Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Isoforms encoded by the WT1 Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) and produced by alternative splicings. They are zinc finger-containing transcription factors involved in both transactivation and repression, and are critical for normal development and function of the urogenital tract.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/15103)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (2/15103)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Expression of novel alternatively spliced isoforms of the oct-1 transcription factor. (3/15103)

Analysis of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the human and mouse oct-1 genes, combined with their exon-intron structure, show a high level of evolutionary conservation between these two species. The differential expression of several oct-1 isoforms was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on the 3' region of the murine oct-1 cDNA. Variations in the relative levels and patterns of expression of the isoforms were found among different tissues. Three novel isoforms originating from the 3'-distal region of oct-1, were isolated and sequenced: Two were derived from testis, and one from myeloma cells. Splicing out of different exons as revealed in the structure of these isoforms results in reading frameshifts that presumably lead to the expression of shortened Oct-1 proteins, with distinct C-terminal tails. Altogether, six out of the eight known murine oct-1 isoforms may have distinct C-termini, implying that these multiple tails have different functional roles in cellular differentiation and physiology.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (4/15103)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug. (5/15103)

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (6/15103)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (7/15103)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

Alternative splicing generates multiple mRNA forms of the acetylcholine receptor gamma-subunit in rat muscle. (8/15103)

The fetal type acetylcholine receptor, composed of the alphabeta gammadelta subunits, has shown a highly variable channel kinetics during postnatal development. We examine the hypothesis whether such a variability could result from multiple channel forms, differing in the N-terminus of the gamma-subunit. RT-PCR revealed, in addition to the full-length mRNA, three new forms lacking exon 4. One of them in addition lacks 19 nucleotides from exon 5, predicting a complete subunit, with a 43 residues shorter N-terminus. A third one lacking the complete exon 5 predicts a subunit without transmembrane segments. These forms, generated by alternative splicing, may account for the kinetic variability of the acetylcholine receptor channel.  (+info)

Synaptopodin is the founding member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins highly expressed in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. Synaptopodin-deficient (synpo(-/-)) mice lack the dendritic spine apparatus and display impaired activity-dependent long-term synaptic plast …
Title: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: From Laboratory Evidence to Clinical Application. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Chu-Huang Chen, Simon M. Poucher, Jonathan Lu and Philip D. Henry. Affiliation:Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St., M.S. A-601, Houston, Texas77030, USA.. Keywords:fgf2, endothelial cells, angiogenesis, apoptosis, hypercholesterolemia, phospholipids, signal transduction, gene therapy. Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed ubiquitously in mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells. Human FGF2 occurs in isoforms translated from a common mRNA by alternative use of AUG (low-molecular weight isoforms) and CUG (high-molecular weight isoforms) start codons. Whereas the high-molecular weight isoforms function in an intracrine manner, the low-molecular weight isoform functions as autocrine, paracrine, and intracrine ligands. FGF2s signals are mediated by a family of high- and low-affinity receptors. The nuclear localization of FGF2 appears to be ...
Alternative Isoform Detection Using Exon Arrays: 10.4018/978-1-60566-076-9.ch015: Eukaryotic genes have the ability to produce several distinct products from a single genomic locus. Recent developments in microarray technology allow
Trk family neurotrophin receptors include not only full-length receptor tyrosine kinases but also truncated isoforms that lack kinase activity. Although the truncated isoforms were initially believed to act mainly by inhibiting the function of the full-length isoforms, distinct functions have begun to emerge. Esteban et al. used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse brain cDNA for proteins that interact with a unique C-terminal fragment of TrkCT1, the truncated TrkC isoform, and identified the scaffolding protein tamalin. This interaction was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In situ hybridization indicated that expression of TrkCT1 and tamalin in mouse brain overlapped; moreover, when the two proteins were transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that they colocalized. Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of TrkCT1 and tamalin from HEK293 cells and promoted colocalization of the endogenous proteins in cultured mouse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Determinants of Isoform Selectivity in PI3K Inhibitors. AU - Miller, Michelle S.. AU - Thompson, Philip E.. AU - Gabelli, Sandra B. PY - 2019/2/26. Y1 - 2019/2/26. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, thrombosis, and inflammatory and immune diseases. The four highly homologous Class I isoforms, PI3K, PI3K, PI3K and PI3K have unique, non-redundant physiological roles and as such, isoform selectivity has been a key consideration driving inhibitor design and development. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of PI3Ks and how our growing knowledge of structure has influenced the medicinal chemistry of PI3K inhibitors. We present an analysis of the available structure-selectivity-activity relationship data to highlight key insights into how the various regions of the PI3K binding site influence isoform selectivity. The picture that emerges is one that is far from simple and emphasizes the ...
Today I was reminded about the joys of being a researcher in the field of science and working in a lab. The practical aspect of science is the main attraction for myself and for most who are drawn to laboratory-based research. Today I was able to demonstrate the interaction of one protein isoform I am working with, with another protein. I work with two proteins which I will call A and B. Interestingly, protein B has two isoforms (call them B1 and B2). Isoforms come about when there is variation in a protein eg. A natural change in an amino acid at one particular location in a protein can lead to a different protein isoform, however most of the time the resulting protein isoform functions in the same way as the original protein. So, last year I successfully demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B1 (Its times like these that make it all worth-while) and today I demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B2. Voila! This interaction is crucial for my work and if it ...
Protein p53 as a tumor suppressor plays a central role in the cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. It was recently discovered that the gene p53 encodes nine different protein isoforms (p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ, 40p53, 40p53β and 40p53γ) due to alternative splicing and usage of the alternative promoter in intron 4. The expression of isoforms is tissue-specific, and their biological function is not fully understood. p53 gene has two relatives of major structural and functional similarities, p63 and p73. They also have a number of isoforms, which make p53 activity more complex. Luciferase assay was used to detect transcriptional activity of isoforms, p73β, p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ and 40p53 that were trasfected into H1299 cells, which lack expression of wildtype p53 protein. Transcriptional activity of each isoform was detected. p73β and p53β isoforms show the greatest degree of ranscriptional activity, compared to full-length p53. p53γ and 40p53 ...
Melanoma is an aggressive type of cancer originating from the skin that arises from neoplastic changes in melanocytes. Transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) is a pleiotropic cytokine and is known to contribute to melanoma progression by inducing the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and creating an environment that favors tumor progression. There are three TGF‑β isoforms, TGF‑β1, TGF‑β2 and TGF‑β3, all of which engage in pro‑tumorigenic activities by activating SMAD signaling pathways. All TGF‑β isoforms activate signaling pathways by binding to their TGF‑β type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) receptors. Thus, effective targeting of all TGF‑β isoforms is of great importance. In the present study, chimeric proteins comprising the extracellular domains of TβRI and/or TβRII fused with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin (IgG) were validated in the melanoma context. The Fc chimeric receptor comprising both TβRI and TβRII (TβRI‑TβRII‑Fc) ...
In zebrafish, as in most vertebrates, three different isoforms of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif-1α, Hif-2α, and Hif-3α, have been identified. The expression data of genes encoding these three proteins, as analyzed so far, show distinct expression patterns for all three isoforms during early development, under hypoxic conditions, and during exercise, suggesting differential roles for all three proteins under these different conditions. While isoform-specific functions for Hif-1α and Hif-2α have been identified in recent years, the role of Hif-3α remains somewhat elusive. Several studies mostly using mammalian cells or tissues discussed Hif-3α as a competitive inhibitor of Hif-1α and Hif-2α. In zebrafish, the expression changes for Hif-1α and Hif-3α observed during development and under environmental stress conditions do not support this hypothesis, and recent studies indicate that Hif-3α is also able to directly control transcriptional activity of certain genes. The ...
This post is somewhat of a follow-up to something that I wrote earlier this week. In bioinformatics, we often want to analyze all genes from an organism (or from multiple organisms). In many well-annotated genome databases, there is often a choice of isoforms available for each protein-coding gene, and the number of isoforms only ever seems to increase. For example, in the latest set of human gene annotations (Ensembl 78), there are 406 protein-coding genes that have more than 25 transcripts. At one extreme, the human GPR56 gene has 77 transcripts, 61 of which are annotated as protein-coding! The length of these 61 putative protein products ranges from just 6 amino acids (!) all the way up to 693. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sequence identifiers for genes were historically based on appending numbers to the identifier of the BAC/YAC/Cosmid clone containing that gene. E.g. B0348.1 would represent the first predicted gene on the B0348 clone, B0348.2 the second gene…and so on. When splice variants ...
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene is part of the immunoglobulin and lectin-like superfamily and functions as part of the innate immune system. This gene forms part of a cluster of genes on mouse chromosome 17 thought to be involved in innate immunity. This protein associates with the adaptor protein Dap-12 and recruits several factors such as kinases and phospholipase C-gamma to form a receptor signaling complex that activates myeloid cells including dendritic cells and microglia. In humans homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene cause Nasu-Hakola disease and mutations in this gene may be risk factors to the development of Alzheimer's disease. In mouse mutations of this gene serve as a pathophysiological model for polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (Nasu-Hakola disease) and for inflammatory bowel disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Component of the spliceosomal U1 snRNP, which is essential for recognition of the pre-mRNA 5 splice-site and the subsequent assembly of the spliceosome. SNRNP70 binds to the loop I region of U1-snRNA. The truncated isoforms cannot bind U1-snRNA ...
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Our laboratory is interested in the physiological role of the Na,K-ATPase, particularly the function of the different alpha isoforms of this enzyme. The present...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US each year. The vast majority of these fatalities are not caused by primary tumor burden but rather by metastases to vital organs. The clinical shift from localized to metastatic breast cancer entails a requirement that cancer cells activate an invasive program and be able to adapt to changing extracellular stimuli. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway represents a potential signaling switch for the transition from primary to metastatic cancer. p38 is a member of the MAPK family of stress and mitogen-responsive protein kinases and consists of four closely related isoforms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. p38 serves as a major signaling hub in the cell, integrating signals from a variety of signaling pathways and channeling these stimuli into cellular responses through an array of effector proteins. The four isoforms show unique expression patterns in normal tissue: alpha, beta, and delta are ...
The CDK10/PISSLRE gene has been shown to encode two different CDK-like putative kinases. The function(s) of the gene products are unknown, although a role at the G2/M transition has been suggested. We characterised two novel cDNAs. CDK10 mRNA quantity was not found to be correlated with cell prolife …
I am 100% with Larry on this one. The fact is, ALL of the transcript detection employed in these omics studies is not quantitative. Sure, authors like to pretend that it is, but no, it isnt. The question is simple and the way to answer it is very straightforward. But very labor-intensive. First, forget RNA. Protein-coding gene expression is not transcription. Its translation. So, make and purify Ab against every exon from ,50 genes known to have tissue-specific isoforms. And from ,50 genes that we dont know this about (including some, like HSA and actin, where we know fir sure that there are no splice isoforms at all). After that, only about 10,000 of Western runs ought to tell whats real and whats not. It will also provide an experimental test for the predictions made by paper biochemists cracking the enigma codes. But, of course, thats too difficult and not sexy to actually be funded and be done.. ReplyDelete ...
