Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A group of proteins that associate with DYSTROPHIN at the CELL MEMBRANE to form the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins, which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE in the CELL NUCLEUS. The complex contains two subunits, one of 80-kDa molecular weight and another of 20-kDa molecular weight.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.
A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
... is an important protein complex, having roles in transcription of various protein-coding genes and DNA nucleotide excision ... Rimel JK, Taatjes DJ (June 2018). "The essential and multifunctional TFIIH complex". Protein Science. 27 (6): 1018-1037. doi: ... The cyclin activating kinase-subcomplex (CDK7, MAT1, and cyclin H) is linked to the core via the XPD protein. Two of the ... General function of TFIIH: Initiation transcription of protein- coding gene. DNA nucleotide repairing. (NER)TFIIH is a general ...
Doley R, Kini RM (September 2009). "Protein complexes in snake venom". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 66 (17): 2851-71. ... Irditoxin is an abundant protein in the venom of the brown tree snake and accounts for about 10% of the protein found in venom ... It is a heterodimer composed of two distinct protein chains, each of the three-finger protein fold, linked by an intermolecular ... This structure is unusual for 3FTx proteins, which are most commonly monomeric. Three-finger toxin (3FTx) proteins canonically ...
Robinson and her lab managed to find another AP complex, AP-3, which interacts with lysosomal membrane proteins such as LAMP1. ... adaptor protein (AP) complexes, and alternative adaptors. Her working hypothesis is that for each trafficking pathway, there ... "The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. PMC 3191125. PMID ... matching up machinery and cargo proteins; investigating how clathrin and adaptors are hijacked by the HIV-1-encoded protein Nef ...
The import of proteins into the apicoplast through the four membranes occurs through translocation complexes that originate ... Sheiner L, Striepen B (February 2013). "Protein sorting in complex plastids". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular ... Within the apicoplast's stroma is a 35 kb long circular DNA strand that codes for approximately 30 proteins, tRNAs and some ... system functions in import of apicoplast proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (48): 33683-91. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Kroemer RT, Richards WG (December 1996). "Homology modeling study of the human interleukin-7 receptor complex". Protein Eng. 9 ... The interleukin-7 receptor is a protein found on the surface of cells. It is made up of two different smaller protein chains - ... IL7R+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... doi:10.1093/protein/9.12.1135. PMID 9010926. "IL2 family". Guide to Pharmacology. IUPHAR/BPS. Retrieved 21 August 2015. "Entrez ...
Examples of eicosameric protein complexes include; The rat GTPCHI/GFRP stimulatory complex (involved in regulating sub cellular ... for every protein in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The Protein Interfaces, Surfaces and Assemblies (Pisa) server at the MSD. v t ... Protein complexes having exactly 20 subunits are referred to as eicosameric (or sometimes 20-Meric). ... signalling cascades) PDB: 1is7​ Protein quaternary structure The Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) at the European ...
Palmer KJ, Konkel JE, Stephens DJ (2005). "PCTAIRE protein kinases interact directly with the COPII complex and modulate ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a ... "Protein profile of tax-associated complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (1): 495-508. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310069200. PMID 14530271. ... "The Cdk-like protein PCTAIRE-1 from mouse brain associates with p11 and 14-3-3 proteins". Mol. Gen. Genet. 254 (5): 571-7. doi: ...
Sethi A, Eargle J, Black AA, Luthey-Schulten Z (April 2009). "Dynamical networks in tRNA:protein complexes". Proceedings of the ... Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins move! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Protein Structure and ... A homotropic allosteric modulator is a substrate for its target protein, as well as a regulatory molecule of the protein's ... Integrating the information of allosteric proteins in ASD should allow the prediction of allostery for unknown proteins, to be ...
1 July 2016). "Protein Complex Purification by Affinity Capture". Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 7 (7): pdb.top077545. doi: ... Affinity capture has been used to isolate proteins by means of binding a peptide sequence to the solid substrate, thus allowing ... 1 August 2009). "Affinity capture mass spectrometry of biomarker proteins using peptide ligands from biopanning". Analytical ... for protein capture. The process has also been examined for potential automation, but the unique circumstances for any given ...
Unlike most of the SWI/SNF complex proteins, this protein has no yeast counterpart. SMARCE1 has been shown to interact with ... The encoded protein, either alone or when in the SWI/SNF complex, can bind to 4-way junction DNA, which is thought to mimic the ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for ... "Protein profile of tax-associated complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (1): 495-508. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310069200 ...
Marsh, J. A.; Hernández, H; Hall, Z; Ahnert, S. E.; Perica, T; Robinson, C. V.; Teichmann, S. A. (2013). "Protein complexes are ... She has used mass spectrometry to define the folding and binding of interacting proteins in large complexes. Most importantly, ... Levy, E. D.; Boeri Erba, E; Robinson, C. V.; Teichmann, S. A. (2008). "Assembly reflects evolution of protein complexes". ... and pioneering gas phase structural biology by probing the structure and reactivity of single proteins and protein complexes, ...
Adaptins are clustered subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes. There are several types of adaptin, each related to a ... complex 1 AP1B1 AP1G1 AP1G2 AP1M1 AP1M2 AP1S1 AP1S2 AP1S3 complex 2 AP2A1 AP2A2 AP2B1 AP2M1 AP2S1 complex 3 AP3B1 AP3B2 AP3D1 ... 2011). "The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. PMC 3191125. PMID ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are proteins that mediate the formation of vesicles for intracellular ...
... which bind to small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (snRNPs; complexes of the snRNA and protein). Subsequent biochemical, ... Introns are removed from nuclear pre-mRNAs by spliceosomes, large ribonucleoprotein complexes made up of snRNA and protein ... For example, some protein-coding genes encode fewer than 50% of the nucleotides found within the mature, translated mRNA. Other ... The end result of alternative splicing is that a single gene can encode a number of different protein isoforms that can exhibit ...
A deoxyribonucleoprotein (DNP) is a complex of DNA and protein. The prototypical examples are nucleosomes, complexes in which ... is a complex of ribonucleic acid and RNA-binding protein. These complexes play an integral part in a number of important ... In eukaryotic cells, DNA is associated with about an equal mass of histone proteins in a highly condensed nucleoprotein complex ... Bank, RCSB Protein Data. "RCSB Protein Data Bank - RCSB PDB". Archived from the original on 2015-04-18. Retrieved 2018-04-14. ...
... protein with ch-TOG and GAS41/NuBI1 suggests multiple TACC1-containing protein complexes in human cells". Biochem. J. 363 (Pt 1 ... This signal subsequently activates the kinase RSK which in turn binds to the protein Myt1. Myt1, in complex with RSK, is now ... Among these target proteins are TACC, a microtubule-associated protein that stabilizes centrosomal microtubules and Kinesin 5, ... TACC1 protein complex in cytokinesis". Oncogene. 23 (26): 4516-22. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207593. PMID 15064709. Conte N, Delaval ...
Synaptonemal complex protein 1 is a protein involved in the synaptonemal complex during meiosis, that in humans is encoded by ... 2005). "Two novel proteins recruited by synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SYCP1) are at the centre of meiosis". J. Cell Sci. 118 ... 1997). "Human synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SCP1): isolation and characterization of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q62209 (Synaptonemal complex protein 1) at the ...
Within chromosomes, DNA is held in complexes with structural proteins. These proteins organize the DNA into a compact structure ... All the functions of DNA depend on interactions with proteins. These protein interactions can be non-specific, or the protein ... Alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of ... In eukaryotes, this structure involves DNA binding to a complex of small basic proteins called histones, while in prokaryotes ...
Properties of the dnaB-dnaC protein complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (22): 13770-5. PMID 6292205. DnaC+ ... one dnaB-dnaC complex will complex with dnaA from the N-terminus of dnaB whereas the other dnaB-dnaC complex will complex with ... One dnaB-dnaC complex is oriented in the opposite direction to the other dnaB-dnaC complex due to the antiparallel nature of ... dnaC is a loading factor that complexes with the C-terminus of helicase dnaB and inhibits it from unwinding the dsDNA at a ...
2004). "Investigation of a protein complex network". European Physical Journal B. 41 (1): 113-121. arXiv:cond-mat/0304207. ... Another use is to model genes or proteins in a pathway and study the relationships between them, such as metabolic pathways and ... Graphs are also commonly used in molecular biology and genomics to model and analyse datasets with complex relationships. For ... Reuven Cohen, Shlomo Havlin (2010). Complex Networks: Structure, Robustness and Function. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ...
