HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms): Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein PrecursorsAntigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Receptors, Autocrine Motility Factor: Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.Receptors, OSM-LIF: Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Heymann Nephritis Antigenic Complex: A complex of antigenic proteins obtained from the brush border of kidney tubules. It contains two principal components LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-2 and LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN. The name of this complex is derived from researcher, Dr. Walter Heymann, who developed an experimental model of membranous glomerulonephritis (GLOMERULONEPHRITIS) by injecting this antigenic complex into rats to induce an autoimmune response.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Most bNAb sites are on HIV's only exposed surface antigen, the flower-like envelope (Env) protein (gp120 and gp41) that sprouts ... These antibodies did not bind to known epitopes, on Env, gp120 or gp41 (Env's protein subunits) unlike most other bNAbs. ... Another bNAb was discovered that acted on protein gp41 across many strains. Antibodies require antigens to trigger them and ... Gp120 and gp41 assemble as a trimer. The bNAbs binding site occurs only on the trimer structure, the form of Evn that invades ...
... -41 (gp41) and glycoprotein-120 (gp120) are HIV viral coat proteins. Soluble glycoproteins often show a high ... Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the ... can assist in protein folding or improve proteins' stability. One example of glycoproteins found in the body is mucins, which ... Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The ...
120000 Da (Daltons). Gp41 transmembrane envelope protein TM, also encoded by the viral gene env. 41000 Da. P24 capsid protein ... Protein size 14000 Da. Gene regulatory proteins: Tat Rev Accessory proteins: Nef Vpr Vif Vpu/Vpx p6 Serological Relationships: ... There are 11 proteins Virions contain 60% protein Five (major)structural virion proteins have been found so far Lipids: Virions ... P9 capsid protein NC, also encoded by gag. 7000-11000 Da. The envelope proteins SU and TM are glycosylated in at least some ...
"Internal dynamics of the homotrimeric HIV-1 viral coat protein gp41 on multiple time scales". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52 ( ... Much of his recent work focuses on the roles of proteins in membranes. He is one of the most frequently cited scientists in the ... Ikura M; Kay LE; Bax A (1990). "A novel approach for sequential assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N spectra of proteins: ... Kontaxis G; Delaglio F; Bax A (2005). "Molecular fragment replacement approach to protein structure determination by chemical ...
T20/DP178 & T21/DP107, N-acetylated polypeptides derived from the gp41 HIV-1 envelope protein. This interaction is of unknown ... This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor cell surface protein that binds and is activated by N-Formylmethionine- ... Rivière S, Challet L, Fluegge D, Spehr M, Rodriguez I (May 2009). "Formyl peptide receptor-like proteins are a novel family of ... The studies indicated that FPR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that activates cells though a linkage to the pertussis toxin- ...
The general problem of deciding on the folded structure of a protein when given the amino acid sequence (the so-called protein ... Glycoprotein gp120 is closely associated to a trimer of gp41 via van der Waals interactions. Upon binding of gp120 to the CD4 ... Protein. Chem. 70 (4): 79-112. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(05)70004-8. Berwick MR, Lewis DJ, Jones AW, Parslow RA, Dafforn TR, ... A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2-7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope ( ...