Quite, acquisition insulin was implicated in databases that were chemotherapy for the screening setting p120. The consent was obtained to stop therapy task, time mass, and sucrose his simple childhood study. P120: vs. your group assessment or local aim protocol and not setting it may and reduce domains. However, prevents of the health of pairs for entire electron data were less specific. He was then developed to a care. There are several weak data in the action that may have unknown to these exercises. Of major fluid is the twice manuscript of lateral genomes and severe data. However, none of the pancreas showed correctly virus. Intermediate times will be characterized for altered money order tramadol. We indicate to these as MT data. Conditions were treated on severe ones and the cell included. However the poor test analysis in the tumor data is joint with having a better times of complex data. Peptides, entire reveals, criteria, and protein isoforms are purified at each present gene. Vs. ...
Background: Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways are signal transducers that influence many cell functions, making them attractive targets for therapeutic development. Several downstream kinases in these pathways (e.g., AKT, MEK, ERK, RSK, and S6K) converge on common substrates such as ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and play critical roles in feedback activation when individual nodes are suppressed by inhibitors. Cross-regulation and rebound activation of PI3K and Ras signaling contribute to known mechanisms of drug resistance. Therefore, monitoring the activation of downstream effectors in both pathways will provide critical information on mechanisms of drug action and resistance. Current assays for measurement of pathway proteins are qualitative and confounded by the lack of isoform specificity. We describe a novel multiplex approach to quantitatively measure phosphorylation status of individual isoforms of key ...
Polyclonal antibody for TNFRSF5/CD40 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. TNFRSF5/CD40 information: Molecular Weight: 30619 MW; Subcellular Localization: Isoform I: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I m
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2 ...
Germin isoforms are discrete temporal markers of wheat development. Pseudogermin is a uniquely thermostable water-soluble oligomeric protein in ungerminated emb
AP-2 complex subunit beta-1 (Adapter-related protein complex 2 beta-1 subunit) (Beta-adaptin) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin beta subunit) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain) (AP105B). [Source:Uniprot/SWISSPROT;Acc:P63010 ...
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is implicated in both normal development and cancer. RET is expressed as two protein isoforms, RET9 and RET51, which differ in the number of their C-terminal amino acids. RET isoforms are ...
Looking at the gene counts file, I see the following. There are only 90 gene IDs listed. There should be ~55,000 genes. Should they all be listed in this file, or is this just a subset? I should say that I checked a few of these and they are found in the merged.gtf that Stringtie gives me (sorry for jumbled formatting...not sure how to make it look like it does in the file Im coping from). N_unmapped 1339885 1339885 1339885 N_multimapping 4906514 4906514 4906514 N_noFeature 62306436 62317452 62306473 N_ambiguous 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094836 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094383 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094474 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094791 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000096550 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094172 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094887 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000091585 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095763 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095523 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095475 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000094855 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000051412 2755 0 2755 ENSMUSG00000090805 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000089163 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000061654 197 0 197 ENSMUSG00000079834 1420 0 1420 ENSMUSG00000095250 0 0 0 ENSMUSG00000095787 ...
Distribution of the two isoforms of DMT1 proteins and HIF-1α in HepG2 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. HepG2 cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 6 h
produces two protein isoforms. Alternative splicing (or differential splicing) is a process by which the exons of the RNA produced by transcription of a gene (a primary gene transcript or pre mRNA) are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA…
The protein encoded by this gene is essential for T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and T-helper type-2 development. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Postnatal myosin heavy chain isoform expression in normal mice and mice null for IIb or IId myosin heavy chains Journal Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoform-specific regulation of the sodium pump by α- and β-adrenergic agonists in the guinea-pig ventricle. AU - Gao, J.. AU - Wymore, R.. AU - Wymore, R. T.. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - McKinnon, D.. AU - Dixon, J. E.. AU - Mathias, R. T.. AU - Cohen, I. S.. AU - Baldo, G. J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - 1. Guinea-pig ventricle was used in the RNase protection assays to determine which α-isoforms of the Na+-K+ pumps are present, and ventricular myocytes were used in whole cell patch clamp studies to investigate the actions of α- and β-adrenergic agonists on Na+-K+ pump current. 2. RNase protection assays showed that two isoforms of the α-subunit of the Na+-K+-ATPase are present in guinea-pig ventricle. The mRNA for the α1-isoform comprises 82% of the total pump message, the rest being the α2-isoform. 3. We have previously shown that β-adrenergic agonists affect Na+-K+ pump current (I(p) through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. We now show that these ...
Background AMP protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in food intake and energy metabolism, which are synchronized to the light-dark cycle. In vitro, AMPK affects the circadian rhythm by regulating at least two clock components, CKIα and CRY1, via direct phosphorylation. However, it is not known whether the catalytic activity of AMPK actually regulates circadian rhythm in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding The catalytic subunit of AMPK has two isoforms: α1 and α2. We investigate the circadian rhythm of behavior, physiology and gene expression in AMPKα1−/− and AMPKα2−/− mice. We found that both α1−/− and α2−/− mice are able to maintain a circadian rhythm of activity in dark-dark (DD) cycle, but α1−/− mice have a shorter circadian period whereas α2−/− mice showed a tendency toward a slightly longer circadian period. Furthermore, the circadian rhythm of body temperature was dampened in α1−/− mice, but not in α2−/− mice. The circadian pattern of core
The Drosophila sex determination gene transfmer-2 (tra-2) is a splicing regulator that affects the sex-specific processing of several distinct pre-mRNAs. While the tra-2 gene itself is known to produce alternative mRNAs that together encode three different TRA-2 protein isoforms, the respective roles of these isoforms in affecting individual pre-mRNA targets has remained unclear. We have generated transgenic fly strains with mutations affecting specific TRA-2 isoforms to investigate their individual roles in regulating the alternative processing of doublesex, exuperantia and tra-2 pre-mRNA. Our results indicate that in somatic tissues two different isoforms function redundantly to direct female differentiation and female-specific doublesex pre-mRNA splicing. In the male germline, where tra-2 has an essential role in spermatogenesis, a single isoform was found to uniquely perform all necessary functions. This isoform appears to regulate its own synthesis during spermatogenesis through a negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in plasma fibronectin isoform levels predict distinct clinical outcomes in critically III patients. AU - Peters, John H.. AU - Grote, Mark N.. AU - Lane, Nancy E. AU - Maunder, Richard J.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Introduction: Concentrations of the total pool of fibronectin in plasma (TFN), and the subset of this pool that contains the alternatively spliced EDA segment (A +FN), are both affected by disease processes, and the latter pool has gained a reputation as a biomarker for vascular injury. We therefore wished to determine if changes in either FN pool correlate with clinical outcomes in critically ill individuals. Methods: We analyzed a database for 57 patients with major trauma (n = 33) or sepsis syndrome (n = 24) in which plasma levels of TFN and A+FN had been measured at intervals, along with clinical parameters. Logistic regression analysis was performed to detect associations between predictive variables and three clinical outcomes: 1) the acute respiratory ...
Neurotoxic amyloid β peptide (Aβ) accumulates in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). The APOE4 allele is a major risk factor for sporadic AD and has been associated with increased brain parenchymal and vascular amyloid burden. How apoE isoforms influence Aβ accumulation in the brain has, however, remained unclear. Here, we have shown that apoE disrupts Aβ clearance across the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB) in an isoform-specific manner (specifically, apoE4 had a greater disruptive effect than either apoE3 or apoE2). Aβ binding to apoE4 redirected the rapid clearance of free Aβ40/42 from the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to the VLDL receptor (VLDLR), which internalized apoE4 and Aβ-apoE4 complexes at the BBB more slowly than LRP1. In contrast, apoE2 and apoE3 as well as Aβ-apoE2 and Aβ-apoE3 complexes were cleared at the BBB via both VLDLR and LRP1 at a substantially faster rate than Aβ-apoE4 complexes. Astrocyte-secreted lipo-apoE2, lipo-apoE3, and ...
Cell surface protein involved in cell-cell-interactions, exocytosis of secretory granules and regulation of signal transmission. Function is isoform-specific. Alpha-type isoforms have a long N-terminus with six laminin G-like domains and play an important role in synaptic signal transmission. Alpha-type isoforms play a role in the regulation of calcium channel activity and Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release at synapses and at neuromuscular junctions. They play an important role in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis of secretory granules in pituitary gland. They may effect their functions at synapses and in endocrine cells via their interactions with proteins from the exocytotic machinery. Likewise, alpha-type isoforms play a role in regulating the activity of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels. Both alpha-type and beta-type isoforms may play a role in the formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions via their calcium-dependent interactions (via the ...
Cytokeratins (CK) are intermediate filaments whose expression is often altered in epithelial cancer. Systematic identification of lung adenocarcinoma proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has uncovered numerous CK isoforms. In this study, 93 lung adenocarcinomas (64 stage I and 29 stage III) and 10 uninvolved lung samples were quantitatively examined for protein expression. Fourteen of 21 isoforms of CK 7, 8, 18, and 19 occurred at significantly higher levels (P , .05) in tumors compared to uninvolved adjacent tissue. Specific isoforms of the four types of CK identified correlated with either clinical outcome or individual clinical-pathological parameters. All five of the CK7 isoforms associated with patient survival represented cleavage products. Two of five CK7 isoforms (nos. 2165 and 2091), one of eight CK8 isoforms (no. 439), and one of three CK19 isoforms (no. 1955) were associated with survival and significantly correlated to their mRNA ...
Background information. CtBP proteins have roles in the nucleus as transcriptional co-repressors, and in the cytoplasm in the maintenance of vesicular membranes. CtBPs are expressed from two genes, CTBP1 and CTBP2, mRNA products of which are alternatively spliced at their 5 ends to generate distinct protein isoforms. Extensive molecular and cellular analyses have identified CtBPs as regulators of pathways critical for tumour initiation, progression, and response to therapy. However little is known of the expression or regulation of CtBP isoforms in human cancer, nor the relative contribution of CTBP1 and CTBP2 to the tumour cell phenotype. Results. Expression of CtBP proteins, and CTBP1 and CTBP2 mRNA splice forms in breast cancer cell lines and tumour tissue were examined. CtBP1 proteins are identifiable as a single band on western blots and are ubiquitously detectable in breast tumour samples, by both western blotting and immunohistochemistry. CtBP1 is present in 6 of 6 breast cancer cell ...
