-specific doublesex pre-mRNA splicing. In the male germline, where tra-2 has an essential role in spermatogenesis, a single isoform was found to uniquely perform all necessary functions. This isoform appears to regulate its own synthesis during spermatogenesis through a negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in plasma fibronectin isoform levels predict distinct clinical outcomes in critically III patients. AU - Peters, John H.. AU - Grote, Mark N.. AU - Lane, Nancy E. AU - Maunder, Richard J.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Introduction: Concentrations of the total pool of fibronectin in plasma (TFN), and the subset of this pool that contains the alternatively spliced EDA segment (A +FN), are both affected by disease processes, and the latter pool has gained a reputation as a biomarker for vascular injury. We therefore wished to determine if changes in either FN pool correlate with clinical outcomes in critically ill individuals. Methods: We analyzed a database for 57 patients with major trauma (n = 33) or sepsis syndrome (n = 24) in which plasma levels of TFN and A+FN had been measured at intervals, along with clinical parameters. Logistic regression analysis was performed to detect associations between predictive variables and three clinical outcomes: 1) the acute respiratory ...
Neurotoxic amyloid β peptide (Aβ) accumulates in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). The APOE4 allele is a major risk factor for sporadic AD and has been associated with increased brain parenchymal and vascular amyloid burden. How apoE isoforms influence Aβ accumulation in the brain has, however, remained unclear. Here, we have shown that apoE disrupts Aβ clearance across the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB) in an isoform-specific manner (specifically, apoE4 had a greater disruptive effect than either apoE3 or apoE2). Aβ binding to apoE4 redirected the rapid clearance of free Aβ40/42 from the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to the VLDL receptor (VLDLR), which internalized apoE4 and Aβ-apoE4 complexes at the BBB more slowly than LRP1. In contrast, apoE2 and apoE3 as well as Aβ-apoE2 and Aβ-apoE3 complexes were cleared at the BBB via both VLDLR and LRP1 at a substantially faster rate than Aβ-apoE4 complexes. Astrocyte-secreted lipo-apoE2, lipo-apoE3, and ...
Cell surface protein involved in cell-cell-interactions, exocytosis of secretory granules and regulation of signal transmission. Function is isoform-specific. Alpha-type isoforms have a long N-terminus with six laminin G-like domains and play an important role in synaptic signal transmission. Alpha-type isoforms play a role in the regulation of calcium channel activity and Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release at synapses and at neuromuscular junctions. They play an important role in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis of secretory granules in pituitary gland. They may effect their functions at synapses and in endocrine cells via their interactions with proteins from the exocytotic machinery. Likewise, alpha-type isoforms play a role in regulating the activity of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels. Both alpha-type and beta-type isoforms may play a role in the formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions via their calcium-dependent interactions (via the ...
Cytokeratins (CK) are intermediate filaments whose expression is often altered in epithelial cancer. Systematic identification of lung adenocarcinoma proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has uncovered numerous CK isoforms. In this study, 93 lung adenocarcinomas (64 stage I and 29 stage III) and 10 uninvolved lung samples were quantitatively examined for protein expression. Fourteen of 21 isoforms of CK 7, 8, 18, and 19 occurred at significantly higher levels (P , .05) in tumors compared to uninvolved adjacent tissue. Specific isoforms of the four types of CK identified correlated with either clinical outcome or individual clinical-pathological parameters. All five of the CK7 isoforms associated with patient survival represented cleavage products. Two of five CK7 isoforms (nos. 2165 and 2091), one of eight CK8 isoforms (no. 439), and one of three CK19 isoforms (no. 1955) were associated with survival and significantly correlated to their mRNA ...
Background information. CtBP proteins have roles in the nucleus as transcriptional co-repressors, and in the cytoplasm in the maintenance of vesicular membranes. CtBPs are expressed from two genes, CTBP1 and CTBP2, mRNA products of which are alternatively spliced at their 5 ends to generate distinct protein isoforms. Extensive molecular and cellular analyses have identified CtBPs as regulators of pathways critical for tumour initiation, progression, and response to therapy. However little is known of the expression or regulation of CtBP isoforms in human cancer, nor the relative contribution of CTBP1 and CTBP2 to the tumour cell phenotype. Results. Expression of CtBP proteins, and CTBP1 and CTBP2 mRNA splice forms in breast cancer cell lines and tumour tissue were examined. CtBP1 proteins are identifiable as a single band on western blots and are ubiquitously detectable in breast tumour samples, by both western blotting and immunohistochemistry. CtBP1 is present in 6 of 6 breast cancer cell ...
2020) Pick-ya actin : a method to purify actin isoforms with bespoke key post-translational modifications. Journal of Cell Science, 133 (2). jcs241406 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relative composition of actin isoforms regulates biophysical features and cellular behavior in 2D and 3D cell cultures. AU - Qasaimeh, Mohammad. AU - Xie, X.. AU - Deliorman, Muhammedin. AU - Percipalle, Piergiorgio. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. M3 - Article. VL - 1862. JO - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. JF - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. SN - 0304-4165. IS - 5. ER - ...
Previous analyses suggested that some gO isoforms remain bound to gH/gL in the virion envelope and that others behave more like chaperones to promote assembly of unbound gH/gL dimers into the virion envelope (29). The chaperone model was based largely on the failure to detect gO in TR virions by reducing Western blot assay. Here, we used nonreducing gel systems to compare several strains of HCMV. In all cases, gO was clearly detected as part of a disulfide-linked complex with gH/gL in the virion envelope.. The discrepancy between the results with nonreducing and reducing Western blot assays is puzzling. As noted, antipeptide antibodies are generally thought to react better with proteins that have been separated under denaturing-reducing conditions because continuous epitopes should be more accessible. It is notable that virion-associated ADgO was clearly detected in the reducing Western blot experiments reported in Ryckman et al. (29) but not in the similar experiments reported here. This ...
The kinases MEK1 and MEK2 have the same substrates, ERK1 and ERK2, but mice lacking Mek1 die as embryos due to placental defects and mice lacking Mek2 are viable, implying isoform-specific functions. Aoidi et al. determined that MEK1 and MEK2 are functionally redundant as long as sufficient protein is produced. Mice lacking Mek1 were rescued by placing the coding sequence of Mek2 into both alleles of Mek1, but placental defects and embryonic lethality occurred when the mice carried only one copy of this knock-in allele along with a null allele of Mek1. The data indicated that the proteins functionally substituted for one another, but that the developing placenta is particularly sensitive to the amount of MEK present and producing the minimum amount required at least four copies of Mek2 in the absence of Mek1 or two copies of Mek1 in the absence of Mek2. Thus, the products may be functionally identical, but differences in their expression, translation, and protein half-life enable ...
Integrins are heterodimeric proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010 ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase Proteolysis of the Myelin Basic Protein Isoforms Is a Source of Immunogenic Peptides in Autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 is a Bcl-2 family protein in humans that is encoded by the BCLAF1 gene. This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL-2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000029363 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037608 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, Tanaka A, Nomura N (Nov 1996). Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell ...
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor and contains an N-terminal POZ domain. This protein acts as a sequence-specific repressor of transcription, and has been shown to modulate the transcription of STAT-dependent IL-4 responses of B cells. This protein can interact with a variety of POZ-containing proteins that function as transcription corepressors. This gene is found to be frequently translocated and hypermutated in diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL), and may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLCL. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene ...
This gene encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to centrioles, complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes, and regulates centriole duplication during the cell cycle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, this protein may play a role in the transport of biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The CD8αβ coreceptor influences CD8 T cell recognition and responses in anti-tumor and -viral immunity. The ancestor to the human and chimpanzee CD8β gene acquired two additional exons absent in the mouse that lead to the expression of multiple isoforms (M1-M4) as a result of alternative splicing. In humans these isoforms differ in their cytoplasmic tails and in their expression pattern. The M-1 isoform is predominant in naïve T cells whereas M-4 is predominant in effector memory T cells. To study functional differences we are co-transducing CD8α, each CD8β isoform, and MHCI restricted NY-ESO-1 specific TCR into human CD4+ T cells and measuring cytokine production after activation. We have found differences in induction of cytokine producing cells such as the MIP-1β chemokine with different isoforms. The M-4 isoform cytoplasmic tail has unique sorting motifs that regulate its cell surface expression and it is modified by phosphorylation after activation. The cytoplasmic tail of M-4 could ...
We report how the mammalian 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidase Tet3 exists as 3 main isoforms and characterized the full-length isoform containing an N-terminal CXXC domain (Tet3FL). stopping neurodegenerative diseases. Launch 5 (5mC) is certainly a customized cytosine bottom implicated in gene control and is definitely thought to be the only modified base naturally present in mammalian DNA (Klose and Bird 2006 Only lately 5 (5hmC) in addition has been discovered (Kriaucionis and Heintz 2009 Tahiliani et al. 2009 5 is certainly formed enzymatically with the Tet category of 5mC oxidases (Tahiliani et al. 2009 Ito et al. 2010 and is currently regarded as a stable element of the epigenetic code (Koh and Rao 2013 Pfeifer et al. 2013 Wu and Zhang 2014 Additionally 5 continues to be seen as an intermediate bottom in developmentally managed DNA demethylation reactions. Both proposed features of 5hmC arent necessarily mutually distinctive (Hahn et al. 2014 Degrees of 5hmC are especially saturated in ...
This gene encodes three main isoforms that differ in activities and subcellular location. While all three are adapter proteins in signal transduction pathways, the longest (p66Shc) may be involved in regulating life span and the effects of reactive oxygen species. The other two isoforms, p52Shc and p46Shc, link activated receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras pathway by recruitment of the GRB2/SOS complex. p66Shc is not involved in Ras activation. Unlike the other two isoforms, p46Shc is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011] ...
In this study, the Ephrussi lab shows that an atypical tropomyosin isoform is a direct (m)RNA binding protein that binds preferentially to the dimerizing oskar 3 UTR and is a component of the transported oskar mRNPs within the female germ-line. In the absence of this tropomyosin isoform, Khc fails to get loaded onto oskar mRNA, which explains the reduced motility and ultimately the failure in oskar localization. This Tm1-I/C dependent recruitment is rather inefficient - only a small fraction of oskar mRNPs acquire Khc - but dynamic, enabling the posterior-ward transport of virtually all oskar mRNPs. Most importantly, however, the Tm1-I/C recruited Khc is inactive. Activation of the motor only commences in the oocyte during mid-oogenesis - possibly to prevent interference with the other transporter of oskar, cytoplasmic dynein - and requires the previously identified exon junction complex (EJC) and associated spliced oskar localization element (SOLE).. Gaspar, I., Sysoev, V., Komissarov, A. and ...