Synaptonemal complex protein SC65, also known as Leprecan-like protein 4 (LEPREL4) or nucleolar autoantigen No55, is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: SC65 synaptonemal complex protein SC65". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Foster LJ, Rudich A, Talior I, et ... This nucleolar protein was first characterized because it was an autoantigen in cases on interstitial cystitis. The protein, ... 1996). "cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel nucleolar protein". Mol. Biol. Cell. 7 (7): 1015-24. doi:10.1091/mbc.7.7. ...
Trafficking protein particle complex 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRAPPC9 gene. This gene encodes a protein ... "Entrez Gene: Trafficking protein particle complex 9". Retrieved 2017-06-10. Hu WH, Pendergast JS, Mo XM, Brambilla R, Bracchi- ... Barrowman J, Bhandari D, Reinisch K, Ferro-Novick S (2010). "TRAPP complexes in membrane traffic: convergence through a common ... Ricard V, Li F, Walters WM, Blits B, He L, Schaal SM, Bethea JR (2005). "NIBP, a novel NIK and IKK(beta)-binding protein that ...
This protein complex has microtubule-binding domains. HEC is one of several proteins involved in spindle checkpoint signaling. ... Kinetochore protein NDC80 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDC80 gene. Ndc80 is one of the proteins of ... "Identification of the substrates and interaction proteins of aurora kinases from a protein-protein interaction model". ... "Entrez Gene: NDC80 NDC80 homolog, kinetochore complex component (S. cerevisiae)". Human kinetochore protein Spc25 Q9HBM1 ...
Such complexes in cell nucleus are called ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). DNA-protein complexes: nucleosome. Protein-lipid complexes ... Examples: Protein complexes, some of which are multienzyme complexes: proteasome, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, RNA polymerase ... A biomolecular complex, also called a biomacromolecular complex, is any biological complex made of more than one biopolymer ( ... and translation complexes (with protein and nucleic acid components), procaryotic and eukaryotic transcription complexes, and ...
AP-4 complex subunit sigma-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP4S1 gene. The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J. Biol. Chem ... "Entrez Gene: adaptor-related protein complex 4". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas- ...
The BBSome is an octameric protein complex. It is a component of the basal body and is involved in trafficking cargos to the ... BBSome assembly has been shown to be mediated by a complex containing a further three BBS proteins: BBS6, BBS10 and BBS12. In ... The BBSome is a complex of seven Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins: BBS1, BBS2, BBS4, BBS5, BBS7, BBS8 and BBS9. In addition ... June 2007). "A core complex of BBS proteins cooperates with the GTPase Rab8 to promote ciliary membrane biogenesis". Cell. 129 ...
... "mTOR and S6K1 Mediate Assembly of the Translation Preinitiation Complex through Dynamic Protein Interchange and Ordered ... eIF3 is a component of the multifactor complex (MFC) and 43S and 48S preinitiation complexes (PICs). The interactions of eIF3 ... "Global landscape of HIV-human protein complexes". Nature. 481 (7381): 365-70. doi:10.1038/nature10719. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC ... The eIF3 complex is broadly conserved across eukaryotes, but the conservation of individual subunits varies across organisms. ...
AP-4 complex subunit epsilon-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP4E1 gene. The heterotetrameric adaptor protein ( ... "Entrez Gene: adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ADP- ...
The protein complex co-purifies with ribosomes. The product of this gene is also implicated in the processing of advanced ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase 48 kDa subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Stitt AW, He C, Vlassara H (1999). "Characterization of the advanced glycation end-product receptor complex in human vascular ...
... higher order protein structure and protein folding, and the principles underlying protein complex formation and organization. ... A fundamental discovery was her work to define key biophysical mechanisms in protein complex assembly, showing that protein ... Levy, Emmanuel Doram (2008). Classification, evolution, and assembly of protein complexes. (PhD thesis). University ... Gaskell & Kostic (2015). "The Unstoppable Sarah Teichmann on Programing, Motherhood, and Protein Complex Assembly:The Female ...
2004). "Investigation of a protein complex network". European Physical Journal. 41 (1): 113-121. arXiv:cond-mat/0304207. ... Protein-protein interaction networks (PINs) represent the interactions among proteins present in a cell, where proteins are ... Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to the cellular processes, and so PINs are the most intensely analyzed ... For instance, the MAPK/ERK pathway is transduced from the cell surface to the cell nucleus by a series of protein-protein ...
In some cases the complex interactions between inhibitory and excitatory neurons can be simplified using mean field theory, ... proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. ... Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform computations (e.g.[19]). Hodgkin and Huxley's ... The computational functions of complex dendrites are also under intense investigation. There is a large body of literature ...
... complex multi-site variants)的合稱,在所有人類以及其他已測試的哺乳動物中皆可發現。 ... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying
5% to 15% of the time more than one suture is involved; this is referred to as 'complex craniosynostosis' and is typically part ... that constraint inside the womb is associated with decreased expression of Indian hedgehog protein and noggin. These last two ... "Intracranial pressure monitoring in children with single suture and complex craniosynostosis: a review". Child's Nervous System ...
Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... A physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Dec;25(4):815-29. ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... The control of food intake is a physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. Hormones such as cholecystokinin, ...
This realization has made trophic classifications more complex.[15] Trophic dynamics[edit]. The trophic level concept was ... and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as ... Food webs are complex. Complexity is a measure of an increasing number of permutations and it is also a metaphorical term that ... Food webs are complex networks. As networks, they exhibit similar structural properties and mathematical laws that have been ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... HIV-1 protease in complex with indinavir. PDB entry 2avo[3]. Indinavir wears off quickly after dosing. Unboosted indinavir ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. β- ... see Cadherin-catenin complex in learning and memory). Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher ... These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The ribosomes, membranes and Golgi complexes can be separated by another technique called density gradient centrifugation. ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
IPA also lets researchers search for information on genes, proteins, chemicals, drugs, and reagents. Resulting information can ... to analyze complex biological systems. QIAGEN Silicon Valley's first product, IPA, was introduced in 2003, and is used to help ... complexes, cells, tissues, drugs, and diseases.[citation needed] Each relationship originates from reported experimental facts ... chemical interactions and functional annotations created from millions of individually modeled relationships between proteins, ...
1999). "Synthesis of multi-subunit domain gonadotropin complexes: a model for alpha/beta heterodimer formation". Biochemistry. ... J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi:10.1007/BF01024882. تحقق من التاريخ في: ,date=. (مساعدة) ...
Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. ... Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
Lekanne Deprez RH, Riegman PH, Groen NA, Warringa UL, van Biezen NA, Molijn AC, Bootsma D, de Jong PJ, Menon AG, Kley NA (April 1995). "Cloning and characterization of MN1, a gene from chromosome 22q11, which is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a meningioma". Oncogene. 10 (8): 1521-8. PMID 7731706 ...
... further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural ... The broad, flat leaves with complex venation of flowering plants are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the ... These complex systems are not used much in morphological descriptions of taxa, but have usefulness in plant identification, [24 ... True leaves or euphylls of larger size and with more complex venation did not become widespread in other groups until the ...
EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex, ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[50][52] EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein. It is a type of ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... oligosaccharyl transferase complex) the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior ...
... which in turn activate g-protein coupled receptors to produce the diverse responses mediated by the pre-Bötzinger complex. ... The pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), a projection of the Botzinger complex, plays an important role in regulating respiration ... the Bötzinger complex, the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG), and the caudal VRG ( ... the complex respiratory network relies on different contributions of different types of bursting mechanisms. The complex ...
It was completely replaced around 250,000 years ago by the more complex Acheulean industry, which was first conceived by Homo ... Large game animals such as deer were an important source of protein in Middle and Upper Paleolithic diets. ... He argues that the elites of these societies (like the elites of many more contemporary complex hunter-gatherers such as the ... In some instances (at least the Tlingit), they developed social stratification, slavery, and complex social structures such as ...
This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... GABA-A receptor complex. • postsynaptic membrane. • membrane. • synapse. • integral component of plasma membrane. • chloride ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ... GABRA4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
The heat shock protein and the 14-3-3 proteins together form a cytosolic guidance complex that makes it easier for the ... Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... "14-3-3 proteins form a guidance complex with chloroplast precursor proteins in plants". The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi: ... a chloroplast preprotein can still attach to a heat shock protein or Toc159. These complexes can bind to the TOC complex on the ...
Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... excessive deposition of the protein keratin leading to comedo formation, colonization of the follicle by Cutibacterium acnes (C ...
Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... In turn, a fairly complex reflex is triggered involving cranial nerves sub-serving respiration, retroperistalsis, and general ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ...
... es have a complex nervous system and excellent sight, and are among the most intelligent and behaviourally diverse of ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... Octopuses that are diurnal and live in shallow water have evolved more complex skin than their nocturnal and deep-sea ... the complex motor skills of octopuses are not organised in their brain via an internal somatotopic map of its body, instead ...
Cell development involves many such proteins working together. Fig#1 shows how TipN interact with two other polar proteins : ... This control system organization, with a controller (the cell cycle engine) driving a complex system, with modulation by ... The DnaA protein acts at the origin of replication to initiate the replication of the chromosome. The CtrA protein, in contrast ... These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ...
The membranous photoreceptor protein opsin contains a pigment molecule called retinal. In rod cells, these together are called ... These events take place at different time periods for different species and include a complex pattern of activities that bring ... The photoreceptor proteins in the three types of cones differ in their sensitivity to photons of different wavelengths (see ... This results in a series of unstable intermediates, the last of which binds stronger to a G protein in the membrane, called ...
the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ... This form of motility has been shown to be regulated by the cAMP receptor protein. Hedger 11:30, 14 2007. The mechanism for ... However it is a somewhat ineffective method as it causes the organism to degrade protein, a very metabolically expensive method ...
The composite nature of bone, comprising one-third organic (mainly protein collagen) and two thirds mineral (calcium phosphate ... mostly in the form of hydroxyapatite) renders its diagenesis more complex.[6] Alteration occurs at all scales from molecular ... When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ...
The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code for proteins as compared to the 465 genes in G. theta. B. natans also only ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ... Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ... The genome contains 513 genes, 465 of which code for protein. Thirty genes are considered "plastid" genes, coding for plastid ...
Richard Ostfeld (2012). Lyme Disease: The Ecology of a Complex System. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199928477. ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ...
"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID 16189514. doi ... transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... Vallenius T، Mäkelä TP (2003). "Clik1: a novel kinase targeted to actin stress fibers by the CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein.". J. Cell ... Wang H، Harrison-Shostak DC، Lemasters JJ، Herman B (1996). "Cloning of a rat cDNA encoding a novel LIM domain protein with ...
Dynamical networks in tRNA:protein complexes. Anurag Sethi, John Eargle, Alexis A. Black, and Zaida Luthey-Schulten ... In networks based on the 3D structure of the protein:tRNA complex presented here, the optimal modularity score is found to be ≈ ... The flow of information in the physical network of the protein:RNA complex is traced by using the coarse-grained picture formed ... The dynamical networks are constructed by using data from the final 16 ns of 20-ns trajectories of the protein:RNA complexes ...
HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces ... HAMLET is a possible chemotherapeutic agent with the ability to kill cancer cells.[1] Alpha-lactalbumin is the primary protein ... Hamlet has been shown to bind with high affinity to individual histone proteins, to be specific H2a, H2b, H3, and H4, as well ... Endogenous human alpha-lactalbumin is complexed with a calcium ion and serves as a cofactor in lactose synthesis, but has no ...
There are a total of twenty amino acids called monomers that exist naturally in proteins. Proteins are found in abundance and ... Proteins, also called polypeptides, are the polymers of amino acids. ... Proteins are generally present in many natural food types such as fish or meat. Many of the proteins in food are enzymes that ... 3. Protein identification. If the protein spot or band was found on a gel, the next step is to determine their molecular ...
... techniques like protein complex analysis have great value in understanding the complex organisms. Though recent protein complex ... analysis methods are efficient in identifying the structure and of protein complex, there are some limiting factors. ... which are present in complex biological samples. Due to this, ... interpretation of the structure and function of proteins, ... techniques like protein complex analysis have great value in understanding the complex organisms. Though recent protein complex ...
However, once the resulting protein complexes have formed, at least one interacting protein partner has been found to be stably ... Disordered protein regions have been increasingly implicated in high-affinity protein-protein interactions. ... complex between two proteins (histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α) that both remain fully disordered when bound ... the two intrinsically disordered human proteins histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α associate in a complex with ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... A Noc complex specifically involved in the formation and nuclear export of ribosomal 40 S subunits.. J. Biol. Chem. 278 4072-81 ... It forms a complex with Nop14p that mediates maturation and nuclear export of 40S ribosomal subunits [PMID: 12446671, PMID: ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Elongator is a 6 subunit protein complex highly conserved in eukaryotes. The human Elongator six-subunit complex, known as holo ... Characterization of a six-subunit holo-elongator complex required for the regulated expression of a group of genes in ...
GRK 2223/1: Protein Complex Assembly (PROCOMPAS). Protein complex dynamics orchestrate biochemical processes at all stages of ... In contrast to the importance of these mechanisms, our knowledge on the manifold facets of protein complex assembly is still ... 2) The electron transporting respirasome consisting of several dozen proteins and a smaller electron transfer model complex ... Within the Research Program we will study central principles of protein complex assembly systematically using two ...
Increasing complexity of the dystrophin-associated protein complex. J M Tinsley, D J Blake, R A Zuellig, and K E Davies ... Increasing complexity of the dystrophin-associated protein complex Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ... However, analysis of its interaction with a large oligomeric protein complex at the sarcolemma and the identification of a ... Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe X chromosome-linked, muscle-wasting disease caused by lack of the protein dystrophin. ...
Changes in protein conformation can affect protein function, but methods to probe these structural changes on a global scale in ... We detect structural changes in aggregation-prone proteins and show the functional relevance of one of these proteins to the ... To enable large-scale analyses of protein conformational changes directly in their biological matrices, we present a method ... Using our method, we assessed the structural features of more than 1,000 yeast proteins simultaneously and detected altered ...
Serum Protein Pathological Serum These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and ...
ELP1 elongator complex protein 1 [Bos taurus] ELP1 elongator complex protein 1 [Bos taurus]. Gene ID:505465 ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. elongator complex protein 1. Names. inhibitor of ... mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_003586430.5 → XP_003586478.3 elongator complex protein 1 ... elongator complex protein 1provided by VGNC. Primary source. VGNC:VGNC:28454 See related. Ensembl:ENSBTAG00000004991 Gene type ...
MRNIP MRN complex interacting protein [Homo sapiens] MRNIP MRN complex interacting protein [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:51149 ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. MRN complex-interacting protein. Names. MRN- ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001017987.3 → NP_001017987.1 MRN complex-interacting protein isoform 2 ... NM_016175.4 → NP_057259.2 MRN complex-interacting protein isoform 1. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for ...
PROTEIN (SINR PROTEIN). A. 111. Bacillus subtilis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: sinR, SINI. ... PROTEIN (SINI PROTEIN). B. 57. Bacillus subtilis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SINR, sinI. ... This structural similarity greatly exceeds that between SinR and any bacterial protein or between the 434 repressor proteins ... SinR is a tetrameric repressor protein that binds to the promoters of genes essential for entry into sporulation and prevents ...
... as a complexing polymer to generate HIP complex. We have prepared and optimized the HIP complex formation process of BSA with ... Encapsulation of Protein-Polysaccharide HIP Complex in Polymeric Nanoparticles. Ripal Gaudana, Varun Khurana, Ashwin Parenky, ... complex form. So far, HIP complexation approach has been studied only for proteins with molecular weight of 10-20 kDa. Hence, ... we have selected bovine serum albumin (BSA) having higher molecular weight (66.3 kDa) as a model protein and dextran sulphate ( ...
Studying the structure of protein-lipid complexes, be they in vesicles, planar bilayers, monolayers, or nanodiscs, poses two ... Firstly such complexes are often dynamic. Secondly we need to resolve the lipid and protein structures within the complex. ... Examining Protein-Lipid Complexes Using Neutron Scattering. In: Kleinschmidt J. (eds) Lipid-Protein Interactions. Methods in ... Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) can resolve the structures of protein-lipid complexes if they are present as homogeneous ...
... Charalambos Chrysostomou,1 Huseyin Seker,2 and ... gene V protein mutants," Proteins: Structure, Function and Genetics, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 834-852, 2007. View at Publisher · ... "Complex resonant recognition model in analysing influenza a virus subtype protein sequences," in Proceedings of the 10th ... "Effects of windowing and zero-padding on complex resonant recognition model for protein sequence analysis," in Proceedings of ...