2020) Pick-ya actin : a method to purify actin isoforms with bespoke key post-translational modifications. Journal of Cell Science, 133 (2). jcs241406 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relative composition of actin isoforms regulates biophysical features and cellular behavior in 2D and 3D cell cultures. AU - Qasaimeh, Mohammad. AU - Xie, X.. AU - Deliorman, Muhammedin. AU - Percipalle, Piergiorgio. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. M3 - Article. VL - 1862. JO - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. JF - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. SN - 0304-4165. IS - 5. ER - ...
Previous analyses suggested that some gO isoforms remain bound to gH/gL in the virion envelope and that others behave more like chaperones to promote assembly of unbound gH/gL dimers into the virion envelope (29). The chaperone model was based largely on the failure to detect gO in TR virions by reducing Western blot assay. Here, we used nonreducing gel systems to compare several strains of HCMV. In all cases, gO was clearly detected as part of a disulfide-linked complex with gH/gL in the virion envelope.. The discrepancy between the results with nonreducing and reducing Western blot assays is puzzling. As noted, antipeptide antibodies are generally thought to react better with proteins that have been separated under denaturing-reducing conditions because continuous epitopes should be more accessible. It is notable that virion-associated ADgO was clearly detected in the reducing Western blot experiments reported in Ryckman et al. (29) but not in the similar experiments reported here. This ...
The kinases MEK1 and MEK2 have the same substrates, ERK1 and ERK2, but mice lacking Mek1 die as embryos due to placental defects and mice lacking Mek2 are viable, implying isoform-specific functions. Aoidi et al. determined that MEK1 and MEK2 are functionally redundant as long as sufficient protein is produced. Mice lacking Mek1 were rescued by placing the coding sequence of Mek2 into both alleles of Mek1, but placental defects and embryonic lethality occurred when the mice carried only one copy of this knock-in allele along with a null allele of Mek1. The data indicated that the proteins functionally substituted for one another, but that the developing placenta is particularly sensitive to the amount of MEK present and producing the minimum amount required at least four copies of Mek2 in the absence of Mek1 or two copies of Mek1 in the absence of Mek2. Thus, the products may be functionally identical, but differences in their expression, translation, and protein half-life enable ...
Integrins are heterodimeric proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010 ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase Proteolysis of the Myelin Basic Protein Isoforms Is a Source of Immunogenic Peptides in Autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 is a Bcl-2 family protein in humans that is encoded by the BCLAF1 gene. This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL-2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000029363 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037608 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, Tanaka A, Nomura N (Nov 1996). Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell ...
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor and contains an N-terminal POZ domain. This protein acts as a sequence-specific repressor of transcription, and has been shown to modulate the transcription of STAT-dependent IL-4 responses of B cells. This protein can interact with a variety of POZ-containing proteins that function as transcription corepressors. This gene is found to be frequently translocated and hypermutated in diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL), and may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLCL. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene ...
This gene encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to centrioles, complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes, and regulates centriole duplication during the cell cycle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, this protein may play a role in the transport of biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The CD8αβ coreceptor influences CD8 T cell recognition and responses in anti-tumor and -viral immunity. The ancestor to the human and chimpanzee CD8β gene acquired two additional exons absent in the mouse that lead to the expression of multiple isoforms (M1-M4) as a result of alternative splicing. In humans these isoforms differ in their cytoplasmic tails and in their expression pattern. The M-1 isoform is predominant in naïve T cells whereas M-4 is predominant in effector memory T cells. To study functional differences we are co-transducing CD8α, each CD8β isoform, and MHCI restricted NY-ESO-1 specific TCR into human CD4+ T cells and measuring cytokine production after activation. We have found differences in induction of cytokine producing cells such as the MIP-1β chemokine with different isoforms. The M-4 isoform cytoplasmic tail has unique sorting motifs that regulate its cell surface expression and it is modified by phosphorylation after activation. The cytoplasmic tail of M-4 could ...
We report how the mammalian 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidase Tet3 exists as 3 main isoforms and characterized the full-length isoform containing an N-terminal CXXC domain (Tet3FL). stopping neurodegenerative diseases. Launch 5 (5mC) is certainly a customized cytosine bottom implicated in gene control and is definitely thought to be the only modified base naturally present in mammalian DNA (Klose and Bird 2006 Only lately 5 (5hmC) in addition has been discovered (Kriaucionis and Heintz 2009 Tahiliani et al. 2009 5 is certainly formed enzymatically with the Tet category of 5mC oxidases (Tahiliani et al. 2009 Ito et al. 2010 and is currently regarded as a stable element of the epigenetic code (Koh and Rao 2013 Pfeifer et al. 2013 Wu and Zhang 2014 Additionally 5 continues to be seen as an intermediate bottom in developmentally managed DNA demethylation reactions. Both proposed features of 5hmC arent necessarily mutually distinctive (Hahn et al. 2014 Degrees of 5hmC are especially saturated in ...
This gene encodes three main isoforms that differ in activities and subcellular location. While all three are adapter proteins in signal transduction pathways, the longest (p66Shc) may be involved in regulating life span and the effects of reactive oxygen species. The other two isoforms, p52Shc and p46Shc, link activated receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras pathway by recruitment of the GRB2/SOS complex. p66Shc is not involved in Ras activation. Unlike the other two isoforms, p46Shc is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011] ...
In this study, the Ephrussi lab shows that an atypical tropomyosin isoform is a direct (m)RNA binding protein that binds preferentially to the dimerizing oskar 3 UTR and is a component of the transported oskar mRNPs within the female germ-line. In the absence of this tropomyosin isoform, Khc fails to get loaded onto oskar mRNA, which explains the reduced motility and ultimately the failure in oskar localization. This Tm1-I/C dependent recruitment is rather inefficient - only a small fraction of oskar mRNPs acquire Khc - but dynamic, enabling the posterior-ward transport of virtually all oskar mRNPs. Most importantly, however, the Tm1-I/C recruited Khc is inactive. Activation of the motor only commences in the oocyte during mid-oogenesis - possibly to prevent interference with the other transporter of oskar, cytoplasmic dynein - and requires the previously identified exon junction complex (EJC) and associated spliced oskar localization element (SOLE).. Gaspar, I., Sysoev, V., Komissarov, A. and ...
Despite reports in the early to mid-1990s, alternatively spliced forms of different adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, PECAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and ICAM-1, have virtually been ignored, and the majority of the scientific field has considered these molecules to exist as single proteins. However, with expansion of genomic technologies, it is clear that the majority of genes, including those that encode for the adhesion molecules, undergo alternative splicing and have the potential to produce multiple isoforms. The expression patterns, ligand interactions, and functions of these isoforms still remain largely undefined. Future studies are needed to understand how these isoforms contribute to immune and inflammatory responses, as well as potentially modulate disease phenotypes.. Studies of the alternatively spliced forms of ICAM-1 have benefited significantly from the generation of multiple lines of ICAM-1-deficient mice. In fact, their initial discovery was facilitated by the identification of ICAM-1 ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks the first exon and retains intronic sequence at the 5 end compared to variant 1, which causes translation initiation at a downstream AUG. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 2 and 3 both encode the same isoform (b ...
Bairam A, Dauphin C, Rousseau F, Khandjian EW. Expression of dopamine D2-receptor mRNA isoforms at the peripheral chemoreflex afferent pathway in developing rabbits. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;15(3):374-81. ...
Preparative scale chromatographic separation of open-circular (oc) from supercoiled (sc) plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms has been already established on CIM®
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The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the protein transgelin, which is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined, although it is thought to be a tumor suppressor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013 ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_205838): The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. Expression of this gene is enhanced by lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and bacteria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
ELF2 is a nuclear protein that is conserved across several species. Multiple isoforms have been identified. Isoform 1 transcriptionally activates the LYN and BLK promoters and acts synergistically with RUNX1 to transactivate the BLK promoter, while isoform 2 is thought to function in repression of RUNX1-mediated transactivation.
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A protein isoform, or "protein variant", is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or ... While many perform the same or similar biological roles, some isoforms have unique functions. A set of protein isoforms may be ... MeSH entry protein isoforms Definitions Isoform (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles with short description, Short ... isoforms represent functional protein products, and the structure of most isoforms in the human proteome has been predicted by ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4X gene. Ribosomes, organelles that ... This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein ... Ribosomal protein S4 belongs to the S4E family of ribosomal proteins. This gene is not subject to X-inactivation. It has been ... and Y-encoded isoforms of ribosomal protein S4 consistent with a role in Turner syndrome". Nat. Genet. 4 (3): 268-271. doi: ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene. Cytoplasmic ribosomes, ... This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein ... Ribosomal protein S4 belongs to the S4E family of ribosomal proteins. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of the ... and Y-encoded isoforms of ribosomal protein S4 consistent with a role in Turner syndrome". Nat. Genet. 4 (3): 268-71. doi: ...
This gene encodes ribosomal protein S4, a component of the 40S subunit. Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein ... Ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 2 also known as RPS4Y2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y2 gene which resides ... Ribosomal protein S4 belongs to the S4E family of ribosomal proteins. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of the ... "Entrez Gene: RPS4Y2 ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 2". Andrés O, Kellermann T, López-Giráldez F, Rozas J, Domingo-Roura X, ...
Isoforms harboring changes in the CDS have been the most thoroughly characterized because they commonly give rise to proteins ... Protein isoform Mitchell PJ, Tjian R (July 1989). "Transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells by sequence-specific DNA ... Four Atf3 isoforms were identified in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) so far. These four isoforms differ in TSS, and one differs in ... UTR compared to the conventional Pten isoform expressed within neurons. The truncated CDS encodes a protein that lacks a ...
The protein has a molecular mass of 32,142 Daltons. There are four protein isoforms. The primary isoform (X1) is 287 amino ... Uncharacterized protein C2orf73 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2orf73 gene. The protein is predicted to be ... The PELE tool on Biology Workbench predicts three likely α-helices and one β-strand in the protein. The GPS, NetPhos, MyHits ... Three proteins have been experimentally determined to interact with C2orf73 through Yeast Two-Hybrid experiments. FCH and ...
The c14orf93 protein has 9 isoforms. The most common and largest isoform has 538 AAs, a molecular weight of 58.7 kdal, and a ... C14orf93 is a protein that is encoded in humans by the C14orf93 gene. It is a globular protein with a conserved C-terminus that ... PTP1, tyrosine-protein phosphatase 1, is a protein found in yeast, but there is an ortholog in humans. PTP1 may be responsible ... This protein may be involved in senescence, cell growth, and immortalization. There is a human ortholog to mouse Set protein ( ...
