Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
A serine endopeptidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis. It hydrolyzes proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. It also hydrolyzes peptide amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The internal fragments of precursor proteins (INternal proTEINS) that are autocatalytically removed by PROTEIN SPLICING. The flanking fragments (EXTEINS) are ligated forming mature proteins. The nucleic acid sequences coding for inteins are considered to be MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Inteins are composed of self-splicing domains and an endonuclease domain which plays a role in the spread of the intein's genomic sequence. Mini-inteins are composed of the self-splicing domains only.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
The excision of in-frame internal protein sequences (INTEINS) of a precursor protein, coupled with ligation of the flanking sequences (EXTEINS). Protein splicing is an autocatalytic reaction and results in the production of two proteins from a single primary translation product: the intein and the mature protein.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from N10-formyltetrahydrofolate to N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide to yield N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide and tetrahydrofolate. It plays a role in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway.
Techniques utilizing cells that express RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEINS engineered to translocate through the CELL MEMBRANE and remain attached to the outside of the cell.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).

Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. (1/4007)

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.  (+info)

Engineering a chimeric pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase: improvement of EDTA tolerance, thermal stability and substrate specificity. (2/4007)

An engineered Escherichia coli PQQ glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH) with improved enzymatic characteristics was constructed by substituting and combining the gene-encoding protein regions responsible for EDTA tolerance, thermal stability and substrate specificity. The protein region responsible for complete EDTA tolerance in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, which is recognized as the indicator of high stability in co-factor binding, was elucidated. The region is located between 32 and 59% from the N-terminus of A. calcoaceticus PQQGDH(A27 region) and also corresponds to the same position from 32 to 59% from the N-terminus in E. coli PQQGDH, though E. coli PQQGDH is EDTA sensitive. We previously reported that the C-terminal 3% region of A. calcoaceticus (A3 region) played an important role in the increase of thermal stability, and that His775Asn substitution in E. coli PQQGDH resulted in an increase in the substrate specificity of E. coli PQQGDH towards glucose. Based on these findings, chimeric and/or mutated PQQGDHs, E97A3 H775N, E32A27E41 H782N, E32A27E38A3 and E32A27E38A3 H782N were constructed to investigate the compatibility of two protein regions and one amino acid substitution. His775 substitution to Asn corresponded to His782 substitution to Asn (H782N) in chimeric enzymes harbouring the A27 region. Since all the chimeric PQQGDHs harbouring the A27 region were EDTA tolerant, the A27 region was found to be compatible with the other region and substituted amino acid responsible for the improvement of enzymatic properties. The contribution of the A3 region to thermal stability complemented the decrease in the thermal stability due to the His775 or His782 substitution to Asn. E32A27E38A3 H782N, which harbours all the above mentioned three regions, showed improved EDTA tolerance, thermal stability and substrate specificity. These results suggested a strategy for the construction of a semi-artificial enzyme by substituting and combining the gene-encoding protein regions responsible for the improvement of enzyme characteristics. The characteristics of constructed chimeric PQQGDH are discussed based on the predicted model, beta-propeller structure.  (+info)

Toward controlling gene expression at will: selection and design of zinc finger domains recognizing each of the 5'-GNN-3' DNA target sequences. (3/4007)

We have taken a comprehensive approach to the generation of novel DNA binding zinc finger domains of defined specificity. Herein we describe the generation and characterization of a family of zinc finger domains developed for the recognition of each of the 16 possible 3-bp DNA binding sites having the sequence 5'-GNN-3'. Phage display libraries of zinc finger proteins were created and selected under conditions that favor enrichment of sequence-specific proteins. Zinc finger domains recognizing a number of sequences required refinement by site-directed mutagenesis that was guided by both phage selection data and structural information. In many cases, residues not expected to make base-specific contacts had effects on specificity. A number of these domains demonstrate exquisite specificity and discriminate between sequences that differ by a single base with >100-fold loss in affinity. We conclude that the three helical positions -1, 3, and 6 of a zinc finger domain are insufficient to allow for the fine specificity of the DNA binding domain to be predicted. These domains are functionally modular and may be recombined with one another to create polydactyl proteins capable of binding 18-bp sequences with subnanomolar affinity. The family of zinc finger domains described here is sufficient for the construction of 17 million novel proteins that bind the 5'-(GNN)6-3' family of DNA sequences. These materials and methods should allow for the rapid construction of novel gene switches and provide the basis for a universal system for gene control.  (+info)

Re-design of Rhodobacter sphaeroides dimethyl sulfoxide reductase. Enhancement of adenosine N1-oxide reductase activity. (4/4007)

The periplasmic DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans has been expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells in its mature form and with the R. sphaeroides or E. coli N-terminal signal sequence. Whereas the R. sphaeroides signal sequence prevents formation of active enzyme, addition of a 6x His-tag at the N terminus of the mature peptide maximizes production of active enzyme and allows for affinity purification. The recombinant protein contains 1.7-1.9 guanines and greater than 0.7 molybdenum atoms per molecule and has a DMSO reductase activity of 3.4-3.7 units/nmol molybdenum, compared with 3.7 units/nmol molybdenum for enzyme purified from R. sphaeroides. The recombinant enzyme differs from the native enzyme in its color and spectrum but is indistinguishable from the native protein after redox cycling with reduced methyl viologen and Me2SO. Substitution of Cys for the molybdenum-ligating Ser-147 produced a protein with DMSO reductase activity of 1.4-1.5 units/nmol molybdenum. The mutant protein differs from wild type in its color and absorption spectrum in both the oxidized and reduced states. This substitution leads to losses of 61-99% of activity toward five substrates, but the adenosine N1-oxide reductase activity increases by over 400%.  (+info)

CD86 (B7-2) can function to drive MHC-restricted antigen-specific CTL responses in vivo. (5/4007)

Activation of T cells requires both TCR-specific ligation by direct contact with peptide Ag-MHC complexes and coligation of the B7 family of ligands through CD28/CTLA-4 on the T cell surface. We recently reported that coadministration of CD86 cDNA along with DNA encoding HIV-1 Ags i.m. dramatically increased Ag-specific CTL responses. We investigated whether the bone marrow-derived professional APCs or muscle cells were responsible for the enhancement of CTL responses following CD86 coadministration. Accordingly, we analyzed CTL induction in bone marrow chimeras. These chimeras are capable of generating functional viral-specific CTLs against vaccinia virus and therefore represent a useful model system to study APC/T cell function in vivo. In vaccinated chimeras, we observed that only CD86 + Ag + MHC class I results in 1) detectable CTLs following in vitro restimulation, 2) detectable direct CTLs, 3) enhanced IFN-gamma production in an Ag-specific manner, and 4) dramatic tissue invasion of T cells. These results support that CD86 plays a central role in CTL induction in vivo, enabling non-bone marrow-derived cells to prime CTLs, a property previously associated solely with bone marrow-derived APCs.  (+info)

Elimination of the immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies. (6/4007)

The immunogenicity of therapeutic Abs limits their long-term use. The processes of complementarity-determining region grafting, resurfacing, and hyperchimerization diminish mAb immunogenicity by reducing the number of foreign residues. However, this does not prevent anti-idiotypic and anti-allotypic responses following repeated administration of cell-binding Abs. Classical studies have demonstrated that monomeric human IgG is profoundly tolerogenic in a number of species. If cell-binding Abs could be converted into monomeric non-cell-binding tolerogens, then it should be possible to pretolerize patients to the therapeutic cell-binding form. We demonstrate that non-cell-binding minimal mutants of the anti-CD52 Ab CAMPATH-1H lose immunogenicity and can tolerize to the "wild-type" Ab in CD52-expressing transgenic mice. This finding could have utility in the long-term administration of therapeutic proteins to humans.  (+info)

Combinatorial protein engineering by incremental truncation. (7/4007)

We have developed a combinatorial approach, using incremental truncation libraries of overlapping N- and C-terminal gene fragments, that examines all possible bisection points within a given region of an enzyme that will allow the conversion of a monomeric enzyme into its functional heterodimer. This general method for enzyme bisection will have broad applications in the engineering of new catalytic functions through domain swapping and chemical synthesis of modified peptide fragments and in the study of enzyme evolution and protein folding. We have tested this methodology on Escherichia coli glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (PurN) and, by genetic selection, identified PurN heterodimers capable of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylation. Two were chosen for physical characterization and were found to be comparable to the wild-type PurN monomer in terms of stability to denaturation, activity, and binding of substrate and cofactor. Sequence analysis of 18 randomly chosen, active PurN heterodimers revealed that the breakpoints primarily clustered in loops near the surface of the enzyme, that the breaks could result in the deletion of highly conserved residues and, most surprisingly, that the active site could be bisected.  (+info)

Rational design of a scytalone dehydratase-like enzyme using a structurally homologous protein scaffold. (8/4007)

The generation of enzymes to catalyze specific reactions is one of the more challenging problems facing protein engineers. Structural similarities between the enzyme scytalone dehydratase with nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) suggested the potential for NTF2 to be re-engineered into a scytalone dehydratase-like enzyme. We introduced four key catalytic residues into NTF2 to create a scytalone dehydratase-like active site. A C-terminal helix found in scytalone dehydratase but absent in NTF2 also was added. Mutant NTF2 proteins were tested for catalytic activity by using a spectroscopic assay. One of the engineered enzymes exhibited catalytic activity with minimal kcat and Km values of 0.125 min-1 and 800 microM, respectively. This level of catalytic activity represents minimally a 150-fold improvement in activity over the background rate for substrate dehydration and a dramatic step forward from the catalytically inert parent NTF2. This work represents one of the few examples of converting a protein scaffold into an enzyme, outside those arising from the induction of catalytic activity into antibodies.  (+info)