... which codes for the surface proteins gp120 and gp41. Gp41, whose gene is the target for 2F5, is a transmembrane protein that ... 2F5 recognizes an epitope in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41. 2F5 then binds to this epitope and its ... 2F5 recognizes a core specific epitope, ELDKWAS, the amino acid sequence from positions 662 to 668 of env gp41. Mutations at ... to Its gp41 Epitope Reveals a Strong Influence of the Immunoglobulin Fc Region on Affinity". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (Apr 2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 5 (1): 31- ... Kobayakawa K, Hayashi R, Morita K, Miyamichi K, Oka Y, Tsuboi A, Sakano H (Jul 2002). "Stomatin-related olfactory protein, SRO ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (Apr 2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... Structurally, ADCY2 are transmembrane proteins with twelve transmembrane segments. The protein is organized with six ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... This enzyme is insensitive to Ca2+/calmodulin, and is stimulated by the G protein beta and gamma subunit complex. Therefore, ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307. PMID ... Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... It is regulated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors, protein kinases, and calcium. The type 9 adenylyl cyclase is a ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (1): 31-9. doi ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (Apr 2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... Stimulatory or inhibitory receptors (Rs and Ri) interact with G proteins (Gs and Gi) that exhibit GTPase activity and they ... Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (Apr 2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (Apr 2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... A similar protein in mice is involved in pattern formation of the brain. ADCY1 is a calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. In ... Weber B, Schaper C, Scholz J, Bein B, Rodde C, H Tonner P (Oct 2006). "Interaction of the amyloid precursor like protein 1 with ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... Involvement of protein kinase C delta". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (7): 4552-60. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210386200. PMID 12454008. Strausberg ... Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat ...
Speth C, Joebstl B, Barcova M, Dierich MP (2000). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and ... kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... Iwami G, Kawabe J, Ebina T, Cannon PJ, Homcy CJ, Ishikawa Y (1995). "Regulation of adenylyl cyclase by protein kinase A". J. ... Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G (2001). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat ...
... through the gp120 and gp41 proteins on its surface. HIV also requires a second co-receptor along with the CD4-gp120 complex to ... Many viral membranes contain virion surface proteins that are specific to particular host cell surface receptors. If a host ...
Antibodies are produced for the HIV-1 gp41 protein. These antibodies can cross-react with astrocytes within human CNS tissue ... To determine which epitopes are shared between pathogen and self, large protein databases are used. The largest protein ... It has been hypothesized that these virulent proteins display their mimicry through molecular surfaces that mimic host protein ... These involve the hepatitis B virus mimicking the human proteolipid protein (myelin protein) and the Epstein-Barr virus ...
... which are N-acetylated polypeptides derived from the gp41 envelope protein of the HIV-1 virus, F peptide, which is derived from ... a synthetic N-terminal heptad repeat domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp41, is an activator of human phagocytes". Clinical ... which has the structure of G protein receptors but apparently does not couple to G proteins and is of uncertain function. The ... The human receptor protein is encoded by the FPR2 gene and is activated to regulate cell function by binding any one of a wide ...
... and is cleaved into gp120 and gp41 by the host cell protease, Furin. To form an active fusion protein, gp120 and gp41 ... the surface protein (SU) and the transmembrane protein (TM). The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain ... This precursor is cleaved by host cell enzymes to yield the surface protein subunit, gp85, and the transmembrane protein ... presumably by stabilizing the protein structure. Without proper folding, protein transport and function can be severely ...
As the only proteins on the surface of the virus, the envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41) are the major targets for HIV ... capsid protein, p24); SP1 (spacer peptide 1, p2); NC (nucleocapsid protein, p7); SP2 (spacer peptide 2, p1) and P6 protein. pol ... vpr (lentivirus protein R): Vpr is a virion-associated, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling regulatory protein. It is believed to play ... The single-strand RNA is tightly bound to p17 nucleocapsid proteins, late assembly protein p6, and enzymes essential to the ...
The first step is the interaction between envelope proteins of the virus (gp120, gp41) and specific host-cell surface receptors ... is required to cleave a viral polyprotein precursor into individual mature proteins. The viral RNA and viral proteins assemble ... Then the virus binds to the chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5, resulting in conformational changes in the envelope proteins. ... A very critical step is the proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide precursors into mature enzymes and structural proteins ...
Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of protein N-glycosylation in pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency ... 1993). "Functional role of the glycan cluster of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) ... 1989). "Glycosylation and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. ...
This putative transmembrane protein is thought to play a role in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Closely related enzymes ... 1993). "Functional role of the glycan cluster of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ... Studies to determine subcellular localization of this protein in the liver indicated that the enzyme was mainly enriched in the ...