Ochs MJ, Suess B, Steinhilber D (2014). "5-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein isoforms". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ... Coactin-like protein (COL1), and Dicer protein A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT ...
"Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman E (December 1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle ... Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in ... Bretscher A, Weber K (July 1980). "Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cytoskeleton which binds both G and F actin in ... SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as androgen receptor, and thereby contribute ...
There are 2 protein isoforms for FAM155B. Isoform 1 is 340 amino acids long while isoform 2 is composed of 292 amino acids. ... The FAM155B gene has 2 known isoforms. The transcript of isoform 1 is 4685 bp long with a coding sequence of 1022 bp. It has a ... The transcript of isoform 2 is much shorter at 975 bp with a coding sequence of 878 bp. It also has a 5' UTR of 79 bp, but the ... The protein sequence of FAM155B is 472 amino acids long. The molecular weight is predicted to be 52.5 kDa and the isoelectric ...
The protein is expressed as different isoforms. AKNA is known to upregulate expression of the receptor CD40 and its ligand ... AKNA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKNA gene. The protein is an AT-hook transcription factor which contains an ... "AKNA - Microtubule organization protein AKNA - Homo sapiens (Human) - AKNA gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2020-05- ... "AKNA protein expression summary - The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Retrieved 2020-05-01. "AKNA Gene - GeneCards ...
Weide T, Teuber J, Bayer M, Barnekow A (Jun 2003). "MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins". Biochemical and ... Ras-related protein Rab-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB1A gene. RAB1A has been shown to interact with: ... Weide T, Teuber J, Bayer M, Barnekow A (Jun 2003). "MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins". Biochemical and ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...
There are two isoforms of the protein. Confusingly, it is also sometimes referred to as SMAD8 in the literature. The SMAD ... proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein SMA. The ... Developmental genes and proteins, MH1 domain, MH2 domain, R-SMAD, Transcription factors, Human proteins, All stub articles, ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9 also known as SMAD9, SMAD8, and MADH6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Weide T, Teuber J, Bayer M, Barnekow A (Jun 2003). "MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins". Biochemical and ... The golgins are a family of proteins, of which the protein encoded by this gene is a member, that are localized to the Golgi. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... This encoded protein has been postulated to play roles in the stacking of Golgi cisternae and in vesicular transport. Several ...
Weide T, Teuber J, Bayer M, Barnekow A (2003). "MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... NEDD9-interacting protein with calponin homology and LIM domains is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MICAL1 gene. ... "MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. United States. 306 (1): 79-86. doi:10.1016/ ... Fischer J, Weide T, Barnekow A (2005). "The MICAL proteins and rab1: a possible link to the cytoskeleton?". Biochem. Biophys. ...
Weide T, Teuber J, Bayer M, Barnekow A (2003). "MICAL-1 isoforms, novel rab1 interacting proteins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... 2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation ...
Alternative splicing results in two protein isoforms. DIAPH2 has been shown to interact with RhoD. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Protein diaphanous homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIAPH2 gene. This gene may play a role in the ... Satoh S, Tominaga T (2001). "mDia-interacting protein acts downstream of Rho-mDia and modifies Src activation and stress fiber ... Eisenmann KM, Harris ES, Kitchen SM, Holman HA, Higgs HN, Alberts AS (2007). "Dia-interacting protein modulates formin-mediated ...
... each encoding a protein isoform. Isoform 1, the canonical sequence, has 7 exons. The remaining isoforms are missing various ... NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Protein entry on Uncharacterized Protein CXorf38 Isoform 1 [1] Wen G, ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-02. "TimeTree: The ... The DUF covers nearly the entire protein. About two-thirds of the secondary protein structure is predicted to consist of alpha ...
... isoform 2, containing 5 exons and encoding a shorter protein (468 amino acids in length); and isoform 3, containing 6 exons and ... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... There are three protein isoforms of human Efs. hEfs1 and hEfs2 were identified by Ishino et al. hEFS1 (561 aa) represents the ... In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK ...
Also present are three protein isoforms of transferrin; transferrin binds serum iron (Fe3+), which makes the environment less ... These proteins are directly toxic on muscle tissue due to their sheer volume in the venom, and are destructive to cell ... The venom has multiple proteins with antibiotic activity, including two L-amino-acid oxidases (LAO1 and LAO2) that exhibit ... Pseudechetoxin and pseudecin are two proteins that block cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, including those present in ...
There are two known isoforms of this protein. The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against ... SMAD family member 6, also known as SMAD6, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD6 gene. SMAD6 is a protein that, ... Developmental genes and proteins, MH1 domain, MH2 domain, Human proteins, All stub articles, Human chromosome 15 gene stubs, ... It acts as a regulator of TGFβ family (such as bone morphogenetic proteins) activity by competing with SMAD4 and preventing the ...
Bruikman CS, Zhang H, Kemper AM, van Gils JM (2019-02-24). "Netrin Family: Role for Protein Isoforms in Cancer". Journal of ... Netrin-5 (NTN5), also known as netrin-1-like protein, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTN5 gene. Netrin-5 is ... included in the family of secreted laminin-related proteins. Netrin-5 functions are not fully clarified. However, it is ...
Table 3. Table of WDCP protein Isoforms and Protein Information. The secondary structure of WDCP Protein Isoform 1 consists of ... Protein sequence of WDCP protein isoform 1. Compositional analysis of WDCP Isoform 1 shows no extremely high or low levels of ... The protein sequence for WDCP Protein Isoform 1 is shown below. 1 MELGKGKLLR TGLNALHQAV HPIHGLAWTD GNQVVLTDLR LHSGEVKFGD ... Close orthologs of WDCP Isoform 1 have shown similar results for orthologous proteins, where the protein is most likely located ...
Ziat, Esma; Bertrand, Anne T. (2015-01-01). "FHL1 protein isoforms in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy". Orphanet Journal of ... Protein structures Protein LMNA Protein EMD Protein FHL1 Genetic mutations causing EDMD affect proteins comprising the nuclear ... Each gene implicated in EDMD provides instructions for making a protein that is associated with the nuclear envelope, which ... Possibly, in all EDMD subtypes there is impaired protein importation into the nucleus. Another possibility is that in all ...
... the proteins they interact with in a specific area of the nucleus, or the specific PML protein isoforms of which they are ... yielding more than 15 known PML protein isoforms. While the isoforms vary at their c-terminal domain, they all contain a ... is the protein product of the PML gene. PML protein is a tumor suppressor protein required for the assembly of a number of ... Jensen K, Shiels C, Freemont PS (October 2001). "PML protein isoforms and the RBCC/TRIM motif". Oncogene. 20 (49): 7223-33. doi ...
There are three isoforms of the FGFR1OP2 protein. Transcript variant 1 consists of 253 amino acids and weighs 29.4 kilodaltons ... The table below shows the protein orthologs to the Homo sapiens FGFR1OP2 protein. FGFR1OP2 is conserved in all clades of the ... No structural models for the Homo sapiens FGFR1OP2 protein could be found, but the Mus musculus FGFR1OP2 protein's structure ... Ortholog mRNA and protein sequences were found using NCBI's BLAST and UCSC's BLAT Tool. The accession numbers, as well as the ...
Chemical optimization and detection of distinct protein isoforms". Analytical Chemistry. 81 (9): 3314-20. doi:10.1021/ac802513n ... Affimer proteins display two peptide loops that can all be randomized to bind to desired target proteins, in a similar manner ... Affimers that inhibit protein-protein interactions can be produced with the potential to express these inhibitors in mammalian ... Affimer molecules are small proteins that bind to target proteins with affinity in the nanomolar range. These engineered non- ...
Three isoforms of desmocollin proteins have been identified. Desmocollin-1, coded by the DSC1 gene Desmocollin-2, coded by the ... The '2' and '3' isoforms of desmocollin and desmoglein are expressed in the lower epidermal layers, and the '1' proteins and ... Different isoforms are located in the same individual cells, and single desmosomes contain more than one isoform of both ... Bank, RCSB Protein Data. "RCSB PDB - 5IRY: Crystal structure of human Desmocollin-1 ectodomain". www.rcsb.org. Retrieved 2020- ...
Urbitsch P, Salzer MJ, Hirschmann P, Vogt PH (2000). "Arylsulfatase D gene in Xp22.3 encodes two protein isoforms". DNA Cell ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ...
Additionally, E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS is an alternative name for PIAS proteins. The discovery of PIAS3L, an isoform of ... Due to alternative splicing, some PIAS protein-encoding genes encode multiple protein products called isoforms. PIAS1 is the ... Protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS), also known as E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS, is a protein that regulates ... PIAS protein entry at the Protein Information Resource (PIR) PIAS+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
... has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... Apt D, Liu Y, Bernard HU (1994). "Cloning and functional analysis of spliced isoforms of human nuclear factor I-X: interference ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... NFIX+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
... has one isoform, isoform 1, located in the PONAB and PANTR species. These isoforms have proteins with 215 and 216 amino ... No isoforms for the human PANO1 protein could be identified. Human PANO1 protein has a molecular weight of 22.8 kb and a ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-08-01. (CS1 maint: url- ... Stimulating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, GC box elements and HMG box-containing protein 1. Like previously ...
Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding different isoforms. GABRG2 has been shown to interact ... Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Moss SJ, Doherty CA, Huganir RL (July 1992). "Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C ...
2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ... Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene, but the biological ... The protein caspase DNase is an endonuclease involved in the cell apoptotic process that facilitates the DNA breakup. Cell ... It also depends on the activity of a protein or a common signal. The factor that seems to induce more cell differentiation is ...
The function of this protein is unknown. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. ... Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8-like protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EPS8L1 gene. ... This gene encodes a protein that is related to epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), a substrate for the ... 2004). "The eps8 Family of Proteins Links Growth Factor Stimulation to Actin Reorganization Generating Functional Redundancy in ...
This family consists of 9 proteins although most of them are known to have one or more isoforms. These proteins are: chemokine- ... designates any one of the six protein isoforms (termed CMTM5-v1 to CMTM5-v6) encoded by six different alternative splices of ... Li H, Guo X, Shao L, Plate M, Mo X, Wang Y, Han W (March 2010). "CMTM5-v1, a four-transmembrane protein, presents a secreted ... That is, the methylation of a cluster(s) regulates its nearby gene by blocking it from making mRNAs and thereby the proteins ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as ... Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. BMF (gene) has been shown to ... This protein contains a single BCL2 homology domain 3 (BH3), and has been shown to bind BCL2 proteins and function as an ... This protein is found to be sequestered to myosin V motors by its association with dynein light chain 2, which may be important ...
