Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Bradykinin: Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.Receptor, Bradykinin B2: A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Receptor, Bradykinin B1: A subtype of BRADYKININ RECEPTOR that is induced in response to INFLAMMATION. It may play a role in chronic inflammation and has a high specificity for KININS lacking the C-terminal ARGININE such as des-Arg(10)-kallidin and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Kallidin: A decapeptide bradykinin homolog cleaved from kininogen by kallikreins. It is a smooth-muscle stimulant and hypotensive agent that acts by vasodilatation.Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Kallikrein-Kinin System: A system of metabolic interactions by products produced in the distal nephron of the KIDNEY. These products include KALLIKREIN; KININS; KININASE I; KININASE II; and ENKEPHALINASE. This system participates in the control of renal functions. It interacts with the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM to regulate BLOOD PRESSURE, generation of PROSTAGLANDINS, release of VASOPRESSINS, and WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Lysine Carboxypeptidase: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acid from peptides and proteins, with preference shown for lysine over arginine. It is a plasma zinc enzyme that inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Thiorphan: A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight: A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Tissue Kallikreins: A family of trypsin-like SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that are expressed in a variety of cell types including human prostate epithelial cells. They are formed from tissue prokallikrein by action with TRYPSIN. They are highly similar to PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
  • The Rho GTPases are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • To date, a number of thermo‐sensitive ion channels have been reported to be involved in thermosensation, six of which belong to the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of nonselective cation channels. (els.net)
  • Our current understanding of thermosensation comes mainly from the identification of six temperature‐sensitive ion channels (thermo‐TRP channels) belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of nonselective calcium channels. (els.net)
  • Six protein families comprise the mammalian TRP superfamily: the classic TRPs (TRPCs), the vanilloid receptor TRPs (TRPVs), the melastatin or long TRPs (TRPMs), the mucolipins (TRPMLs), the polycystins (TRPPs), and ankyrin transmembrane protein 1 (ANKTM1, TRPA1). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Included in spinal responses to peripheral nerve input are the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), a family of serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated in spinal cord by noxious peripheral stimuli and play important roles in modulating signal transduction, both acutely by protein phosphorylation and chronically by affecting gene transcription. (asahq.org)
  • Diminution of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) levels through antibody sequestration or PLC-mediated hydrolysis mimics the potentiating effects of bradykinin or NGF at the cellular level. (nih.gov)
  • The increased interstitial fibrosis in B2 -/- mice was accompanied by a decreased activity of plasminogen activators (PAs) and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), enzymes involved in ECM degradation, suggesting that the protective effects of bradykinin involve activation of a B2 receptor/PA/MMP-2 cascade. (jci.org)
  • B2 receptor agonists may have important clinical value in the treatment and prevention of various cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular remodeling and congestive heart failure, as well as diabetic disorders by mimicking the reported beneficial effects of bradykinin. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • It has not been possible to further evaluate the physiological effects of bradykinin during fetal and newborn life in the mouse or rat due to the limits imposed by size and immaturity. (physiology.org)
  • Classical agonist of this receptor includes bradykinin1-8 (bradykinin with the first 8 amino acid) and antagonist includes [Leubradykinin1-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Icatibant (Firazyr) is a peptidomimetic drug consisting of ten amino acids, which is an effective and specific antagonist of bradykinin B2 receptors. (hmdb.ca)
  • Icatibant, a competitive antagonist of the bradykinin B 2 receptor, and ecallantide, a specific plasma kallikrein inhibitor, are approved for the treatment of acute episodes of edema in patients with hereditary angioedema. (mhmedical.com)
  • To investigate the role of endogenously produced bradykinin in modulating renal function during postnatal maturation, various parameters of glomerular and tubular function were measured for 1 h before and after intravenous injection of 12.5 μg/kg of the specific B 2 -receptor antagonist icatibant to conscious, chronically instrumented lambs aged ∼1 ( n = 7) and ∼6 wk ( n = 7). (physiology.org)
  • On the other hand, little is known about how such oligomeric units are regulated structurally and functionally by agonists and other factors during the receptor life cycle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The potential modulation of TRPV1 nociceptive activity by the CB 1 receptor was investigated here using CB 1 wild-type (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice as well as selective CB 1 inverse agonists. (jneurosci.org)
  • The possibility that constitutive activity at the CB 1 receptor is required to maintain the TRPV1 receptor in a "sensitized" state was tested using CB 1 inverse agonists. (jneurosci.org)
  • The dual beneficial and deleterious effects of kinin receptors and, particularly B1R, raise an unsettled issue on the therapeutic value of B1R/B2R agonists versus antagonists in cardiovascular diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The B 2 R is widely and constitutively expressed in central and peripheral tissues and is activated by its preferential agonists bradykinin (BK) and Lys-BK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In March 2000, Synaptic began making non-exclusive licenses available to companies in need of Synaptic's portfolio of intellectual property on the alpha adrenergic receptors for drug discovery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The kinin-kallikrein system makes bradykinin by proteolytic cleavage of its kininogen precursor, high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK or HK), by the enzyme kallikrein . (wikipedia.org)