β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the major whey protein in ruminants and is found in the milk of a wide range of species. Extensive study of BLG over the years has led to the determination of the structure of the protein at 2.8AA and has revealed its ability to bind a variety of small hydrophobic molecules. However, the physiological function of BLG remains unknown despite its inclusion within the lipocalycin family on the grounds of genetic and tertiary structure comparisons as well as similarities in amino acid sequence. A protein engineering approach was adopted to study the residues involved in subunit interactions and ligand binding as well as the importance of Cys119 and 121 in determining the stability of the tertiary structure. The complete coding sequence for ovine BLG was obtained and a convenient site-directed mutagenesis system was set up. An expression system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed in which ovine BLG was synthesised and secreted into the growth medium. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overcoming low yields of plant-made antibodies by a protein engineering approach. AU - Jansing, Julia. AU - Sack, Markus. AU - Fischer, Rainer PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. M3 - Article. JO - Biotechnology Journal. JF - Biotechnology Journal. SN - 1860-6768. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rational protein engineering in action. T2 - The first crystal structure of a phenylalanine tRNA synthetase from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. AU - Evdokimov, Artem G.. AU - Mekel, Marlene. AU - Hutchings, Kim. AU - Narasimhan, Lakshmi. AU - Holler, Tod. AU - McGrath, Teresa. AU - Beattie, Bryan. AU - Fauman, Eric. AU - Yan, Chunhong. AU - Heaslet, Holly. AU - Walter, Richard. AU - Finzel, Barry. AU - Ohren, Jeffrey. AU - McConnell, Patrick. AU - Braden, Timothy. AU - Sun, Fang. AU - Spessard, Cindy. AU - Banotai, Craig. AU - Al-Kassim, Loola. AU - Ma, Weijun. AU - Wengender, Paul. AU - Kole, Denis. AU - Garceau, Norman. AU - Toogood, Peter. AU - Liu, Jia. N1 - Funding Information: The authors specifically acknowledge the mass-spectroscopic measurements made by Tracy Stevenson and Eric Lund as well as the biophysical experiments conducted by Ronald Sarver and Kimberly Huchings. Use of the IMCA-CAT beamline 17-ID at the APS was supported by the companies of the Industrial ...
Felton, Calif., USA, Apr. 29, 2021 - /EPR Network/ -. The global Protein Engineering Market research report provides complete insights on industry scope, trends, regional estimates, key application, competitive landscape and financial performance of prominent players. It also offers ready data-driven answers to several industry-level questions. This study enables numerous opportunities for the market players to invest in research and development.. Market Overview:. Global Protein Engineering Market is anticipated to reach USD 3.09 billion by 2025. Protein engineering is a method to design novel proteins or enzymes with the intention to have functional properties. Protein engineering is primarily based on the use of recombinant DNA technology to alter the amino acid sequences in terms of affinity, solubility, activity, resistance, etc.. Key Players:. ...
This protocol describes the computational steps necessary to reproduce the results described in the paper Unified rational protein engineering with sequence-only deep representation learning by Alley et al....
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Ancestral phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases have potential for supplementary treatment to Nitisinone of hereditary tyrosinemia. Sci. Rep. , 10, W. Farhat, A. Biundo, A. Stamm, E. Malmström, P.-O. Syrén*. Lactone monomers obtained by enzyme catalysis and their use in reversible thermoresponsive.
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Determination of the histamine content is of paramount importance for the food industry as a parameter of the hygienic quality and freshness of food, as well as to prevent scombroid fish poisoning, an allergy-like food poisoning. At present, more sensitive and user-friendly methods for histamine monitoring are needed to early detect products and raw materials susceptible of becoming hazardous for consumers. BIOIMPROVE aims to develop an improved and highly sensitive portable biosensing device for the quantification of histamine in the lower concentration range (,5 mg/l). To reach this objective, an innovative and powerful semi-rational protein engineering strategy will be used to maximize the sensitivity of the currently available histamine enzyme-based biosensor. Rather than addressing this goal by the generation and screening of large libraries, a careful selection of the most promising mutational hotspots will be performed using the structural available information in tandem with advanced ...
Intrexon’s bioinformatics and computational modeling platform is central to our protein engineering expertise, which focuses on designing enhanced and/or novel protein functionalities, including stability, localization, and catalytic activity.  To modulate these protein properties, we utilize the UltraVector® platform’s modular design method to separate proteins into functional elements.  Our protein engineering utilizes principles of structural biology, computational chemistry, molecular biology and bioinformatics.  Intrexon’s proprietary database of information catalogs comprehensive information about the genetic and protein components based on structure-based sequence alignment, de novo and comparative protein modeling, molecular dynamics simulation and free energy analysis.
/PRNewswire/ -- According to a new market research report Protein Engineering Market by Technology (Rational Protein Design, Irrational Protein Design),...
Protein Engineering LaboratoryWe are interested in protein engineering for the creation and development of new proteins and protein variants. Especially, we are interested in pharmaceutical proteins such as antibody specific for cancer and inflammation
Over the past three decades, a large body of work has been directed at the development of therapeutic cytokines. Despite their central role in immune modulation, only a handful of cytokine therapeutics has achieved regulatory approval. One of the major challenges associated with the therapeutic use of cytokines relates to their short serum half-life and low bioavailability. High doses are required to overcome these problems, which often result in dose-limiting toxicities. Consequently, most cytokines require protein engineering approaches to reduce toxicity and increase half-life. For this purpose, PEGylation, fusion proteins, antibody complexes and mutagenesis have been utilized. Here, we summarize past, recent and emerging strategies in this area.
C1q is the first subcomponent of the classical pathway of the complement system and a major connecting link between innate and acquired immunity. As a versatile charge pattern recognition molecule, C1q is capable of engaging a broad range of ligands via its heterotrimeric globular domain (gC1q) which is composed of the C-terminal regions of its A (ghA), B (ghB) and C (ghC) chains. Recent studies using recombinant forms of ghA, ghB and ghC have suggested that the gC1q domain has a modular organization and each chain can have differential ligand specificity. The crystal structure of the gC1q, molecular modeling and protein engineering studies have combined to illustrate how modular organization, charge distribution and the spatial orientation of the heterotrimeric assembly offer versatility of ligand recognition to C1q. Although the biochemical and structural studies have provided novel insights into the structure-function relationships within the gC1q domain, they have also raised many unexpected issues
AB - Adaptive immune responses characterised by the synthesis of antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) isotype play an important role in type I hypersensitivity disorders and parasitic infestations, diseases which have an significant socioeconomic impact world-wide. This paper considers potential applications of recent advances in our understanding of the origin of isotype specific immune responses which emerged as a result of cell and protein engineering studies on components of the human IgE/receptor/effector system. Furthermore, the identification of the receptor binding regions in IgE as a result of the development of a stable assay system has important applications for the design of rational therapeutic interventions in allergy and asthma, the treatment of mast cell tumours, and the establishment of procedures for the selective isolation of cells expressing the high-affinity receptor for IgE for functional studies ...
Get this from a library! Therapeutic antibody engineering : current and future advances driving the strongest growth area in the pharmaceutical industry. [W R Strohl; Lila M Strohl] -- The field of antibody engineering has become a vital and integral part of making new, improved next generation therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, of which there are currently more than 300 in ...
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Author: Acevedo Rocha, Carlos Guillermo et al.; Genre: Book Chapter; Published in Print: 2014-08-31; Keywords: deletion mutations - directed evolution - gene variant libraries - insertion mutations - mutagenesis; Title: Iterative Saturation Mutagenesis (ISM): A Powerful Approach to Engineer Proteins by Systematically Simulating Darwinian Evolution
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Antibody Engineering Company f-star Raises EUR 6.0 Million in Series A Financing From Aescap Venture and Atlas Venture VIENNA, Austria, September 10 -- f-star, an antibody engineering company
BACKGROUND: Protein fold recognition usually relies on a statistical model of each fold; each model is constructed from an ensemble of natural sequences belonging to that fold. A complementary strategy may be to employ sequence ensembles produced by computational protein design. Designed sequences can be more diverse than natural sequences, possibly avoiding some limitations of experimental databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: WE EXPLORE THIS STRATEGY FOR FOUR SCOP FAMILIES: Small Kunitz-type inhibitors (SKIs), Interleukin-8 chemokines, PDZ domains, and large Caspase catalytic subunits, represented by 43 structures. An automated procedure is used to redesign the 43 proteins. We use the experimental backbones as fixed templates in the folded state and a molecular mechanics model to compute the interaction energies between sidechain and backbone groups. Calculations are done with the [email protected] volunteer computing platform. A heuristic algorithm is used to scan the sequence and conformational
Le « Computational protein design » ou CPD est la recherche des séquences dacides aminés compatibles avec une structure protéique ciblée. Lobjectif est de concevoir une fonction nouvelle et/ou dajouter un nouveau comportement. Le CPD est en développement dans de notre laboratoire depuis plusieurs années, avec le logiciel Proteus qui a plusieurs succès à son actif.Notre approche utilise un modèle énergétique basé sur la physique et sappuie sur la différence dénergie entre létat plié et létat déplié de la protéine. Au cours de cette thèse, nous avons enrichi Proteus sur plusieurs points, avec notamment lajout dune méthode dexploration Monte Carlo avec échange de répliques ou REMC. Nous avons comparé trois méthodes stochastiques pour lexploration de lespace de la séquence : le REMC, le Monte Carlo simple et une heuristique conçue pour le CPD, le «Multistart Steepest Descent » ou MSD. Ces comparaisons portent sur neuf protéines de trois familles de structures :
Combinatorial protein engineering, taking advantage of large libraries of protein variants and powerful selection technology, is a useful strategy for developing affinity proteins for applications in biotechnology and medicine. In this thesis, two small affinity proteins have been subjected to combinatorial protein engineering to improve or redirect the binding. In two of the projects, a three-helix protein domain based on staphylococcal protein A has been used as scaffold to generate so called Affibody molecules capable of binding to key proteins related to two diseases common among elderly people.. In the first project, Affibody molecules were selected using phage display technology for binding to Ab-peptides, believed to play a crucial role in Alzheimers disease, in that they can oligomerize and contribute to the formation of neural plaques in the brain. The selected Affibody molecules were found to efficiently capture Ab from spiked human plasma when coupled to an affinity resin. The ...
As the population ages, the number of people with neurodegenerative diseases is expected to increase. Antibody therapeutics could be important in the fight against these diseases.
Enzyme engineering is a powerful technology now widely used in laboratories around the world. The goal is to obtain improved proteins that will serve as better biocatalysts, biosensors or as a tool to understand protein evolution, which is at the core of many societal problem, such as antibiotic resistance. Enzyme engineering entails the initial generation of libraries of mutants that will then be screened for improved properties (for example: better selectivity or specificity towards a substrate of interest, improved stability, etc). Obtaining good quality libraries is becoming routine thanks to the availability of molecular biology tools and computational simulations. The bottleneck of the experiment remains at the screening level. The bigger the generated library, the more stringent the requirement for the high-throughput screen ...
Établissement public administratif national placé sous la tutelle du ministre chargé de la recherche. Son siège est situé à Paris.
Ana Dolinar) Dueber, J. E. et al. 2009. Synthetic protein scaffolds provide modular control over metabolic flux. Nature Biotechnology 27: 753-759. The article was written by John E. Dueber and his colleagues and published in Nature Biotechnology in the year 2009. In the research, they used synthetic protein scaffolds to organize metabolic enzymes and thus improve the effectiveness of metabolite synthesis. Following writing will cover the basics of metabolic engineering, protein scaffolds, substrate channeling and mevalonate synthesis as well as experimental results from Duebers paper and a brief comparison of other scaffolding molecules (i.e. DNA, RNA). Introduction Metabolic engineering Metabolic engineering is a term, defined in 1991 by James Edward Bailey as Improvement of cellular activities by manipulation of enzymatic transport and regulatory functions of the cell with the use of recombinant DNA technology (ref=Bailey). These days it is used as a term for describing modifications of ...
Close proximity with a female something that occurs in a majority of species, including humans results in the ejaculates from two or more males overlapping within her reproductive tract.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
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A large-scale study to test the actual stability of computationally designed proteins shows a way to take some of the guesswork out of protein engineering. Previously, scientists tested only a few tens of proteins, due to prohibitive costs of DNA. This new approach, which incorporates advances in DNA synthesis technology, efficiently checks thousands of mini-protein designs. The hope is that in the future a similar approach could test bigger, more complex, designed proteins ...
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PhD Project - Protein engineering enzymes for industry: production and assessment of bile acid products at University of Reading, listed on
Protein Engineering: is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins. It is a young discipline, with much research taking place into the understan
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that share a common seven-transmembrane helix fold topology. They play fundamental roles in most physiological and many pathological processes. Currently, GPCRs are the target of ~30% of all medical drugs. As a result of the major drug discovery activities targeting GPCRs, there is a growing demand for high-resolution structures. Despite enormous efforts, however, progress in the structural characterization of GPCRs is rather slow. Primarily two methods have been developed for structural work on GPCRs: scanning alanine mutagenesis and the fusion protein engineering approach. However, both methods have substantial limitations, emphasizing that the development of new GPCR crystallization tools will be of fundamental importance in moving the field forward. Towards this aim, we developed a novel approach to facilitate the crystallization of GPCRs ...
Transgenic plants expressing combinations of microbial or plant pesticidal proteins represent a promising tool for the efficient, durable control of herbivorous insects. In this review we describe current strategies devised for the heterologous co-expression of pesticidal proteins in planta, some of which have already shown usefulness in plant protection. Emphasis is placed on protein engineering strategies involving the insertion of single DNA constructs within the host plant genome. Multimodal fusion proteins integrating complementary pesticidal functions along a unique polypeptide are first considered, taking into account the structural constraints associated with protein or protein domain grafting to biologically active proteins. Strategies that allow for the co- or post-translational release of two or more pesticidal proteins are then considered, including polyprotein precursors releasing free proteins upon proteolytic cleavage, and multicistronic transcripts for the parallel translation of single
A highly crystallizable T4 lysozyme (T4L) was fused to the N-terminus of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for catecholamines. We demonstrate that the N-terminal fused T4L is sufficiently rigid relative to the receptor to facilitate crystallogenesis without thermostabilizing mutations or the use of a stabilizing antibody, G protein, or protein fused to the 3rd intracellular loop. This approach adds to the protein engineering strategies that enable crystallographic studies of GPCRs alone or in complex with a signaling partner.