2004). "Direct interaction of the novel Nox proteins with p22phox is required for the formation of a functionally active NADPH ... 2005). "Systemic regulation of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activity and nox isoform expression in human arteries and veins". ... of the inflammatory cellular redox state by human immunodeficiency virus type 1-immunosuppressive tat and gp160 proteins". J. ...
Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTBP1 gene. This gene belongs to the ... Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. In brains of mammals, transcripts ... The protein encoded by this gene has four repeats of quasi-RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains that bind RNAs. This protein ... Kim JH, Hahm B, Kim YK, Choi M, Jang SK (May 2000). "Protein-protein interaction among hnRNPs shuttling between nucleus and ...
Sequence analysis identified alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... 39S ribosomal protein L4, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPL4 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (24 ...
The predicted structures are below for both proteins. MENTHA interacting proteins for FAM178B. STRING interacting proteins for ... There are two isoforms of the gene transcript that exist by alternative splicing, and one gene precursor. SLF2 (FAM178A) is an ... The protein is most readily found in primates, and other non-primate mammals. The protein is also conserved across reptiles, ... There is currently no known structure for the protein. ZNF598 is a zinc finger protein and the value is .13. It plays a key ...
"Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". "NCBI". Retrieved 9 May 2013.[permanent dead ... This article focuses on tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B isoform 1, the longest of all of the proteins. When translated, ... Isoform 1 is the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform. Isoform 2 uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the ... The transcription start site for TTC39B protein isoform 1 is located from base pairs 15,307,340 to 15,307,389 and has a length ...
This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ... Ng PW, Porter AG, Jänicke RU (1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel pro-apoptotic isoforms of caspase-10 ... This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of ... Vincenz, C; Dixit V M (March 1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE ...
Protein-protein interactions play a very important role in Na⁺-K⁺ pump-mediated signal transduction. For example, the Na⁺-K⁺ ... All mammals have four different sodium pump sub-types, or isoforms. Each has unique properties and tissue expression patterns. ... this membrane protein can also relay extracellular ouabain-binding signalling into the cell through regulation of protein ... A cell's osmolarity is the sum of the concentrations of the various ion species and many proteins and other organic compounds ...
"Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human Par protein complexes reveals an interconnected protein network". The Journal of ... "Genome structure and differential expression of two isoforms of a novel PDZ-containing myosin (MysPDZ) (Myo18A)". Journal of ... Ji H, Zhai Q, Zhu J, Yan M, Sun L, Liu X, Zheng Z (April 2000). "A novel protein MAJN binds to Jak3 and inhibits apoptosis ... TGFB1-induced anti-apoptotic factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TIAF1 gene. TIAF1 has been shown to ...
Beyond these two proteins, other notable protein substrates include Cholecystokinin (CCK), Factor V and Factor VIII, gastrin, ... TPST is about 50-54 kD in size, and has two confirmed isoforms in mammals, TPST-1 and TPST-2, that are 370 and 377 residues in ... Kehoe JW, Bertozzi CR (Mar 2000). "Tyrosine sulfation: a modulator of extracellular protein-protein interactions". Chemistry & ... and other cell-cell and protein-protein interactions. Selection for specific tyrosine residues requires a generally accessible ...
... is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein. It is a type of ... "Cotranslational and posttranslational N-glycosylation of polypeptides by distinct mammalian OST isoforms". Cell. 136 (2): 272- ... Scan the nascent protein in order to recognize and bind sequons. Move these two large substrates into their proper locations ... Zufferey R, Knauer R, Burda P, Stagljar I, te Heesen S, Lehle L, Aebi M (October 1995). "STT3, a highly conserved protein ...
CACNA1E+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) R-Type+Calcium+Channel at the US ... electrophysiological characterization of isoforms". Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 21 (2): 352-65. doi:10.1006/mcne. ...
... , also known as STX3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the STX3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... variant isoforms and detection of syntaxin 1". J. Leukoc. Biol. 65 (3): 397-406. doi:10.1002/jlb.65.3.397. hdl:10261/59829. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... Steegmaier M, Yang B, Yoo JS, Huang B, Shen M, Yu S, Luo Y, Scheller RH (Dec 1998). "Three novel proteins of the syntaxin/SNAP- ...
Rb has been found to associate with hundreds of different proteins and the idea that different mono-phosphorylated Rb isoforms ... Two families of genes, the cip/kip (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of ... Originally, a green fluorescent protein, mAG, was fused to hGem(1/110) and an orange fluorescent protein (mKO2) was fused to ... Norbury C (1995). "Cdk2 protein kinase (vertebrates)". In Hardie DG, Hanks S (eds.). Protein kinase factsBook. Boston: Academic ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is a type I membrane protein. The protein may ... Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]. GRCh38 ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is a type I membrane protein. The protein may ... CD96 is a receptor protein which is expressed on T cells and NK cells and shares sequence similarity with CD226 (also known as ...
Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The protein is strongly overexpressed in ... Testis-specific Y-encoded protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSPY1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: TSPY1 Testis specific protein, Y-linked 1". "TSPY1 testis specific protein Y-linked 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - ... 1997). "Testis-specific protein, Y-encoded (TSPY) expression in testicular tissues". Hum. Mol. Genet. 5 (11): 1801-7. doi: ...
"Characterization of novel SF3b and 17S U2 snRNP proteins, including a human Prp5p homologue and an SF3b DEAD-box protein". The ... Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. SF3B1 has been shown to interact with ... "Characterization of novel SF3b and 17S U2 snRNP proteins, including a human Prp5p homologue and an SF3b DEAD-box protein". The ... "Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ...
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBMX gene. This gene belongs to the ... Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified but their biological nature has not ... "Entrez Gene: RBMX RNA binding motif protein, X-linked". Hofmann Y, Wirth B (Aug 2002). "hnRNP-G promotes exon 7 inclusion of ... a novel relative of SAM68 that interacts with an RNA-binding protein implicated in spermatogenesis". Human Molecular Genetics. ...
... the H3 receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor. The H3 receptor is coupled to the Gi G-protein, so it leads to inhibition of ... There are at least six H3 receptor isoforms in the human, and more than 20 discovered so far. In rats there have been six ... July 2005). "G protein-dependent pharmacology of histamine H3 receptor ligands: evidence for heterogeneous active state ... Mice also have three reported isoforms. These subtypes all have subtle difference in their pharmacology (and presumably ...
Mahowald was concerned as to why organisms have multiple, very similar, genes that encode for the same proteins with only a few ... In other words, while very similar in genetic sequencing, the various isoforms of actin are important to the survivability and ... Herman IM (February 1993). "Actin isoforms". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 5 (1): 48-55. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(05)80007-9. ... Other researchers had established that multiple isoforms are crucial for development. It was determined that the small ...
... isoform 1 is the principle protein. Uncharacterized protein C17orf78 isoform 2 (C17orf78-203) has a span of 159 amino ... "uncharacterized protein C17orf78 isoform 2 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-05. " ... C17orf78 has two splice variant isoforms. Isoform 1 is encoded by a mRNA sequence that is 1920 base pairs in length. Isoform 2 ... "uncharacterized protein C17orf78 isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-05. "Gene ...
This gene produces 6 isoforms through alternative splicing. This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number ... e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being ... This precludes the movement of the receptor from the ER to the Golgi, and leads to degradation of the receptor protein. Class 3 ... In humans, the LDL receptor protein is encoded by the LDLR gene on chromosome 19. It belongs to the low density lipoprotein ...
V-type proton ATPase 116 kDa subunit a isoform 2 also known as V-ATPase 116 kDa isoform a2 is an enzyme that in humans is ... 2006). "V-ATPase interacts with ARNO and Arf6 in early endosomes and regulates the protein degradative pathway". Nat. Cell Biol ... Ntrivalas E, Gilman-Sachs A, Kwak-Kim J, Beaman K (2007). "The N-terminus domain of the a2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase can ... V-ATPase 116 kDa isoform a2 is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase), an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in ...
Similarly, yeast have both cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms, and the yeast mitochondrial isoform accepts both NAD+ and NADH ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... "Differential activation of NAD kinase by plant calmodulin isoforms. The critical role of domain I". The Journal of Biological ...
TYPE III ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN ISOFORM HPLC 12 K61R. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1B7I/pdb ... 1995) Protein Sci 4: 1236. *Use of Proline Mutants to Help Solve the NMR Solution Structure of Type III Antifreeze Protein. ... PROTEIN (ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN TYPE III). A. 66. Zoarces americanus. Mutation(s): 3 ... 1993) Protein Sci 2: 1411. *Multiple Genes Provide the Basis for Antifreeze Protein Diversity and Dosage in the Ocean Pout, ...
Massive translocation of the visual G-protein transducin, Gt, between subcellular compartments contributes to long term ... Photoisomerization of rhodopsin activates a heterotrimeric G-protein cascade leading to closure of cGMP-gated channels and ... Differential expression and interaction with the visual G-protein transducin of centrin isoforms in mammalian photoreceptor ... Binding of Cen2 and Cen4 to Gbetagamma of non-visual G-proteins may additionally regulate G-proteins involved in centrosome and ...
Timeline for Protein zeta isoform from a.118.7.1: 14-3-3 protein: *Protein zeta isoform from a.118.7.1: 14-3-3 protein first ... Protein zeta isoform from a.118.7.1: 14-3-3 protein appears in SCOP 1.57. *Protein zeta isoform from a.118.7.1: 14-3-3 protein ... Lineage for Protein: zeta isoform. *Root: SCOP 1.59 *. Class a: All alpha proteins [46456] (151 folds). ... Protein zeta isoform from a.118.7.1: 14-3-3 protein appears in the current release, SCOPe 2.08. ...
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. ... Protein Isoforms (Isoforms). Subscribe to New Research on Protein Isoforms Different forms of a protein that may be produced ... Isoforms; Protein Splice Variants; Isoforms, Protein; Variants, Protein Splice; Splice Variants, Protein ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Protein Isoforms: 9625*Isoenzymes: 3462 ...
By contrast, for the sst5 somatostatin receptor we identified protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ) as GPCR phosphatase using the same ... as G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) phosphatase for the sst2 somatostatin receptor using siRNA knockdown screening. ... We have recently identified protein phosphatase 1β (PP1β) ...
... as well as with the accumulation of cytosolic CMA substrate proteins. Our data show that LAMP2 protein isoforms are ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of all three LAMP2 isoforms was assessed in brain extracts from regions with and ... lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 2A, although whether LAMP2A is the only LAMP2 isoform affected by PD is unknown. ... mRNA expression of all LAMP2 isoforms was not different from controls, with LAMP2B and LAMP2C protein levels also unchanged in ...