HIV binds to the host CD4+ cell receptor via the viral protein gp120; gp41, a viral transmembrane protein, then undergoes a ... Enfuvirtide binds to gp41 preventing the creation of an entry pore for the capsid of the virus, keeping it out of the cell. T20 ... with acquired resistance the result of a mutated 10 amino acid motif in viral gp41. Primary resistance, however, has yet to be ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... gp41 (Enfuvirtide (ENF, T-20)). *CCR5 (Maraviroc (MVC). *Vicriviroc†, Cenicriviroc†, PRO 140†) ...
... gp41 protein (ab68127). Please download our general protocols booklet ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
2F5 recognises an epitope from protein gp41, which forms part of the HIV sheath. Protein gp41 rarely varies, since its activity ... Research on the protein gp41 could help towards designing future vaccinations against HIV. March 17, 2014 in Medicine & Health ... the interaction between antibody 2F5 and two different fragments of protein gp41 that contain its epitope. The results have ... medicalxpress.com/news/2014-03-protein-gp41-future-vaccinations-hiv.html ...
... protein gp41 into the cell membrane and generation of a prehairpin conformation of gp41. This conformation is due to an ... The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of HIV-1 is an attractive. April 25, 2016. GABAB Receptors ... The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of HIV-1 is an attractive target when designing a vaccine to induce neutralizing ... Based on these results both regions of p15E were substituted with the related sequences derived from gp41 of HIV-1. Therefore ...
Immunogenic regions of the gp41 transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were previously mapped by ... Epitope mapping of two immunodominant domains of gp41, the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using ... Epitope mapping of two immunodominant domains of gp41, the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using ... Epitope mapping of two immunodominant domains of gp41, the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using ...
Mutations that destabilize the gp41 core are determinants for stabilizing the simian immunodeficiency virus-CPmac envelope ... Coiled coil proteins Stalk segment of viral fusion proteins Virus ectodomain Virus ectodomain Retrovius gp41 protease-resistant ... Mutation that destabilize the gp41 core: determinants for stabilizing the SIV/CPmac envelope glycoprotein complex. Mutant ...
... immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 envelope glycoprotein by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. ... Coiled coil proteins Stalk segment of viral fusion proteins Virus ectodomain Virus ectodomain Retrovius gp41 protease-resistant ...
In order to elucidate how the trimeric recombinant gp41 protein can interfere with HIV-1 entry into target cells, we further ... Two soluble trimeric recombinant gp41 proteins, termed Rgp41B and Rgp41A were designed. Both comprise the N- and C-terminal ... Both recombinant proteins were found to inhibit HIV-1 entry into target cells in a dose-dependent manner. Rgp41A, the most ... Gp41 ectodomain-derived synthetic peptides represent ideal tools for clarifying this mechanism, in order to design more potent ...
How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate ... HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / chemistry * HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / genetics * HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / metabolism* ... Topological layers in the HIV-1 gp120 inner domain regulate gp41 interaction and CD4-triggered conformational transitions Mol ... How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate ...
Data deposition.Coordinates for 2F5 complexed to 7-mer, 11-mer, and 17-mer gp41 peptides have been deposited with the Protein ... 2F5 Fab-gp41 peptide complex formation.The peptides gp41662-668 (ELDKWAS), gp41659-671 (ELLELDKWASLWN), and gp41656-674 ( ... Contact interface between gp41 and 2F5.The overall surface area of 2F5 that is buried by gp41 in the structure is 634.7 Å2, an ... Antigenicity and immunogenicity of the HIV-1 gp41 epitope ELDKWA inserted into permissive sites of the MalE protein. Vaccine 19 ...