Since your email address was listed on a related web site page or database, I thought you might help. I am seeking an individual within the following conditions: Individual sought to join leading biotech firm researching and developing drugs and diagnostic products using the human gene. Seeking a Research Scientist for the Antibody Engineering group. A Ph.D. in Molecular Biology with 2 years postdoctoral experience is required. Candidate must also have experience with generating and screening phage display libraries and humanization of antibodies. Additional experience with Immunology and/or discovering therapeutic antibodies is highly preferred. This is an opportunity to join an outstanding scientific team on the cutting edge of drug discovery. We offer and outstanding compensation package including relocation. Geographic Location of Position: Mid Atlantic States If you know anyone that might be interested, please forward this to them or contact: Larry Chiaravallo Diedre Moire Corp., Inc. ...
Chemical biology has long sought to build protein switches for use in molecular diagnostics, imaging, and synthetic biology. The overarching challenge for any type of engineered protein switch is the ability to respond in a selective and predictable manner that caters to the specific environments and time scales needed for the application at hand. We previously described a general method to design switchable proteins, called chemical rescue of structure, that builds de novo allosteric control sites directly into a proteins functional domain. This approach entails first carving out a buried cavity in a protein via mutation, such that the proteins structure is disrupted and activity is lost. An exogenous ligand is subsequently added to substitute for the atoms that were removed by mutation, restoring the proteins structure and thus its activity. Here, we begin to ask what principles dictate such switches response to different activating ligands. Using a redesigned β-glycosidase enzyme as ...
Yumab feature in Natures Biopharma Dealmakers describes how the company acts as a driver of the general trend in the immunotherapy space toward the use of fully human mAbs for therapeutic applications. Read more. 1st prize of the Innovationsnetzwerk Niedersachsen 2017 was awarded to Yumab and the TU Braunschweig at the Hannover Messe by the Minister for Science and Culture, Gabriele Heinen-Kljaji, and the Minister for Economics, Employment and Traffic, Olaf Lies. Meet YUMAB CEO Thomas Schirrmann at the J.P. Morgan 35th Annual Healthcare Conference 2017 San Francisco (January 9-12, 2017).. YUMAB cofounder Michael Hust will present YUMAB technologies at Toxins 2017 in Madrid (January 18-21, 2017).. Meet André Frenzel, YUMAB CSO and cofounder, and Michael Hust, YUMAB cofounder, at Antibodies in Drug Discovery in Cambridge, UK (March 6+7, 2017).. Meet YUMAB head of development Dr. Jonas Kügler at the „Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics in San Diego December 11th to 15th at the booth of the ...
The advent of economical gene synthesis is making it easier than ever to engineer completely new proteins. Computational protein design is a promising strategy to take advantage of our new found latitude. Previous computational protein design efforts have led to extraordinarily stable proteins (Tm above 99°C). However, the same algorithms also can lead to unfolded, aggregated, or destabilized proteins. It remains challenging to reliably design properties of interest (structure, stability, catalysis) into synthetic proteins. Furthermore, directed evolution raises the bar for computational design; it is often possible to optimize a protein of interest via screening libraries of random mutants thereof ...
Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics Europe is the industrys European meeting for antibody and protein therapeutic science, technology and networking.
Author(s): Pan, Xingjie | Advisor(s): Kortemme, Tanja | Abstract: Proteins perform most of biological functions. The ultimate approach to understand protein functions is designing novel protein functions from scratch. The ability to design novel functional proteins would also be revolutionary for biology research, medicine and synthetic biology. Proteins function by placing specific chemical groups at precise 3-dimensional (3D) positions and orientations. Therefore, de novo functional protein design relies on precise control of protein 3D structures. In this thesis, I review the recent advances in de novo protein design (chapter 1). Then I describe two of my research projects that aim to extend the ability of computational methods to design precise protein 3D structures. In the first project (chapter 2), I developed a method termed loop-helix-loop unit combinatorial sampling (LUCS) that systematically samples geometries of protein secondary structures. I applied LUCS to designs de novo protein fold
Antibody engineering is the process of developing an antibody with optimal characteristics. Review the details and helpful solutions here.
A principal goal of synthetic biology is the de novo design or redesign of biomolecular components. In addition to revealing fundamentally important information regarding natural biomolecular engineering and biochemistry, functional building blocks will ultimately be provided for applications including the manufacture of valuable products and therapeutics. To fully realize this ambitious goal, the designed components must be biocompatible, working in concert with natural biochemical processes and pathways, while not adversely affecting cellular function. For example, de novo protein design has provided us with a wide repertoire of structures and functions, including those that can be assembled and function in vivo Here we discuss such biocompatible designs, as well as others that have the potential to become biocompatible, including non-protein molecules, and routes to achieving full biological integration.. Full details in the University publications repository. ...
Freeline to present new data at the 12th Annual Protein and Antibody Engineering Summit- Updated data on analytical technologies for determining the proportion of AAV capsids containing full-length vector genomes- Potentially increasing safety and efficacy in Freeline’s AAV delivery modelLondon, 30 October 202...
It is very unusual for a university to be leading a project like this as its normally industry-led, so its a great honour for us to be working with some of the top names in European industry, he said. The industry partners put in 50 percent of their own money, which is a sure sign that they take this seriously.. From the start weve made it clear that were not going to carry out research that is not meeting industrys needs. This project will only be a success if we are able to create what they need and can use.. The scientists will be using formal engineering methods to test the fault tolerance of each system and refining these in an industrial setting to ensure they meet the needs of an increasingly technological society.. Its often crucial that you can rely on these systems, explained Computing Science Professor Cliff Jones, who began his career working for IBM in the 1970s and has spent many years developing formal engineering methods for industry. For example, there is a device ...
Some commonly used factors include:. 6 Ms. (Wo)Man, Method, Materials, Measurement, Man, and Mother nature/environment. This set of factors is commonly used in the manufacturing/plant environment. In a health care setting these factors can be represented in a laboratory.. 8 Ps. Procedures, Processes, Policies, People, Promotion, Price, Product, and Place. This set of factors is commonly used in the administrative setting. In a health care setting these factors can be used to analyze patient data in the handover from one department to the next.. 4Ss. Skills, Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems. This set of factors is commonly used in the service industry. In a health care setting these factors can be used in an emergency room triage.. The 8Ps and 4Ss factors have been used in the service sector, especially in accounting, sales, customer service, and administration. These factors exist in many subsectors associated with health care delivery. For example, health insurance companies can use factors ...
Directed evolution has so far been used almost exclusively as a tool for engineering proteins. By mutation techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis, cassette-mutagenesis, random mutagenesis, and error prone PCR variants of protein functions have been generated and the libraries thus produced have been screened for their ability to perform a specific function. Recursive application of this procedure has been used successfully for the modification of physical and catalytic properties of enzymes such as pH optima, thermo-tolerance, solvent stability, stereoselectivity, catalytic activity and substrate specificity as well as toxicity resistance mechanisms in bacteria and the host range and stability of viruses.Traditional mutagenesis approaches for evolving new properties in enzymes have a number of limitations. These approaches are only applicable to genes or sequences that have been cloned and functionally characterized and that have a discrete function. Also, the traditional mutagenesis ...
Principal Investigator:MITSUI Yukio, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:試験, Research Field:広領域
Protein Engineering. 4 (7): 801-4. doi:10.1093/protein/4.7.801. PMID 1798702. Maxam AM, Gilbert W (1980). Sequencing end- ... the enzyme is in solution with a smaller amount of proteins than there are in another portion of the cell. The proteins' heat ... When multiple copies of a polypeptide encoded by a gene form an aggregate, this protein structure is referred to as a multimer ... This characteristic of the enzyme is uncommon to many other proteins. The precise structure and function of the four isozymes ( ...
Protein Engineering. 14 (7): 513-9. doi:10.1093/protein/14.7.513. PMID 11522926. Anderson NL, Polanski M, Pieper R, Gatlin T, ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... as a prothrombotic gene in a protein C-deficient kindred and population-based case-control sample". Thrombosis and Haemostasis ...
Protein Engineering. 11 (10): 833-40. doi:10.1093/protein/11.10.833. PMID 9862200. Lopes-Marques M, Ruivo R, Fonseca E, ... Humans have a pseudogene for chymosin that does not generate a protein, found on chromosome 1. Humans have other proteins to ... With the development of genetic engineering, it became possible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomach and ...
... protein engineering; drug delivery; molecular biology; structural biology; cell biology; glycobiology; molecular imaging and in ... Research in the Davis laboratory has been funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the Biotechnology ... These have enabled associated mechanistic details of protein and sugar biology to be elucidated and exploited for ... Lin, Yuya Angel (2013). Olefin metathesis for site-selective protein modification (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC ...
Applications: Protein engineering Enzyme engineering Protein design Expanded genetic code Xenobiology Mutagenesis: Random ... As a protein engineering tool, DE has been most successful in three areas: Improving protein stability for biotechnological use ... Directed evolution (DE) is a method used in protein engineering that mimics the process of natural selection to steer proteins ... Protein Engineering. 12 (1): 47-53. doi:10.1093/protein/12.1.47. PMID 10065710. Favor AH, Llanos CD, Youngblut MD, Bardales JA ...
Protein Engineering. 1 (4): 295-300. doi:10.1093/protein/1.4.295. PMID 3508280. Nanoarchitecture: Xiao, Shoujun; Liu, Furong; ... Nucleic acid structures are less versatile than proteins in their function because of proteins' increased ability to fold into ... This property is absent in other materials used in nanotechnology, including proteins, for which protein design is very ... "Barcoded DNA nanostructures for the multiplexed profiling of subcellular protein distribution". Nature Biomedical Engineering. ...
Protein Engineering. 1 (4): 295-300. doi:10.1093/protein/1.4.295. ISSN 0269-2139. PMID 3508280. Link Rothemund, Paul W. K.; ... NMR of Proteins and Nucleic Acids., New York, Brisbane,Chicester, Toronto, Singapore: J. Wiley & Sons. 1986., 292 pages. Hallin ... In eukaryotes this is carried by spool-like proteins named histones, around which DNA winds. It is the further compaction of ... The proton exchange rates in DNA and attached proteins may vary from picosecond to nanosecond, minutes or years, depending on ...
Protein Engineering. 12 (6): 439-46. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840. Hawkins JW, Dugaiczyk A (1982). "The human ... RCSB Protein Data Bank : Molecule of the Month - Serum Albumin Albumin binding prediction Overview of all the structural ... Serum albumin is produced by the liver, occurs dissolved in blood plasma and is the most abundant blood protein in mammals. ... Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood ...
Protein Engineering. 16 (4): 271-8. doi:10.1093/proeng/gzg031. PMID 12736370. Hanzelka BL, Parsek MR, Val DL, Dunlap PV, Cronan ... LuxI protein, LuxM, N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, RhlI, YspI, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine ... acyl-carrier protein] + S-adenosyl-L-methionine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } [acyl-carrier protein] + S-methyl-5'- ... AinS protein, autoinducer synthase, autoinducer synthesis protein rhlI, EsaI, ExpISCC1, ExpISCC3065, LasI, LasR, LuxI, ...
Protein Engineering. 11 (11): 1007-13. doi:10.1093/protein/11.11.1007. PMID 9876921. Söderström M, Salminen H, Glumoff V, ... Cathepsin S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSS gene. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation ... While lysosomal proteases terminally degrade proteins in lysosomes, cathepsin S has own distinctive physiological role. This ... proteins. Cathepsin S may be considered the most potent elastase known. The list of proposed cathepsin S substrates includes ...
... in nucleotide-binding and other proteins". Protein Engineering. 15 (10): 783-798. doi:10.1093/protein/15.10.783. PMID 12468712 ... These include ATP synthase (α and β subunits), myosin, transducin, helicases, kinases, AAA proteins, G-proteins, RecA, protein ... The Walker A motif is best known for its presence in ATP- and GTP-binding proteins, and is also found in a variety of proteins ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ...
Protein Engineering. 10 (6): 621-5. doi:10.1093/protein/10.6.621. PMID 9278274. Zeng C, Spielman AI, Vowels BR, Leyden JJ, ... It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein ... ApoD mRNA and protein increases in the ipsilateral region of hippocampus as early as 2 days post-lesion (DPL), remains high for ... The human gene encoding it was cloned in 1986 and the deduced protein sequence revealed that ApoD is a member of the lipocalin ...
Protein Engineering, Design and Selection" (PDF). Protein Eng. 5 (3): 197-211. doi:10.1093/protein/5.3.197. PMID 1409539. Ollis ... Protein Engineering. 5 (3): 197-211. doi:10.1093/protein/5.3.197. PMID 1409539. Carr PD, Ollis DL (2009). "Alpha/beta hydrolase ... It is known that the N-terminal region of the enzyme is responsible for anchoring the protein to the cell membrane, while the C ... Zusterzeel PL, Rütten H, Roelofs HM, Peters WH, Steegers EA (February 2001). "Protein carbonyls in decidua and placenta of pre- ...
Protein Engineering. 6 (3): 327-31. doi:10.1093/protein/6.3.327. PMID 8506267. Yang, MM; Coleman, WJ; Youvan, DC (1990). ME, ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Arkin, AP; Youvan, DC (1992). "An algorithm for protein engineering: simulations of ... ISBN 3-540-53420-2. Füllen, G; Youvan, DC (1994). "Genetic Algorithms and Recursive Ensemble Mutagenesis in Protein Engineering ... Youvan published the nucleotide and deduced protein sequence for the photosynthetic reaction center - the proteins that convert ...
Protein Engineering. 11 (11): 1051-1055. doi:10.1093/protein/11.11.1051. "Complix selects first Alphabody™ development ... Alphabodies, also known as Cell-Penetrating Alphabodies or CPAB for short, are small 10 kDa proteins engineered to bind to a ... allowing them to modulate intracellular protein-to-protein interactions and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Complix expects ... Alphabodies are developed as scaffolds with a set of amino acid residues that can be modified to bind protein targets, while ...
Protein Engineering. 14 (7): 513-9. doi:10.1093/protein/14.7.513. PMID 11522926. Saito Y, Doi K, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K, ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
An analysis of backbone mimicry by polar side chains in proteins". Protein Engineering. 12 (6): 447-455. doi:10.1093/protein/ ... Motivated Proteins PDBeMotif [1] [2]. Leader, DP; Milner-White EJ (2009). "Motivated Proteins: A web application for studying ... Richardson, JS (1981). "The anatomy and taxonomy of protein structure". Advances in Protein Chemistry Volume 34. Advances in ... and ST-turns of the four main types of β-turn in proteins". Protein Science. 13 (11): 3051-3055. doi:10.1110/ps.04920904. PMC ...
Protein Engineering. 1 (1): 37-46. doi:10.1093/protein/1.1.37. PMID 3507686. Tu AT, Hong BS (May 1971). "Purification and ... Changeux JP, Kasai M, Lee CY (November 1970). "Use of a snake venom toxin to characterize the cholinergic receptor protein". ... Levitt M, Sander C, Stern PS (February 1985). "Protein normal-mode dynamics: trypsin inhibitor, crambin, ribonuclease and ... a neurotoxic protein that is known to bind competitively and in a relatively irreversible manner to the nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Protein Engineering. 15 (4): 279-86. doi:10.1093/protein/15.4.279. PMID 11983928. Adhikari, AN; Peng, J; Wilde, M; Xu, J; Freed ... Fiser A, Gian Do RK, Sali A. (2000) Modeling of loops in protein structures" Protein Science 9: 1753-73 Ko J. et al. The FALC- ... Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 70, 1-10 (2008). Tang K., Zhang J., Liang J. (2014) Fast Protein Loop ... As mentioned above homology-based methods use a database to align the target protein gap with a known template protein. A ...
Protein Engineering. 13 (9): 645-54. doi:10.1093/protein/13.9.645. PMID 11054459. ... Piepenburg O, Williams CH, Stemple DL, Armes NA (2006). "DNA Detection Using Recombination Proteins". PLOS Biol. 4 (7): e204. ...
Protein Engineering. 11 (3): 219-24. doi:10.1093/protein/11.3.219. PMID 9613846. Cosentino G, Lavallée P, Rakhit S, Plante R, ... Although the C-terminus of RNR2 proteins is different across species, RNR2 can interact with RNR1 across species. When the ... Selwood T, Jaffe EK (March 2012). "Dynamic dissociating homo-oligomers and the control of protein function". Archives of ... Following a single reduction, RNR requires electrons donated from the dithiol groups of the protein thioredoxin. Regeneration ...