Protein complexes are a form of quaternary structure. Proteins in a protein complex are linked by non-covalent protein-protein ... Such protein complexes are called "obligate protein complexes". Transient protein complexes form and break down transiently in ... then the complexes formed by such proteins are termed "non-obligate protein complexes". However, some proteins cant be found ... Protein complex formation sometimes serves to activate or inhibit one or more of the complex members and in this way, protein ...
GINS is a protein complex essential to the DNA replication process in the cells of eukaryotes. The complex participates in the ... in a reference to the 4 protein subunits of the complex: Sld5, Psf1, Psf2, and Psf3. A similar complex has been identified in ... Labib, Karim; Gambus, Agnieszka (June 2007). "A key role for the GINS complex at DNA replication forks". Trends in Cell Biology ... MacNeill, Stuart (Jan 2010). "Structure and function of the GINS complex, a key component of the eukaryotic replisome". ...
... custom-designed transmembrane proteins from scratch. In the living world, transmembrane proteins naturally occur embedded in ... The ability to design synthetic proteins to span membranes could allow scientists to build ones that can perform specific, ... Molecular engineers have now show that it is possible to build complex, ... A proteins shape forms from complex interactions between the amino acids that make up the protein chain and between the amino ...
... such as the live observation of how viruses use protein complexes to infect cells. ... Designing tiny platforms in living cells to observe proteins in 3D Ground-breaking research sometimes arises as a result of ... Lestudi, que publica la revista Cell, revela aspectes centrals del funcionament dun complex de proteïnes vital per a animals ... "protein nanomachine" in a living yeast cell. This breakthrough paves the way for inspiring future discoveries, ...
... 20.03.2018. Just as diamond ring is needed in marriage, NuA4/Tip60 ... Jacques Côtés team reports the 4.7 Å structure of the yeast NuA4/TIP60 complex, which elucidates the detailed architecture and ... By utilizing cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), CAI Gangs team provides a high-resolution view of this complex in sub- ... NuA4/Tip60 is a complex which catalyzes diverse substrates critical for gene regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression ...
This protein complex was dubbed the "evening complex" by the UCSD scientists, who verified in Arabidopsis that not only did the ... San Diego report their discovery of a protein complex they call the "evening complex" that regulates the rhythmic growth of ... Protein Complex Found to Regulate Plant Growth. *Jul 14, 2011. Farmers and other astute observers of nature have long known ... "This protein complex is clearly acting like the brakes on growth," said Kay. "So when we mutate any one of these genes the ...
Without the solid foundation supplied by this complex, which is called the Constitutive Centromere-Associated Network, the link ... Whitehead Institute researchers have determined the organization of a protein complex that is critical during chromosome ... Architecture of protein complex hints at its function in chromosome segregation. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research ... In human cells, a protein complex termed the Constitutive Centromere-Associated Network (CCAN), is critical for recruiting the ...
PROTEIN (REPLICATION PROTEIN A 32 KD SUBUNIT). A, C. 129. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RPA2, REPA2, RPA32, RPA34. ... PROTEIN (REPLICATION PROTEIN A 14 KD SUBUNIT). B, D. 121. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: RPA3, REPA3, RPA14. ... COMPLEX OF REPLICATION PROTEIN A SUBUNITS RPA14 AND RPA32. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1QUQ/pdb ... The crystal structure of the complex of replication protein A subunits RPA32 and RPA14 reveals a mechanism for single-stranded ...
We use protein and chemical superimpositions and physical tests of chemical-protein compatibility to identify the most likely ... We take a novel approach using protein-chemical interactions derived from 3D structures. The basic premise is that two proteins ... We show for a benchmark that known protein-chemical structures are reconstructed with good accuracy and sometimes via very ... We make thousands of confident predictions, including structures for known protein-drug interactions lacking a structure (e.g. ...
Emerging Proteomic Technologies: Mass Spec for Research Into Protein Complex Structure. Jan 29, 2016 ... Home » Emerging Proteomic Technologies: Mass Spec for Research Into Protein Complex Structure ... has in recent years seen increasing uptake as a tool for research into the structures of proteins and protein complexes. ...
BRIEF PROPOSAL COULD THOSE RAPIDLY EXCHANGEABLE PHOSPHOPROTEINS BE POLYPHOSPHATE-PROTEIN COMPLEXES? NORMAN W. GABEL* Phosphates ... polyphosphates in microorganisms are known to form tightly bound ionic complexes with proteins and nucleic acids [10]. One ... At the present time, interest in the function of proteins with rapidly exchangeable phosphate groups remains high, but research ... of the properties of a viable neuronal membrane would also be present in a macromolecular polyphosphate coordination complex in ...
... a large protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that plays crucial roles in the maintenance of crista junctions, ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Component of the MICOS complex, a large protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that plays crucial roles in the ... with other proteins or protein complexes.,p>,a href=/help/interaction_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Interactioni. ,p> ...
A Synaptonemal Complex Protein Promotes Homology-Independent Centromere Coupling Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Regions of synaptonemal complex assembled early in meiosis are often centromere-associated. We propose that centromere coupling ... This transition to homologous coupling depends on Spo11, a protein required for the initiation of meiotic recombination. ... These centromeric interactions depend on the synaptonemal complex component Zip1. During meiosis in wild-type diploids, ...
  • Furthermore, in vitro studies have shown that HAMLET is capable of binding the catalytic 20S subunit of the proteasome and disabling its enzymatic activity, an effect that has never before been demonstrated for any protein. (
  • Elongator is a 6 subunit protein complex highly conserved in eukaryotes. (
  • The human Elongator six-subunit complex, known as holo-Elongator, has histone acetyltransferase activity directed against histone H3 and H4 [ PMID: 11714725 , PMID: 11904415 ]. (
  • Characterization of a six-subunit holo-elongator complex required for the regulated expression of a group of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • The catalytic protein subunit, however, remained elusive. (
  • The Rpa32 Subunit of Human Replication Protein a Contains a Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Domain. (
  • ZOMES II - The COP9 signalosome, proteasome and eIF3 at the crossroads of signaling pathways October 29 - Novemebr 1, 2001, Sea of Galilee, Israel This is not a plant specific meeting, but brings together researchers using diverse systems who are studying the roles of these and other multi-subunit complexes in regulating development. (
  • Cloning and characterization of BCY1, a locus encoding a regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Although much is now known about the role of the α-subunit of the rod-specific G-protein transducin in phototransduction, the physiological function of the auxiliary βγ-complex in this process remains a mystery. (
  • Your search returned 13 actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (
  • Your search returned 14 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (
  • PP2A often functions as a standard trimeric complex with a catalytic (C) subunit (encoded by two genes in mammals) associated with one of many regulatory (or B) subunits via one of two adaptor (A) molecules ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • In contrast to PP2A, the supramolecular architecture and subunit composition of PP4 multiprotein complexes remains largely unknown. (
  • According to Marmorstein, NatA operates in a complex of two proteins, an enzymatic subunit and an auxiliary partner. (
  • When they developed the structure of NatA by bombarding a crystallized sample of the enzyme with powerful X-rays they found how the auxiliary partner protein is crucial for turning the enzymatic subunit on. (
  • Binding to an auxiliary protein causes a structural change in the enzymatic subunit that properly configures the active site of the protein the region of the protein where the chemical reaction occurs essentially acting as a switch that activates the enzyme. (
  • When it binds to its auxiliary protein, the enzymatic subunit of NatA actually changes shape, reconfiguring the structure to allow it to properly grab its target protein N-terminal sequence for acetylation," Marmorstein said. (
  • Experimental and computational studies of many regulatory complexes support the current view that they possess the intrinsic ability to undergo conformational transitions, conferred by the 3-dimensional network of interresidue interactions ( 4 - 8 ). (
  • Even at present, there exists a misconception that the interference of small molecules with protein-protein interactions is not possible, which is mainly due to the lack of understanding regarding the protein-protein interactions process. (
  • Half of the interactions are false-positive and interactions that involve membrane proteins are not detected. (
  • Molecular communication in biology is mediated by protein interactions. (
  • On the basis of closely integrated experiments and molecular simulations, we show that the interaction can be explained by the large opposite net charge of the two proteins, without requiring defined binding sites or interactions between specific individual residues. (
  • Figure 3: Dynamics, interactions, and distances in the complex. (
  • Tompa, P. & Fuxreiter, M. Fuzzy complexes: polymorphism and structural disorder in protein-protein interactions. (
  • The interactions governing this curious quaternary transition are revealed in the crystal structure of the SinI-SinR complex. (
  • Two main scattering techniques are immediately applicable to the study of protein-lipid interactions. (
  • Clifton LA, Sanders MR, Hughes AV, Neylon C, Frazier RA, Green RJ (2011) Lipid binding interactions of antimicrobial plant seed defence proteins: puroindoline-a and β-purothionin. (
  • Proteins in a protein complex are linked by non-covalent protein-protein interactions, and different protein complexes have different degrees of stability over time. (