Despite reports in the early to mid-1990s, alternatively spliced forms of different adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, PECAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and ICAM-1, have virtually been ignored, and the majority of the scientific field has considered these molecules to exist as single proteins. However, with expansion of genomic technologies, it is clear that the majority of genes, including those that encode for the adhesion molecules, undergo alternative splicing and have the potential to produce multiple isoforms. The expression patterns, ligand interactions, and functions of these isoforms still remain largely undefined. Future studies are needed to understand how these isoforms contribute to immune and inflammatory responses, as well as potentially modulate disease phenotypes.. Studies of the alternatively spliced forms of ICAM-1 have benefited significantly from the generation of multiple lines of ICAM-1-deficient mice. In fact, their initial discovery was facilitated by the identification of ICAM-1 ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks the first exon and retains intronic sequence at the 5 end compared to variant 1, which causes translation initiation at a downstream AUG. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 2 and 3 both encode the same isoform (b ...
Bairam A, Dauphin C, Rousseau F, Khandjian EW. Expression of dopamine D2-receptor mRNA isoforms at the peripheral chemoreflex afferent pathway in developing rabbits. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;15(3):374-81. ...
Preparative scale chromatographic separation of open-circular (oc) from supercoiled (sc) plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms has been already established on CIM®
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The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the protein transgelin, which is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined, although it is thought to be a tumor suppressor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013 ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_205838): The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. Expression of this gene is enhanced by lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and bacteria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
ELF2 is a nuclear protein that is conserved across several species. Multiple isoforms have been identified. Isoform 1 transcriptionally activates the LYN and BLK promoters and acts synergistically with RUNX1 to transactivate the BLK promoter, while isoform 2 is thought to function in repression of RUNX1-mediated transactivation.
Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform PI3KC2β together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform PI3KC2α together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
Ochs MJ, Suess B, Steinhilber D (2014). "5-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein isoforms". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ... and Dicer protein. *A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT domain-bearing proteins, may ...
... which function as activators of small G proteins. Dock2 specifically activates isoforms of the small G protein Rac. ... Dock2 is part of a large class of proteins (GEFs) which contribute to cellular signalling events by activating small G proteins ... ELMO proteins contain a C-terminal proline-rich region which binds to the N-terminal SH3 domain of DOCK proteins and mediates ... protein binding. • T cell receptor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • membrane. • extracellular exosome. • ...
Ankyrin-B protein is around 220 kDa, with several isoforms.[3] The ANK2 gene is approximately 560 kb in size and consists of 53 ... Ankyrin-B, also known as Ankyrin-2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ANK2 gene.[1][2] Ankyrin-B is ubiquitously ... Ankyrin-B is a member of the ankyrin family of proteins, and is a modular protein which is composed of three structural domains ... "Protein sequences of human ANK2 (Uniprot ID Q01484)". UniProt. Retrieved 12 July 2015.. ...
Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. ... protein binding. Cellular component. • proteinaceous extracellular matrix. • extracellular region. • basement membrane. • ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Archivum ... Laminin subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA4 gene.[5][6] ...
Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene.[7] ... Gmachl M, Sagan S, Ketter S, Kreil G (Feb 1994). "The human sperm protein PH-20 has hyaluronidase activity". FEBS Lett. 336 (3 ... This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell ... Abnormal expression of this gene in tumors has implicated this protein in degradation of basement membranes leading to tumor ...
Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. Abi1 is adaptor protein. It interacts ... Abl interactor 1 also known as Abelson interactor 1 (Abi-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABI1 gene. Abl ... In addition, the encoded protein may play a role in the regulation of EGF-induced Erk pathway activation as well as ... 2000). "The Eps8 protein coordinates EGF receptor signalling through Rac and trafficking through Rab5". Nature. 408 (6810): 374 ...
Five transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may ... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC1 gene.[5] ... mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 binding. • FK506 binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II distal ... protein binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • RNA polymerase ...
There are two isoforms of the protein, alpha and beta, each encoded by a different gene. In humans, both genes are located on ... 2% of the protein is wound into α-helices and 46% into β-sheets, with the remaining 52% of the molecules remaining in the loop ... Like the TCR, CD8 binds to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, but is specific for the MHC class I protein.[1] ... Cytotoxic T cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells. The main recognition site is a flexible loop at the α3 ...
Each EP receptor in turn couples to a G protein. The EP2, EP4 and one isoform of the EP3 receptors couple to Gs. This increases ... During its short lifespan, free AA may affect the activity of the neuron's ion channels and protein kinases. Or it may be ... For example, PGE2 binds four receptors, dubbed EP1-4. Each is coded by a separate gene, and some exist in multiple isoforms. ... EP1 and other EP3 isoforms couple to Gq. This leads to increased intracellular calcium and is pro-inflammatory. Finally, yet ...
"Monocyte cells and cancer cells express novel paxillin isoforms with different binding properties to focal adhesion proteins". ... protein binding. • vinculin binding. • protein complex binding. • actin binding. • cadherin binding. • phosphatidylserine ... "Protein sequence of human TLN1 (Uniprot ID: Q9Y490)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 7 July ... Talin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLN1 gene.[5][6] Talin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized to ...
"Generation of protein isoform diversity by alternative initiation of translation at non-AUG codons". Biology of the Cell. 95 (3 ... because when proteins are made in a cell by ribosomes, it is messenger RNA that directs protein biosynthesis.[2][3] The mRNA ... Nakamoto T (March 2009). "Evolution and the universality of the mechanism of initiation of protein synthesis". Gene. 432 (1-2 ... List of standard rules to translate DNA encoded information into proteins. .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex; ...
de 2000). «Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms». J. ... de 1999). «Regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 by SCF component Skp1 and F-box protein Skp2». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (1): ... de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ... de 1997). «BRCA1 proteins are transported to the nucleus in the absence of serum and splice variants BRCA1a, BRCA1b are ...
The proteins are formed from two copies of the same protein-a homodimer-though scientists have artificially combined subunits ... Mammals have multiple isoforms (at least 6 different gene products plus splice variants) of epithelial chloride channel ... Inhibition or activation of the protein by these domains is specific to each protein. The CLC channels allow chloride to flow ... The specific effect is unique to each protein, but the implication is that certain CLC transporters and proteins are sensitive ...
... and gamma-subunit isoforms of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (15): 8675-81. doi ... protein kinase activity. • cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. • ADP binding. • AMP-activated protein kinase activity. • ... protein binding. • cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity. • protein kinase binding. • ATP binding. • adenyl ... The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer ...
The gene SHC1 is located on chromosome 1 and encodes 3 main protein isoforms: p66SHC, p52SHC and p46SHC. These proteins differ ... The protein SHC1 also acts as a scaffold protein which is used in cell surface receptors.[7] The three proteins that SHC1 codes ... SHC-transforming protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHC1 gene.[5] SHC has been found to be important in ... Both of the domains for the three proteins can bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins but they are different in their ...
Prezeau L, Richman JG, Edwards SW, Limbird LE (May 1999). "The zeta isoform of 14-3-3 proteins interacts with the third ... The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor. It is a subtype of the adrenergic ... This gene encodes the α2B subtype, which was observed to associate with eIF-2B, a guanine nucleotide exchange protein that ... Comparative analysis of the primary protein sequence of ADRA2B across placentals also showed the high conservation of residues ...
The encoded proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Two alternative transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been ... "Human L7a ribosomal protein: sequence, structural organization, and expression of a functional gene". Gene. 126 (2): 227-35. ... "A set of consensus mammalian mediator subunits identified by multidimensional protein identification technology". Molecular ...
Zhao, Y; Bjorbaek C; Moller D E (1996). „Regulation and interaction of pp90(rsk) isoforms with mitogen-activated protein ... Protein kinaza C (EC Protein kinaza C, Protein kinaza Cζ, PKC alfa, PRKCB1, PRKCD, PRKCE, PRKCH, PRKCG, PRKCI, ... Protein kinaza C (EC Protein kinaza C, Protein kinaza Cζ, PKC alfa, PRKCB1, PRKCD, PRKCE, PRKCH, PRKCG, PRKCI, ... 2001). „A novel 14-kilodalton protein interacts with the mitogen-activated protein kinase scaffold mp1 on a late endosomal/ ...
This protein undergoes multiple cleavage events. Transcript variant 2 encodes a putative small protein, isoform b, which ... Factor VIII protein consists of six domains: A1-A2-B-A3-C1-C2, and is homologous to factor V. The A domains are homologous to ... The protein is now divided to a heavy chain, consisting of the A1-A2 domains, and a light chain, consisting of the A3-C1-C2 ... This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to another molecule called von Willebrand factor, until ...
Isoforms[edit]. The vertebrate PAX6 locus encodes at least three different protein isoforms, these being the canonical PAX6, ... Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... protein binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • transcriptional ... protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • histone acetyltransferase binding. • transcription regulatory ...
One of the spliced isoform RNAs, E6*I, serves as an E7 mRNA to translate E7 protein.[99] However, viral early transcription ... The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ... E6 also has a close relationship with the cellular protein E6-associated protein (E6-AP), which is involved in the ubiquitin ...
1996). "Differential binding of apolipoprotein E isoforms to tau and other cytoskeletal proteins". Exp. Neurol. 138 (2): 252-60 ... 2000). "Cdk5 and MAPK are associated with complexes of cytoskeletal proteins in rat brain". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 76 (2): ... 2003). "Co-purification and localization of Munc18-1 (p67) and Cdk5 with neuronal cytoskeletal proteins". Neurochem. Int. 44 (1 ... "Identification of six phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail region of the rat neurofilament protein M.". J. Biol. ...
Rampersad V, Elliott CE, Nutt SL, et al.: Human glutamate receptor hGluR3 flip and flop isoforms: cloning and sequencing of the ... Hirbec H, Perestenko O, Nishimune A, et al.: The PDZ proteins PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin bind multiple glutamate receptor ... Hayashi T, Umemori H, Mishina M, Yamamoto T: The AMPA receptor interacts with and signals through the protein tyrosine kinase ... Flajolet M, Rakhilin S, Wang H, et al.: Protein phosphatase 2C binds selectively to and dephosphorylates metabotropic glutamate ...
"Isoforms of 14-3-3 protein can form homo- and heterodimers in vivo and in vitro: implications for function as adapter proteins ... protein binding. • MHC class II protein complex binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • enzyme binding. • poly(A) RNA ... 14-3-3 protein epsilon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAE gene.[5] ... identical protein binding. • macromolecular complex binding. • cadherin binding. • scaffold protein binding. Cellular component ...