Protein engineering. 15 (3): 205-214. doi:10.1093/protein/15.3.205. PMID 11932491. Huijun Chen; Trent Su; Zouhair K. Attieh; ... The protein was discovered and identified through the study of mice with sex-linked anemia, or sla mice, in which there is ... Hephaestin is a protein of 1135 aminoacids formed from a precursor of 1158 aminoacids and is 130.4 kDa. It is predicted to bind ... However, when the protein was ablated in murine models, both intestine-specific and whole-body hephaestin knockout (KO) strains ...
Protein Engineering. 5 (5): 399-404. doi:10.1093/protein/5.5.399. PMID 1518787. Srinivasan, Bharath (27 September 2020). "Words ... structural changes that accompany partial dehydration and protein action". Proteins. 71 (1): 241-249. doi:10.1002/prot.21695. ... Nagendra, H.G.; Sukumar, N.; Vijayan, M. (1 August 1998). "Role of water in plasticity, stability, and action of proteins: The ... Prabu, M.M.; Suguna, K.; Vijayan, M. (1 April 1999). "Variability in quaternary association of proteins with the same tertiary ...
Protein Engineering. 1 (6): 459-66. doi:10.1093/protein/1.6.459. PMID 3508293. Balachandran, Chandrasekar; Duraipandiyan, ...
Protein Engineering. 13 (9): 645-54. doi:10.1093/protein/13.9.645. PMID 11054459. Ishino S, Ishino Y (2014). "DNA polymerases ... exonuclease activity of Taq DNA polymerase by protein engineering in the active site". Molecules and Cells. 7 (3): 419-24. PMID ... Following a similar line of thought, chimera proteins have been made by cherry-picking domains from E. coli, Taq, and T. ... Bu Z, Biehl R, Monkenbusch M, Richter D, Callaway DJ (December 2005). "Coupled protein domain motion in Taq polymerase revealed ...
Protein Engineering. 10 (8): 949-957. doi:10.1093/protein/10.8.949. ISSN 0269-2139. PMID 9415445. Sela-Culang, Inbal; Kunik, ... Antibody humanization is an example of beneficial genetic engineering in medicine today. Humanized antibody refers to the ... Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 82 (8): 1646-1655. doi:10.1002/prot.24551. ISSN 1097-0134. PMC 5282925. PMID ...
Protein Engineering. 13 (4): 283-9. doi:10.1093/protein/13.4.283. PMID 10810160. Pingoud, Alfred; Jeltsch, Albert. (2001). " ... They have proven to be ideal modeling systems for the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions, structure-function ... particularly in genetic engineering and molecular biology. Major uses of type II restriction enzymes include gene analysis and ...
Protein Engineering. 16 (12): 1055-61. doi:10.1093/protein/gzg117. PMID 14983087. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM ... Protein Engineering, Design & Selection. 17 (12): 871-7. doi:10.1093/protein/gzh101. PMID 15713780. Costanzi S, Vincenzetti S, ... The encoded protein forms a homotetramer that catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of cytidine and deoxycytidine ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File ...
Protein Engineering. 5 (7): 647-657. doi:10.1093/protein/5.7.647. PMID 1480619. King, R. D.; Muggleton S.; Lewis R. A.; ... Applications included the discovery of rules for protein folding (with Ross King) and drug design as well as systems such as ... ISBN 978-0-201-17561-5. Muggleton, Stephen; King R. D.; Sternberg M. J. E. (1992). "Protein Secondary Structure Prediction ... Watson, Ian (August 1989). "New AI Information Service" (PDF). Computer-Aided Engineering Journal. Tyugu, Enn. Knowledge Based ...
Protein Engineering. 4 (3): 325-33. doi:10.1093/protein/4.3.325. PMID 1677466. Badieyan S, Bevan DR, Zhang C (January 2012). " ...
Anderson, Charles H.; Eliasmith, Chris (2004). Neural Engineering: Computation, Representation, and Dynamics in Neurobiological ... proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. ... Eliasmith, Chris; Anderson, Charles H. (2003). Neural engineering: Representation, computation, and dynamics in neurobiological ...
Sharia and Social Engineering: p 143, R. Michael Feener - 2013 *^ FOOD & EATING IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE - Page 73, Joel T. Rosenthal ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... 1/4 protein food as meat, ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the ...
... and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as ...
Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between ... F9 cells were genetically engineered to lack β-catenin, resulting in increased association of plakoglobin with E-cadherin. In ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Harrison, Roger G., Todd, Paul, Rudge, Scott R., Petrides D.P. Bioseparations Science and Engineering. Oxford University Press ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... D.Zhang et al., Functional Electrical Stimulation in Rehabilitation Engineering: A survey, Nenyang technological University, ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ...
Inggris) Scientists engineer bacteria to create living photographs. *(Inggris) Scientists are synthetically engineering E. coli ... sehingga menghentikan sintesis protein.[1] Sumber bakteri ini contohnya adalah daging yang belum masak, seperti daging ...
Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 25 (3): 40-56. doi:10.1109/MEMB.2006.1636351.. ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... The first commercially available genetically modified food was a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life (the Flavr Savr ...
The adoption of joules as units of energy, FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Energy and Protein, 1971. A report on the ... Energy engineering. *Oil refinery. *Fossil-fuel power station *Cogeneration. *Integrated gasification combined cycle ...
"Cesium and Rubidium Hit Market". Chemical & Engineering News. 37 (22): 50-56. 1959. doi:10.1021/cen-v037n022.p050.. ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... "Chemical and Engineering News. 81 (36): 159. doi:10.1021/cen-v081n036.p159.. ... Lindsey, Jack L (1997). Applied illumination engineering. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-88173-212-2. .. ...
... natural or engineered) from other types of corn. The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types ... including cAMP cyclization by a pollen signalling protein (PSiP). Corn silk can control the types of pollen that an ear of corn ...
2008). "Monitoring Tissue Engineering Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 106 (6): 515 ... Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Both the ground substance and proteins (fibers) create the matrix for CT. Connective tissues are derived from the mesenchyme. ... "Mapping the Ligand-binding Sites and Disease-associated Mutations on the Most Abundant Protein in the Human, Type I Collagen" ...
... and engineering.[160] Since 2005, Naturwissenschaften has published cold fusion papers; in 2009, the journal named a cold ... It was adopted as a software product name Adobe ColdFusion and a brand of protein bars (Cold Fusion Foods).[182] It has also ...
"Whales as marine ecosystem engineers". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 12 (7): 377-385. doi:10.1890/130220.. ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ...
Protein skimmers (filtration devices for saltwater aquaria). *In automated pool cleaners that use pressure-side water flow to ... Nasr, G. G.; Connor, N. E. (2014). "5.3 Gas Flow Measurement". Natural Gas Engineering and Safety Challenges: Downstream ... The letter is dated June 5, 1888, and addressed from the hydraulic engineer's office of the Holyoke Water Power Co., Mass. In ...
Engineering * sw:Engineering. English * sw:English. Enrico Fermi * sw:Enrico Fermi. Enzyme * sw:Enzyme. Epic of Gilgamesh * sw: ... Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ...
... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccination: a history from Lady Montagu to genetic engineering. Montrouge: J. Libbey Eurotext. p. 407. ... At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ... Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ...
Hodgkin used advanced techniques to crystallize proteins, allowing their structures to be elucidated by X-ray crystallography, ... Physical and Engineering Sciences) and the other focusing on the life sciences (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ... Physical and Engineering Sciences. 240 (817): 219-250. Bibcode:1947RSPTA.240..219L. doi:10.1098/rsta.1947.0002.. ... Physical and Engineering Sciences. 338 (1614): 251-275. Bibcode:1974RSPSA.338..251H. doi:10.1098/rspa.1974.0085.. ...
Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid bilayer of membranes to reveal integral proteins ... David Wilson Deamer (born April 21, 1939) is an American biologist and Research Professor of Biomolecular Engineering at the ...
"Protein Engineering 7 (7). ISSN 1741-0134, Páxs. 841-848.. *↑ 70,0 70,1 Thompson, J. D.; et al. (1994). "CLUSTAL W: improving ... "A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... of Computer Science & Engineering. Consultado o 18 de setembro de 2008.. *↑ King, M. W. (2008). "Control of Gene Expression". ... 2005). Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins (en inglés) (third edition ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0- ...
The enzyme consists of highly active proteins of biotechnological origin not based on protein hydrolysis.[13] In recent years ... Army Corps of Engineers, which when worn out, can be shipped directly to metal recycling facilities without requiring the ...
Experiments with strains of mice engineered to remove (knockout) CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reveal that CYP1A1 primarily acts to protect ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... "Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract". Free Radic ... 4 April - A new method developed by Cornell biological engineers offers an efficient way to make proteins for use in ... 5 April - Japanese engineers build a childlike robot, the Child-robot with Biomimetic Body, or CB2, and report that ... Polish-British civil engineer (b. 1921). 11 January - Frederic Richards, American biochemist and biophysicist known for solving ... American aeronautical engineer (b. 1924). 29 August - Nicole Grasset, Swiss-French medical virologist, microbiologist and ...
Singh RJ (2011). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p ... Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to ...
UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... In Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE), 2012 International Joint Conference on: 276-282. doi:10.1109/JCSSE. ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ... SHCBP1: encoding protein SHC SH2 domain-binding protein 1. *SLZ1: encoding protein SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit ...
If you go into a hospital and have a blood test which measures viral proteins, cancer proteins, hormones, vitamins, bacterial ... Luciferase systems are widely used in the field of genetic engineering. They have also been used in biomedical research, to ... proteins, drugs, it will almost certainly use this technique".[8] The structure of photophores, the light producing organs in ...
Genetic engineering[edit]. TATA box modification[edit]. Evolutionary changes have pushed plants to adapt to the changing ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
October 2005). "Meniscal regeneration using tissue engineering with a scaffold derived from a rat meniscus and mesenchymal ... Some additional examples of cartilage failure mechanisms include cellular matrix linkage rupture, chondrocyte protein synthesis ...
A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ... Michael Wigler, genetic engineering of animal cells and molecular biologist, Member of the National Academy of Sciences and ... the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". Nature. 334 (6178): 124-9. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..124W. ... a highly conserved protein complex that recognizes and binds to specific DNA sequences, marking starting points for replication ...
Protein engineering. Protein engineering - Congresses. Proteins - congresses. Science / Biotechnology. Science / Chemistry / ... Protein and pharmaceutical engineering: proceedings of a UCLA Symposium held at Park City, Utah January 17-22, 1989. ... engineering.html?id=vkpLAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareProtein and pharmaceutical engineering. ... Protein and pharmaceutical engineering: proceedings of a UCLA Symposium held at Park City, Utah January 17-22, 1989. Volume 110 ...
Combining protein engineering and DNA nanotechnology we develop intelligent biomolecular sensors and switches for applications ... Contact Protein Engineering. Postbus 513 5600 MB Eindhoven T:. +31 (0)40 247 82 60. E:. m.jiricka[at] * Map & Navigation ...
This brief provides a broad overview of protein-engineering research, offering a glimpse of the most common experimental ... Protein Structure-function Relationship Computational Approaches to Protein Design Synthetic/Engineered Proteins Protein ... Interaction Protein Evolution Structure Based Drug Design Protein Folding Structural Virology Therapeutic Proteins Protein ... This brief provides a broad overview of protein-engineering research, offering a glimpse of the most common experimental ...
Invention: Re-engineering protein synthesis Biochemists Jason Chin and Oliver Rackham found a way to incorporate unnatural ... Their groundbreaking invention has the potential to revolutionise the way patients are treated using protein-like therapeutics ... amino acids into proteins, enabling scientists to understand and control the functions of proteins in cells with unprecedented ...
Development of novel protein engineering methods; (3) protein engineering via directed evolution; (4) computational protein ... 119f) De Novo Protein Design of a Conformational Switch Between α-Helical Protein and Mixed α/β Protein ... The focus of this session is to reflect the latest advances in protein engineering and design. Suggested topics include, but ... Development of high throughput screen/selection for protein engineering; (2) ...
This session will focus on protein engineering for therapeutic applications, with an emphasis on emerging topics and recent ... Potential areas of interest include, but are not limited to, engineered antibodies for cell targeting and imaging, antibodies ... 467d) Advancing Next-Generation Sequencing Based Methods for Antibody Discovery and Engineering ... 467e) A Conformation-Switching Protein Probe for Detection of Alpha Synuclein Oligomers ...
... 4 - 8 November 2013, Lisboa, Portugal ... PEGS Europe is the largest European event addressing all aspects of protein and antibody engineering. ...
Protein engineered biosensors provide the next best step in the advancement of protein-based sensors that can specifically ... Bryan PN (2000) Protein engineering of subtilisin. BBA Protein Struct M 1543(2):203-222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Protein engineered biosensors provide the next best step in the advancement of protein-based sensors that can specifically ... Gold Electrode Direct Evolution Protein Engineering Direct Electron Transfer Maltose Binding Protein These keywords were added ...
Newly engineered nanoscale protein micelles can be tracked by MRI A team of researchers from New York University has engineered ... bringing together tools from genome engineering, protein engineering and biomaterials science to improve the efficacy, accuracy ... Study reveals surprising insights into RNA-binding proteins A host of special molecules called nuclear RNA-binding proteins ( ... Genetically engineered bacteria designed with thermostat controls may help treat diseases A new helper in the fight against ...
This volume details basic and advanced protocols for both stages of protein engineering: the library design phase and the ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Protein Engineering: Methods and Protocols aims to aid scientists in the planning and ... Protein Engineering. Methods and Protocols. Editors: Bornscheuer, Uwe T., Höhne, Matthias (Eds.) ... This volume details basic and advanced protocols for both stages of protein engineering: the library design phase and the ...
Protein engineering advancing Alzheimers research 20.10.2009. No one has yet found a cure or a way to prevent people from ... Protein Engineering and Alzheimers Disease: New Tools for Research and Potential Therapeutics. Contact: Research Director, ... And for the first time, using protein engineering, it seems they have successfully created the oligomer that is believed to ... Another strategy involves using protein engineering to stabilize the toxic oligomers that are the cause of nerve cell death and ...
"When you introduce a protein in solution, the protein will bind to the DNA and change its shape, resulting in a change in the ... Novel Technique Probes Critical DNA-Protein Interactions. in NEWS By applying a repulsive electric field at the gold surface to ... Novel Technique Probes Critical DNA-Protein Interactions. Posted 9 years ago on Monday, January 18th, 2010. in NEWS ... Transcription factor proteins, nucleosomes and other DNA-binding molecules may bend DNA and bring distant segments of DNA into ...
Various case studies illustrate each step from the early sequence searches in online databases to protein purification and ... This textbook introduces readers in an accessible and engaging way to the nuts and bolts of protein expression and engineering ... readers are provided with practical tips to successfully pursue a career as a protein engineer. With protein engineering being ... Tee is also the co-Founder of protein engineering start-up SeSaM-Biotech GmbH and a Global Challenges Research Fellow (2019 - ...
Reverse engineering of the giant muscle protein titin.. Li H1, Linke WA, Oberhauser AF, Carrion-Vazquez M, Kerkvliet JG, Lu H, ... Here we use protein engineering and single-molecule atomic force microscopy to examine the mechanical components that form the ... The protein titin provides muscle with its passive elasticity. Each titin molecule extends over half a sarcomere, and its ... Our studies show the functional reconstitution of a protein from the sum of its parts. ...
The journal is naturally multidisciplinary, and welcomes submissions across biological, physical, engineering and computer ... Protein Fibrillar Hydrogels for three-Dimensional Tissue Engineering. Hui Yan,1 Antti Nykanen,2 Janne Ruokolainen,1 David ... N. A. Peppas and R. Langer, "Origins and development of biomedical engineering within chemical engineering," in AICHE Journal, ... 2Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics and Centre for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, P. O. Box ...
Protein Production Cell-Free Protein Synthesis System Might Save Lives in Remote Locations. ...
The College of Engineering and Physical Sciences is renowned for its academic programming and research in applied and ...
Protein Quantification Microfluidic Diffusional Sizing: A Novel Method for Characterizing Protein Interactions. ... Protein Quantification Quanterix Set to Launch IPO, with Expansion and SR-X Rollout in Mind. ... Protein Quantification Improving Large Molecule Production Processes by Integrating Innovative Technology Solutions. ... Confidence in Clinical Protein Quantitation Begins with a New Generation of LC-MS. ...