  • Through proximity, the speed and selectivity of binding interactions between enzymatic complex and substrates can be vastly improved, leading to higher cellular efficiency. (
  • Typically, the obligate interactions (protein-protein interactions in an obligate complex) are permanent, whereas non-obligate interactions have been found to be either permanent or transient. (
  • Though, transient by nature, transient interactions are very important for cell biology: the human interactome is enriched in such interactions, these interactions are the dominating players of gene regulation and signal transduction, and proteins with intrinsically disordered regions (IDR: regions in protein that show dynamic inter-converting structures in the native state) are found to be enriched in transient regulatory and signaling interactions. (
  • Consequently, specific complexes can have ambiguous interactions, which vary according to the environmental signals. (
  • Post-translational modifications, protein interactions or alternative splicing modulate the conformational ensembles of fuzzy complexes, to fine-tune affinity or specificity of interactions. (
  • A protein's shape forms from complex interactions between the amino acids that make up the protein chain and between the amino acids and the surrounding environment. (
  • The Rosetta program used by Lu and his colleagues can predict the structure of a protein by taking into account these interactions and calculating the lowest overall energy state. (
  • Prof. CAI Gang and Prof. Jacques Côté's team reports the 4.7 Å structure of the yeast NuA4/TIP60 complex, which elucidates the detailed architecture and molecular interactions between NuA4 subunits. (
  • Hu explains the steps: "First, we design the specific interactions between gold nanoparticles and the proteins by coating the gold nanoparticles with functional organic molecules using a biocompatible linker. (
  • Here we use this principle to suggest new protein-chemical interactions via the network derived from three-dimensional structures. (
  • We take a novel approach using protein-chemical interactions derived from 3D structures. (
  • We use protein and chemical superimpositions and physical tests of chemical-protein compatibility to identify the most likely candidates among the nearly one million potential interactions. (
  • We make thousands of confident predictions, including structures for known protein-drug interactions lacking a structure (e.g. topoisomerase-2/radicicol) and many new interactions. (
  • Large biological networks have been used previously to suggest protein-protein interactions [1] , phosphorylation events [2] and most recently drug-protein interactions. (
  • The network contains many thousands of protein-protein and protein-chemical interactions, of which several hundred involve drugs. (
  • In this paper we explored this large network systematically to predict new potential protein-chemical interactions. (
  • Considering protein-chemical interactions alone would lead to many thousands of predictions including mostly false positives. (
  • From 10,842 complexes forming the network of known structures, we identified 907,827 potential interactions, of which 20,067 (including 19,578 novel structures and 489 complexes with a previously determined structure) were significant (p≤0.05). (
  • These centromeric interactions depend on the synaptonemal complex component Zip1. (
  • To date, generation of large-scale protein?protein interaction maps has relied on the yeast two-hybrid system, which detects binary interactions through activation of reporter gene expression. (
  • Numerous protein complexes were identified, including many new interactions in various signaling pathways and in the DNA damage response. (
  • Interactions with other relevant participants such as small molecules (purple), sub-complexes (yellow), and other subunits (red) are also shown. (
  • Brown DG and Freemont PS (1996) Crystallography in the study of protein‐DNA interactions. (
  • But simulating protein complexes can be challenging, especially when the interactions are fleeting-such as when signaling molecules attach and detach in a flicker. (
  • The study of cytosolic protein complexes, called systems or functional proteomics, is complicated by the challenges associated with purifying unadulterated, functional complexes, and with developing analytical methods for studying protein structure that can accommodate high molecular masses, or weak and transient protein-protein interactions. (
  • Purification methods that have been adapted for the study of protein-protein interactions include electromobility shift assays, formaldehyde crosslinking, tandem affinity purification (TAP) and coexpression purification techniques, whereas flow field‐flow fractionation (F4) has been cited as having many significant advantages over all of these. (
  • Protein complexes with transient interactions can be studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. (
  • Formaldehyde crosslinking stabilizes protein interactions during purification. (
  • b) The 14‐3‐3 proteins have been shown to accumulate in barley-powdery mildew interactions. (
  • Recently, high-throughput methods (e.g. yeast-twohybrid =-=[12,13]-=-) for detecting pairwise protein-protein interactions (PPIs) en masse have enabled the construction of PPI networks on a genomic scale. (
  • Integrate various biological evidences into the mining process Through integrating various independently obtained biological evidences, we can assess/weight the protein interactions by using appropr. (
  • A Bayesian networks approach for predicting protein-protein interactions from genomic data. (
  • as well as the conservation of the protein interactions across other genomes, etc to address the limitations in the current quality of PPI data. (
  • Four interactions, confirmed directly, were with proteins important in vesicular transport and signal transduction (the SNARE-complex protein HRS, 14-3-3, and casein kinase II). (
  • On the basis of protein interactions, LYST appears to function as an adapter protein that may juxtapose proteins that mediate intracellular membrane fusion reactions. (
  • Interactions of endogenous proteins p53 and p21 in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and H460 lung cancer cells. (
  • Dynamic interactions between protein complexes are frequent in many cellular processes. (
  • Here, we describe a method to computationally predict physical interactions between protein complexes, applied to both humans and yeast. (
  • We integrated manually curated protein complexes and physical protein interaction networks, and we designed a statistical method to identify pairs of protein complexes where the number of protein interactions between a complex pair is due to an actual physical interaction between the complexes. (
  • An evaluation against manually curated physical complex-complex interactions in yeast revealed that 50% of these interactions could be predicted in this manner. (
  • A community network analysis of the highest scoring pairs revealed a biologically sensible organization of physical complex-complex interactions in the cell. (
  • As you get random mutations, certain interactions need to be preserved to keep the function of that complex. (
  • To fully appreciate the function and regulation of these neurotransmitter receptors, we must understand their interactions with other proteins. (
  • The protein 'arranges' other protein interactions to control growth and prevent cancer. (
  • Community network analysis derived from molecular dynamics simulations is used to identify and compare the signaling pathways in a bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS):tRNA Glu and an archaeal leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS):tRNA Leu complex. (
  • Different proteins have different molecular structures, physiochemical properties, and nutritional attributes. (
  • Protein separation by this method is based on the molecular weight, as opposed to fold or charge. (
  • Factors other than the molecular weight, however, may also affect the movement of proteins on SDS gel, which was analyzed in a course group. (
  • The protein sample is first electrophoresed by using SDS page for the separation of proteins on the basis of molecular weight. (
  • If the protein spot or band was found on a gel, the next step is to determine their molecular identity. (
  • This is the most apt method for identifying the exact protein molecular weight. (
  • In Bacillus subtilis the proteins of the sin, sporulation inhibition, region form a component of an elaborate molecular circuitry that regulates the commitment to sporulation. (
  • So far, HIP complexation approach has been studied only for proteins with molecular weight of 10-20 kDa. (
  • Hence, we have selected bovine serum albumin (BSA) having higher molecular weight (66.3 kDa) as a model protein and dextran sulphate (DS) as a complexing polymer to generate HIP complex. (
  • Neutron scattering is well placed to help in both respects since it deals with molecules in large, complex, dynamic structures and can easily differentiate between different molecular species. (
  • These complexes are a cornerstone of many (if not most) biological processes and together they form various types of molecular machinery that perform a vast array of biological functions. (
  • Examples of protein complexes include the proteasome for molecular degradation and most RNA polymerases. (
  • The advance, led by molecular engineers at the University of Washington Institute for Protein Design , will enable researchers to create transmembrane proteins not found in nature to perform specific tasks. (
  • Molecular chaperones are the proteins which bind and stabilize unfolded or partially folded proteins, thereby preventing them from being degraded [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Our findings define molecular mechanisms whereby EMC1 dysfunction causes disease phenotypes through dysfunctional multipass membrane protein topogenesis. (
  • This is an entire approach to protein-complex structures based on several different computational methods," says Hendrik Szurmant, PhD , coauthor of the paper and an assistant professor of molecular and experimental medicine at the Scripps Research Institute. (
  • To determine the structures of proteins in complexes, researchers have used both homology modeling and purely physics-based molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • Then they used those points of contact to combine the two proteins in a molecular dynamics simulation. (
  • Our method brings the two proteins close together in a computationally very inexpensive way, then as a very last step the structure is refined in a molecular force field," says Szurmant. (