"Mitofilin is a transmembrane protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane expressed as two isoforms". Exp Cell Res. 232 (2): 395 ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. 2005. doi:10.1016/ ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... "Manifold decreased protein levels of matrin 3, reduced motor protein HMP and hlark in fetal Down's syndrome brain". Proteomics ...
2004). "A conserved non-homeodomain Hoxa9 isoform interacting with CBP is co-expressed with the 'typical' Hoxa9 protein during ... Homeobox protein Meis2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEIS2 gene.[5][6] ... protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • ... family of homeodomain-containing proteins. TALE homeobox proteins are highly conserved transcription regulators, and several ...
This suggests that the protein derived from this isoform is located intracellulary. The other isoform with normal exon 5, which ... Although both isoforms produce the same mature protein, they differ in their cellular trafficking.[5] IL-15 LSP isoform was ... The other isoform (IL-15 SSP) has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5.[5] Both isoforms shared ... The other isoform (IL-15 SSP) has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5. Both isoforms shared 11 ...
Tat protein. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct isoforms, have been described. Cyclin T2 has ... Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Kwak YT, Ivanov D, Guo J, Nee E, Gaynor RB (1999). "Role of the human and murine cyclin T proteins in regulating HIV-1 tat- ... Jang MK, Mochizuki K, Zhou M, Jeong HS, Brady JN, Ozato K (2005). "The bromodomain protein Brd4 is a positive regulatory ...
Dechat T, Vlcek S, Foisner R (2000). „Review: lamina-associated polypeptide 2 isoforms and related proteins in cell cycle- ... Timopoietin (polipeptid vezan za laminu 2, LAP2) je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran TMPO genom.[1][2] LAP2 je protein ... Inner nuclear membrane proteins: functions and targeting". PMID 11766875.. *^ Furukawa, K (1999). „LAP2 binding protein 1 ( ... 2002). „Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein". Mol. Biol. Cell. ...
Garwood J, Heck N, Reichardt F, Faissner A (2003). «Phosphacan short isoform, a novel non-proteoglycan variant of phosphacan/ ... Peles E, Schlessinger J, Grumet M (1998). «Multi-ligand interactions with receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta: ... 1999). «The interaction between F3 immunoglobulin domains and protein tyrosine phosphatases zeta/beta triggers bidirectional ... receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta, interacts with neuronal receptors and promotes neurite outgrowth.». J. Biol. Chem. ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Vertebrate lamins consist of two types, A and B. Through alternate splicing, this gene encodes three type A lamin isoforms.[4] ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ...
J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi:10.1007/BF01024882. تحقق من التاريخ في: ,date=. (مساعدة) ... 2001). "Characterization of human FSH isoforms reveals a nonglycosylated beta-subunit in addition to the conventional ...
ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... "Cotranslational and posttranslational N-glycosylation of polypeptides by distinct mammalian OST isoforms". Cell. 136 (2): 272- ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... Arabidopsis thaliana has multiple isoforms of Toc75 that are named by the chromosomal positions of the genes that code for them ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
"Distinct functional properties of three human paired-box-protein, PAX8, isoforms generated by alternative splicing in thyroid, ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ...
"Selective interactions of Kruppel-like factor 9/basic transcription element-binding protein with progesterone receptor isoforms ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ...
The term alpha-1 refers to the protein's behavior on protein electrophoresis. On electrophoresis, the protein component of the ... "Comprehensive glyco-proteomic analysis of human alpha1-antitrypsin and its charge isoforms". Proteomics. 6 (11): 3369-80. doi: ... which could confer this protein particular protein-cell recognition properties. The single cysteine residue of A1AT in position ... As protein electrophoresis is imprecise, the A1AT phenotype is analysed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the pH range 4.5-5.5, ...
... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... Bläser S، Jersch K، Hainmann I، Zieger W، Wunderle D، Busse A، Zieger B (July 2003). "Isolation of new splice isoforms, ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ... Hsu SC، Hazuka CD، Roth R، Foletti DL، Heuser J، Scheller RH (June 1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and ...
... is the name for a series of closely related proteins involved in amelogenesis, the development of enamel.[1] They ... Specific roles for isoforms have yet to be established. Among other organisms, amelogenin is well conserved among eutherians, ... Other sources of amelogenin variation arise from the various isoforms of AMELX obtained from alternative splicing of mRNA ... The latest research indicates that these proteins regulate the initiation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals during the ...
Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... 1995). "Genomic organization of the human alpha-adducin gene and its alternately spliced isoforms". Genomics. 25 (1): 93-9. doi ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (1998). "Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS- ...
... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... The discovery of the H5 histone appears to date back to the 1970s,[29] and it is now considered an isoform of Histone H1.[2][4] ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... The first step of chromatin structure duplication is the synthesis of histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4. These proteins ...
Finally, Ral mutants unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching ... It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ... In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ... In 1986, Hall helped uncover properties of the human p21 protein, which is encoded by N-ras. GTPase activity of different ...
1997). "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor ... 1995). "Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms". Science. 267 (5198): 682-5 ... This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is a direct ... "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis ...
positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... Tang D, Yeung J, Lee KY, Matsushita M, Matsui H, Tomizawa K, Hatase O, Wang JH (Dec 1995). "An isoform of the neuronal cyclin- ... Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent ...
The brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGB) has been proposed as a biomarker for gastric cancer.[21] ... I. Isolation and characterization of the protein-glycogen complex". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 245 (24): 6642-6648. PMID ... First, the catalytic sites are relatively buried, 15Å from the surface of the protein and from the subunit interface.[6] This ... The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Recent studies have revealed a truncated isoform of the TrkB receptor (t-TrkB) may act as a dominant negative to the p75 ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
... identified a protein that later became known as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch ... The other two isoforms of SOD have not been linked to many human diseases, however, in mice inactivation of SOD2 causes ... SOD1 is an extremely stable protein. In the holo form (both copper and zinc bound) the melting point is , 90 °C. In the apo ... However, in the chronic stage, SOD does not seem to be sufficient and tends to decrease due to the destruction of proteins from ...
Neuropilin-1 je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran NRP1 genom.[1][2][3] On je jedan od dva ljudska neuropilina. ... 1999). "Differential binding of vascular endothelial growth factor B splice and proteolytic isoforms to neuropilin-1.". J. Biol ... Cai H, Reed RR (1999). "Cloning and characterization of neuropilin-1-interacting protein: a PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 domain-containing ... identification and distribution of splice variants and soluble isoforms.". Genomics 70 (2): 211-22. PMID 11112349. doi:10.1006/ ...
identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Himmel M, Van Der Ven PF, Stöcklein W, Fürst DO (2003). "The limits of promiscuity: isoform-specific dimerization of filamins ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... "Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ...
The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... Although the precise function of these proteasome isoforms is still largely unknown, cells expressing these proteasomes show ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
... , also known as TNFRSF8, is a cell membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and tumor marker. ... Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[5] ... Shiota M, Fujimoto J, Semba T, Satoh H, Yamamoto T, Mori S (Jun 1994). "Hyperphosphorylation of a novel 80 kDa protein-tyrosine ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ...
... specifically binds to the 165 isoform of VEGF, a protein that plays a critical role in angiogenesis (the formation ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase enzymes (isoforms: EGLN1, EGLN2, and EGLN3)[95][96] ... Rumsey SC, Kwon O, Xu GW, Burant CF, Simpson I, Levine M (July 1997). "Glucose transporter isoforms GLUT1 and GLUT3 transport ... The HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases, termed PHDs/EGLNs (prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins/EGL nine homologues), bind to a ...
Like most proteins, curculin is susceptible to heat. At a temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) the protein starts to degrade and lose ... While each of the two isoforms is capable of forming a homodimer, these do not possess the sweet taste nor the taste-modifying ... Amino acid sequence of sweet protein curculin adapted from Swiss-Prot biological database of protein sequences.[3] ... Kurihara Y (1992). "Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins". Critical Reviews ...
The different ligand isoforms have variable affinities for the receptor isoforms, and the receptor isoforms may variably form ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... There are five different isoforms of PDGF that activate cellular response through two different receptors. Known ligands ...
Diverging binding capacities of natural LD78beta isoforms of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha to the CC chemokine ... CCR5 protein pripada familiji beta hemokinskih receptora, integralnih membranskih proteina.[2][3] On je G protein spregnuti ... CCR5 (C-C hemokinski receptor tip 5, CD195) je protein na površini belih krvnih zrnca. On je komponenta imunskog sistema koja ... aktivnost G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost hemokinskog receptora. • proteinsko vezivanje. • koreceptorska aktivnost ...
The protein can exist in multiple isoforms, the normal PrPC and protease-resistant forms designated PrPRes such as the disease- ... ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ... negative regulation of protein processing. • protein destabilization. • activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium- ...
The first and second each contain 7 exons and encode the same full-length protein isoform a (786 amino acids, considered the ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ... Protein family[edit]. In vertebrates, the CAS protein family contains four members: p130Cas/BCAR1, NEDD9/HEF1, EFS and CASS4. ...
cellular protein metabolic process. • insulin receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. ... IGF-2 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor and to the short isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A or exon 11-).[ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. • integrin binding. • ...
A protein isoform, or "protein variant", is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or ... While many perform the same or similar biological roles, some isoforms have unique functions. A set of protein isoforms may be ... Pathoma, Fundamentals of Pathology MeSH entry protein isoforms Definitions Isoform. ... most identified and predicted isoforms still have unknown functions. A glycoform is an isoform of a protein that differs only ...
40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene. Cytoplasmic ribosomes, ... This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein ... Ribosomal protein S4 belongs to the S4E family of ribosomal proteins. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of the ... and Y-encoded isoforms of ribosomal protein S4 consistent with a role in Turner syndrome". Nat. Genet. 4 (3): 268-71. doi: ...
However, the accuracy of quantifying protein isoforms and their stoichiometries by existing mass--spectrometry (MS) methods ... Many protein isoforms -- arising from alternative splicing, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or paralogous genes -- ... remains limited because of noise due to variations in protein-digestion and in ... Many protein isoforms -- arising from alternative splicing, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or paralogous genes -- ...
An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF2 (mouse) that is a translation product of some mRNA giving rise to a protein with the ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF2 isoform m2 (mouse). Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PR_A2A5Z6-2 Copy ...