Mouse monoclonal HIV1 gp41 antibody [1D4] validated for WB, ELISA. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment ... gp41/120 is the major HIV protein associated with the HIV envelope. It functions as the viral antireceptor or attachment ... gp41 (or TM) traverses the envelope, whereas gp120 is present on the outer surface and is noncovalently attached to gp41. The ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
For that purpose, gp41 was truncated N-terminally in order to dispose immunodominant, non-neutralizing sites and enhance the ... The aim of this work was to design and evaluate novel immunogens based on the gp41 MPER with the potential to elicit cross- ... of HIV-1 gp41 is particularly conserved and target for the potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) 2F5, 4E10 ... and immunological assessment of VLP-based immunogens exposing the membrane-proximal region of the HIV-1 gp41 protein ...
The gp41 protein immunogens also elicited higher MPER titers than the gp140 protein immunogen. In prime-boost studies, the best ... These well-characterized immunogens were evaluated in two different immunization protocols involving gp41 and gp140 proteins, ... MPER responses were seen in the groups that received DNA priming with gp41 vectors followed by gp41 protein boosts. Finally, ... The immunogens contain segments of the gp41 N- and C-heptad repeats to mimic a trapped intermediate, followed by the MPER, with ...
... envelope protein is a major goal of vaccine strategies. We previously identified 3S, a critical conserved motif of gp41 that ... A single amino-acid change in a highly conserved motif of gp41 elicits HIV-1 neutralization and protects against CD4 depletion ... Results: Here, we show that specific substitutions in the 3S motif reduce viral infection without affecting gp41 production, ...
C) Phosphorylated protein analysis of proximal signaling responses to in vitro BCR aggregation in purified WT or 4E10 complete ... membrane-proximal external region of gp41. MZ. marginal zone. SF3B3. splice factor 3B subunit 3. sIg. surface Ig. UCA. ... Previously, we used KI mice expressing the HC VH(DH)JH rearrangement of a prototypical BnAb, the HIV-1 gp41-specific 2F5 Ab, to ... A fusion-intermediate state of HIV-1 gp41 targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 3739- ...
Articles about the B614_gp41 gene. * Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lytic bacteriophage PA1O which ... hypothetical protein PPMP42_41 [Pseudomonas phage MP42] hypothetical protein PPMP42_41 [Pseudomonas phage MP42]. gi,399528620, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
ProteoGenix provides you the best Viral antigens proteins.Shop now from our 200 000 + products. ... Buy online Recombinant HIV Type-O gp41 13kDa from Prospec cat# hiv-007. ... Influenza B Virus Florida 07/04 Protein. - Recombinant Borrelia Burgdorferi Outer Surface Protein A Protein. - Recombinant ... More info about Recombinant HIV Type-O gp41 13kDa Protein. Brand: Prospec. ...
... results in a well-structured protein, soluble in detergent micelles... ... Truncation of the gp41 construct just past its transmembrane domain, leaving residues 1-194, ... When studying a protein construct that consists of just the N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions of gp41 (NHR and CHR), with ... Structural study of the HIV1 gp41 coat protein Bax, Ad National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ...
... results in a well-structured protein, soluble in detergent micelles... ... Truncation of the gp41 construct just past its transmembrane domain, leaving residues 1-194, ... Structural study of the HIV1 gp41 coat protein Bax, Ad National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ... 2013) Internal dynamics of the homotrimeric HIV-1 viral coat protein gp41 on multiple time scales. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 52: ...
The D1D2 domain in this soluble 2DLT protein could bind to the CD4-binding site and induce the formation of the gp41 prehairpin ... From: A bivalent recombinant protein inactivates HIV-1 by targeting the gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate induced by CD4 D1D2 ... Table 2 Inhibitory activity of the recombinant proteins and peptides on HIV-1-mediated cell-cell fusion and HIV-1 replication ...
Optimisation Of Recombinant GP41 Protein For Use In HIV Diagnostic Assay. Time: 13:30 - 13:45 ... The protein was purified by Immobilised Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) (3). The wild-type and mutant protein products ... The project objective was to assess the functionality of two variants of the reference recombinant HIV protein Gp41 used in a ... The wild-type protein product had an average reactivity determined to be less than 30% of the reference standard. However after ...