The journal is naturally multidisciplinary, and welcomes submissions across biological, physical, engineering and computer ... Protein Fibrillar Hydrogels for three-Dimensional Tissue Engineering. Hui Yan,1 Antti Nykanen,2 Janne Ruokolainen,1 David ... "Protein Fibrillar Hydrogels for three-Dimensional Tissue Engineering," Research Letters in Nanotechnology, vol. 2009, Article ... 2Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics and Centre for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, P. O. Box ...
Protein Engineering by Structure-Guided SCHEMA Recombination. Chimeragenesis in Protein Engineering. Protein Generation Using a ... Altering Enzyme Substrate and Cofactor Specificity via Protein Engineering. Protein Engineering of Modular Polyketide Synthases ... "The Protein Engineering Handbook provides the first comprehensive overview of the highly cross-disciplinary field of protein ... Inteins in Protein Engineering. From Prospecting to Product -. Industrial Metagenomics Is Coming of Age. Computational Protein ...
Periplasmic binding proteins: a versatile superfamily for protein engineering.. Dwyer MA1, Hellinga HW. ... changes and structural adaptability of the periplasmic binding protein superfamily have been exploited to engineer biosensors, ... Extensively redesigned periplasmic binding proteins have been re-introduced into bacteria to function in synthetic signal ...
Protein glycosylation is fundamentally important to most biological processes and it is often important to regulate it in ... the rational engineering of glycosylation to be able to control this critical quality attribute on diverse recombinant protein ... Thus, substantial efforts have been taken to engineer glycosylation of a variety of biologics. However, the diversity and ... of his previous work by focusing heavily on the use of systems biology and genome editing techniques to map out and engineer ...
Designed β-strand peptides stabilize integral membrane proteins for biochemical and structural studies, enabling electron ... Engineered nanostructured β-sheet peptides protect membrane proteins. *Houchao Tao1. n5*, Sung Chang Lee1. n5*, Arne Moeller1, ... Peptides were synthesized by H.T. and R.S.R.; peptide assembly was characterized by H.T., S.C.L., A.M. and J.Z.; protein ... Trehalose-cored amphiphiles for membrane protein stabilization: importance of the detergent micelle size in GPCR stability * ...
Protein engineering for cancer therapy. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Community. ... in fusion proteins that target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Targeted dsRBD proteins deliver large amounts of siRNA ... These antagonists are engineered for high affinity to the IL-2 receptor a subunit and low affinity to either the [beta] or [ ... In the first part of this work, we present a novel class of engineered Interleukin-2 (IL-2) analogues that antagonize the IL-2 ...
... This report studies sales (consumpti ... Europe Protein Engineering Market Report 2017. 1 Protein Engineering Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Protein ... of Protein Engineering (2012-2022). 1.5.1 Europe Protein Engineering Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2022). 1.5.2 Europe Protein ... 5 UK Protein Engineering (Volume, Value and Sales Price). 5.1 UK Protein Engineering Sales and Value (2012-2017). 5.1.1 UK ...
Magnetic beads-based purification permits the direct incubation of the beads in cell culture (for secreted proteins) or crude ... With the ever-increasing demand for antibody and protein-based therapeutics, a flexible, simple and fast purification platform ... 10:25 - 10:55am Novel Solution for High Throughput Antibody and Protein Purification Using Magnetic Beads ...
Advancing Antibody Therapeutics to the Clinic. Antibody therapies are advancing to clinical development for cancer and results to date are extremely encouraging. The oncology stream will focus on identifying emerging targets, investigating novel constructs including ADCs and bispecific antibodies, and highlighting approaches for combination therapies. The Oncology stream will explore the latest trends and comparing strategies and recent successes from discovery to preclinical and clinical development. ...
A second area of interest has been protein engineering to obtain thermal stabile proteins. These engineered variants retain ... many of the features of the native protein but have higher melting temperatures and are less prone to irreversible aggregation ...
... protein engineering) Structural biology Synthetic biology "Speeding Up the Protein Assembly Line". Genetic Engineering and ... Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins. It is a young discipline, with much research ... Computation-aided design has also been used to engineer complex properties of a highly ordered nano-protein assembly. A protein ... Directed evolution will likely not be replaced as the method of choice for protein engineering, although computational protein ...
... can create proteins far more complex and versatile than anything found in nature ... A bacterium has been engineered not only to have two more "letters" in its DNA, but to use them to make new proteins that have ... The genes carried on DNA are instruction manuals for making proteins, which do essential jobs like digesting food and fighting ... A bacterium has been engineered to make unnatural proteins. Humans 29 November 2017 By Aylin Woodward ...
  • Their groundbreaking invention has the potential to revolutionise the way patients are treated using protein-like therapeutics, such as insulin treatment, as well as to detect prostate, ovarian, and colon cancer. (
  • Potential areas of interest include, but are not limited to, engineered antibodies for cell targeting and imaging, antibodies involved in disease pathologies, and advances in antibody therapeutics. (
  • With the ever-increasing demand for antibody and protein-based therapeutics, a flexible, simple and fast purification platform amenable to widely varying sample volumes and expression levels is critical for screening. (
  • The market for pharmaceuticals that mimic the body's own proteins - protein-based therapeutics - is exploding. (
  • Our protein engineering capabilities can facilitate computer-aided drug discovery and development of novel enzyme inhibitors and fusion proteins for development of therapeutics. (
  • Scientists have crafted a custom-engineered protein that can be used to treat MERS and a wide range of pathogens, a potential game-changer in anti-viral therapeutics for both humans and the farming industry. (
  • The article titled, Leveraging Rational Protein Engineering to Improve mRNA Therapeutics, is co-authored by Romesh Subramanian and colleagues from Alexion, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. (
  • This volume of Methods in Enzymology looks at Protein Engineering for Therapeutics. (
  • Protein therapeutics that show high tolerance, high specificity, low genetic risks, and low "off-target" effects have been a source of growing attention since the late twentieth century. (
  • Hence, this method will be generally useful in the development of protein-based therapeutics. (
  • Maly J et al (2002) Immobilisation of engineered molecules on electrodes and optical surfaces. (
  • A host of special molecules called nuclear RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), when misplaced outside the nucleus, form the harmful clumps seen in several brain disorders, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (
  • Transcription factor proteins, nucleosomes and other DNA-binding molecules may bend DNA and bring distant segments of DNA into close proximity, thereby causing genes to turn on or off. (
  • When you introduce a protein in solution, the protein will bind to the DNA and change its shape, resulting in a change in the spectral signature we observe from the fluorescent molecules attached to the DNA," said Ünlü. (
  • In the National Science Foundation study, Spuhler introduced a protein called E. Coli Integration Host Factor (IHF) that can bend DNA molecules by as much as 180 degrees, and observed protein-induced bending upon the binding of IHF to the dsDNA probes. (
  • They aim to eventually use SSFM to analyze different protein-DNA interactions and to identify and characterize specific proteins that induce considerable shape changes in DNA molecules. (
  • All living things require proteins, members of a vast family of molecules that nature "makes to order" according to the blueprints in DNA. (
  • Humans have found so many alternative uses for these molecules - as foods, industrial enzymes, anti-cancer drugs - that scientists are eager to better understand how to engineer protein variants designed for specific uses. (
  • Researchers have long sought small molecules to disguise protein surfaces and in effect modify their interaction properties. (
  • Despite calixarenes' potential for this job, researchers lacked details about how the molecules interact with protein surfaces. (
  • Artificial assembly of kinesin proteins on scaffold molecules shows that their transport activity is enhanced by their proximity. (
  • Codiack has developed a design platform for the engineering of exosome proteins capable of carrying and protecting drug molecules through cell walls. (
  • A team led by scientists in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has engineered powerful new antimicrobial molecules from toxic proteins found in wasp venom. (
  • We think that venom-derived molecules such as the ones we engineered in this study are going to be a valuable source of new antibiotics. (
  • The building blocks that make up proteins are molecules known as amino acids. (
  • Balch's graduate work focused on how to control other chaperone proteins involved in warding off cancer, finding that certain small molecules allowed the chaperones to keep cancerous proteins at bay. (
  • Monomeric VEGFR2-specific Affibody molecules were generated by combining phage and staphylococcal display technologies, and the engineering of two Affibody molecules, targeting distinct epitopes on VEGFR2 into a biparatopic construct, resulted in a dramatic increase in affinity. (
  • A dual-purpose expression vector was designed, allowing efficient display of Affibody molecules, as well as small-scale protein production and purification of selected candidates without the need for sub-cloning. (
  • In combination with the facilitated means for protein production, this system has potential to improve the throughput of the engineering process of Affibody molecules. (
  • Virtually all amino acids in proteins play some specific role because proteins are not just linear chains of molecules-each has a specific chemical function. (
  • They've engineered a new compound from two molecules that occur naturally in blood, to use solar energy to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. (
  • The researchers have combined a protein called albumin with porphyrin to create a molecular complex that can absorb light energy, to allow it to split up water molecules. (
  • Extensive study of BLG over the years has led to the determination of the structure of the protein at 2.8AA and has revealed its ability to bind a variety of small hydrophobic molecules. (
  • Matrix-enhancing molecules, such as TGF-β, are conjugated to or immobilized on scaffolds to increase ECM production by cells for tissue engineering, tissue regeneration and wound healing applications. (
  • We display hundreds of engineered proteins on the surface of yeast cells, select for binding to a set of target molecules by flow cytometry, and sequence the starting pool as well as selected pools to obtain enrichment values for each displayed protein with each target. (
  • This is an exciting new tool to answer important questions about proteins," Cochran said, likening µSCALE to the way that high-throughput tools for gene analysis have allowed researchers to unlock key features of biology underlying human disease. (
  • In the future, more detailed knowledge of protein structure and function , as well as advancements in high-throughput technology , may greatly expand the capabilities of protein engineering. (
  • The reagent preparation and delivery to cells is amenable to high throughput, multiplexed genome-wide cell engineering. (
  • For selections from combinatorial protein libraries, robust and high-throughput selection platforms are needed. (
  • At the structural determination level, the Unit offers state-of-theart, high-throughput protein crystallisation screening facilities that include sophisticated equipment for the identification of protein crystals, as well as a full-service offering of X-ray crystallography and small-angle x-ray (SAXS) analyses. (
  • The specific objectives are to 1) increase the protein yields achieved with bacterial production and secretion, 2) optimize control over the secretion process to enable scale up to industrial scales, and 3) develop a suite of molecular biology tools for the high-throughput production of a broad set of proteins. (
  • We show that this high-throughput workflow of multiplex genetic selections followed by large-scale sequencing and comparative analysis allows not only the determination of relative affinities, but also the monitoring of specificity profiles for hundreds to thousands of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions in parallel. (
  • In the future, more detailed knowledge of protein structure and function, and advances in high-throughput screening, may greatly expand the abilities of protein engineering. (
  • Primary responsibilities will include the support of discovery research projects through the design and expression of recombinant proteins including antibodies, and cell engineering for function-based candidate screening (for example, reporter lines or genetic deletions). (
  • At the protein production level, we have at our disposal a wide array of instrumentation and technical support for the design and purification of soluble recombinant proteins required in large amounts up to milligram quantities, for structural, biophysical or biochemical characterisation, and also for antibody production. (
  • Biochemists Jason Chin and Oliver Rackham found a way to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins, enabling scientists to understand and control the functions of proteins in cells with unprecedented precision. (
  • Scientists can turn proteins into never-ending patterns that look like flowers, trees or snowflakes, a technique that could help engineer a filter for tainted water and human tissues. (
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Protein Engineering: Methods and Protocols aims to aid scientists in the planning and performance of their experiments. (
  • Now the SLU scientists, working with teams from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm and Affibody AB, are seeking to alter the characteristics of the Affibody protein so it won't be broken down when it enters the blood. (
  • By applying a repulsive electric field at the gold surface to induce a standing orientation in the DNA probes, scientists can more easily discern and measure changes in their conformation due to IHF protein binding. (
  • Ultimately, scientists could use the platform to systematically investigate the interactions between selected proteins and hundreds of thousands of different DNA sequences in a single experiment. (
  • The Chain explores the lives, careers, research, and discoveries of protein engineers and scientists, the impact their work is having on the field, and where the industry is headed. (
  • The Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists celebrate the achievements of extraordinary young scientists and engineers and accelerate innovation through unrestricted funding. (
  • Available exclusively to our Member community, Member-to-Member Mentoring is a self-directed mentoring program that matches early career scientists and engineers with experienced STEM professionals for advice and coaching. (
  • Montclare's research differs from previous scientists' work in that it uses biologically engineered proteins instead of synthetic polymers or materials. (
  • Scientists are increasingly betting their time and effort that the way to control the world is through proteins. (
  • Living things make thousands of different proteins, but soon there could be many more, as scientists are starting to learn to design new ones from scratch with specific purposes in mind. (
  • Now it's possible to make a similar transition on a molecular scale, since scientists can create proteins with structures that nature never produced. (
  • But now some scientists think designing proteins will become at least as important as manipulating DNA has been in the past couple of decades. (
  • University of Washington's Baker said that when he was starting his career some 30 years ago, senior scientists tried to steer him away from protein engineering because there was no guarantee he would make any appreciable progress in his lifetime. (
  • Since then, scientists have advanced their understanding of the physics of proteins, and computing power has increased. (
  • Baker and colleagues then devised a sort of game called Foldit, in which citizen scientists could try figure out how certain proteins would fold. (
  • According to a news feature in the magazine Science, they got a boost from scientists studying how evolution has led to the proteins we already have. (
  • Scientists at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Seoul National University and Tufts University have managed to transplant spider silk protein producing genes into E. coli . (
  • Our organization first got its start supporting crystallographers and scientists performing NASA protein crystal growth (PCG) research in microgravity. (
  • Tuning the mechanical properties of proteins in a reversible fashion has been a challenging task for scientists. (
  • In their experiments, the scientists used the technique of proline mutagenesis to construct a mutant protein (GV54P) where the mechano-active site is disrupted but the binding affinity to hFc is retained. (
  • Controlled transport of proteins from the inside of the cell to the outside is a challenge that nature has overcome in several ways, but that scientists have yet to fully explore. (
  • This work will result in new constructs, protocols, and strains to be shared with other scientists for protein production at both the industrial and research scales. (
  • Writing in the advanced online edition of Nature magazine, Stanford University scientists Christopher D. Snow and Vijay S. Pande describe how they - with the help of 30,000 personal computers - successfully simulated part of the complex folding process that a typical protein molecule undergoes to achieve its unique, three-dimensional shape. (