These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes. The protein ... Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors.. Gupta S1, Barrett T, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J ... Comparison of the binding activity of the JNK isoforms demonstrated that the JNK proteins differ in their interaction with ATF2 ... The JNK protein kinase is a member of the MAP kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine ...
... Balázs Liktor,1 Péter Csomor,2 and Tamás ... M. Kawano, T. Seya, I. Koni, and H. Mabuchi, "Elevated serum levels of soluble membrane cofactor protein (CD46, MCP) in ... I. Schrauwen, M. Thys, K. Vanderstraeten et al., "Association of bone morphogenetic proteins with otosclerosis," Journal of ... M. B. Lanteri, M. S. Powell, D. Christiansen et al., "Inhibition of hyperacute transplant rejection by soluble proteins with ...
S6K1 has two known isoforms, p85(S6K1) and p70(S6K1). p85(S6K1) is characterized by 23 additional amino acids in the N-terminus ... Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a critical mediator of cell growth, is overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated ... Regulation and localization of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 isoforms Growth Factors. 2009 Feb;27(1):12-21. doi: 10.1080/ ... Both isoforms had S6 kinase activity. We also detected a p60 isoform with antibodies to the p70(S6K1) C-terminal but not the N- ...
PML protein isoforms and the RBCC/TRIM motif.. Jensen K1, Shiels C, Freemont PS. ... In this review we summarize the data on the known PML isoforms and splice variants and present a new unifying nomenclature. ... PML is a component of a multiprotein complex, termed nuclear bodies, and the PML protein was originally discovered in patients ... A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are synthesized from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find ...
MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein ... Term: angiotensin-converting enzyme, somatic isoform. ID: PIRSF037597 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more ... The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence ... You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, ...
Specific Protein Kinase C Isoforms Are Required for Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation. Carolina Pinzon-Guzman, Samuel Shao-Min ... Specific Protein Kinase C Isoforms Are Required for Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation. Carolina Pinzon-Guzman, Samuel Shao-Min ... Specific Protein Kinase C Isoforms Are Required for Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... Specific Protein Kinase C Isoforms Are Required for Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation. Carolina Pinzon-Guzman, Samuel Shao-Min ...
... Soraya Scuderi,1 ... Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive ... Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed ... To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q8T913 - Drosophila melanogaster 1 * Q3TGY2 - Mus musculus no matching PDB ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Ab164644 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides… ... Recombinant Human COXIV Isoform 2 protein. See all COXIV Isoform 2 proteins and peptides. ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial ...
p38α, p38β, p38γ, and p38δ are four isoforms of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) involved in multiple cellular ... The family of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPKs) include p38α, β, δ, and γ isoforms. The four p38 MAPK ... Hsp25 protein was used as a substrate along with [γ-32P]ATP in the reactions. Subsequently, proteins were analyzed by SDS/PAGE ... Differentiation stage-specific activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms in primary human erythroid cells. ...
Locale about Experts and Doctors on protein isoforms in Netherlands ... You are here: Locale , Experts and Doctors on protein isoforms in Netherlands ... Heterochromatin protein 1 is recruited to various types of DNA damage. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:577-86 pubmed publisher ... Our results show that HP1 proteins are important for DNA repair and may function to reorganize chromatin in response to damage ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS51370 R, 1 hit. PS51369 TCP, 1 hit ... p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR017888 ...
... protein homodimerization activity, heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules, neuron ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9598.ENSPTRP00000038311 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
A protein isoform is a version of a protein with only small differences to another isoform of the same protein. Different forms ... the ability to create catalytically different proteins from the same gene increases the diversity of the proteome. Isoforms are ... The discovery of isoforms explains the apparently small number of coding genes revealed in the human genome project: ... A glycoform is an isoform where different ways of a glycoprotein have different polysaccharides attached to them, by either ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB and the Protein Model Portal ...
Insulin signaling coordinately regulates cardiac size, metabolism, and contractile protein isoform expression. ... Insulin signaling coordinately regulates cardiac size, metabolism, and contractile protein isoform expression. ... Thus, insulin signaling plays an important developmental role in regulating postnatal cardiac size, myosin isoform expression, ... due to reduced cardiomyocyte size and had persistent expression of the fetal β-myosin heavy chain isoform. In CIRKO hearts, ...
2 FAM83 proteins interact with CK1 isoforms.. (A) Mass fingerprinting of protein interactors of FAM83A-H proteins tagged N- ... Because CK1 isoforms are thought to be constitutively active protein kinases, the ability of FAM83 proteins to anchor CK1 ... or activity of CK1 isoforms remain elusive. Two scaffold proteins, the centrosomal and Golgi N-kinase anchoring protein (CG-NAP ... with antibodies recognizing the indicated CK1 isoforms and other proteins known to interact with FAM83 family proteins. Short ...
Goat polyclonal BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications ... Lane 1 : Anti-BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody (ab791) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 2 : anti- DYKDDDDK Tag at 1/3000 dilution. ... Lane 3 : Anti-BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 antibody (ab791) at 1 mg/ml. Lane 1 : HEK293 lysate in RIPA buffer over ... Synthetic peptide: SMSSADVEVARF, corresponding to C terminal amino acids 509-520 of Human BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3. ...
Rapid separation of protein isoforms by capillary zone electrophoresis with new dynamic coatings. Authors. *. William W. P. ... They also appear to inhibit protein adsorption to the capillary wall, making the isoform separations highly reproducible both ... Many cellular functions are regulated through protein isoforms. Changes in the expression level or regulatory dysfunctions of ... Isoforms of transferrin and α1-antitrypsin have been implicated in several human diseases. By coupling the CZE isoform ...
Conversion of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC) into the scrapie isoform (PrPSc) involves an increase in the beta- ... Prion protein (PrP) synthetic peptides induce cellular PrP to acquire properties of the scrapie isoform. K Kaneko, D Peretz, K ... Prion protein (PrP) synthetic peptides induce cellular PrP to acquire properties of the scrapie isoform ... Prion protein (PrP) synthetic peptides induce cellular PrP to acquire properties of the scrapie isoform ...
Neuronal and Intestinal Protein Kinase D Isoforms Mediate Na+ (Salt Taste)-Induced Learning ... Neuronal and Intestinal Protein Kinase D Isoforms Mediate Na+ (Salt Taste)-Induced Learning ... Neuronal and Intestinal Protein Kinase D Isoforms Mediate Na+ (Salt Taste)-Induced Learning ... Neuronal and Intestinal Protein Kinase D Isoforms Mediate Na+ (Salt Taste)-Induced Learning ...
Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 and -3 are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body but there is currently no information ... regarding the expression and distribution of the different UCP isoforms in the... ... In conclusion, UCP-2 is the only isoform detectable in the kidney and UCP-2 protein can be detected in proximal tubular cells ... UCP-2 mRNA was the only isoform detected in the kidney. UCP-2 protein expression in the kidney cortex was localized to proximal ...
Designing isoform-specific peptide disruptors of protein kinase A localization.. [Lora L Burns-Hamuro, Yuliang Ma, Stefan ... A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) coordinate cAMP-mediated signaling by binding and localizing cAMP-dependent protein kinase ... These isoform-specific peptides will be invaluable tools to evaluate functional differences between localized RI and RII PKA ... To evaluate the effects of each localized isoform, we designed peptides that specifically bind to either RI or RII. Using a ...
We previously found CPEBs-2-4 splice isoforms containing exon seven to be predominantly present in neurons, and the isoform ... Here, focusing on the alternatively spliced region of CPEB3, we determined that putative neuronal isoforms of CPEB3 are ... Using a new phosphospecific antibody directed to the phosphorylation consensus we found Protein Kinase A and Calcium/Calmodulin ... status epilepticus induced by systemic kainate injection in mice led to specific upregulation of the CPEB3 isoforms containing ...