Gp41 also known as glycoprotein 41 is a subunit of the envelope protein complex of retroviruses, including human ... gp41 Envelope Protein, HIV at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... As a result, a cascade of conformational changes occurs in the gp120 and gp41 proteins. These conformational changes start with ... The core of gp41 then folds into a six helical bundle (a coiled coil) structure exposing the previously hidden hydrophobic gp41 ...
The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to study CAP binding to HIV-1-sCD4 complexes and to detect gp41 six-helix ... treatment of HIV-1 with CAP induced the formation of gp41 six-helix bundles. CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct sites on HIV-1 IIIB ... including changes in the conformation of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 within virus particles. ...
Proteins in the blood of mice may underlie the cognition-enhancing properties of young blood. ... Mutations at gp41 amino acids 15, 26, and 29 also significantly increased the extent of gp120 secretion into the extracellular ... Characterization of the fusion domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp41.. E O Freed, D J ... To investigate the role in syncytium formation of the hydrophobic amino terminus of gp41 and the polar border of this ...
HIV1 gp41 HRP labeled is fused to an 114kDa beta-galactosidase tag at N-terminus h ... HIV-1 gp41 HRP labeledis a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain, containing 288 amino acids (466-753 a.a.) and having a Mw of ... HIV-1 gp41 HRP labeledis a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain, containing 288 amino acids (466-753 a.a.) and having a Mw of ... HIV1 gp41 HRP labeled is fused to an 114kDa beta-galactosidase tag at N-terminus h. ...
The confirmatory test is Western Blot - detecting specific antibody to viral core protein (p24) and envelop glycoprotein (gp41 ... Outer matrix protein (p17) • Major capsid protein (p24) • Nuclear protein (p7) • RNA with reverse transcriptase ... makes surface protein gp120 and trans membrane gp41, enabling HIV to fuse to CD4 cells. ... GENES IN HIV 1 AND HIV 2 • vpu • Virus protein U gene is required for efficient viral replication • Found only in HIV-1 • vpx ...
  • 2F5 recognises an epitope from protein gp41, which forms part of the HIV sheath. (medicalxpress.com)
  • During this study, the University of Granada researchers, via isothermic titration calorimetry, the interaction between antibody 2F5 and two different fragments of protein gp41 that contain its epitope. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The results have helped to pinpoint how the different regions of the gp41 epitope contribute toward the energy of the union with the antibody. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Importantly, serum IgGs from naive 2F5 and 4E10 KI strains selectively eliminate gp41 and lipid binding, respectively, suggesting B cells expressing 2F5 or 4E10 as BCRs exhibit specificity for a distinct spectrum of host Ags, including selective interactions by 2F5 BCR + B cells (i.e., and not 4E10 BCR + B cells) with those mimicked by its gp41 neutralization epitope. (jimmunol.org)
  • Alignments of gp41 and p15E showed a sequence homology within the MPER (F/YEGWFN in the case of gammaretroviruses and NWFNIT, the 4E10 epitope, in case of HIV-1) despite the evolutionary distance between PERV and HIV-1. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Based on these findings, both epitope regions of p15E recognized by neutralizing sera were substituted by corresponding sequences derived from gp41 of HIV-1. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Nonetheless, the strategy of hybrid proteins used as antigens was successful in focusing the antibody response towards the desired MPER epitope and immune sera after vaccination with N4 showed a weak neutralizing effect. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The sequential binding of gp120 to the cellular receptors triggers conformational changes in gp41, which adopts a conformation known as the pre-hairpin intermediate state, leading to the insertion of the hydrophobic N-terminal fusion peptide into the membrane of the target cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fusion peptide region is normally buried or hidden by the non-covalent interactions between gp120 and gp41, at a point which looks torus-like. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, using a surface plasmon resonance assay, we found that ADS-J1 could bind directly to IQN17, a trimeric peptide containing the gp41 pocket region, resulting in the conformational change of IQN17 and the blockage of its interaction with a short D peptide, PIE7. (asm.org)