  • This work shows that the combination of genomics data and molecular dynamics modeling seems to be sufficient to predict protein complex structures, says Angel Garcia, PhD , professor of physics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. (
  • 2009) Fast two‐dimensional NMR spectroscopy of high molecular weight protein assemblies. (
  • Molecular Dynamics of Protein Kinase-Inhibitor Complexes: A Valid. (
  • Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations present a convenient way to study PK-inhibitor complexes and have been increasingly used in recent years in structure-based drug design. (
  • That enables them to follow and understand structure and dynamics of protein-ligand systems with extreme molecular detail on scales where motion of individual atoms can be tracked. (
  • The research results thus also give important information about the molecular basis of a pathophysiologically significant property of complex I that may be significant for the extent of tissue damage after a myocardial infarction ," explains Zickermann. (
  • Molecular model of G protein bound to guanine triphosphate (GTP). (
  • G proteins, or guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are molecular switches involved in signal transduction. (
  • Studies conducted by researchers at the Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University (ZMBH) and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) demonstrate that they already form in a coordinated way when the protein subunits are synthesised. (
  • Molecular model of an E1-ubiquitin-like protein complex. (
  • The work settles the controversy over whether the complex is a single ring that lassos two double strands of DNA or a molecular "handcuff" composed of two connected rings that each wrangle a double strand. (
  • Using biochemical, molecular, and functional studies in rodent hippocampus, we show that activation of GABA B receptors results in a decrease in KCC2 function, which is associated with a reduction in the protein at the cell surface. (
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that to understand the function and regulation of GABA B Rs requires a more complete understanding of the molecular associations that underlie GABA B R complexes in the brain. (
  • A research team led by Professor Eva Wolf, recently appointed Professor of Structural Biology at the Institute of General Botany of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and Adjunct Director at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), has for the first time identified the molecular structure of a protein complex that plays an important role in regulating the circadian rhythm. (
  • The Nuclear pore complex (NPC) has a molecular mass of approx. (
  • A study in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology , led by researchers at The Wistar Institute, depicts the structure and the means of action of a protein complex called NatA. (
  • Protein complexes are key molecular entities that integrate multiple gene products to perform cellular functions. (
  • The precise accumulation of protein functions on a nanoscale to fabricate advanced biomaterials has become possible by a bottom-up approach based on molecular self-assembly . (
  • The cytochrome b 6 f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, which is the central electron transfer and proton translocating complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, has been solved to a resolution of 3.0 A. It is a dimeric structure of 220,000 molecular weight, containing 8 polypeptide subunits, with 7 tightly bound electron transfer and pigment groups per monomer. (
  • Using Cryo-EM to understand molecular structures such as proteins, protein complexes, and protein-ribonucleic acid associations-the fundamental building blocks of life-will lead to wide scale pharmaceutical solutions for treating diseases and disorders. (
  • Moreover, studies involving allosteric proteins indicate that the ligands are responsible for structural changes that occur at protein-protein interfaces. (
  • Here we demonstrate the existence of an unexpected interaction mechanism: the two intrinsically disordered human proteins histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α associate in a complex with picomolar affinity, but fully retain their structural disorder, long-range flexibility and highly dynamic character. (
  • Changes in protein conformation can affect protein function, but methods to probe these structural changes on a global scale in cells have been lacking. (
  • Using our method, we assessed the structural features of more than 1,000 yeast proteins simultaneously and detected altered conformations for ∼ 300 proteins upon a change of nutrients. (
  • We detect structural changes in aggregation-prone proteins and show the functional relevance of one of these proteins to the metabolic switch. (
  • This approach enables probing of both subtle and pronounced structural changes of proteins on a large scale. (
  • Figure 6: Structural transition of the yeast 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 upon a switch from glucose- to ethanol-based metabolism. (
  • Structural probing of a protein phosphatase 2A network by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry. (
  • This structural similarity greatly exceeds that between SinR and any bacterial protein or between the 434 repressor proteins and their homologues in the closely related bacteriophage lambda. (
  • Fuzzy protein complexes have more than one structural form or dynamic structural disorder in the bound state. (
  • For pairs of proteins sharing a common ligand, we use protein and chemical superimpositions combined with fast structural compatibility screens to predict whether additional compounds bound by one protein would bind the other. (
  • The growth rate of confident predictions is twice that of experimental complexes, meaning that a complete structural drug-protein repertoire will be available at least ten years earlier than by X-ray and NMR techniques alone. (
  • 2014) Novel complex MAD phasing and RNase H structural insights using selenium oligonucleotides. (
  • Corn JE and Berger JM (2007) FASTDXL: a generalized screen to trap disulfide‐stabilized complexes for use in structural studies. (
  • It has been discovered that the protein folding process is guided by additional molecules directing the structural changes toward the correct native form. (
  • Now, a new method can efficiently predict the structures of transient protein complexes from a combination of genomic and structural data. (
  • With its extensive use of color, it surveys the most important proteins involved in photosynthesis, discussing the structural information we have at our disposal. (
  • SCAN first defines the structural similarity between two proteins based on their common neighbors. (
  • Two proteins are structure-reachable if their structural similarity is greater than a threshold and. (
  • Progression through mitosis depends on a large number of protein complexes that regulate the major structural and physiological changes necessary for faithful chromosome segregation. (
  • Krepel started her analysis from bacterial condensin complexes made up of five subunits, including two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins that come together as a hinge and long kleisin proteins that make up the rest of the ring. (
  • HAIFA, ISRAEL (October 8, 2018) - Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and Johns Hopkins University have developed a new method of protein synthesis that could one day be used to promote biochemical, structural and functional studies, and in the creation of new drugs. (
  • The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. (
  • Discngine, a French software company specialized in developing applications for life sciences research, on 4 Sep 2019, announces that the Danish international pharmaceutical company Lundbeck has selected its proprietary 3decision® collaborative platform to manage the pharma company's structural knowledge related to protein and ligand 3D structures. (
  • However, inconsistent data and complex analysis requirements of structural data hinder a wider uptake. (
  • Thanks to its straightforward web-based interface, it enables both expert and non-expert users to browse, analyze and communicate around complex structural knowledge. (
  • We present a prototype of a new structural classification of proteins, SCOP2 (, that we have developed recently. (
  • SCOP2 is a successor to the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP, database. (
  • Detailed functional and structural characterization of many essential complexes requires recombinant production. (
  • Recombinant approaches, such as tagged protein co-purification analysis and yeast-two hybrid screens, consist of a systematic methodology that makes them reliable to resolve the complexity challenge. (
  • Specific Role for Yeast Homologs of the Diamond Blackfan Anemia-associated Rps19 Protein in Ribosome Synthesis. (
  • Some of these factors are: Which cellular compartment the complex exists in when it is contained Which stage in the cell cycle the complexes are present The nutritional status of the cell[citation needed] Many protein complexes are well understood, particularly in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a strain of yeast). (
  • For this relatively simple organism, the study of protein complexes is now being performed genome wide and the elucidation of most protein complexes of the yeast is ongoing. (
  • Combining genetic engineering, super-resolution microscopy, and biocomputation, he was able to see a 3D "protein nanomachine" in a living yeast cell. (
  • Through a series of experiments in yeast cells, they determined the three genes produced proteins that did interact with one another, but in a specific way. (
  • In this paper, published in Nature magazine, the authors report, using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a test case, an example of this approach, which they term high-throughput mass spectrometric protein complex identification (HMS-PCI). (
  • Beginning with 10% of predicted yeast proteins as baits, they detected 3,617 associated proteins covering 25% of the yeast proteome. (
  • This diagram displays Gene Ontology terms (green) and subunits (blue) that are shared between the given macromolecular complex (black) and other yeast complexes (yellow). (
  • The yeast two‐hybrid technique is usually used to isolate transcriptional proteins from the nucleus. (
  • Auerbach D and Stagljar I (2005) Yeast two‐hybrid protein-protein interaction networks. (
  • A comprehensive two-hybrid analysis to explore the yeast protein interactome. (
  • Twenty-one proteins that interact with LYST were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens. (
  • To understand why yeast cells express two functional Tor proteins, we sought to define novel Tor1- or Tor2-specific functions. (