  • The JNK protein kinase is a member of the MAP kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of both isoforms was inhibited by PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Mitogen-dependent pathways concordantly regulated the phosphorylation of the two isoforms on T389, S371, and T421/S424. (nih.gov)
  • The protein kinase C (PKC) family of enzymes regulates cell physiology through phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues of many proteins in most cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • This increased phosphorylation/activity was accompanied by up-regulation of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
  • Phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues by MAPK kinase (MKK) 6 and MKK3 (β isoform is not activated by MKK3), activates all four isoforms leading to transcriptional activation of ATF-2 ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The effect of protein phosphorylation on turnover rates was analyzed by comparing mean turnover values calculated for all peptides assigned to a protein, either including, or excluding, values for cognate phosphopeptides. (mcponline.org)
  • An N-terminal peptide containing all tentative phosphorylation sites was isolated from the recombinant protein and analyzed by mass spectrometry. (diva-portal.org)
  • Importantly, sulforaphane not only activated MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases 1/2 and ERK1/2, but also strongly suppressed anisomycin-induced activation of p38 MAPK isoforms by blocking phosphorylation of upstream kinases, MKK3/6. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 7 The PKCβ 2 isoform regulates cardiomyocyte contractility, at least in part, through phosphorylation of cardiac regulatory protein, troponin I, and a resultant decrease in myofilament calcium sensitivity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glucose-regulated phosphorylation of Snf1 isoforms. (asm.org)
  • Studies performed in inflammatory cell lineages such as monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes have shown differential expression patterns for all isoforms ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe systematic approaches for detection of either distinct isoforms, or separate pools of the same isoform, with differential biological properties. (mcponline.org)
  • Characterization of the P4.2 gene suggests differential splicing as the mechanism for generating these two cDNA isoforms. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Here, we report the differential effects of Sec24 isoform-specific silencing on the transport of the membrane reporter protein ERGIC-53 (ER-Golgi intermediate compartment-53) carrying the cytosolic ER export signals di-phenylalanine, di-tyrosine, di-leucine, di-isoleucine, di-valine or terminal valine. (nih.gov)
  • The mutant allele Ubx195 contains a stop codon in exon mII, one of three differential elements, and consequently produces functional UBX protein only from mRNAs of type IVa and IVb, which are expressed mainly in the central nervous system. (genetics.org)
  • This study tested the hypothesis that differential PKC isoform profiles are present in ATAAs in MFS compared to degenerative ATAAs in patients with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). (ahajournals.org)
  • This unique study reveals differential PKC isoform induction in ATAA patients with MFS versus TAV. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tissue-specific expression of isoforms and the differential processing of precursors mediated by the cytoplasmic tails suggest that isoform variations are biologically significant. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using reporter assays and 3'UTR swapping experiments, we have identified the role of alternative 3'UTRs and mRNA transport in differential localization of alternative CDC42 protein isoforms. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Our analysis points to usage of alternative 3'UTR isoforms as a novel mechanism to provide for differential localization of functionally diverse alternative protein isoforms. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Differential cooperation between heterochromatin protein HP1 isoforms and MyoD in myoblasts. (inserm.fr)
  • Differential expression of C-protein isoforms in developing and degenerating mouse striated muscles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Differential expression of two cardiac myosin-binding protein-C isoforms in developing chicken cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The differential effects noted with apoE4 could explain why this particular isoform results in an earlier age of onset for Parkinson's disease. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Abstract -Currently at least 11 protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been identified and may play different roles in cell signaling pathways leading to changes in cardiac contractility, the hypertrophic response, and tolerance to myocardial ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such isoforms can vary in length, share common exons, include variable exons, and even have very different amino acid sequences because splicing events can alter the translational reading frame of the differentially spliced mRNAs. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we explored functional roles for γ-5 and γ-7 proteins, which unexpectedly define γ-7 as a new member of the TARP family that differentially regulates AMPA receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • In conclusion, this study has provided novel data showing that both isoforms of CRP may differentially mediate inflammatory responses during wound healing and may play key roles in age-related impaired healing and may ultimately provide potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic wounds in the elderly. (bl.uk)
  • In the myocardium of uraemic rats PKC isoforms are differentially regulated with an increase in α isoform but a decrease in δ isoform. (portlandpress.com)
  • Our results show that, in a mouse model for human pancreatic cancer, novel and differentially expressed alternative splice isoforms are detectable in plasma and may be a source of candidate biomarkers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, our analysis of quantitative expression ratios reveals variant proteins that are differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our analysis identified 593 genes with differentially localized 3'UTR isoforms. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • In particular, we have shown that two isoforms of Cdc42 gene with distinct functions in neuronal polarity are differentially localized between neurites and soma of mESC-derived and mouse primary cortical neurons, at both mRNA and protein level. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that responses of individual PKC isoforms to distinct pathological stimuli were differentially regulated in the adult guinea pig heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • In A549 cells, these ONs differentially down-regulated BAH and humbug at the mRNA and protein level. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our data show that LAMP2 protein isoforms are differentially affected in the early stages of PD, with LAMP2A selectively reduced in association with increased alpha-synuclein, and suggests that dysregulation of CMA-mediated protein degradation occurs before substantial alpha-synuclein aggregation in PD. (garvan.org.au)
  • found that FAM83 family members interacted with a specific subset of casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms in vitro through the DUF1669 domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • The isoform-selective transport correlated with binding preferences of the signals for the corresponding isoforms in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro activity assays of GCHII and DHBPS with all of the three purified recombinant AtRIBA proteins and complementation of E. coli ribA and ribB mutants lacking DHBPS and GCHII expression, respectively, confirmed the loss of bifunctionality for AtRIBA2 and AtRIBA3. (mdpi.com)
  • Using in vitro inflammatory cell assays developed with the monocytic U937 cell line this study investigated the effects of CRP isoforms in nitric oxide release (detected by an immunoassay), phagocytosis (measured by a bacterial recovery assay), apoptosis (detected via DNA fragmentation) and cytokine secretion (measured by a multiplex immunoassay) in both monocyte and macrophage-like cells (n=6). (bl.uk)
  • An aliquot (one-tenth of the amount of labeled protein used for the in vitro binding reaction) was loaded in parallel (Ext.). Essentially identical results were obtained in two other independent experiments. (asm.org)
  • Finally, we found that stimulation of p38 MAPK isoforms phosphorylated purified Nrf2 protein and caused an increase in the interaction between Nrf2 and Keap1 in vitro and the suppression of Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These short in vitro half-lives suggest that the nNOS isoforms are susceptible to rapid degradation in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, insights from results of in vitro studies using the neonatal cardiomyocyte may not be completely relevant to the adult heart in vivo, because it is known that PKC isoform expression is developmentally altered. (ahajournals.org)
  • I used in vitro bacterial binding assays to identify hemolymph proteins that bind either directly or indirectly to the surface of bacteria or curdlan. (k-state.edu)
  • This interaction is direct, as shown using recombinant proteins in vitro. (inserm.fr)
  • The present study serves as a basis for defining the transcriptome of tarantula skeletal muscle, for future in vitro expression of tarantula proteins, and for interpreting structural and functional observations in this model species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions have been observed with various in vitro systems. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, the effects of different apolipoprotein E isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, apoE4) on the aggregation of α-synuclein in vitro were examined using thioflavin T assays and also an immunoassay to detect the formation of multimeric forms. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Hyaluronan synthase , the enzyme responsible for the production of hyaluronan, has three isoforms in mammalian cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • For example, protein expression levels in mammalian cells vary over a large dynamic range of 10 6 or more ( 1 ), whereas subcellular localization patterns, post-translational modifications, rates of synthesis, and degradation and interactions with partner proteins are also variable properties ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In mammalian systems, two isoforms (α and β) of both the A and C subunits are found, and the two C subunit isoforms are known to play distinct roles. (plantcell.org)
  • Mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 isoforms HP1alpha, HP1beta, and HP1gamma play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. (inserm.fr)
  • With the aim of clarifying the roles of C-protein isoforms in developing mammalian skeletal muscle, we cloned the complementary DNA (cDNAs) encoding mouse fast (F) and slow (S) skeletal muscle C-proteins and determined their entire sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Determining specificity becomes more complicated when a protein has multiple subunits and each subunit has multiple isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these peptides were developed as disruptors for the type II regulatory subunit (RII) even though both RI and RII isoforms can bind to AKAPs and have discrete functions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex comprises a catalytic subunit and regulatory A and B subunits that modulate enzyme activity and mediate interactions with other proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • All three A subunit isoforms accumulate in the organs of seedlings and adult plants, suggesting extensive overlap in expression domains. (plantcell.org)
  • Multicellular eukaryotes express at least three different classes of B subunits, typically designated as B55 (or B), B′, and B″. In addition, accessory proteins and posttranslational modifications control PP2A subunit associations and activities. (plantcell.org)
  • By contrast, the A subunit isoforms show very different binding properties. (plantcell.org)
  • While many perform the same or similar biological roles, some isoforms have unique functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes many genes encode protein isoforms whose properties and biological roles are often poorly characterized. (mcponline.org)
  • Furthermore, even apart from isoforms, single polypeptides can partition into two or more distinct functional pools within the cell that have different roles. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we explore roles for the homologous γ-5 and γ-7 proteins, which were previously suggested not to serve as TARPs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conclusions PKC isoforms have different roles in the development and maintain of the myogenic constriction in rat posterior cerebral arteries: cPKC (α and/or γ) mediates Ca 2+ sensitization in the initial phase, whereas PKCδ mediates [Ca 2+ ] i elevation via the activation of RuR-resistant cation channels in the sustained phase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we review the known protein interactions for each VDAC isoform in order to shed light on their peculiar roles in physiological and pathological conditions. (rsc.org)
  • 8 Taken together, PKC isoforms may play different functional roles in cell signaling, although the exact significance of individual isoforms is not yet known. (ahajournals.org)
  • CtBP proteins have roles in the nucleus as transcriptional co-repressors, and in the cytoplasm in the maintenance of vesicular membranes. (soton.ac.uk)
  • We explored the possibility of different roles for the three HP1 isoforms in an integrated system, skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. (inserm.fr)
  • In addition, they strongly suggest that HP1 isoforms play important roles during muscle terminal differentiation in an isoform-dependent manner. (inserm.fr)
  • 2-4 The roles of the individual isoforms in mediating cellular mechanisms of regulation in the heart are a subject of great debate. (asahq.org)
  • Assessing the intracellular location of PKC isoforms after propofol anesthesia may help to elucidate the roles of individual PKC isoforms in mediating propofol-induced alterations in cardiac contractile function and provide mechanistic insight into anesthetic-induced myocardial protection. (asahq.org)
  • To characterize the roles of the cytoskeleton and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in steroid-induced glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) translocation in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The neuron-specific expression of N-tropomodulin strongly suggests specialized roles of this TM-binding protein in neurons. (biologists.org)
  • These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes. (nih.gov)
  • The family of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPKs) include p38α, β, δ, and γ isoforms. (pnas.org)
  • Because CK1 isoforms are thought to be constitutively active protein kinases, the ability of FAM83 proteins to anchor CK1 isoforms may be an important mechanism for targeting CK1 activity to specific subcellular locations and substrates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is controlled by subcellular localization, interactions with inhibitory proteins, targeted degradation, or combinations of these mechanisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Among the upstream kinases, although MKK3 was not involved in suppression of ARE by any of p38 MAPK isoforms, MKK6 selectively suppressed ARE by p38γ or p38δ, but not by p38α or p38β. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the Aurora subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. (abnova.com)