  • We previously showed that a gp41 peptide (3S) induces expression of a natural killer (NK) ligand (NKp44L) on CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection and that those cells are highly sensitive to NK lysis. (natap.org)
  • The Carnegie Mellon scientists used X-rays to study how HIV fusion peptide (part of a larger protein) affected the energy of manufactured lipid bilayers made to mimic normal cell membranes. (cmu.edu)
  • Fusion takes place specifically through a short stretch of gp41 called fusion peptide 23, or FP-23 for short. (cmu.edu)
  • With this "Deadlock" technology, from a single linear peptide we have been able to form vast numbers of cyclic and polymeric analogs, all representative of possible conformations found for the peptide in a parent protein from which the smaller peptide was derived. (sbir.gov)
  • The formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) is a remarkably versatile transmembrane protein belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. (mdpi.com)
  • FPR2 is activated by an array of ligands, which include structurally unrelated lipids and peptide/proteins agonists, resulting in different intracellular responses in a ligand-specific fashion. (mdpi.com)
  • Formyl-peptide receptors 1, 2 and 3 (FPR1, FPR2 and FPR3) form a subgroup of receptors linked to inhibitory G-proteins (G i ). (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, five MAbs (from five different patients) to the immunodominant domain of gp41 in the vicinity of the cysteines at positions 598 and 604 (hereinafter designated cluster I) reacted with a stretch of 11 amino acids from positions 590 to 600. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the role in syncytium formation of the hydrophobic amino terminus of gp41 and the polar border of this hydrophobic region, we introduced eight single-amino acid substitutions and one double-amino acid substitution in the amino-terminal 31 amino acids of gp41. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that ADS-J1 may bind to the viral gp41 NHR region through its hydrophobic and ionic interactions with the hydrophobic and positively charged resides located in the pocket region, subsequently blocking the association between the gp41 NHR and CHR regions to form the fusion-active gp41 core, thereby inhibiting HIV-1-mediated membrane fusion and virus entry. (asm.org)
  • This conformation is due to an connection of the C-terminal helical region (CHR) with the N-terminal Hematoxylin helical region (NHR) in an antiparallel manner forming a six-helix package.5-7 The conformation of gp41 required to induce bnAbs is still unfamiliar although either prehairpin or six-helix bundle formation is most likely to be targeted. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Here, we show that specific substitutions in the 3S motif reduce viral infection without affecting gp41 production, while decreasing both its capacity to induce NKp44L expression on CD4(+) T cells and its sensitivity to autologous NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • We also showed that a highly conserved motif of HIV gp41 envelope protein interacts with CD4+ T cells to induce NKp44L (6). (natap.org)
  • Most studies, which have attempted to stimulate specific immune responses against gp41 HIV protein, have been applied to induce HIV neutralization. (natap.org)
  • HIV-1 virotoxins (e.g., gp41) are able to induce disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of BMEC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we generate KI models expressing H chains from two other HIV-1 Abs, 4E10 (another self-/polyreactive, anti-gp41 BnAb) and 48d (an anti-CD4 inducible, nonpolyreactive Ab), and find a similar developmental blockade consistent with central B cell deletion in 4E10, but not in 48d V H KI mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • T-20 (enfuvirtide, Fuzeon), an experimental fusion inhibitor that is nearing FDA approval, binds to a portion of gp41, preventing it from binding to the chemokine receptor. (thebody.com)
  • The fusion domain exhibits effective correlation times that are much shorter than for the ecto domain, indicating that the intact fusion domain helices are highly mobile within the detergent micelle/protein aggregate, while retaining their helical conformation. (grantome.com)
  • Both helices were found to interact tightly with the phospholipids, suggesting a more active role for the gp41 ecto domain in mediating membrane fusion than commonly assumed. (grantome.com)
  • The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target cells thus preventing infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Drugs called fusion inhibitors prevent the binding of gp41 and the chemokine receptor. (thebody.com)