  • To gain a better understanding of the composition, function, and regulation of PP4, we systematically analyzed mammalian and yeast PP4C-interacting proteins. (
  • Here we report the first genome-wide screen for complexes in an organism, budding yeast, using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. (
  • However, analysis of its interaction with a large oligomeric protein complex at the sarcolemma and the identification of a structurally related protein, utrophin, is leading to the characterization of candidate genes for other neuromuscular disorders. (
  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (
  • SinR is a tetrameric repressor protein that binds to the promoters of genes essential for entry into sporulation and prevents their transcription. (
  • they are beginning to be able to READ what nuclear proteins do to the genes, starting to be sure with this common weed, the 'lab rat' for many genetics studies. (
  • Our lab cloned and sequenced the genes for two Oxytricha nova telomere end-binding proteins (TEBPs) in 1990 and 1991, but for a decade thereafter it was unclear whether humans even had corresponding proteins. (
  • More importantly, the biologists show how this protein complex is intricately coordinated through the biological clock with the genes that promote stem elongation in a way that could enable plant breeders to engineer new varieties of crops that grow faster, produce greater yields of food or generate more biomass per acre of land for conversion into biofuels. (
  • Because the three genes-Early Flowering3 (or ELF3), ELF4 and LUX-have biological activities that peak in the early evening, the UCSD biologists wondered if the three genes acted together in a protein complex. (
  • One main clue pointed them in the right direction: When any one of the three genes controlling this protein complex is disabled, plants end up with grossly elongated stems. (
  • In another set of experiments, the researchers demonstrated that the evening complex puts the brakes on the activity of two genes in plants-PIF4 and PIF5-that are important in promoting plant growth. (
  • Chromatin structure and function are modified by protein complexes, causing genes to be turned "on" or "off" and controlling other aspects of DNA function. (
  • In a study recently published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry , Meijers and collaborators from the Institute of Food Research in Norwich, U.K., show that the genes of viral enzymes that degrade the cell walls of Clostridia bacteria produce not the usual one but two proteins. (
  • Dotted along the seemingly infinite string of A, T, G and C that make up an organism's DNA, specific triplets of these letters - known as codons - indicate where the cell's machinery should start and stop when it translates the language of genes into proteins. (
  • Some genes have not one but several start codons, resulting in proteins of different lengths being produced from one gene. (
  • These genes identified distinct functional networks including those involved in protein sorting, vacuolar inheritance, and microautophagy. (
  • Purification and characterization of the human elongator complex. (
  • To meet this challenge, our book explores complementary experimental tracks, pursued by expert international research groups, aimed at the physical and functional characterization of the diverse repertoire of chromatin protein machines - namely, the "readers, writers and erasers" of epigenomic marks. (
  • Séraphin B: A generic protein purification method for protein complex characterization and proteome exploration. (
  • More importantly, characterization of lst8 Δ bypass mutants reveals a role for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the regulation of TORC2 signaling. (
  • A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains. (
  • Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes. (
  • A multiprotein complex called TREX plays a key role in expression of the genetic information. (
  • The Tor proteins form two distinct multiprotein complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. (
  • abstract = "Folding can bestow macromolecules with various properties, as evident from nature's proteins. (
  • Yet TERT seemed like an unusual oncogene, as gene rearrangements or activating mutations in the protein-coding sequence were uncommon in cancer. (
  • NuA4/Tip60 is a complex which catalyzes diverse substrates critical for gene regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) terms that describe the function of a complex, the biological process in which it participates, or its cellular location. (
  • Recently, birth defects have been observed in patients with variants in the gene encoding a member of this complex, EMC1. (
  • But how the complex gets there has been unclear," says Katja Strässer, a biochemist at LMU's Gene Center. (
  • Gene Ontology data [25]) as well as other biological information [26], may also be exploited to enhance the quality of predicted complexes. (
  • CHS results from mutations in the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) gene, which encodes a 425-kD cytoplasmic protein of unknown function. (
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (
  • To see two proteins produced from the same gene that then bind together to form a complex - that is truly unique! (
  • This study shows how two such proteins from the same gene form a complex and how the shorter protein regulates the full-length protein," says Meijers. (
  • These two proteins are both coded for by the same gene," says Meijers. (
  • In the cellular world, structure dictates function, and acetylation is a universal process for controlling protein behavior and gene expression in living organisms. (
  • In humans, the MHC class II protein complex is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen gene complex (HLA). (
  • It forms a complex with Nop14p that mediates maturation and nuclear export of 40S ribosomal subunits [ PMID: 12446671 , PMID: 15590835 , PMID: 16159874 ]. (
  • A Noc complex specifically involved in the formation and nuclear export of ribosomal 40 S subunits. (
  • The name GINS is an acronym created from the first letters of the Japanese numbers 5-1-2-3 (go-ichi-ni-san) in a reference to the 4 protein subunits of the complex: Sld5, Psf1, Psf2, and Psf3. (
  • The complex of the two smaller subunits, RPA32 and RPA14, has weak DNA-binding activity but the mechanism of DNA binding is unknown. (
  • This diagram displays the protein subunits (blue) of the complex and how they interact with each other. (
  • Note: No diagram is shown ("No shared annotations") if there are less than 2 shared annotations (either GO terms or subunits of other complexes) between this complex and any other complexes. (
  • They present a unique opportunity to address the physiological roles of individual subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins because their phototransduction cascade is mediated by a single G-protein transducin (Gt) that consists of Gtα 1 (Gtα), Gtβ 1 (Gtβ), and Gtγ 1 (Gtγ) isoforms. (
  • Until now we assumed that the subunits of the protein complexes found one another through diffusion and random encounters," states Prof. Bukau, who heads the "Biogenesis and Quality Control of Proteins" research group at the ZMBH and the Division of Chaperones and Proteases at the DKFZ. (
  • The growing protein chains are already bound by other subunits so that protein manufacture and the formation of biologically active protein complexes can be temporally and spatially coordinated. (
  • The regulatory and adaptor subunits are thought to confer substrate specificity to the complex ( 5 ). (
  • and 9 ), but whether these proteins represent bona fide regulatory subunits or phosphatase substrates and how these binding proteins may affect PP4 activity are unclear. (
  • Specifically, we have identified a self-synthesizing macrocyclic foldamer with a complex and unprecedented secondary and tertiary structure that constructs itself highly selectively from 15 identical peptide-nucleobase subunits, using a dynamic combinatorial chemistry approach. (
  • The most striking, and unexpected, finding is that the tertiary structure of the DNA-binding domain of SinR is identical with that of the corresponding domains of the repressor proteins, CI and Cro, of bacteriophage 434 that regulate lysis/lysogeny. (
  • Tom Cech and his research group are studying the structure and mechanism of long noncoding RNAs and RNA-protein complexes, including telomerase and complexes that regulate transcription. (
  • Their research also focuses on the telomeric DNA-protein complexes that cap the ends of human chromosomes and help regulate telomerase. (
  • The DNA repeats recruit proteins that cap off the chromosome ends, preventing the DNA-damage response, and these proteins also regulate telomerase action. (
  • These authors therefore conclude that TSC proteins regulate Notch activity and that Notch dysregulation may underlie some of the distinctive clinical and pathologic features of TSC. (
  • Results presented in the second study, by Hongbing Zhang and colleagues, at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, People's Republic of China, provide further evidence that TSC proteins regulate Notch activity and that Notch overactivity contributes to the tumorigenic potential of cells deficient in either TSC1 or TSC2. (
  • It seems the bacteriophage uses both proteins to regulate the activity of the endolysin," says Meijers. (
  • We find that Tor1 does not regulate the known function of the class C Vps complex in protein sorting. (
  • Protein complex analysis involves extensive interpretation of the structure and function of proteins, which are present in complex biological samples. (
  • To enable large-scale analyses of protein conformational changes directly in their biological matrices, we present a method that couples limited proteolysis with a targeted proteomics workflow. (
  • The cell is seen to be composed of modular supramolecular complexes, each of which performs an independent, discrete biological function. (
  • For example, many naturally occurring transmembrane proteins act as gateways for the movement of specific substances across a biological membrane. (
  • This protein complex was dubbed the "evening complex" by the UCSD scientists, who verified in Arabidopsis that not only did the biological activities of the three components of this protein complex peak in the evening, but so did the formation of the evening complex itself. (
  • This method might enable analysis of small biological macromolecules and complexes that are currently intractable to analyze by cryo-electron microscopy or x-ray crystallography. (
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (
  • Biological processes in cells are driven by thousands of different proteins that are assembled into functionally active protein complexes. (