  • We identified two pollen-expressed calmodulin-like domain protein kinases from Petunia inflata , CALMODULIN-LIKE DOMAIN PROTEIN KINASE1 (Pi CDPK1 ) and Pi CDPK2 . (plantcell.org)
  • Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms. (asm.org)
  • Sequence similarities suggested multiple isoforms of most myofibrillar proteins, supporting the generality of multiple isoforms known from previous muscle sequence studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A protein isoform, or "protein variant", is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through RNA splicing mechanisms, mRNA has the ability to select different protein-coding segments (exons) of a gene, or even different parts of exons from RNA to form different mRNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of isoforms could explain the discrepancy between the small number of protein coding regions genes revealed by the human genome project and the large diversity of proteins seen in an organism: different proteins encoded by the same gene could increase the diversity of the proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variable promoter usage occurs when the transcriptional machinery of a cell (RNA polymerase, transcription factors, and other enzymes) begin transcription at different promoters-the region of DNA near a gene that serves as an initial binding site-resulting in slightly modified transcripts and protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are synthesized from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ranging in molecular weight from 48-97 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • 40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein known to be encoded by more than one gene, namely this gene, RPS4Y2 and the ribosomal protein S4, X-linked (RPS4X). (wikipedia.org)
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (jax.org)
  • Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ( PARK2 ) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations. (hindawi.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Different forms of a protein may be produced from different but related genes , or may arise from the same gene by alternative splicing . (wikidoc.org)
  • A large number of isoforms are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms , small genetic differences between alleles of the same gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • the ability to create catalytically different proteins from the same gene increases the diversity of the proteome. (wikidoc.org)
  • This protein has also been identified as interacting with the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy gene, which is associated with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. (abcam.com)
  • Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts is commonplace and this can generate multiple mRNAs from the same gene and hence multiple different proteins ( 9 , 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • MCP is expressed primarily as four isoforms that arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • MS/MS spectra were interrogated for novel splice isoforms using a nonredundant database containing an exhaustive three-frame translation of Ensembl transcripts and gene models from ECgene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 6p21 that encodes a non-histone DNA-binding protein involved in various cellular processes, such as regulating inducible gene transcription, integration of retroviruses into chromosomes, and the metastatic progression of cancer cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overexpression of individual p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) isoforms also suppressed constitutive as well as sulforaphane- or Nrf2-induced ARE-dependent gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alternative splicing (AS) is common in multicellular eukaryotes, where it both contributes to protein diversity and quantitative regulation of gene expression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Regulation of the plant disease resistance gene RPS by AS fine tunes its activity and limits damage inflicted by activated RPS4 protein ( Zhang and Gassmann, 2007 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The PMT gene family in Candida albicans encodes five isoforms of protein mannosyltransferases (Pmt proteins Pmt1p, Pmt2p, Pmt4p, Pmt5p, and Pmt6p) that initiate O mannosylation of secretory proteins. (asm.org)
  • A gene reporter assay revealed that HP1alpha and HP1beta, but not HP1gamma, inhibit MyoD transcriptional activity, suggesting a model in which MyoD could serve as a bridge between nucleosomes and chromatin-binding proteins such as HDACs and HP1. (inserm.fr)
  • Finally, modulation of HP1 protein level impairs MyoD target gene expression and muscle terminal differentiation. (inserm.fr)
  • PROTEIN kinase C (PKC) is an important signal transduction molecule that regulates many cardiac functions, including ion channels, contractility, gene expression, and hypertrophy. (asahq.org)
  • In other words, for each gene in my chromosome I have only one protein, and I do not have proteins from alternative splicing (that are to be expected in a normal vertebrate genomes). (biostars.org)
  • Is maker only considering/creating one protein per gene on purpose? (biostars.org)
  • Myosin binding protein C1: a novel gene for autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 20q13.1 that encodes an adapter protein which regulates a broad spectrum of general and specialised signalling pathways by binding to a large number of partners, usually by recognising a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Tau proteins are derived from alternative mRNA splice variants that originate from a single gene and result in mature proteins that vary in size from 352 to 441 amino acids (36.8 to 45.9 kDa). (rpeptide.com)
  • While the fetal brain contains a single isoform of tau (Tau-352) the adult brain has several isoforms all derived from a single gene by alternative mRNA splicing 5 . (rpeptide.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the cDNA clone revealed this protein to be a novel isoform of tropomodulin which is the product of a distinct gene, and is herein referred to as N-tropomodulin. (biologists.org)
  • The donor site for the short isoform (P4.2S) agrees better with the consensus than the donor site for the long isoform (P4.2L) does. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We show here that only the whirlin long isoform, distinct from a short isoform by virtue of having two N-terminal PDZ domains, is expressed in the retina. (harvard.edu)
  • The short isoform of ErbB3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p42, is considered to be a potent tumor suppressor in a true number of human cancers, although the mechanism by which it exerts this tumor-suppressive activity is unclear. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Many protein isoforms -- arising from alternative splicing, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or paralogous genes -- have distinct biological functions. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Many human genes possess confirmed alternative splicing isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although ~95% of multi-exonic genes are thought to be alternatively spliced, one study on noisy splicing observed that most of the different low-abundance transcripts are noise, and predicts that most alternative transcript and protein isoforms present in a cell are not functionally relevant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3 isoforms encoded by these genes are not identical, but appear to be functionally equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes, many genes encode two or more separate protein isoforms ( 3 , 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Several of these 19 SR protein genes arose during several genome duplication events in evolution ( Kalyna and Barta, 2004 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • CtBPs are expressed from two genes, CTBP1 and CTBP2, mRNA products of which are alternatively spliced at their 5' ends to generate distinct protein isoforms. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show a preferential recruitment of HP1 proteins on MyoD target genes in proliferating myoblasts. (inserm.fr)
  • Twenty abundant unigenes had matches to skeletal muscle-related genes including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin-I, T and C, paramyosin, muscle LIM protein, muscle protein 20, a-actinin and tandem Ig/Fn motifs (found in giant sarcomere-related proteins). (biomedcentral.com)
  • From studies of Drosophila, C. elegans , bivalvia, decapod crustaceans, and other invertebrates, it is recognized that invertebrate muscle genes and proteins show numerous variations on the common theme of thick and thin filament assembly and interaction [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of hyperacute transplant rejection by soluble proteins with the functional domains of CD46 and Fc γ /RII," Transplantation , vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1128-1136, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • These isoform-specific peptides will be invaluable tools to evaluate functional differences between localized RI and RII PKA and are RIalpha-specific disruptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Functional differences between Ultrabithorax protein isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from elimination, substitution and ectopic expression of specific isoforms. (genetics.org)
  • This functional limitation is confirmed by a detailed analysis of the peripheral nervous system in embryos that express specific UBX isoforms ectopically under control of a heat shock promoter. (genetics.org)
  • In the present study, we compare functional consequences of dissociation and reconstitution of binding proteins FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 with ryanodine receptors from cardiac (RyR2) and skeletal muscle (RyR1). (lu.se)
  • Our studies reveal important differences between the two ryanodine receptor isoforms with respect to their functional interaction with FKBP12 and FKBP12.6. (lu.se)
  • The true EOMs have a unique myofibrillar protein isoform composition reflecting their special structural and functional properties. (diva-portal.org)
  • The data presented here suggest PrPC is expressed in two topological isoforms with unique functional manifestations and with the participation of both in the pathogenesis of prion disease. (uni-koeln.de)
  • First, the three USH2 proteins exist as an obligatory functional complex in vivo, and loss of one USH2 protein is functionally close to loss of all three. (harvard.edu)
  • A key hurdle to PRRSV investigation has been the difficulty in ascribing conserved functional characteristics to virally encoded nonstructural proteins. (asm.org)
  • Within a single adult skeletal muscle, distinct muscle fiber types, with different sets of protein isoforms and different functional properties, can be found side by side [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite these structural advances, sequence information on tarantula muscle proteins, which could provide a critical complement to structural and functional knowledge of this muscle, has been lacking: no tarantula muscle-related sequences, either mRNA or protein, are yet in public databases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, functional analyses based on the secretion of the bulk flow marker α-amylase indicated that over-expression of GTP-restricted mutants of the two isoforms caused different levels of ER export inhibition. (deepdyve.com)
  • These novel results indicate a functional heterogeneity among plant Sar1 isoforms. (deepdyve.com)
  • a functional heterogeneity among plant Sar1 isoforms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conversion of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC) into the scrapie isoform (PrPSc) involves an increase in the beta-sheet content, diminished solubility, and resistance to proteolytic digestion. (pnas.org)
  • The fundamental event in prion diseases seems to be a conformational change in cellular prion protein (PrP C ) whereby it is converted into the pathologic isoform PrP Sc . (sciencemag.org)
  • The physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and its contribution to prion diseases remains enigmatic as evidence suggests both pro- and anti-apoptotic functions. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Attempts to convert the cellular prion protein into the scrapie isoform in cell-free systems. (asm.org)
  • The scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) is derived from a cellular isoform (PrPC) that acquires protease resistance posttranslationally. (asm.org)
  • APL is associated with a reciprocal chromosomal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in a fusion protein comprising PML and the retinoic acid receptor alpha. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, our study shows that p38 MAPK can phosphorylate Nrf2 and promotes the association between Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins, thereby potentially inhibiting nuclear translocation of Nrf2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hypoxia and ischemia induced translocation of PKC isoforms α, β 2 , γ, and ζ, and H 2 O 2 translocated PKC isoforms α, β 2 , and ζ. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of phospholipase C with tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) blocked hypoxia-induced (α, β 2 , and ζ) and angiotensin II-induced (α, β 2 , γ, and ζ) translocation of PKC isoforms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of tyrosine kinase with genistein blocked translocation of PKC isoforms by hypoxia (β 2 and ζ) and by angiotensin II (β 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • By contrast, neither D609 nor genistein blocked H 2 O 2 -induced translocation of any PKC isoform. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 Acute mechanical stretch of the left ventricle induces translocation of the PKCε isoform, 4 and chronic pressure overload by aortic banding activates the PKCα and -ε isoforms in guinea pig heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 Goldberg et al 11 have reported hypoxia-induced translocation of PKCα and -ε isoforms in the neonatal rat cardiomyocyte. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recently, Ping et al 14 have reported in the adult rabbit heart that ischemic preconditioning induces selective translocation of PKCε and -η isoforms, which suggests an important role of these 2 isoforms in the genesis of this pathological process. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we directly assessed the extent to which propofol stimulates PKC activation and subcellular translocation of individual PKC isoforms in rat ventricular myocytes. (asahq.org)
  • Thus, human Sec24 isoforms expand the repertoire of cargo for signal-mediated ER export, but are in part functionally redundant. (nih.gov)
  • The phenotype of homozygous UbxMX17 embryos indicates that UBX-IVa cannot substitute functionally for other isoforms to promote normal development of the peripheral nervous system. (genetics.org)
  • Isoforms at the RNA level are readily characterized by cDNA transcript studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoforms are readily described and discovered by microarray studies and cDNA libraries. (wikidoc.org)