  • How proteins fold into their ideal conformation is a question that has tantalised scientists for decades. (
  • It was formed around the research of two prominent scientists who invented protein engineering, Sir Alan Fersht and Sir Greg Winter. (
  • It also presents various computational programs with applications that are widely used in directed evolution, computational and de novo protein design. (
  • The three main strategies in protein engineering for electrochemical biosensor implementation are: rational protein design, directed evolution and de novo protein design. (
  • Protein engineering - Evolution of proteins with new and improved characteristics. (
  • An overview of the directed evolution process using the new Stanford technique: preparing protein libraries, screening them, extracting desired cells, and then inferring their DNA sequence. (
  • Through the natural process of evolution, DNA mutations generate new or more effective proteins. (
  • Now Stanford engineers have invented a technique to dramatically accelerate protein evolution for this purpose. (
  • Evolution, the survival of the fittest, takes place over a span of thousands of years, but we can now direct proteins to evolve in hours or days," said Jennifer Cochran , an associate professor of bioengineering who co-authored the paper with Thomas Baer , executive director of the Stanford Photonics Research Center. (
  • There are two general strategies for protein engineering, 'rational' protein design and directed evolution . (
  • Using the power of protein engineering and evolution, we can convince enzymes to take what they do poorly and do it really well,' says Frances Arnold, the Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at Caltech and principal investigator on a paper about the enzymes that appears online in Science. (
  • Directed evolution is a powerful method for engineering of specific affinity proteins such as antibodies and alternative scaffold proteins. (
  • Two proteins that control pigmentation and body weight in animals, agouti (pronounced "ah-GOO-tee") protein and agouti-related protein, respectively, diverged from a common ancestor early in vertebrate evolution. (
  • Using ESF, they measured and compared local evolutionary rates for both proteins to reveal those regions that appear to have been constrained through the process of evolution. (
  • A team of researchers from New York University has engineered nanoscale protein micelles capable of both delivering chemotherapeutic drugs and of being tracked by magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • A protein constructed by these researchers has yielded experimental results that are promising when it comes to stopping the disease. (
  • Now researchers at Boston University's College of Engineering, the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Nanyang Technological University in Singapore have demonstrated a new strategy to more efficiently measure protein-induced DNA shape, or conformational changes in real-time. (
  • The Protein Engineering Handbook provides the first comprehensive overview of the highly cross-disciplinary field of protein engineering that many researchers and students have been eagerly awaiting. (
  • A new tool enables researchers to test millions of mutated proteins in a matter of hours or days, speeding the search for new medicines, industrial enzymes and biosensors. (
  • This technology, described in Nature Chemical Biology , allows researchers to test millions of variants of a given protein, choose the best for some task and determine the DNA sequence that creates this variant. (
  • The power of µSCALE is how it enables researchers to build upon current biochemical techniques to run a million protein experiments simultaneously, then extract and further analyze the most promising results. (
  • One of the unique features of µSCALE is that it allows researchers to rapidly isolate a single desired cell from hundreds of thousands of other cells," said Bob Chen, a doctoral student in Cochran's lab who wrote the software to examine and detect signs of interesting protein activity within the test tubes. (
  • After the transfer reaction, the researchers use a biotin-azide probe to pull out the target proteins, which they identify with mass spectrometry. (
  • Masking lysines is an established trick for coaxing protein crystallization, another potential calixarene application, according to the researchers. (
  • In newly published studies in the journal Nature , researchers show that purified Wnt protein, long known as a potent trigger of development and cell proliferation, can also cause blood-forming stem cells to proliferate. (
  • According to Nusse, researchers had not isolated active Wnt proteins before-a long sought-after goal since the proteins play important roles in embryonic development and in controlling the proliferation of stem cells. (
  • The researchers may well have found the key mechanism of activation for the multitude of Wnt proteins. (
  • But before these engineered proteins can be developed into medicine, researchers first must find a way to deliver them into the right part of the body. (
  • Now the Caltech researchers have engineered new versions of the enzyme, unlocking its ability to drive a completely different and synthetically useful reaction that does not take place in nature. (
  • In the study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers altered a highly toxic small protein from a common Asian wasp species, Vespula lewisii, the Korean yellow-jacket wasp. (
  • She and other researchers knew that yeast contained this protein to regulate prions, another word for misfolded proteins. (
  • Since this protein is found in yeast, plants, and other microbes, but not animals, harnessing its potential for human use is a tall order, but researchers think there may be human proteins that could be employed in a similar way. (
  • Researchers recently announced the first systematic laboratory-induced mutation of successive amino acids in a nearly complete simple bacterial protein. (
  • In this study, researchers successively changed the DNA code of a bacterial gene to individually mutate every amino acid in a simple bacterial protein of 83 amino acids in length. (
  • The researchers also tested the ability of successively mutated amino acids in the active site of the protein to bind to an artificial substrate. (
  • The researchers ultimately proved that proteins have a variety of specific regions or sectors that are highly sensitive to mutation, meaning that amino acid changes in these regions are not tolerated and completely destroy protein function. (
  • In the simple bacterial protein the researchers tested, 20 out of the 83 amino acids (24 percent) were highly intolerant of change, meaning that they are essentially off-limits to "random mutational evolutionary processes. (
  • The researchers successfully mutated an amino acid in the sector where the binding region was located, and they were able to get the protein to bind to a non-native ligand. (
  • The researchers described the methods they used to engineer specific protein sequences and demonstrated the positive effects this had on protein expression in mice. (
  • Researchers from the Biomedical Engineering Department and the Boston University School of Medicine have identified a number of proteins which, when activated, allow researchers to distinguish between lung cancer and normal lung tissue cells with almost 97 percent accuracy. (
  • While cancers are highly heterogeneous in their make-up, the BU researchers believe that a drug that would target this collection of proteins would be an effective treatment for most lung cancers. (
  • Researchers append such fluorescent proteins to other proteins via genetic engineering to make the latter ones visible to the microscope and observe their behavior in cells. (
  • The researchers then genetically engineered a DNA sequence that reproduced the protein's fluorescent segment but not the other parts, which would make the molecule larger. (
  • Researchers studying the processes that occur in living cells have been waiting for a protein combining these crucial features for a long time. (
  • With the help of 30,000 personal computers, US researchers have simulated part of the complex folding process that a typical protein molecule undergoes to achieve its unique, three-dimensional shape. (
  • Researchers in the United States have developed a new method for controlling the brain circuits associated with complex animal behaviours, using genetic engineering to create a magnetised protein that activates specific groups of nerve cells from a distance. (
  • Using internalization studies to determine the nanoparticle's efficiency, the researchers found that the newly developed particles are able to effectively transfer both His-tagged and genome editing proteins into the cell. (
  • That insight could someday help control protein interactions involved in drug or biosensor development. (
  • Cooperative interactions between monomeric kinesin-1 motors attached to protein scaffolds enhance hydrolysis activity and microtubule gliding velocity. (
  • A split horseradish peroxidase for the detection of intercellular protein-protein interactions and sensitive visualization of synapses. (
  • According to the firm, the proteomics industry (the study of protein structures and interactions) was worth $6.7bn (£4.2bn) last year and it is estimated the industry could be worth around $19.4bn (£12.2bn) by 2014. (
  • It was also apparent that amino acids in different parts of the protein had irreducibly complex, long-range interactions with each other that also contributed to the proper function of the protein. (
  • These long-range interactions could only be engaged and accounted for after the protein was in its three-dimensional conformation. (
  • He notes that his group had previously demonstrated that protein-protein interactions can be used to tune the mechanical stability of proteins ( 'Protein Protein Interaction Regulates Proteins Mechanical Stability' ). (
  • However' explains Li, 'both protein-protein interactions and mechanical stability of proteins are sensitive to structural alternation of proteins. (
  • Therefore, the resulted proteins can display dual mechanical properties under the regulation of protein-protein interactions. (
  • In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), protein-surfactant interactions play an important role in the identification of proteins. (
  • Studies on protein-surfactant complexes have shown that the nature of the binding forces and related interactions originate primarily from the hydrophobic and ionic interactions between proteins and charged surfactants. (
  • A protein engineering approach was adopted to study the residues involved in subunit interactions and ligand binding as well as the importance of Cys119 and 121 in determining the stability of the tertiary structure. (
  • The approach not only identifies new interactions of designed proteins, but also detects unintended and undesirable off-target interactions. (
  • The method prevents a gene that encodes a synthetic protein from spreading into the wild and stabilizes it so that it cannot mutate and lose its function. (
  • Dr. Wong leads a Biocatalysis & Synthetic Biology group in Sheffield, and his research focuses on sustainable biomanufacturing using engineered enzymes or microbes. (
  • He has published over 40 papers, mostly in the areas of protein engineering and synthetic biology. (
  • She has published over 20 papers in the field of protein engineering and synthetic biology since 2004. (
  • Extensively redesigned periplasmic binding proteins have been re-introduced into bacteria to function in synthetic signal transduction pathways that respond to extracellular ligands and as biologically active enzymes. (
  • In this Review, we evaluate the different structural properties of proteins and nucleic acids, as well as possible designs and synthetic routes for functional nanostructures. (
  • By comparing protein engineering and DNA nanotechnology, we highlight molecular architectures that are relevant in biotechnology, biomedicine and synthetic biology research, and identify emerging areas for research such as hybrid materials composed of protein and DNA/RNA. (
  • The growth of this market is largely driven by factors such as the increasing investments in synthetic biology and the growing focus on protein-based drug development by pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies. (
  • Such information is critical not only to molecular biologists as they construct a detailed picture of cellular function, but also to synthetic biologists who wish to engineer organisms with greater levels of complexity and extracellular interaction than previously possible. (
  • However, protein polymers differ significantly from synthetic polyelectrolytes. (
  • The diversity of biological function, ligand binding, conformational changes and structural adaptability of the periplasmic binding protein superfamily have been exploited to engineer biosensors, allosteric control elements, biologically active receptors and enzymes using a combination of techniques, including computational design. (
  • The optimal way to introduce non-coded amino acids for mechanistic studies, or site-specific reporter atoms for spectroscopic structural biology, is by protein semisynthesis. (
  • However, its major drawback is that detailed structural knowledge of a protein is often unavailable, and, even when it is available, it can be extremely difficult to predict the effects of various mutations. (
  • Fig. 4: Natural and engineered proteins that fulfil structural and cytoskeletal roles. (
  • Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. (
  • This training event explored strategies to engineer proteins for structural and functional studies. (
  • This event was ideal for graduate students in the biomedical sciences, anyone embarking on a structural biology project and those interested in generating soluble and functional expression of proteins using recombinant techniques. (
  • Participants gained a better understanding of the purity and characteristics of proteins samples needed for crystallization, cryo-EM and NMR studies, and of the current strategies to optimize solubility, purity, and homogeneity of proteins for structural and functional studies, including bioinformatics tools and post-production modifications. (
  • Elastic proteins are important structural and functional components in living cells. (
  • The UCSC lab of Glenn Millhauser, professor of chemistry and biochemistry, has elucidated the structural differences that account for different functions for the two proteins. (
  • For one thing, our protein is more thermostable than its analogues: It only denaturates at 68 degrees Celsius," said the paper's lead author Vera Nazarenko from the MIPT Laboratory of Structural Analysis and Engineering of Membrane Systems. (
  • Vera V. Nazarenko et al, A thermostable flavin-based fluorescent protein from Chloroflexus aggregans: a framework for ultra-high resolution structural studies, Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences (2019). (
  • An interdisciplinary team from the fields of structural biology, immunology and cell biology has now, for the first time, successfully produced a protein that could balance the overshooting immune response. (
  • The overall goal of this study is to develop a fundamental structural understanding of protein-surfactant complexes while aiming towards optimizing protein separations. (
  • The structural characterization by small angle scattering analysis shows that, based on the architecture of the surfactant, protein-surfactant complexes primarily form pearl-necklace or elongated structures. (
  • Working with different surfactant chain structures reveals that probing of structural parameters is essential to the rational improvement of efficiency and resolution in protein electrophoresis. (
  • Here, we start to decipher the relationship between surfactant chemistry, macroscopic separation and structural parameters of various protein-surfactant complexes to enable the future design of engineered surfactant formulations. (
  • The process of protein folding remains a mystery,' said Pande, assistant professor of chemistry and of structural biology at Stanford. (
  • Proteins play a key role in maintaining life at both a structural and functional standpoint. (
  • However, its major drawback is that detailed structural knowledge of a protein is often unavailable, and, even when available, it can be very difficult to predict the effects of various mutations since structural information most often provide a static picture of a protein structure. (
  • Without structural information about a protein, sequence analysis is often useful in elucidating information about the protein. (
  • Centre for Protein Engineering was established in 1990 as one of the MRC's first interdisciplinary research centres and one of the first research laboratories to bring together molecular biology, molecular genetics, biophysics and structural biology into one cohesive unit. (
  • Another successful project that was started at CPE and maintained there until 2010 was the Structural Classification of Proteins database (or SCOP). (
  • Nearly all of the CPE staff, including those maintaining the Structural Classification of Proteins database, and its infrastructure were incorporated into the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB). (
  • Sotiropoulou S, Fournier D, Chaniotakis NA (2005) Genetically engineered acetylcholinesterase-based biosensor for attomolar detection of dichlorvos. (
  • The albumin is genetically engineered to improve the efficiency of the whole process. (
  • Several earlier studies have shown that nerve cell proteins which are activated by heat and mechanical pressure can be genetically engineered so that they become sensitive to radio waves and magnetic fields, by attaching them to an iron-storing protein called ferritin, or to inorganic paramagnetic particles. (
  • We are developing methods by which cells are genetically engineered to incorporate sugars on a recombinant protein in a site-specific sequence dependent manner. (
  • The Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship (2019), the Royal Academy of Engineering Industrial Fellowship (2016) and the MRC Career Development Fellowship (2007 - 2009). (
  • Dr. Tee is also the co-Founder of protein engineering start-up SeSaM-Biotech GmbH and a Global Challenges Research Fellow (2019 - 2021). (
  • The global protein engineering market is estimated to grow from USD 2.2 billion in 2019 to USD 3.9 billion by 2024, at a CAGR of 12.4% during the forecast period. (
  • His main research interest is the application of engineered enzymes in the synthesis of optically active compounds and in lipid modification. (