  • When conventional parameter estimates for proteins in aqueous solutions are used, Φ is found to increase by about 1 ns per 2400 dalton increase of molecular weight. (thermofisher.com)
  • The molecular basis of subtype selectivity of human kinin G-protein-coupled receptors. (nih.gov)
  • What began as molecular switches linking cell surface receptors to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton has now emerged as an important mediator of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent investigations on the molecular mechanism of B1-receptor induction and its detailed renal localisation have shown that under inflammatory conditions this kinin receptor might be of importance. (elsevier.com)
  • KIAA1769 encodes a 2080-amino acid protein (molecular mass, 231 kDa) that was recently identified to interact with PPARalpha and termed PPARalpha-interacting cofactor 285 (here referred to as PPARgamma-DBD-interacting protein 1 (PDIP1)-alpha). (embl.de)
  • In contrast, transfection experiments revealed that a single combination, Gβ 1 γ 2, is equally effective in enhancing signals of several G-protein coupled receptors ( 6 ), and most biochemical assays investigating Gβγ interactions with Gα and with effector molecules have shown little specificity ( 7 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, the overall mechanism of spinal and epidural anesthesia may be more complex than simply the blockade of impulses in nerve roots, involving presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors as well as intracellular pathways. (asahq.org)
  • 1996 Expression and signal transduction pathways of endothelin receptors in neuroendocrine cells. (springer.com)
  • P. Delmas, N. Wanaverbecq, F. C. Abogadie, M. Mistry, D. A. Brown, Signaling microdomains define the specificity of receptor-mediated InsP 3 pathways in neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over the past several years, our lab has been accumulating evidence which demonstrates that different drugs, acting at the same receptor, can differentially regulate these multiple signaling pathways. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Together evidence suggest an intimate role for these signal molecules and related receptors. (indmedica.com)
  • DCs and macrophages display phagocytic properties and are activated by various microorganism-derived molecules through the family of Toll-like receptors, which trigger the release of costimulatory molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. (rupress.org)
  • Within venom, there are thousands of proteins, lipids, metals, and other molecules, each with actions that could result in a Ph.D. thesis (as many have). (emcrit.org)
  • Olfactory receptors are ectopically expressed (exORs) in more than 16 different tissues. (usda.gov)
  • Exposure to GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) induced de novo expression of functional receptors for Bv8 in a nonpeptidergic population of neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • One of these functional differences is the expression of differential sets of chemoattractant receptors, which is responsible for the selective recruitment of specific cell subpopulations according to their lineage, origin, and maturation state ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Functional selectivity can perhaps explain why some drugs are effective at treating a disease while others are not even though they act at the same receptor. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Functional selectivity heralds a new era in drug development where drugs acting at a single receptor subtype can be developed that maximize therapeutic, and minimize adverse, effects. (uthscsa.edu)
  • These data suggest that bradykinin receptors are functional in $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in HSC-3 cells and may therefore represent a future target in treatment strategies for human oral squamous cell carcinoma. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Initial secretion of bradykinin post-natally causes constriction and eventual atrophy of the ductus arteriosus , forming the ligamentum arteriosum between the pulmonary trunk and aortic arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, endothelial cells have been described as a potential source for this B 1 receptor-CXCL5 pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial cells express several different families of ion channels, including multiple transient receptor potential (TRP), small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (SK3, K Ca 2.3) and intermediate-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (IK, K Ca 3.1) proteins ( Jackson, 2016 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Bv8 caused increases in [Ca] i in a population of isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which we identified as nociceptors, or sensors for painful stimuli, from their responses to capsaicin, bradykinin, mustard oil, or proteases. (jneurosci.org)
  • Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal protein that regulates a number of central and peripheral responses such as uterine contractions and milk ejection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bradykinin is a polypeptide that circulates in the plasma in very low concentrations in comparison with the amount of bradykinin found in various body tissues. (hmdb.ca)
  • B1R is virtually absent in healthy tissues, yet this receptor is induced by the cytokine pathway and the oxidative stress via the transcriptional nuclear factor NF-κB. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Thus, B1R is strongly linked to nociception and pain as the receptor has been found in pain transmitting tissues [23; (indmedica.com)
  • Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with essential hypertension increases circulating plasma levels of bradykinin," American Journal of Hypertension , vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1044-1047, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Pretreatment with intraplantar galanin and bradykinin, compounds known to sensitize TRPV1 receptors, restored capsaicin-induced flinching in CB 1 KO mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • providing an anatomical basis for modulation of TRPV1 function by compounds interacting at the CB 1 receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • The best studied is TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which is both a receptor for capsaicin, the active principle of chilli peppers, and a painful heat receptor which responds to temperatures over 42°C. Our understanding of cold transduction has also rapidly increased in recent years with the intriguing discovery of the cold receptors TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). (els.net)

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