  • Viral Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Viral Fusion Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Viral Fusion Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Viral Fusion Proteins" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Wei Y, Zhang Y, Cai H, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Peeples ME, Niewiesk S, Li J. Roles of the putative integrin-binding motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion (f) protein in cell-cell fusion, viral infectivity, and pathogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Wei Y, Feng K, Yao X, Cai H, Li J, Mirza AM, Iorio RM, Li J. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion. (umassmed.edu)
  • Surprisingly, we found that Env proteins derived from multiple SHIV isolates exclusively used CXCR4 as a coreceptor despite the fact that all SIV strains use CCR5 as a coreceptor regardless of tropism ( 30 - 32 , 38 - 40 ). (pnas.org)
  • On the surface of the viral envelope, two sets of proteins (also known as antireceptors) called gp120 and gp41 attach to CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. (thebody.com)
  • The main reason is that HIV manages to "trick" our immune system, hiding in it via a wide variability of its proteins, or confusing it through immune responses that turn out to be ineffective in preventing the infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Immune system proteins" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Together these results question the feasibility of immune intervention against gp41 to prevent the consequences of HIV infection. (natap.org)
  • The PLA2G1B/gp41 pair constitutes what we believe is a new mechanism of immune dysfunction and a compelling target for boosting immune responses in HIV-infected patients. (jci.org)
  • The head of the protein blocks one site on an HIV spike, and the tail blocks the other, making it impossible for the virus to attach to an immune cell. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Murine immune responses to virus-like particle-associated pre- and postfusion forms of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • Previously, we used knockin (KI) mice expressing a prototypical gp41-specific BnAb, 2F5, to demonstrate that immunological tolerance triggered by self-reactivity of the 2F5 H chain impedes BnAb induction. (jimmunol.org)
  • The wild-type and mutant protein products were biotinylated and their reactivity assessed in ELISA. (biomedica.ie)
  • The wild-type protein product had an average reactivity determined to be less than 30% of the reference standard. (biomedica.ie)
  • These proteins are typically involved in the early stages of genome replication, and include reverse transcriptase and integrase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the release of viral genome and enzymes from the core protein, viral reverse transcriptase catalyses reverse transcription of ssRNA to form RNA-DNA hybrids ( 3 ). (immunology.org)
  • The proviral genome can subsequently be transcribed into viral RNA that functions as mRNA for translation into HIV proteins and as genomes for the subsequent generation of the virus. (fsu.edu)
  • These proteins are packaged into HIV-like particles that bud from the cell membrane. (thebodypro.com)
  • The ready-to-use lentiviral particles of Lenti-gp41 TCR-VP is packaged using 3rd generation of lentiviral packaging system, in which the gene of Human TCR will be driven by a CMV promotor. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Although polymer-coat-protein nanoparticles have been synthesized before, the authors find instead of the naturally occurring larger capsule shape, the coat proteins surround 100% of the polymers forming new smaller (16 nm) particles that remain stable for several weeks and over a wide pH range. (biology-online.org)
  • Modification of the respiratory syncytial virus f protein in virus-like particles impacts generation of B cell memory. (umassmed.edu)
  • Protein gp41 rarely varies, since its activity is essential for invading T lymphocytes, due to the virus, since it promotes the fusión between the viral and cellular mibranes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 4. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said bioreactive pair is selected from the group of ligand-receptor pairs consisting of lectins and lectin binding sites, HDL and HDL receptor cellular receptor site, hormones and hormone receptor sites, antibiotics and ribosomal proteins. (google.com)
  • These proteins participate in a broad array of cellular functions and implicate new pathways in the viral life cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • HIV and influenza both display proteins that stand on the outer surface of the viral membrane like armed torpedoes poised to fire. (hhmi.org)