  • Two cDNA isoforms have been identified from a human reticulocyte cDNA library, with the long isoform containing a 90-base pair (bp) in-frame insertion encoding an extra 30 amino acids near the N-terminus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We modified the ECgene database to include three-frame translations of the cDNA sequences ( 5 ) to determine the occurrence of novel splice variant proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Northern blotting with these cDNAs together with mouse cardiac (C) C-protein cDNA was performed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cDNA for the other protein was cloned from an adult rat brain cDNA library using degenerate oligonucleotides that we designed based on the peptide sequences. (biologists.org)
  • Biochemical studies have shown that cell cycle arrest by sulforaphane occurred through an irreversible G 2 -M phase arrest with a reduction of key G 2 -M-regulating proteins ( 7 ), whereas overexpression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 were implicated in sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also tested the ability of each SR45 isoform to complement the sr45 - 1 mutant by overexpression of isoform-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 6 Finally, transgenic mice with cardiac-specific postnatal overexpression of the PKCβ 2 isoform display cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte necrosis, multifocal fibrosis, and depressed in vivo left ventricular performance. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unexpectedly, we could not detect overexpression of PKCdelta protein by Western blot analysis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • a) Cell lysates of g42 (1 and 3?through downregulation of p85 Since our earlier report showed that most of glioblastoma multiform (GBM) individuals and GBM cell lines revealed undetectable protein expression of p42 and overexpression of p42 restricted brain tumor growth24 (Supplementary Figures 6a and. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Taken together, our data demonstrate that both p38α and δ isoforms function to promote the late-stage differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors and are likely to be involved in functions related to erythrocyte membrane remodeling and enucleation. (pnas.org)
  • This interaction at the cytoplasmic membrane is crucial to the function of this protein, which may be involved in neuronal growth-cone guidance. (abcam.com)
  • Human protein 4.2 (P4.2) is a major membrane skeletal protein in erythrocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Individuals with P4.2 deficiency exhibit spherocytosis and experience various degrees of hemolytic anemia, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining stability and integrity of the membrane. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Sec24 of the COPII (coat protein complex II) vesicle coat mediates the selective export of membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast. (nih.gov)
  • Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are a family of three mitochondrial porins and the most abundant integral membrane proteins of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). (rsc.org)
  • VDACs are known to be involved in metabolite/ion transport across the MOM and in many cellular processes ranging from mitochondria-mediated apoptosis to the control of energy metabolism, by interacting with cytosolic, mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins and other membrane channels. (rsc.org)
  • We localized this USH2 protein complex to the periciliary membrane complex (PMC) in mouse photoreceptors that appears analogous to the frog periciliary ridge complex. (harvard.edu)
  • Specific dysfunction of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in PD is suggested by reductions in the CMA membrane receptor, lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 2A, although whether LAMP2A is the only LAMP2 isoform affected by PD is unknown. (garvan.org.au)
  • The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. (biochemj.org)
  • Brandizzi, Federica 2008-03-06 00:00:00 In plants, differentiation of subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dedicated to protein export, the ER export sites (ERES), is influenced by the type of export-competent membrane cargo to be delivered to the Golgi. (deepdyve.com)
  • We show that, in contrast to a tobacco Sar1 isoform, the two Arabidopsis Sar1 GTPases were localised at ERES, independently of co-expression of Golgi-destined membrane cargo in tobacco cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although both isoforms labelled ERES, one was found to partition with the membrane fraction to a greater extent. (deepdyve.com)
  • The different distribution of fluorescent fusions of the two isoforms was influenced by the nature of an amino acid residue at the C-terminus of the protein, suggesting that the requirements for membrane association of the two GTPases are not equal. (deepdyve.com)
  • The two proteins were identified by blot overlay assay, in which the proteins immobilized on the membrane were probed by epitope-tagged TMBr3, followed by detection with anti-epitope antibody. (biologists.org)
  • In the case of SR45 , the use of alternative 3′ splice sites 21 nucleotides apart generates two alternatively spliced isoforms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In conclusion, our study provides evidence that the two alternatively spliced isoforms of SR45 have distinct biological functions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Alternative splicing is the main post-transcriptional modification process that produces mRNA transcript isoforms, and is a major molecular mechanism that may contribute to protein diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spliceosome, a large ribonucleoprotein, is the molecular machine inside the nucleus responsible for RNA cleavage and ligation, removing non-protein coding segments (introns). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ten JNK isoforms were identified in human brain by molecular cloning. (nih.gov)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as one potential therapeutic molecular target that plays a role in mediating insulin-independent glucose transport ( 16 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Other transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory steps can also produce different protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • here we show that the CTBP2-L mRNA is translated from two AUG codons to generate both CtBP2-L and CtBP2-S. We have also identified an auto-regulatory feedback mechanism whereby CtBP protein abundance is maintained in proliferating breast cancer cells through the post-transcriptional regulation of CtBP2. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The protein kinase activity of these JNK isoforms was measured using the transcription factors ATF2, Elk-1 and members of the Jun family as substrates. (nih.gov)
  • Both isoforms had S6 kinase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Cell lysates had been immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody, and endogenous g85 proteins was established by immunoblotting with the anti-p85 … G42 prevents the activity of PI3E The capability of g42 to combine to g85 elevated the query of whether this discussion affects the lipid kinase activity of PI3E in growth cells. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Expression of human milk beta-casein in Escherichia coli : comparison of recombinant protein with native isoforms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Human AURKC (NP_002392.2, 1 a.a. - 275 a.a.) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag expressed in Baculovirus infected Sf21 cells. (abnova.com)
  • Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc -tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc -tagged nsp2 isoforms. (asm.org)
  • The p38α and p38β isoforms are expressed in most tissues, but expression of p38γ is limited to the skeletal muscle ( 6 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glucose transport can be activated in skeletal muscle in response to insulin via activation of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase and in response to contractions or hypoxia, presumably via activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Isoform-specific AMPK activity was measured in skeletal muscle in response to insulin, contraction, or hypoxia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This most likely occurs from defects in postreceptor insulin signal transduction at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase ( 6 - 9 ) as well as defects in trafficking and/or function of GLUT4 ( 10 , 11 ), the major insulin-regulated GLUT isoform expressed in skeletal muscle ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Myosin binding protein-C slow is a novel substrate for protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC) in skeletal muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • this process is regulated by the alternative splicing of mRNA, though it is not clear to what extent such a process affects the diversity of the human proteome, as the abundance of mRNA transcript isoforms does not necessarily correlate with the abundance of protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using information from ion intensities we have estimated protein abundance levels and using rates of change in stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios we measured turnover rates and subcellular distribution for the HeLa cell proteome. (mcponline.org)
  • Moreover, we used SILAC to identify isoform-specific Cdc42 3'UTR-bound proteome with potential role in Cdc42 localization and translation. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Ubx encodes a family of six developmentally specific homeodomain protein isoforms translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs. (genetics.org)
  • Each unique sequence produces a specific form of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF2 (mouse) that is a translation product of some mRNA giving rise to a protein with the amino acid sequence represented by UniProtKB:A2A5Z6-2. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple homologs. (jax.org)
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (jax.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Obtaining extended sequence coverage of intact proteins and characterizing multiple post-translational modification (PTM) sites can pose key technical challenges. (advion.com)
  • This integrated analysis identified 420 distinct splice isoforms, of which 92 did not match any previously annotated mouse protein sequence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This novel isoform is slightly larger than the neuronal nNOSα because of an alternative splicing that inserts a 34 amino acid peptide into the protein sequence between the CaM- and FMN-binding domains of the protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This delay is easily explained taking into account the extreme biological complexity of the PKC family of isoforms and the incomplete understanding of the specific role of each PKC isozyme in different types of cancers. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, whether expression of isoforms is differentiation stage-specific has not been explored. (pnas.org)
  • The serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins constitute a conserved family of pre-mRNA splicing factors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, a double mutation affecting both serine-219 and the adjacent threonine-218 ( SR45.1 - T218A + S219A - GFP ) behaves like isoform 2, complementing the root but not the floral phenotype. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The serine/threonine protein kinase C (PKC) family was first identified as intracellular receptor(s) for the tumor promoting agents phorbol esters. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Immune response proteins include proteins that bind pathogens and activate serine proteases, which function in proteolytic cascades that trigger effector responses, such as antimicrobial peptide production and prophenoloxidase activation. (k-state.edu)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Biological regulatory mechanisms and cellular responses are predominantly mediated by proteins and multi-protein complexes. (mcponline.org)
  • Even minor structural differences between isoforms can alter their biological properties and result in distinct pools of related proteins whose subcellular location, function, and interactions vary ( 5 , 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • However, determination of the biological function of these proteins in vivo was limited by the poor uptake properties of phosphorothioate ONs in A549 tumors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As proteins associated with the MOM, VDAC opening/closure as a metabolic checkpoint is regulated by protein-protein interactions, and is of pharmacological interest in pathological conditions such as cancer. (rsc.org)
  • Nevertheless, the so far explored VDAC-protein interactions for each isoform show that VDAC1 is mainly involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and in pro-apoptotic processes, whereas VDAC2 displays an anti-apoptotic role. (rsc.org)
  • These studies represent the first evidence for G protein-coupled receptor interactions with 14-3-3 proteins and may provide a mechanism for receptor localization and/or coordination of signal transduction. (rti.org)
  • Sugar-lectin and protein-protein interactions are very important during contact of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans with epithelial cells of the human host (reviewed in references 4 and 31 ). (asm.org)
  • It is interesting to note that these interactions seem to be isoform-dependent, with some combinations producing no effect and others producing increased or decreased catalytic activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Reciprocal protein kinase A regulatory interactions between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in a renal polarized epithelial cell model. (uzh.ch)
  • In the present work, we describe experiments to define the interactions between CFTR and NHE3 with the regulatory, scaffolding protein, NHERF that organize their PKA-dependent regulation in a renal epithelial cell line that expresses endogenous CFTR. (uzh.ch)
  • The primary mechanisms that produce protein isoforms are alternative splicing and variable promoter usage, though modifications due to genetic changes, such as mutations and polymorphisms are sometimes also considered distinct isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a single isoform of protein phosphatase I can interact with numerous different interaction partners to create different phosphatase enzymes that target different substrates ( 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of either isoform resulted in a partial reduction in the appearance of rods, whereas removing both isoforms resulted in their complete absence. (jneurosci.org)
  • As expected, transgenic plants overexpressing either isoform displayed both nuclear speckles and GFP fluorescence throughout the nucleoplasm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In conclusion, evidence is provided that wild type PrPC has the intrinsic capacity to be expressed as either SecPrP or CtmPrP and that each isoform can partake in independent pathways. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Further evidence suggests that both isoforms participate in the etiology of infectious prion disease: upregulation of CtmPrP which leads to apoptosis and conversion of SecPrP to PrPSc and its down regulation lead to a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress, thus being able to reconcile how both gain and loss of PrPC functions may occur. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Es wird angenommen, dass die pathologische Isoform das sogenannte PrPSc die Umfaltung der zellulären Isoform des Prion-Proteins (PrPC) in weitere krankheitserregnde PrPSc katalysiert. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Detection of high levels of 2 specific isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins in synovial fluid from patients with joint inflammation. (jrheum.org)