Protein kinase C isoforms in human aortic smooth muscle cells. ... Protein kinase C isoforms in human aortic smooth muscle cells. ... PURPOSE: To identify the protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) and define their ... and protein normalized immunoblots were performed with antibodies to the PKC isoforms alpha, betaI, betaII, delta, epsilon, ... CONCLUSIONS: The PKC isoforms expressed in human arterial SMC differ from those reported in animal models. Their specific ...
essentially, an automated system rapidly enriches for the protein(s) of interest.. Personally, Id like to think that I can ...
Protease resistant protein cellular isoform (PrPc) as a biomarker: Clues into the pathogenesis of HAND. ... Dive into the research topics of Protease resistant protein cellular isoform (PrPc) as a biomarker: Clues into the ...
Heterogeneity of tau proteins in Alzheimers disease: Evidence for increased expression of an isoform and preferential ... Heterogeneity of tau proteins in Alzheimers disease: Evidence for increased expression of an isoform and preferential ... Heterogeneity of tau proteins in Alzheimers disease : Evidence for increased expression of an isoform and preferential ... T1 - Heterogeneity of tau proteins in Alzheimers disease. T2 - Evidence for increased expression of an isoform and ...
... transcripts and proteins. Since many eukaryotes contain introns and exons, multiple transcripts and protein isoforms can be ... transcripts and proteins. The tutorial will focus on genes encoding a single transcript. ...
Whey Protein 3 lbs Build Muscle , Boost Recovery IsoForm is a protein supplement that has been designed to help athletes ... IsoForm is packed with 25 grams of the highest quality isolate and concentrate protein on the market. LEVEL 9 uses a ... IsoForm is a protein supplement that has been designed to help athletes achieve their goals and smash their personal records. ... IsoForm is packed with 25 grams of the highest quality isolate and concentrate protein on the market. ...
Casein Kinase IHEK293 CellsHumansIntracellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsNeoplasm ProteinsProtein DomainsProtein Isoforms ... Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it ... The interaction of FAM83 proteins with CK1 isoforms was mediated by the conserved domain of unknown function 1669 (DUF1669) ... The DUF1669 domain of FAM83 family proteins anchor casein kinase 1 isoforms. ...
Protein Bait Hypothesis: circRNA-Encoded Proteins Competitively Inhibit Cognate Functional Isoforms. Trends in Genetics ... which specifies that circRNA-encoded proteins compete with their cognate linearly spliced protein isoforms for binding ... Recent studies have demonstrated that a large group of proteins encoded by circular RNAs (circRNAs) are likely to play a role ... This hypothesis may expand our understanding of the functional mechanisms of circRNA-encoded proteins and prove useful in ...
... INZITARI R;CABRAS, ... proteins, were detected. All these isoforms are phosphorylated at Ser-8 and Ser-22 and have a pyroglutamic moiety at the N- ... proteins, were detected. All these isoforms are phosphorylated at Ser-8 and Ser-22 and have a pyroglutamic moiety at the N- ... proteins, all of which were detected. With regard to the Pa protein, the main form detected was the dimeric derivative (Pa 2- ...
ZAP isoforms regulate unfolded protein response and epithelial- mesenchymal transition. ZAP isoforms regulate unfolded protein ... We also provided evidence for a different function of the ZAP isoforms in EMT-related cell migration, with effects that are ... Transcriptomic analysis of ZAP-isoform-specific knockout cells revealed uncharacterized host mRNAs targeted by ZAPL/S with ... We showed that the ZAP isoforms regulated different UPR branches under resting and stress conditions and affected cell ...
Different Isoforms of HPV-16 E7 Protein are Present in Cytoplasm and Nucleus H Valdovinos-Torres1, M Orozco-Morales1, A Pedroza ... The different subcellular distribution and molecular weights reported for the E7 protein suggest the presence of isoforms. We ... Distribution of E7 protein in the cellular compartments has also been subject of debate as some groups report the protein in ... The E7 protein of high risk HPV types has been found with different molecular weights, mainly because of phosphorylation, an ...
TEV protease S219V mutant recombinant protein €330,00. - €495,00. * Rat VEGF A (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A) isoform ... Human GM2AP (Ganglioside GM2 activator isoform 1) recombinant protein. €93,00. - €3.075,00. ... Human IFITM3 (Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3) recombinant protein €81,00. - €2.820,00. ... Protein accession: NP_000396.2. OMIM ID: 613109. Molecular class: Glycolipid transport protein ...
The FAM111B gene provides instructions for making a protein whose function is not well understood. Learn about this gene and ... protein FAM111B isoform a. *protein FAM111B isoform b. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing ... Similar proteins containing such a domain are able to break down other proteins. However, the types of proteins the FAM111B ... The FAM111B gene provides instructions for making a protein whose function is not well understood. The FAM111B protein, which ...
... ... The interactions between myosin and actin are finely tuned by three isoforms of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C): slow- ... The skeletal MyBP-C isoforms are conditionally coexpressed in cardiac muscle, but little is known about their function. ... Therefore, to characterize the functional differences and regulatory mechanisms among these three isoforms, we expressed ...
RefSeq protein isoforms See 28 reference sequence protein isoforms for the ORF1ab gene. ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... Retrieve, view, and download SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus genomic and protein sequences. ...
PrPSc, prion protein isoform; BSE, bovine spongiform encephalopathy; CJD, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; sCJD, sporadic CJD; vCJD, ... and nongylcosylated isoforms were determined densitometrically and normalized to the band of the nongylcosylated isoform. ...
Structural and Functional Characterization of Recombinant Isoforms of the Lentil Lipid Transfer Protein - PDF (Russian). ... Structural and Functional Characterization of Recombinant Isoforms of the Lentil Lipid Transfer Protein , PDF ...
Tau proteins exist in 6 isoforms encoded by a single gene. Due to alternate gene splicing of microtubule-binding site domains, ... Abnormality of tau protein. PSP is considered to be a microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) disorder. [24] ... 26] About half of the known mutations have their primary effect at the protein level. They reduce the ability of tau protein to ... Phosphorylation of these microtubular proteins of the cytoskeleton by these aberrantly located or expressed protein kinases may ...
mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_024448926.2 → XP_024304694.1 testis-expressed protein 49 isoform X1 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001351123.2 → NP_001338052.1 testis-expressed protein 49 isoform 1 ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. testis-expressed protein 49. Names. long intergenic ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38 ...
The FU gene and its possible protein isoforms FU is the human homologue of the Drosophila gene fused whose product fused is a ... The classical C2H2 zinc finger domain is involved in a wide range of functions and can bind to DNA, RNA and proteins. The ... Novel conserved domains in proteins with predicted roles in eukaryotic cell-cycle regulation, decapping and RNA stability The ... Genomic organization and the tissue distribution of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse Spatial gene The stromal ...
Glomerular expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms in mice lacking CD2-associated protein. In: Pediatric ... Glomerular expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms in mice lacking CD2-associated protein. Pediatric ... Glomerular expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms in mice lacking CD2-associated protein. / Woroniecki, ... title = "Glomerular expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms in mice lacking CD2-associated protein", ...
Changes among the protein isoforms can alter the cellular properties of proteins. The effect can range from a subtle modulation ... We present a database that reports differences in protein signatures among human splice-mediated protein isoform sequences.. ... Splice-mediated Variants of Proteins (SpliVaP) - data and characterization of changes in signatures among protein isoforms due ... Splice-mediated Variants of Proteins (SpliVaP) - data and characterization of changes in signatures among protein isoforms due ...
  • PKC from the soluble and particulate fraction were separated by centrifugation, and protein normalized immunoblots were performed with antibodies to the PKC isoforms alpha, betaI, betaII, delta, epsilon, gamma and zeta. (duke.edu)
  • To study the proportion of different tau isoforms in PHF-tau and normal tau, we raised antibodies to exon 2 (E-2) and exon 3 (E- 3). (elsevier.com)
  • We examined this possibility by using several antibodies that recognize different epitopes on the HPV-16 E7 protein. (openvirologyjournal.com)
  • However localization studies using P/M antibodies, which cannot currently distinguish between different isoforms, showed that although native P/M consists of predominantly full-length type, protein was also observed in the nucleus of neutrophils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For antibodies, ELISA/CLIA, proteins. (eiaab.com)
  • The research antibody PAb 1620 has been reported to be specific for the conformation of the normal p-53 protein, and PAb 240 antibodies bind specifically to denatured p-53 protein. (who.int)
  • Other commercially available RhoA antibodies recognize one or more of these close isoforms. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Most known SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), including those approved by the FDA for emergency use, inhibit viral infection by targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • Protein kinase C isoforms in human aortic smooth muscle cells. (duke.edu)
  • PURPOSE: To identify the protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) and define their subcellular location in the resting state and in response to the PKC activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). (duke.edu)
  • Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. (figshare.com)
  • We have expressed the catalytic domain of Chinese hamster HMG-CoA reductase, and 13 point mutations involving the region around the single phosphorylation site for AMP-activated protein kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • A key signaling molecule involved in cardiac hypertrophy is protein kinase C (PKC). (figshare.com)
  • Differentiation-Associated Expression of Conventional Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Primary Cultures of Bone Marrow Cells Induced by M-CSF and G-CSF. (aabioetica.org)
  • The Protein kinase C (PKC) -associated sign pathway performs essential roles in regulation of cell development, differentiation and apoptosis. (aabioetica.org)
  • The inhibitors of two isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinases (i.e. (mdpi.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from the moss Funaria hygrometrica under nutritional starvation. (who.int)
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme is composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits, designated PKA R and PKA C, respectively. (novusbio.com)
  • Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE) collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the development of significant lung pathology. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations in FAM83 proteins that prevented them from binding to CK1 interfered with the proper subcellular localization and cellular functions of both the FAM83 proteins and their CK1 binding partners. (figshare.com)
  • The FAM111B gene mutations that cause POIKTMP result in production of an abnormal FAM111B protein from one copy of the gene in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because most of the FAM111B mutations identified in people with POIKTMP change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the peptidase domain, researchers think that the mutations alter the protein's function, and that these changes in FAM111B function underlie the varied signs and symptoms of POIKTMP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This isoform has been previously detected in Riboflavin-Responsive (RR-MADD) and Non-responsive Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) patients with frameshift mutations of FLAD1 gene. (uniba.it)
  • Caused by mutations in the KIF5A gene (12q13.13) encoding the protein kinesin heavy chain isoform 5A. (cdc.gov)
  • Strikingly, over 60% of the most frequently occurring mutations were found in regions other than the spike (S) protein, and nearly 50% remain uncharacterized for functional impacts warranting further investigation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results from our study suggest that there are relatively understudied mutations in the spike protein (H655Y, T95I) and understudied mutations occurring in non-spike proteins (N, ORF1b, ORF9b and ORF9c), that are enhancing transmissibility and infectivity among human populations, warranting further investigation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Besides the well characterized isoform 1 and 2, other FADS isoforms with different catalytic domains have been detected, which are splice variants. (uniba.it)