  • Around 200 enzymes are involved, which makes it a very complex system to engineer. (
  • In order to optimize protein production, it is necessary to chart how these 200 enzymes function and work. (
  • However, the true value of such advances requires a 'Systems' approach that can be provided by Metabolic Engineering, through its ability to characterize metabolic pathways composed of a constellation of different enzymes. (
  • In contrast, protein engineering allows for enzymes to be modified and optimized. (
  • Sequence engineering was also able to improve the thermostability and activity of the therapeutic enzymes. (
  • Protein production is a growing, multi-billion dollar industry that supplies tailored enzymes, such as those used in pharmaceuticals, detergents, textile manufacturing, and environmentally-friendly chemical production. (
  • This brief provides a broad overview of protein-engineering research, offering a glimpse of the most common experimental methods. (
  • In Protein Engineering by Semisynthesis, the leading practitioners of the method cover their individual protein of expertise forming a comprehensive illustration of the various methods developed. (
  • Here we describe methods for rapid synthesis of gRNA and for delivery of Cas9 protein/gRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (Cas9 RNPs) into a variety of mammalian cells through liposome-mediated transfection or electroporation. (
  • A Vapor system (DCPCG-V) and a Temperature system (DCPCG-T) implemented two different methods of controlling supersaturation levels of the protein samples (Vapor System First flight: ISS-7A.1/STS-105). (
  • In contrast, we formulate the protein identification problem as a single optimization problem, which we solve using machine learning methods. (
  • New methods, utilizing bacteria as "protein factories", have the potential to dramatically reduce manufacturing costs and the development time for new protein products. (
  • PEGS Europe is the largest European event addressing all aspects of protein and antibody engineering. (
  • Additionally, Intrexon's competencies include antibody design, prediction of antibody functionality and optimization of protein pharmacokinetics. (
  • As an active participant on multiple discovery program teams simultaneously, the candidate will represent our function regarding overall strategy and goals, especially around design and execution of recombinant protein, antibody and cell aspects of the research. (
  • Our discovery that the mechanical stability of the small protein GB1 can be regulated by the binding of an antibody fragment provided us the opportunity to use protein engineering techniques to turn GB1 into a chameleon protein, which can display two different elastic behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. (
  • In the above work, using single-molecule atomic force microscopy, the team showed that the binding of fragments of IgG antibody to a small protein, GB1, can significantly enhance the mechanical stability of GB1. (
  • The Hemibody Lab introduces the next generation of engineered antibody derivatives, so called hemibodies, for combinatorial immunotherapy of cancer. (
  • With three forms of premium grade protein (isolate, hydrolysed and concentrate), as well as a comprehensive amino acid profile, Precision Engineered Whey Protein Vanilla tastes great, and is the perfect choice for your training and fitness goals. (
  • Derived from milk, Precision Engineered Whey Protein is a natural source of protein, and is ideal if you have an active lifestyle, or want to increase your protein intake. (
  • Precision Engineered Whey Protein is perfect post workout or in-between meals to keep your protein levels topped up. (
  • β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the major whey protein in ruminants and is found in the milk of a wide range of species. (
  • After testing the protein hydrogels, which are made from the Escherichia coli bacterium, they will be patterned onto various solid substrates to mimic biological functions. (
  • A unique quinone-binding site was engineered into the Escherichia coli cytochrome b 562 by introducing a cysteine within the hydrophobic interior of the protein. (
  • For the successful expression of high molecular weight spider silk protein, Professor Lee [ Sang Yup Lee, KAIST ]and his colleagues pieced together the silk gene from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, and then inserted it into the expression host (in this case, an industrially safe bacterium Escherichia coli which is normally found in our gut). (
  • Engineering Escherichia coli into a protein delivery system for mammalian cells. (
  • Here, we report the reengineering of a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli with a tunable type 3 secretion system that can efficiently deliver heterologous proteins into mammalian cells, thereby circumventing the need for virulence attenuation. (
  • By introducing the gene that encodes the protein into the cells of another bacterium, Escherichia coli, the team turned it into a factory mass-producing the fluorescent protein with unique properties. (
  • Protein-based tools are at the core of many of strategies to study brain function as they endow a high degree of specificity, allow highlighting designated types of neurons and their subcellular structures, and permit implantation deeply into living brains. (
  • Chapters focus on enzyme engineering using rational and semi-rational approaches. (
  • Zhang and colleagues engineered the human ubiquitin protein into a new form that paralyzes a key MERS enzyme, stopping the virus from replicating. (
  • The enzyme cytochrome P450 is nature's premier oxidation catalyst -- a protein that typically promotes reactions that add oxygen atoms to other chemicals. (
  • Enzyme immobilization and protein engineering was performed to improve the enantioselectivity of SC towards secondary alcohols. (
  • The last project concerned the protein engineering of CalA enzyme towards tert -alcohols. (
  • An engineered enzyme that targets circulating lactate to alleviate intracellular NADH:NAD+ imbalance. (
  • To reach this objective, an innovative and powerful semi-rational protein engineering strategy will be used to maximize the sensitivity of the currently available histamine enzyme-based biosensor. (
  • This volume details basic and advanced protocols for both stages of protein engineering: the library design phase and the identification of improved variants by screening and selection. (
  • These engineered variants retain many of the features of the native protein but have higher melting temperatures and are less prone to irreversible aggregation. (
  • By combining Cochran's protein engineering know-how with Baer's expertise in laser-based instrumentation, the team created a tool that can test millions of protein variants in a matter of hours. (
  • These mutations are inserted into batches of yeast or bacterial cells, which express the altered gene and produce millions of random protein variants. (
  • The slide bearing these million yeast or bacteria, and the protein variants they produce, is inserted into the µSCALE device. (
  • Promising variants can be collected and reprocessed through µSCALE to further evolve and optimize the protein. (
  • Developing protein variants with improved stability and activity should reduce necessary dosing frequency, and hence improve patient compliance," said Executive Editor Graham C. Parker. (
  • Genetic selection combined with next-generation sequencing enables the simultaneous interrogation of the functionality and stability of large numbers of naturally occurring, engineered, or computationally designed protein variants in parallel. (
  • Various case studies illustrate each step from the early sequence searches in online databases over plasmid design and molecular cloning techniques to protein purification and characterization. (
  • With protein engineering being a fundamental technique in almost all molecular biology labs, the book targets advanced undergraduates and graduate students working in molecular biology, biotechnology and related scientific fields. (
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (
  • Since 2005, Montclare and her research group have been at the forefront of protein engineering and molecular design. (
  • A biosynthetic approach was developed to control and probe cooperativity in multiunit biomotor assemblies by linking molecular motors to artificial protein scaffolds. (
  • Intrexon's proprietary database catalogs comprehensive information about the genetic and protein components based on structure-based sequence alignment, de novo and comparative protein modeling, molecular dynamics simulation and free energy analysis. (
  • Our protein engineering can also be applied to agriculture, including the generation of molecular strategies aimed at developing pest resistance in plants. (
  • Writing in the journal PLOS Pathogens , a team led by Professor Sachdev Sidhu of the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research and department of molecular genetics, describes how to turn ubiquitin, a staple protein in every cell, into a drug capable of thwarting MERS in cultured human cells. (
  • Initially, the bacterium refused to the challenging task of producing high molecular weight spider silk protein due to the unique characteristics of the protein, such as extremely large size, repetitive nature of the protein structure, and biased abundance of a particular amino acid glycine. (
  • To make E. coli synthesize this ultra high molecular weight (as big as 285 kilodalton) spider silk protein having highly repetitive amino acid sequence, we helped E. coli overcome the difficulties by systems metabolic engineering," says Sang Yup Lee, Distinguished Professor of KAIST, who led this project. (
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific (US) is the leading player in the global protein engineering market owing to its technologically advanced product offerings, including products and technologies in qPCR, capillary electrophoresis sequencing, next-generation sequencing, molecular diagnostics, and cell culture and analysis. (
  • Under the regulation of a molecular regulator, these designer proteins exhibit one of the two distinct mechanical behaviors - spring or shock absorber - which closely mimic the two extreme behaviors observed in naturally occurring elastomeric proteins. (
  • Li, an Assistant Professor and Canada Research Chair in the Department of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Vancouver, Canada, reports these results - which provide a new concept to tune the mechanical performance of proteins at single molecule level - in the June 29, 2008 online edition of Nature Nanotechnology ( 'Engineered elastomeric proteins with dual elasticity can be controlled by a molecular regulator' ). (
  • The structures of proteins, alone or in complex with other biological partners, reveal functional networks thereby providing a better understanding of the behaviour of the cell's molecular machinery. (
  • Writing in the journal PLoS Pathogens , the team led by Professor Sachdev Sidhu, of the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, describe how they turned ubiquitin, a staple protein in every cell, into a drug capable of thwarting MERS in cultured human cells. (
  • The specific molecular structure of a denatured protein is a key factor for the development of reliable protein separations. (
  • The matrix-enhancing molecule is conjugated to a tether, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) monoacrylate, for attachment to a tissue engineering or cell growth scaffold. (
  • Dr. Lewis' lab integrates all of his previous work by focusing heavily on the use of systems biology and genome editing techniques to map out and engineer the cell pathways controlling mammalian cell growth, protein synthesis, and protein glycosylation. (
  • By covering the most recent philosophical and methodological approaches and developments of semisynthesis and peptide synthesis to date, this book provides further understanding of the principles of protein structure-function relationships gained from semisynthetic analog in addition to providing a comprehensive and comprehensible laboratory guide. (
  • The lethal poison Ricin (best known as a weapon of bioterrorism), Diphtheria toxin (the causative agent of a highly contagious bacterial disease), and the widely used antibiotic tetracycline have one thing in common: They specifically target the cell's translational apparatus and disrupt protein synthesis. (
  • We will also discuss the identification of new drug targets and how we can manipulate the protein synthesis machinery to provide powerful tools for protein engineering and potential new treatments for patients with devastating diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. (
  • His team boosted the pool of glycyl-tRNA, the major building block of spider silk protein synthesis. (
  • In the NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering, Associate Professor Jin Kim Montclare is engineering hydrogels that mimic nature. (
  • In effect, the proteins will mimic the pathways used by viruses - but are non-viral, and are designed to carry a 'payload' of therapeutic agents. (
  • Through protein engineering, we have been able to modify a protein to mimic this reaction. (
  • It would then seem to be useful to use a protein-based system to mimic or study this photochemistry. (
  • Recent scientific work in Canada resulted in the engineering of the first artificial chameleon elastomeric proteins that mimic and combine these two different behaviors into one protein. (
  • This review chapter attempts to give an accurate representation of the three main strategies employed in the engineering of more suitable biological components for use in biosensor construction. (
  • Dr. Tuck Seng Wong is a Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) from the Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering at the University of Sheffield (UK). (
  • Dr. Kang Lan Tee is a Lecturer (Assistant Professor) from the Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering (CBE) at the University of Sheffield (UK). (
  • Protein glycosylation is fundamentally important to most biological processes and it is often important to regulate it in biopharmaceutical development. (
  • As genomics gives way to proteomics as the focus of scientific imagination in the biological sciences, more emphasis will be placed on the technology and interpretation of protein engineering experiments. (
  • However, although quinones are common biological redox-active cofactors, we are not aware of any previous work using them as bound electron donor/acceptors in designed or engineered proteins. (
  • Nanostructures built from biomolecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA are attracting attention in many areas of biological and materials sciences. (
  • In this talk, a recent research project using Protein Engineering to improve the biological production of Vitamin C will be discussed. (
  • IBPs, including the antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that prevent the freezing of organisms, are found in nearly all biological kingdoms. (
  • Nusse and his colleagues developed techniques that used detergents to render the protein soluble, and also robust cell assays that would measure the biological activity of the protein. (
  • Receptor proteins in plants' DNA respond to certain stimuli with certain biological responses. (
  • The goal of many shotgun proteomics experiments is to determine the protein complement of a complex biological mixture. (
  • Consequently, these proteins confer excellent mechanical properties to many biological tissues and biomaterials. (
  • The team then prepared the modified interleukin in the laboratory and tested its biological functions - with very encouraging results: The engineered messenger molecule is recognized by human cells. (
  • The ability to engineer proteins to tackle new challenges has had a transformational effect across the biological and physical sciences, in both industrial and academic settings. (
  • We are motivated to understand protein complex coacervation in order to enable new biological applications of these materials. (
  • We have investigated the complex coacervation of engineered proteins with biological polyelectrolytes to determine predictive design rules for protein phase separation. (
  • A bacterium has been engineered not only to have two more "letters" in its DNA, but to use them to make new proteins that have never existed in nature. (
  • This thesis describes: 1) the use of protein engineering to increase ice-binding protein (IBP) activity and thermal stability, and 2) the binding interaction and microcolony formation between an Antarctic bacterium and diatom. (
  • The IBP found on the cell surface of a Gram-negative Antarctic bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis, is one region of an exceptionally large multi-domain 1.5 MDa protein, MpIBP. (
  • The team originally identified the protein with these remarkable properties in the cells of a the thermophilic bacterium-that is, one which lives in high-temperature environments, such as hot springs. (
  • The chapter 'Functional Analysis of Membrane Proteins Produced by Cell-Free Translation' is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via (
  • Our studies show the functional reconstitution of a protein from the sum of its parts. (
  • To modulate these protein properties, we utilize the UltraVector ® platform's modular design method to separate proteins into functional elements. (
  • Experience engineering proteins for specific functional goals, including engineering of antibodies or extracellular ligands, and studying of signaling and membrane trafficking, is a plus. (
  • A critical barrier to realizing these benefits is identification of a cost-effective way to separate desired functional proteins from the remaining contents of their host cells. (
  • Hock B, Seifert M, Kramer K (2002) Engineering receptors and antibodies for biosensors. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies are the largest as well as fastest growing segment of the protein engineering protein type market. (
  • The MRC Centre for Protein Engineering (or CPE) was a pioneering research unit in Cambridge, England, with a main focus on the structure, stability and activity of proteins and engineering of antibodies. (
  • All of Sir Alan's work on protein folding and much of Sir Greg's pioneering work to humanise antibodies was carried out at CPE. (
  • In the first agent, the double stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) of human protein kinase R is used as an siRNA carrier, in fusion proteins that target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (
  • This paper presents a revised assembly strategy that is compatible with the current biobrick definition and permits the construction of fusion proteins. (
  • Here we use protein engineering and single-molecule atomic force microscopy to examine the mechanical components that form the elastic region of human cardiac titin. (
  • The photochemical reactions in the RCs occur through the transfer of an electron from a light-excited (bacterio)chlorophyll [(B)Chl] through the protein, by means of a (bacterio)pheophytin, to a bound quinone molecule. (
  • Purification of a powerful signaling molecule that coaxes cells to mature may also signal the beginning of a new era in tissue engineering. (
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Roel Nusse and Karl Willert at Stanford University School of Medicine led one team that reported that the addition of a lipid molecule is necessary for the activation of Wnt proteins. (
  • The first two studies presented in this thesis describe the engineering of a biparatopic Affibody molecule targeting VEGFR2, intended for therapeutic and in vivo imaging applications. (
  • They then tested the ability of that protein to interact with its target chemical-a ligand, which is a binding molecule in the cell. (
  • Our approach allowed us to rationally extend the language of immune cells by engineering a key signaling molecule. (
  • Every protein molecule consists of a chain of amino acids that must assume a specific three-dimensional shape to function normally. (
  • In this technique, an unfolded protein is pulsed with a laser, which heats the molecule just enough to cause it to bend into its native state. (
  • A fluorescent amino acid imbedded inside the molecule grows dimmer as the protein folds. (
  • The focus of this session is to reflect the latest advances in protein engineering and design. (
  • 4) computational protein engineering and design. (
  • Furthermore with the advent of new nanomaterials the implementation of these design strategies, with the attomolar promise of nanostructures, imparts important generational leaps in research for biosensor construction, based on highly specific, very robust, and electrically wired protein engineered biosensors. (
  • Gilardi G, Fantuzzi A, Sadeghi SJ (2001) Engineering and design in the bioelectrochemistry of metalloproteins. (
  • The Protein Engineering Technology Market is categorized into rational protein design, and irrational protein design. (
  • In this market, rational protein design is the largest and fastest growing segment. (
  • It is a young discipline, with much research taking place into the understanding of protein folding and recognition for protein design principles. (
  • In rational protein design, the scientist uses detailed knowledge of the structure and function of the protein to make desired changes. (
  • Some are looking to design new proteins for drugs and vaccines, while others are seeking cleaner catalysts for the chemical industry and new materials. (
  • David Baker, director for the Institute for Protein Design at the University of Washington, compares protein design to the advent of custom tool-making. (
  • So even if you could design a protein with just the right shape for some job, there would be no obvious way to know how make it from protein's building blocks, the amino acids. (
  • Taken together, we present a streamlined cell engineering workflow that enables gRNA design to analysis of edited cells in as little as four days and results in highly efficient genome modulation in hard-to-transfect cells. (
  • To support her research, she will conduct a secondment at CIC bioGUNE, a research centre that has a strong reputation in protein computational design. (
  • Success would produce a path for agile design and production of proteins for a number of industries. (
  • This provides a general framework for screening of engineered protein binders, which often have no negative selection or design step as part of their development pipelines. (
  • While the sequence-conformation space that needs to be searched is large, the most challenging requirement for computational protein design is a fast, yet accurate, energy function that can distinguish optimal sequences from similar suboptimal ones. (
  • HALIX to Expand Production of Proteins, Viral Products at New cGMP. (
  • This work proposes to engineer a protein secretion system in a laboratory strain of bacteria, Salmonella enterica, for efficient and low-cost production of proteins. (
  • This session will focus on protein engineering for therapeutic applications, with an emphasis on emerging topics and recent successes. (
  • Affinity proteins used in therapeutic and diagnostic applications commonly aim to specifically bind to disease-related drug targets. (
  • The results demonstrate great potential of these display systems and the generated affinity proteins for future biotechnological and therapeutic use. (
  • This reengineered system thus provides a highly flexible protein delivery platform with potential for future therapeutic applications. (
  • Cellular engineering of protein expression hosts provides the ability to modify proteins in a site specific and controlled fashion-something increasingly important for the development of therapeutic proteins. (
  • Once a sugar is positioned on a given protein, conventional chemical modification such as PEGlylation can be used to further modify the protein and improve its therapeutic properties. (
  • He is also a Visiting Professor at the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) in Thailand. (
  • Others use inactivated Covid viruses to stimulate immune responses, while the US firm Novavax uses a remarkable technique involving the genetic engineering of cells extracted from moths to manufacture pieces of coronavirus protein that will stimulate anti-Covid responses when injected. (
  • Most genetic mutations that affect the structure of proteins will lead to something that doesn't work, and the death of whatever inherited it. (
  • The bioinformatic analysis of the genetic origins of the two proteins show that agouti and its counterpart AgRP both come from a common ancestor. (
  • There's a very simple way that the linear chemical code carried by strands of DNA translates into strings of amino acids in proteins. (
  • This will be followed by the discussion of ongoing research using Metabolic Engineering to investigate the body's response to burn injury or other trauma. (
  • Proteins are used as sensors to monitor activity or biochemistry of neurons, to control or block action potential firing of neurons, or to manipulate circuits on longer time scales by pharmaco-genetics. (
  • The interleukins are the vocabulary with which immune cells communicate,' explains Matthias Feige, professor of cellular protein biochemistry at the Technical University of Munich. (
  • First author Stephanie Müller and Prof. Feige in the Laboratory for Cellular Protein Biochemistry. (
  • The research was carried out at the Technical University of Munich at the Department of Theoretical Biophysics (Physics Department), in the Laboratory for Cellular Protein Biochemistry (Faculty of Chemistry), the Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM) of the TU Munich and the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, as well as at the Université Sorbonne in Paris. (
  • The research in the Lutz laboratory focuses on the structure-function relationship of proteins through combinatorial protein engineering. (
  • Magnetic beads-based purification permits the direct incubation of the beads in cell culture (for secreted proteins) or crude lysates eliminating much of the sample preparation steps associated with chromatography. (
  • However, that means the protein also was not soluble and would stick to containers, so standard purification techniques didn't work. (
  • Then, the team developed a simple, easy to scale-up purification process for the recombinant spider silk protein. (
  • However, the diversity and complexity of glycosylation make it difficult to control the glycan structures and unravel how engineering efforts impact the host cells. (
  • There are no simple rules to predict how proteins fold into their various three-dimensional structures. (
  • The proteins snap into folded structures because amino acids are attracted or repelled by others many places down the chain. (
  • After they are formed, proteins are folded into specific three-dimensional structures. (
  • The Millhauser lab determined the chemical structures of the two related proteins. (
  • In a paper published in Advanced Healthcare Materials , Associate Professor Qiaobing Xu, postdoctoral scholar Yamin Li, and Alice Chukun Li, an undergraduate student at Tufts who studied in the Xu Lab, synthesized three types of lipidoids with differing tail structures and analyzed their ability to deliver genome editing and His-tagged proteins. (
  • Over the years SCOP has supported the development of computational tools and contributed to the understanding of protein repertoire, of how proteins relate to each other and how their structures and functions evolved. (
  • The use of native proteins for this purpose cannot adequately embrace the limits of detection and level of stability required for a usable sensor, due to globular structure restraints. (
  • Mezzasalma TM et al (2007) Enhancing Recombinant Protein Quality and Yield by Protein Stability Profiling. (
  • Consequently, there is a need to find or engineer IBPs with enhanced activity and stability. (
  • In our paper, we successfully demonstrated that re-engineering the regions of a protein that is responsible for the mechanical stability has little effect on its interaction with another protein. (
  • Protein engineers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have tapped into a hidden talent of one of nature's most versatile catalysts. (
  • For this, Zhang and Sidhu are working with Roman Melnyk , an assistant professor at U of T and a biochemist at the Hospital for Sick Children and a world expert in protein delivery. (
  • We are also working on an engineered ubiquitin that targets a corn virus responsible for destroying large swaths of corn fields in North America, with colleagues in Manitoba," says Zhang. (
  • In the meantime, Zhang will continue to improve delivery of his designer proteins to human cells that target not only MERS but also other viruses. (
  • Through this effort we are gaining a more comprehensive view of the impact of glycoengineering on biopharmaceuticals and the host cells producing the recombinant protein drugs. (
  • Finally, accounting for these cellular impacts on glycosylation, we developed a systems biology modeling framework to enable the rational engineering of glycosylation to be able to control this critical quality attribute on diverse recombinant protein drugs. (
  • Factors such as increase in adoption of protein drugs over non-protein drugs, high prevalence rate of lifestyle diseases, growth in funding for protein engineering, and reduction in overall timeline and cost for drug discovery are the major drivers of the Protein Engineering Market. (
  • It is likely that the proteins will be tested first in plants and animals where regulatory approvals are less strict than they are for human drugs. (
  • Added to Jackrel's experience with protein engineering, this approach will, they hope, yield both practical results for potential drugs in the future and deeper understandings of protein misfolding, including how and why it occurs. (
  • To maintain its leadership position in the market, the company is focusing on the launch of new LC/MS systems and collaborating with institutes in emerging countries to boost the innovation of protein-based drugs. (
  • The study, which appeared in the Nov. 25 issue of PLoS ONE, may ultimately lead to the development of drugs specifically aimed to inhibit these proteins. (
  • Drugs are most effective on cancers when they attack the proteins that are activated. (
  • Another recently developed method, called chemogenetics, uses engineered proteins that are activated by designer drugs and can be targeted to specific cell types. (
  • Our results demonstrate the ability to discern between different conformational changes in dsDNA due to sequence-specific binding with a protein," said Ünlü, the study's principal investigator. (
  • Unified rational protein engineering with sequence-based deep representation learning. (
  • According to the study, specific examples of sequence engineering that led to improved expression, duration, and enzymatic activity of target proteins are reported. (
  • The agouti-related protein (AgRP) has a similar sequence and structure but a totally different function. (
  • We mutated the protein at a particular position," which increased the signal generated when a base was in the recognition site, Bayley told In Sequence last week. (
  • Multiple sequence alignment utilizes data bases such as PREFAB, SABMARK, OXBENCH, IRMBASE, and BALIBASE in order to cross reference target protein sequences with known sequences. (
  • Biomedical engineers at Duke University have developed a method to address failures in a promising anti-cancer drug, bringing together tools from genome engineering, protein engineering and biomaterials science to improve the efficacy, accuracy and longevity of certain cancer therapies. (
  • CRISPR-Cas9 systems provide a platform for high efficiency genome editing that are enabling innovative applications of mammalian cell engineering. (
  • Many Gram-negative pathogens encode type 3 secretion systems, sophisticated nanomachines that deliver proteins directly into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. (
  • We then constructed a Gateway-compatible plasmid library of type 3 secretion sequences to enable rapid screening and identification of sequences that do not perturb function when fused to heterologous protein substrates and optimized their delivery into mammalian cells. (
  • Combining these elements, we found that coordinated expression of the type 3 secretion system and modified target protein substrates produces a nonpathogenic strain that expresses, secretes, and delivers heterologous proteins into mammalian cells. (
  • Dr. Wong obtained his BEng in Chemical Engineering (1st class honour) from the National University of Singapore, followed by an MSc and a PhD (special distinction, highest possible grade) in Biochemical Engineering from the Jacobs University Bremen in Germany. (
  • Dept. of Chemical Engineering. (
  • D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, February 2012. (
  • Chemical Engineering. (
  • The demonstrations are impressive and I look forward to seeing this technology more widely adopted," said Frances Arnold, a professor of chemical engineering at Caltech who was not affiliated with the study. (
  • Such nanoscale engineering was pioneered with proteins, yet the use of DNA is rapidly gaining traction. (
  • But as our lifespans get longer, certain proteins become increasingly prone to take on alternative shapes from their evolutionarily stable ones. (
  • However, it is possible for certain proteins to misfold, causing a malfunction that eventually, in the cases of proteins such as amyloid beta and tau, gives rise to Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Their successor institutions merged in January 2014 to create a comprehensive school of education and research in engineering and applied sciences, rooted in a tradition of invention, innovation and entrepreneurship. (
  • They used the strategy to identify the protein targets of two human ADP-ribosyltransferases in cell lysates. (
  • When proteins misfold, they sometimes clump together, forming aggregates in the brain that have been observed in patients with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other diseases. (
  • In regular yeast (the left-hand images), the secretion of proteins is hampered by harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the yeast. (
  • We've been studying the metabolism of a yeast that we already know is a good protein producer. (
  • The discussion has mainly been about cancer, but there are many other diseases, for example Alzheimer's, diabetes and MS, that could potentially be treated by yeast-based protein therapies. (
  • The protein production of yeast cells comprises more than 100 different processes in which proteins are modified and transported out of the cell. (
  • A protein in yeast known as Hsp104 caught Jackrel's attention during her postdoctoral studies. (
  • They figured that if it could do this in yeast, then maybe it could work on the misfolded proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases in humans. (
  • Protein engineered biosensors provide the next best step in the advancement of protein-based sensors that can specifically identify chemical substrates. (
  • A scientist studies proteins in a lab. (
  • We designed β-strand peptides that stabilize integral membrane proteins (IMPs). (
  • This photochemistry takes place in membrane-bound protein complexes called reaction centers (RCs). (
  • Perhaps best of all: the ability to monitor for dangerous substances is embedded in plant proteins rather than specific plants themselves, so they can be integrated into any plant. (
  • The specific order of amino acids is required, not only for basic protein functionality, but also for optimized functionality. (
  • Aside from mutating the protein to enhance a specific recognition site's signal, Bayley said his team is also working on modifying the pores to reduce the signal. (
  • Serious conditions that result from malfunctioning or missing proteins are usually treated by delivering functioning proteins to specific sites. (
  • One of the strategies for finding an answer to how Alzheimer's disease could be prevented is based on the idea of adding a protein to the blood, to bind to the Aß peptide there. (
  • Chemists in Arts & Sciences are working to engineer proteins that may help counter devastating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS. (
  • These misfolded proteins can ultimately trigger neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS. (
  • He's also studying Alzheimer's disease and similar neurological conditions, which are characterized by brain proteins that fold up incorrectly into toxic deposits. (
  • In the absence of physical symptoms, early detection of protein markers for disease can significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of diseases like cancer, and Alzheimer's. (
  • By using EPR and fast optical techniques, we show that, in the various chlorin-protein-quinone complexes, light-induced electron transfer can occur from the chlorin to the bound oxidized quinone but not the hydroquinone, with electron transfer rates in the order of 10 8 s -1 . (
  • However, limited information is available to directly correlate the structure of protein-surfactant complexes to their electrophoretic migration. (