  • Other names: Protein phosphatase 2C isoform delta (EC (PP2C-delta) (p53- induced protein phosphatase 1) (Protein phosphatase magnesium- dependent 1 delta). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved Ser/Thr phosphatase with broad substrate specificity and a diverse repertoire of cellular functions (reviewed in Janssens and Goris, 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • However, the accuracy of quantifying protein isoforms and their stoichiometries by existing mass--spectrometry (MS) methods remains limited because of noise due to variations in protein-digestion and in peptide-ionization. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Designing isoform-specific peptide disruptors of protein kinase A localization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Side-chain requirements for affinity and isoform specificity were evaluated by using a peptide substitution array where each position along the A kinase binding domain of d-AKAP2 was substituted by the other 19 l-amino acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Expression of P4.2L was detected by a long- isoform-specific antibody raised against a peptide within the 30-amino acid insert. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Ezrin may function as a protein kinase A anchoring protein (AKAP) in this signaling complex, because blocking the binding of PKA to an AKAP by incubation with the S-Ht31 peptide inhibited the PKA-dependent regulation of CFTR in the absence of NHE3. (uzh.ch)
  • Peptide sequencing as well as immunoblotting showed that one of the two proteins is identical to tropomodulin, a tropomyosin-binding protein originally identified in erythrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Because oxidative stress may directly activate PKC, and PKC activation appears to be involved in human heart failure, selective inhibition of the PKC isoforms may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of this pathological process. (ahajournals.org)
  • The order of combination of the proteins (CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and cytochrome P450 reductase) influenced the magnitude of catalysis inhibition as well as the ability of increased cytochrome P450 reductase to attenuate the change in activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We report here heterologous expression of nNOSμ in Escherichia coli and purification and characterization of the protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We recently completed characterization of the Pmt family of C. albicans , which comprises five isoforms of protein mannosyltransferases (Pmt1p, Pmt2p, Pmt4p, Pmt5p, and Pmt6p) that initiate protein O glycosylation ( 22 , 32 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • These studies demonstrated the involvement of Jak/Stat, Shc/Grb2/Ras, Gab1/2, extracellular response kinase (ERK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/protein kinase B (PKB) pathways in the regulation of proliferation and cell viability ( 16 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • There are currently no approved treatments for FA, although experimental approaches involving up-regulation or replacement of mature frataxin protein through numerous approaches are being tested. (curefa.org)
  • Therefore, antibodies detecting the immunoreactive protein at 23.4 kDa could be misleading when testing for the up-regulation of frataxin in animal models. (curefa.org)
  • The aim of this study was to find out the influence of ET-1 and ET receptor antagonists on myocardial protein kinase C (PKC) regulation in uraemic cardiomyopathy. (portlandpress.com)
  • The data from mRNA analysis confirm the developmental regulation of 14-3-3 isoform expression in potato plants. (portlandpress.com)
  • All the repressed plants showed significant increases in nitrate reductase (NR) activity, suggesting that the regulation of NR occurs in vivo , and is not isoform-dependent. (portlandpress.com)
  • However little is known of the expression or regulation of CtBP isoforms in human cancer, nor the relative contribution of CTBP1 and CTBP2 to the tumour cell phenotype. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Discovering the serpin-1 isoforms that inhibit specific proteases enhances our understanding of the regulation of proteolytic cascades in M. sexta. (k-state.edu)
  • Although Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been shown to regulate the activity of NHE3, the potential reciprocal interaction of NHE3 to modulate the protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of CFTR in epithelial cells is still unknown. (uzh.ch)
  • Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI1)-binding protein may be involved in neuronal growth-cone guidance. (abcam.com)
  • The neuronal enzyme exists in different isoforms because of alternative splicing of the nNOS mRNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Tau is a family of major neuronal microtubule associated proteins that are found in the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in Alzheimer's disease. (rpeptide.com)
  • This protein functions as an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate and suggests a role for insulin in the central nervous system. (abcam.com)
  • AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most excitatory signaling in the brain and are composed of GluR principal subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • Immunoprecipitation proteomics shows that cerebellar γ-7 avidly and selectively binds to AMPA receptor GluR subunits and also binds to the AMPA receptor clustering protein, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95). (jneurosci.org)
  • The IKKs bind NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) ( 25 , 33 ), a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase family that interacts with TNF receptor-associated factor 2 ( 20 ), linking IκB degradation and NF-κB activation to the TNF receptor complex. (asm.org)
  • ET receptor blockers normalize these PKC isoforms. (portlandpress.com)
  • Den kaskad av händelser som sätts igång av att en tillväxtfaktor binder till sin receptor leder till att cellen börjar skicka ut axoner och dendriter (kallas gemensamt neuriter på odlade celler) och bildar transmittorsubstanser. (lu.se)
  • In conclusion, UCP-2 is the only isoform detectable in the kidney and UCP-2 protein can be detected in proximal tubular cells and cells of the medullary thick ascending loop of Henle. (springer.com)
  • CtBP1 proteins are identifiable as a single band on western blots and are ubiquitously detectable in breast tumour samples, by both western blotting and immunohistochemistry. (soton.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: We found that of the seven 14-3-3 isoforms tested (beta, gamma, epsilon, eta, sigma, Theta, and zeta), the levels of only 2 isoforms, eta and gamma, were easily detectable in SF samples from patients with inflammatory joint diseases. (jrheum.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of only 2 (14-3-3 eta and gamma) out of 7 different isoforms in SF suggests they are specific to the site of inflammation, and that distinguishes them from barely detectable levels of these isoforms found in normal serum. (jrheum.org)
  • We conclude that hypoxia-induced activation of PKC isoforms is mediated through pathways involving phospholipase C and tyrosine kinase, but oxidative stress may activate PKC isoforms independently of Gαq-phospholipase C coupling and tyrosine kinase signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as the intracellular mediator of several neurotransmitters, growth factors, and tumor promoters through multiple signal transduction pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • By coupling the CZE isoform separation with standard affinity capture assays, it may be possible to develop a cost-effective analytical platform for clinical diagnostics. (wiley.com)
  • Additionally, cytoprotection assays of individual clones of transfected isoforms bearing equivalent copy numbers demonstrated that the BC isoforms also provided enhanced protection in a classical pathway-mediated system and cleaved cell-bound C4b more efficiently than the C isoforms. (jimmunol.org)
  • To identify proteins that may contribute to this retention, [35S]Met-labeled Gen10 fusion proteins with the 3i loops of the alpha2AAR (Val217-Ala377), alpha2BAR (Lys210-Trp354), and alpha2CAR (Arg248-Val363) were used as ligands in gel overlay assays. (rti.org)
  • All three RIBA isoforms are shown to be translocated into chloroplasts as GFP fusion proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Each of the eight FAM83 family members exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular localization and colocalized with specific CK1 isoforms in cultured cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it bound. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, all of these properties not only vary between proteins, they are also dynamic and can vary for the same protein either at different times, or in different subcellular locations, depending on parameters such as cell cycle progression, growth rate, and signaling events. (mcponline.org)
  • In this review we summarize the data on the known PML isoforms and splice variants and present a new unifying nomenclature. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we exploit this model to test the hypothesis that cancer-specific alternative splice variants can be identified by in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of plasma proteins from this mouse model of pancreatic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we have interrogated our modified ECgene database to identify both novel and known splice variants among circulating proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is an intracellular signaling enzyme family characterized into three subclasses (conventional, novel, and atypical) based on co-factor requirements for activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lysosomes are the primary catabolic compartment for the degradation of intracellular proteins through autophagy. (garvan.org.au)
  • In mice lacking any one of the USH2 proteins, the normal localization of all USH2 proteins is disrupted, and there is evidence of protein destabilization. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast with Pi CDPK1, altering the localization of Pi CDPK2 did not noticeably alter the effect of overexpressing this isoform on pollen tube growth. (plantcell.org)
  • An important development in recent years is the substantial improvement in tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation for proteomics, allowing in-depth analysis and confident identifications even for proteins coded by mRNA transcript sequences expressed at low levels ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such findings indicate a physiologic role for isoform variation and have therapeutic implications for use of MCP isoforms as complement inhibitors in such areas as xenotransplantation. (jimmunol.org)
  • These studies support recent evidence that CtBP family proteins represent potential targets for therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer in general, and breast cancer in particular. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In this review, the growing evidences of the role of the PKC isoforms α, βII, δ, , ζ and ι is in promoting or counteracting tumor progression will be discussed in relationship with promising therapeutic perspectives. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Finally, the contribution of each isoform was assessed in mice inoculated with prions (PrPSc). (uni-koeln.de)
  • The specificity of translated isoforms is derived by the protein's structure/function, as well as the cell type and developmental stage during which they are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments in which DUF1669 domains were swapped among FAM83 family members suggested that DUF1669 determines the specificity of the FAM83 protein for particular CK1 isoforms. (sciencemag.org)
  • In order to test whether or not 14-3-3 protein expression affects plant phenotype and metabolism, transgenic potato plants either overexpressing Cucurbita pepo 14-3-3 or underexpressing endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms were analysed. (portlandpress.com)
  • Although, the function/s of the PML variants are unclear, all PML isoforms contain an identical N-terminal region, suggesting that these sequences are indispensable for function, but differ in their C-terminal sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to download protein sequences or forward to NCBI BLAST. (jax.org)
  • You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, human and rat homologs of the mouse superfamily members. (jax.org)
  • Marfan syndrome (MFS), an inherited defect in the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin, is associated with an increased incidence of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs) which may occur through different mechanisms than ATAAs resulting from other causes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite redundancy and compensatory mechanisms among VDAC isoforms, they display not only different channel properties and protein expression levels, but also distinct protein partners. (rsc.org)
  • These data unveil a novel signaling cascade that coordinates and regulates rod differentiation through specific PKC isoforms in mammals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sar1 is the small GTPase that regulates assembly of COPII (coat protein complex II) on carriers that transport secretory cargo from ER to Golgi. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here we identify PKC-β1 and PKC-γ as isoforms that are essential for rod photoreceptor differentiation in mouse retinas. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we specifically identify two PKC isoforms, PKC-β1 and PKC-γ, that are pivotal for the development of rods, as their absence completely inhibits rod differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • p38α, p38β, p38γ, and p38δ are four isoforms of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation response. (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression pattern of each of the four isoforms during erythroid differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, under steady-state culture conditions, both p38α and p38δ isoforms are increasingly phosphorylated activated in the terminal phase of differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • However, studies demonstrating that each of the isoforms also targets other substrates in a selective fashion suggest that each of the isoforms may have unique functions depending on the tissue type ( 3 , 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The selective loss of LAMP2A protein directly correlated with the increased levels of alpha-synuclein and decreased levels of the CMA chaperone heat shock cognate protein 70 in the same PD samples, as well as with the accumulation of cytosolic CMA substrate proteins. (garvan.org.au)
  • The encoded protein is a chromosomal passenger protein that forms complexes with Aurora-B and inner centromere proteins and may play a role in organizing microtubules in relation to centrosome/spindle function during mitosis. (abnova.com)