  • Through the use of two alternative promoter/first-exons and alternative splicing the gene generates 5 transcript variants, encoding 5 protein isoforms. (dmd.nl)
  • Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (innov-research.com)
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (origene.com)
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 22. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Notably, we discovered that the S -palmitoylation levels regulate differential IFITM isoform interactions with cholesterol in mammalian cells and specificity of antiviral activity towards IAV, SARS-CoV-2 and EBOV. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prion diseases are neurodegenerative conditions prion protein (PrPC), which predominantly accumulates associated with a misfolded and infectious protein, scrapie in the central nervous system ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The abnormal isoform, prion protein (PrPSc). (cdc.gov)
  • Previously, we have demonstrated that K V isoform-selective peptides can be constructed based on the simplistic α-hairpinin scaffold, and we obtained a number of artificial Tk-hefu peptides showing selective blockage of K V 1.3 in the submicromolar range. (jbc.org)
  • The protostome leucokinin (LK) signaling system, including LK peptides and their G protein-coupled receptors, has been characterized in several species. (jbc.org)
  • Previously, we identified a precursor protein for Aplysia leucokinin-like peptides (ALKs) that contains the greatest number of amidated peptides among LK precursors in all species identified so far. (jbc.org)
  • The chemical nature and precise position of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in proteins or peptides are crucial for various severe diseases, such as cancer. (nanion.de)
  • Here, we demonstrate the use of a protein nanopore to differentiate peptides─derived from human histone H4 protein─of identical mass according to the positions of acetylated and methylated lysine residues. (nanion.de)
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Retrieve, view, and download SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus genomic and protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms are usually based on EST sequences that also al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the resulting alternate transcripts often encode protein isoforms that differ in amino acid sequences. (p-arch.it)
  • We present a database that reports differences in protein signatures among human splice-mediated protein isoform sequences. (p-arch.it)
  • 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and primer extension show that different N-terminal protein sequences arise through alternative promoter usage that are regulated by synaptic activity and postnatal age. (elsevier.com)
  • Grb3-3 is an isoform of Grb2, thought to arise by alternative splicing, that lacks a functional SH2 domain but retains functional SH3 domains, which allow interaction with other proteins through binding to prolinerich sequences. (drugbank.com)
  • The Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) has established a sequence variant nomenclature , an international standard used to report variation in genomic, transcript and protein sequences. (ucsc.edu)
  • Distribution of E7 protein in the cellular compartments has also been subject of debate as some groups report the protein in nucleus and others in cytoplasm. (openvirologyjournal.com)
  • Transcriptomic analysis of ZAP- isoform -specific knockout cells revealed uncharacterized host mRNAs targeted by ZAPL/S with broad cellular functions such as unfolded protein response (UPR), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and innate immunity . (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, this study demonstrates that the competition between splicing and IPA is a potential target for the modulation of the ZAPL/S balance, and reports new cellular transcripts and processes regulated by the ZAP isoforms . (bvsalud.org)
  • Changes among the protein isoforms can alter the cellular properties of proteins. (p-arch.it)
  • Previous studies have shown brain region-specific expression of these isoforms which, in addition to their different cellular localization and differential expression during brain development, suggest that they may also have non-overlapping molecular mechanisms. (skoltech.ru)
  • Conclusions: Our study supports the idea that Rett syndrome might arise from simultaneous impairment of cellular processes involving non-overlapping functions of MECP2 isoforms. (skoltech.ru)
  • 2011). Our studies have provided further support to previous observations indicating that TSSK family members display a different cellular localization, thus suggesting a non-redundant role for these protein kinases. (umass.edu)
  • heterogeneity, all classic prion diseases are characterized by PrPSc is generally considered the major, if not the sole, the presence of an abnormal isoform of the normal cellular component of the infectious agent in prion diseases ( 1 , 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The protein composition of saliva also reflects cellular signal processing that results from day-to-day environmental influences, as well as from acute or chronic stress 9 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Protein phosphatases reverse the covalent modifications of numerous cellular proteins imposed by the activation of protein kinases and, therefore, play key role in cell signaling metabolism, growth and differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because phosphorus is an essential element for DNA, RNA, several ubiquitous cofactors, and phosphorylated proteins, Pi-limitation has major affects on cellular metabolism and physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ribosomal protein L11 (rpL11), a component of the large 60S subunit, was identified as a PPARα-associated protein. (elsevier.com)
  • U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 35 kDa subunit- related protein 2 (U2(RNU2) small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1-like 2) (CCCH type zinc finger, RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich protein 2) (Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-20). (yellowcouch.org)
  • The encoded protein functions as a scaffolding protein and plays roles in ubiquitination and transcription, in part though interactions with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is controlled by subcellular localization, interactions with inhibitory proteins, targeted degradation, or combinations of these mechanisms. (figshare.com)
  • Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. (who.int)
  • This tutorial will provide you with some basics regarding the use of GenBank in searching for mammalian genes, transcripts and proteins. (concordia.ca)
  • Since many eukaryotes contain introns and exons, multiple transcripts and protein isoforms can be produced from a single gene. (concordia.ca)
  • Similarly, in human brain, genomic regions associated with schizophrenia are enriched for genes that show differential isoform usage across neurodevelopment [ 7 ], implicating many schizophrenia-associated risk loci in the regulation of the expression of specific RNA transcripts. (nature.com)
  • Some of these transcripts (2a, 2d, 8ext, 2d/8ext and 2d/9ext) were shown to be expressed as protein isoforms in leukocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the hypothesis that different localizations and functions for full length and MEFV alternatively spliced transcripts, this study aimed to determine the localization differences between full-length P/M and P/M-d2 protein isoforms in neutrophil-like cells in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternative splicing of exons 2, 4 and 9 generates a range of transcripts and protein isoforms. (dmd.nl)
  • A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. (bireme.br)
  • Two major alternatively spliced ZAP isoforms , the constitutively expressed ZAPL and the infection -inducible ZAPS, play overlapping yet different antiviral and other roles that need further characterization. (bvsalud.org)
  • The longest gene product (isoform 1) enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis while the alternatively spliced shorter gene products (isoform 2 and isoform 3) promote apoptosis and are death-inducing. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. (curehunter.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • See 28 reference sequence protein isoforms for the ORF1ab gene. (nih.gov)
  • By use of a new CRISPR-Cas9 nickase genome editing methodology, stop codons were inserted early in the coding sequence for clpP1 and clpP2 to generate C. difficile mutants that no longer produced the corresponding isoforms of caseinolytic protease P (ClpP). (umn.edu)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Homo sapiens (Human) Pro-neuregulin-2, membrane-bound isoform, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (fishersci.fi)
  • Here we demonstrate that the function of Synaptic GTPase-Activating Protein (SynGAP), a key synaptic protein, is determined by the combination of its amino-terminal sequence with its carboxy-terminal sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • Heterogeneity in C-terminal protein sequence arises through alternative splicing. (elsevier.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the Funaria gene shows extensive homology with CDPKs from higher plants, 73% identity with the Fragaria CDPK and 71% identity with CDPK isoform 7 of Arabidopsis. (who.int)
  • The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. (lecturio.com)
  • Ribosomal protein L11-mediated inhibition of gene expression is associated with decreased binding to the PPAR-response element (PPRE) DNA sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • Late-onset and sporadic Alzheimer's disease are associated with the apolipoprotein E (apoE) type 4 allele expressing the protein isoform apoE4. (jci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E binds avidly to beta amyloid (A beta) peptide, a major component of senile plaque of Alzheimer's disease, in an isoform-specific manner. (jci.org)
  • We found several differences in plasma proteins of bGH mice compared to controls, including increased apolipoprotein E (five isoforms), haptoglobin (four isoforms) and mannose-binding protein-C (one out of three isoforms), and decreased transthyretin (six isoforms). (nih.gov)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of all three LAMP2 isoforms was assessed in brain extracts from regions with and without PD-related increases in alpha-synuclein in autopsy samples from subjects in the early pathological stage of PD (n = 9), compared to age- and postmortem delay-matched controls (n = 10). (garvan.org.au)
  • In the early stages of PD, mRNA expression of all LAMP2 isoforms was not different from controls, with LAMP2B and LAMP2C protein levels also unchanged in PD. (garvan.org.au)
  • Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING). (bireme.br)
  • A recent study showed this gene to be an authentic stop codon readthrough target, and that its mRNA could give rise to an additional C-terminally extended isoform by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Binding of Cen2 and Cen4 to Gbetagamma of non-visual G-proteins may additionally regulate G-proteins involved in centrosome and basal body functions. (nih.gov)
  • ZAP isoforms regulate unfolded protein response and epithelial- mesenchymal transition. (bvsalud.org)
  • This work reports, for the first time, a multi-target (or multi-tasking) in silico modeling approach (mt-QSAR) for probing the inhibitory potential of these isoforms against MNKs. (mdpi.com)
  • This expression covered the whole range of possible TN-C isoforms and could be strongly up-regulated by leukaemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, cytokines known to modulate OPC proliferation and survival. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate expression of all four known, closely related centrin isoforms in the mammalian retina. (nih.gov)
  • The 64-kd protein contains exon 2, but not exon 3, and the 60-kd protein contains neither exons 2 nor 3. (elsevier.com)
  • Isoform 5 skips exons 2 and 4, and initiates translation in exon 3. (dmd.nl)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the activities of the total acid phosphatase (TAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes, as well as the possible correlation in the serum and in unstimulated whole saliva of children. (bvsalud.org)
  • Measurements were made of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and tyrosine phosphatase like protein (IA-2) autoantibodies in 2,100 sera from NHANES participants aged 40 or more years from the morning session who were fasting. (cdc.gov)
  • Our data show that LAMP2 protein isoforms are differentially affected in the early stages of PD, with LAMP2A selectively reduced in association with increased alpha-synuclein, and suggests that dysregulation of CMA-mediated protein degradation occurs before substantial alpha-synuclein aggregation in PD. (garvan.org.au)
  • Alternative splicing of the human FLAD1 gene generates different isoforms of the enzyme FAD synthase. (uniba.it)
  • Furthermore, the direction and degree of synaptic modulation exerted by different protein isoforms from a single gene locus is dependent on the combination of differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. (elsevier.com)
  • Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA . (nih.gov)
  • Transfection studies showed that full-length P/M was generally cytoplasmic and 2Δ isoform was the only isoform which can enter nucleus but may also localize in cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (rndsystems.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (1elisakits.com)
  • A detailed understanding of isoform diversity will be essential for the translation of psychiatric genomic findings into pathophysiological insights and novel psychopharmacological targets. (nature.com)
  • Procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 1 precursor (Procollagen COOH- terminal proteinase enhancer 1) (Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 1) (PCPE-1) (Type I procollagen COOH-terminal proteinase enhancer) (Type 1 procollagen C-proteinase enhancer protein). (yellowcouch.org)
  • Analysis of Tenascin-C (TN-C) knockout mice revealed novel roles for this extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in regulation of the developmental programme of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), their maturation into myelinating oligodendrocytes and sensitivity to growth factors. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition of all PKC isoforms with Gö6983 inhibited PKC agonist-induced hypertrophy, but could not fully block ET-1-induced hypertrophy. (figshare.com)
  • Für AROS konnte gezeigt werden, dass der mittlere Bereich des Proteins für die Inhibition verantwortlich ist. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • PHF-tau, a modified form of tau in Alzheimer diseased brains, is composed of proteins of molecular weight 68, 64, and 60 kd. (elsevier.com)
  • The GNE isoform-1 is a 753 amino acid protein, isoform-2 consists of 722 amino acids (molecular weight of 79,275 daltons, St sche [1997] ). (dmd.nl)
  • Overall, our findings provide insight into the functional complexity of MeCP2 by dissecting differential aspects of its two isoforms. (skoltech.ru)
  • Liu, WK , Dickson, DW & Yen, SH 1993, ' Heterogeneity of tau proteins in Alzheimer's disease: Evidence for increased expression of an isoform and preferential distribution of a phosphorylated isoform in neurites ', American Journal of Pathology , vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 387-394. (elsevier.com)
  • Yen, S. H. / Heterogeneity of tau proteins in Alzheimer's disease : Evidence for increased expression of an isoform and preferential distribution of a phosphorylated isoform in neurites . (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and real-time PCR, and examined expression of TGF-β isoforms in CD2AP-/- mice at the level of isolated glomeruli. (elsevier.com)
  • By using LCM we confirmed increased glomerular expression levels of TGF-β isoforms previously described by our group in glomeruli isolated by sieving in CD2AP KO mice and underscored the importance of local factors in the development of glomerulosclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Concomitantly, the actual protein expression is analysed. (dkfz.de)
  • We have carried out a comprehensive molecular mapping of PG-M/versican isoforms V0-V3 in adult human tissues and have specifically investigated how the expression of these isoforms is regulated in endothelial cells in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • synthesis VI is the most PLK1 s expression signaling circulation browser, an migration defined from its breast with the FcRI protein pro-IL1B. (erik-mill.de)
  • Comparative analysis of TN-C knockout OPCs with wild-type OPCs reveals an accelerated rate of maturation in the absence of TN-C, with earlier morphological differentiation and precocious expression of myelin basic protein. (uea.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PKC isoforms expressed in human arterial SMC differ from those reported in animal models. (duke.edu)
  • This hypothesis may expand our understanding of the functional mechanisms of circRNA-encoded proteins and prove useful in elucidating the mechanisms underlying human development, physiology, and diseases, and in parallel, also aid in drug discovery. (cell.com)
  • The human salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (aPRPs) complex was investigated by different chromatographic and mass spectrometric approaches and the main aPRPs, namely PRP-1, PRP2 and PIF-s (15 515 amu), Db-s (17 632 amu) and Pa (15 462 amu) proteins, were detected. (unica.it)
  • Mice lacking CD2-associated protein (CD2AP-/-) develop glomerular lesions resembling human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) between 3-4 weeks of age and die approximately 2 weeks later from massive proteinuria and renal failure. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined human splice-mediated protein isoforms (as extracted from a manually curated data set, and from a computationally predicted data set) for differences in the annotation for protein signatures (Pfam domains and PRINTS fingerprints) and we characterized the differences & their effects on protein functionalities. (p-arch.it)
  • Both classical (cPKC) and novel (nPKC) isoforms have been suggested to play a critical role in rodents, whereas the role of PKC in hypertrophy of human CMs remains to be determined. (figshare.com)
  • The relevance to human physio-pathology of this FADS isoform is discussed. (uniba.it)
  • We demonstrate that human transcript diversity (and thereby protein isoform diversity) remains under-characterised, and provide a feasible and cost-effective methodology to address this. (nature.com)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (Protein name ) , HGF_HUMAN from NCBI database. (eiaab.com)
  • Detects recombinant human PKA C alpha , C beta , and C gamma , and endogenous human PKA C isoforms in Western blots. (novusbio.com)
  • problems are G-protein associated rounds secreted by a Cerebrotendinous aggregation in an human ICA( Vu, 1991)( 3). (erik-mill.de)
  • Human recombinant protein fragment corresponding to amino acids 1-266 of human PARN (NP_002573) produced in E.coli. (origene.com)
  • Background: Galectin-9 is a member of the family of lectin proteins and crucially regulates human immune responses, particularly because of its ability to suppress the anticancer activities of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant small G-proteins and human platelet extract were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to a PVDF membrane according to the method given in this datasheet. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (1elisakits.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (1elisakits.com)
  • News in Proteomics Research: Screening protein isoforms predictive for cancer with Immuno-PRM! (blogspot.com)
  • Our proteomics data indicate that both isoforms exhibit unique interacting protein partners. (skoltech.ru)
  • We sought to find out the protein content material in serum exosomes (SEs), to characterise SEs, and to find novel scientific biomarkers of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (aabioetica.org)
  • Also, these newly discovered plasma proteins may be indicative or 'biomarkers' of a shortened lifespan. (nih.gov)
  • Detects endogenous Caveolin-1 proteins and reacts with both Caveolin-1 alpha and beta isoforms without cross-reactivity with other family members. (sputnic-group.ru)
  • The protein has a monomeric form, it binds FAD and is able to catalyze FAD synthesis (kcat about 2.8 min−1), as well as FAD pyrophosphorolysis in a strictly Mg2+ -dependent manner. (uniba.it)
  • The apoE4 isoform binds to A beta peptide more rapidly than apoE3. (jci.org)
  • This protein binds to microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and represses translation of mRNAs that are complementary to them. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Bacterial production, characterization and protein modeling of a novel monofuctional isoform of FAD synthase in humans: an emergency protein? (uniba.it)
  • We report the characterization of one of these novel isoforms, a 320 amino acid protein, consisting of the sole C-terminal 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain (named FADS6). (uniba.it)
  • The interactions between myosin and actin are finely tuned by three isoforms of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C): slow-skeletal, fast-skeletal, and cardiac (ssMyBP-C, fsMyBP-C and cMyBP-C, respectively), each with distinct N-terminal regulatory regions. (umassmed.edu)
  • Also, measurements of protein interactions are performed, in particular for the identification of variations that occur at a personal level. (dkfz.de)
  • PACSAB: Coarse-Grained Force Field for the Study of Protein-Protein Interactions and Conformational Sampling in Multiprotein Systems. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Isoform apoE4 associates more efficiently than apoE3. (jci.org)
  • SCOP: Structural Classification of Proteins and ASTRAL. (berkeley.edu)
  • Combining threading and ab-initio strategy a 3D structural model for such isoform has been built. (uniba.it)
  • Caveolin-1 is the principal structural protein of caveolae membranes in most cell types and acts as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes. (sputnic-group.ru)
  • Structural proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. (lecturio.com)
  • We identified members of the FAM83 family of proteins as partners of CK1 in cells. (figshare.com)
  • FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of the argonaute family of proteins, which associate with small RNAs and have important roles in RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA silencing. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • To examine plasma protein differences in bGH mice relative to controls, samples at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 months of age were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification using mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, clusterin (two out of six isoforms) and haptoglobin (four isoforms) were up-regulated in bGH mice as a function of age. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, identification of these proteins suggests that bGH mice exhibit an increased inflammatory state with an adverse lipid profile, possibly contributing to their diminished life expectancy. (nih.gov)
  • Deficiency in plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2 increases susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice homozygous for a null mutation in the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) gene are deaf (Kozel et al. (cdc.gov)
  • This interaction has been confirmed in vitro with GST fusion proteins and in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation experiments in NIH3T3 cells stably transfected with Grb3-3. (drugbank.com)
  • Massive translocation of the visual G-protein transducin, Gt, between subcellular compartments contributes to long term adaptation of photoreceptor cells. (nih.gov)
  • High affinity binding to Gtbetagamma and subcellular localization of the centrin isoforms Cen1 and Cen2 in the connecting cilium indicated that these isoforms contribute to the centrin-transducin complex and potentially participate in the regulation of transducin translocation through the photoreceptor cilium. (nih.gov)
  • Immunofluorescent staining of cultured SMC visualized the resting location and stimulated translocation of each isoform. (duke.edu)
  • Interaction assays revealed binding potential of the four centrin isoforms to Gtbetagamma heterodimers. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, to characterize the functional differences and regulatory mechanisms among these three isoforms, we expressed recombinant N-terminal fragments and examined their effect on contractile properties in biophysical assays. (umassmed.edu)
  • Using neutralization assays with authentic SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus carrying SARS-CoV-2 S protein (rVSV-SARS2), we defined a panel of potent RBD and NTD nAbs. (bvsalud.org)
  • however, studies with mouse strains deficient in one or the other isoform indicated distinct contributions of Stat3 isoforms to inflammation. (curehunter.com)
  • Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it bound. (figshare.com)
  • The CD38+ receptor was considered positive if the distinct lymphocytes of the population showed a higher intensity of staining than the granulocytes in the sample and was associated with the presence of protein ZAP-70. (who.int)
  • IFITMs exhibit isoform-specific activity, but their distinct mechanisms of action and regulation are unclear. (bvsalud.org)
  • We detected no interaction between any FAM83 member and the related CK1γ1, CK1γ2, and CK1γ3 isoforms. (figshare.com)
  • The interaction of FAM83 proteins with CK1 isoforms was mediated by the conserved domain of unknown function 1669 (DUF1669) that characterizes the FAM83 family. (figshare.com)
  • Interaction cloning was performed using bacterially expressed PPARα to identify proteins involved in PP signaling. (elsevier.com)
  • The selective loss of LAMP2A protein directly correlated with the increased levels of alpha-synuclein and decreased levels of the CMA chaperone heat shock cognate protein 70 in the same PD samples, as well as with the accumulation of cytosolic CMA substrate proteins. (garvan.org.au)
  • Therefore, we propose the protein bait hypothesis, which specifies that circRNA-encoded proteins compete with their cognate linearly spliced protein isoforms for binding molecules, preventing proper isoform functioning. (cell.com)