  • Onuchic's group at Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) has published a series of papers that extend its theories on protein folding to the much larger genome. (
  • These proteins are responsible for most of the energy transduction and transport activities across biological membranes. (
  • Protein kinases (PKs) are key components of protein phosphorylation based signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Complexes in human eukaryotic nuclei - a target for future analysis - are similar to their more archaic counterparts. (
  • Using a combination of tandem affinity purification tagging and mass spectrometry, we characterized a novel, evolutionarily conserved protein phosphatase 4 (PP4)-containing complex (PP4cs, protein phosphatase 4, cisplatin-sensitive complex) that plays a critical role in the eukaryotic DNA damage response. (
  • MultiBac is a baculovirus/insect cell system particularly tailored for expressing eukaryotic proteins and their complexes. (
  • Unlike most organisms that only contain one Tor protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two, Tor1 and Tor2, which are thought to share all of the rapamycin-sensitive functions attributable to Tor signaling. (
  • Unlike most organisms that express only one Tor protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two highly homologous Tor proteins, Tor1 and Tor2, which are thought to share all of the rapamycin-sensitive functions attributable to Tor signaling, while only Tor2 serves a unique and essential rapamycin-insensitive role (reviewed in C respo and H all 2002 ). (
  • Functional proteomics aims to identify how proteins interact with each other and other macromolecules. (
  • Cohen S and Chait B (2001) Mass spectrometry as a tool for protein crystallography. (
  • Development of new analytical techniques has progressed considerably in recent years, with the adaptation of mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for large complexes, in particular, adaptations using the popular electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with a ToF (time‐of‐flight) analyser. (
  • The introduction of electrospray ionization made it possible to create aerosols of proteins that could be analysed by mass spectrometry. (
  • While there are a number of ways to detect protein complexes experimentally, Tandem Affnity Purification (TAP) with mass spectrometry =-=[9]-=- is the preferred experimental detection method used by many research groups. (
  • Some of the factors that affect protein complex analysis are serum proteomics, the presence of membrane protein in proteome, complexity, etc. (
  • The recent abundance of genome sequence data has brought an urgent need for systematic proteomics to decipher the encoded protein networks that dictate cellular function. (
  • Quantitative proteomics identifies proteins that resist translational repression and become dysregulated in ALS-FUS. (
  • These functional links probably help ensure that only correctly transcribed and processed mRNAs are used for protein synthesis. (
  • A major finding of our article is that the p53/p21 complex is a functional unit that can act on multiple cellular components and that prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins are targets of the p53/p21 complex. (
  • This screen identified mutations in distinctive functional categories that impaired vacuolar function, including components of the EGO/Gse and PAS complexes that reduce fitness. (
  • But until now, nobody has settled on how condensin proteins come together into their functional forms. (
  • Mammalian Far11 orthologs FAM40A/B exist in a complex with PP2A known as STRIPAK, suggesting a conserved functional association of PP2A and Far11 . (
  • The avidin- biotin interaction is widely employed in the design of functional protein self-assemblies. (
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods are used for separating and purifying peptides or proteins on the basis of charge, size, or on the whole hydrophobicity. (
  • Then we add a genetically engineered sequence of peptides, called a "tag," to the protein molecule, which acts as the binding site for the gold nanoparticles. (
  • The crystallization of proteins in complex with linear motif-containing peptides is often challenging because the energy gained upon crystal packing between symmetry mates in the crystal may be on a par with the binding energy of the protein-peptide complex. (
  • The moderate binding affinity of LM-containing peptides can hinder successful crystallization of the desired protein-peptide complex. (
  • Because linear motif-containing peptides are often unstructured alone and the energy gained upon crystal packing between symmetry mates may be on a par with the binding energy of the complex, the bona fide peptide-binding protein surface may mediate crystal packing rather than physiological LM binding. (
  • Hi, there, I need some advice on membrane protein solubilization: I was trying to soliblize a receptor protein from plasma membrane. (
  • Insertion of these proteins into the membrane depends on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC). (
  • This book was very enjoyable and informative to read and should prove to be an invaluable resource for graduate students and other scientists with interests in structure and function of membrane protein complexes, in general, and photosynthetic electron-transport phenomena, in particular. (
  • Part of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) that enables the energy-independent insertion into endoplasmic reticulum membranes of newly synthesized membrane proteins. (
  • Both types of complexes are of essential importance for the organism and malfunction leads to death. (
  • The researchers then sought to answer the question of what the physiological role of this protein complex could be in plants. (
  • The researchers suggest that gold nanoparticles might also be tailored to inactivate this enzyme complex, thereby thwarting drug-resistant TB - a research avenue they may explore in future studies. (
  • In another part of the study, the researchers used proteins found on the surface of adenovirus, a virus that causes the common cold. (
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (November 19, 2015) - Whitehead Institute researchers have revealed the architecture of a protein complex that plays a foundational role in the machine that directs chromosome segregation during cell division. (
  • A role for enhanced activation of the signaling protein Notch in tumors characterized by inactivation of either the TSC1 or the TSC2 protein has been identified by two teams of independent researchers. (
  • When the researchers tested their methods on a complex whose structure had already been determined, the prediction was in excellent agreement with the known structure. (
  • What surprised the researchers: Previous studies suggested that redox reactions and proton transport in complex I occurred spatially isolated from one another. (
  • This image shows the entire structure of a bacterial condensin complex, as computationally predicted by researchers at Rice University. (
  • Rice University researchers have discovered the structure of a key protein complex that helps DNA replicate. (
  • By x-ray analysis of the cryptochrome-period complex structure, the researchers were able to observe atomic details of the interaction between the cryptochrome and period proteins and also discovered that the zinc ion mediates this interaction. (
  • Researchers at the Technion's Schulich Faculty of Chemistry have developed innovative synthetic methods that expand the chemical toolbox and enable effective preparation of new and complex proteins. (
  • From Philadelphia and Norway, a team of researchers has determined the structure of an enzyme complex that modifies one end of most human proteins and is made at elevated levels in numerous forms of cancer. (
  • Much of the research is being performed to enhance the protein complex analysis process, which includes identifying whether the complexes are suitable for being modulated efficiently by small molecules. (
  • In another application, this new research showed that gold nanoparticles can enhance scientists' ability to decipher the structures and functionally important regions of protein molecules - the workhorses that carry out every function of living cells and whose dysfunction often leads to disease. (
  • Throughout this work, the biggest challenge was to synthesize size-controllable nanoparticles coated with organic molecules designed to react with specific protein sites. (
  • Though not always considered as such, the database of protein three-dimensional (3D) structures is also a large network, where links are physical associations between molecules within structurally determined complexes. (
  • This table lists all participants of the complex (proteins, small molecules, nucleic acids, etc.) and their respective stoichiometry. (
  • Only a certain subset of cellular proteins undergo the folding process accompanied by the chaperonins, which are large protein constructs which directly facilitate the protein folding process with participation of ATP molecules. (
  • Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are primordial and abundant molecules expressed in all cells. (
  • First, the DNA sequence that specifies the structure and function of each protein is transcribed into molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), a process called transcription. (
  • This was shown using the example of protein side chain flexibility and binding relevant water molecules. (
  • Obviously, this is a particularly appealing drug target and we are currently leveraging our recent understanding of how the protein works to develop small molecules that will bind to and inactivate NatA. (
  • The Marmorstein laboratory has proven expertise in the study of acetylation enzymes, proteins that modify other molecules in the cell with an acetyl group "tag. (
  • The structure has yielded targets for small molecules that will act as inhibitors, essentially stopping the protein by gumming up its structure. (
  • Background: Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) molecules are heterodimeric, transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. (
  • Prior to being displayed on the cell membrane, MHC class II molecules are loaded with exogenous peptide antigens approximately 15-24 amino acids in length that were derived from endocytosed extracellular proteins digested in the lysosome (2). (
  • Until now complex folded molecules are the product either of evolution or of an elaborate process of design and synthesis. (
  • A. Shiber, K. Döring, U. Friedrich, K. Klann, D. Merker, M. Zedan, F. Tippmann, G. Kramer and B. Bukau: Cotranslational assembly of protein complexes in eukaryotes revealed by ribosome profiling. (
  • Hamlet has been shown to bind with high affinity to individual histone proteins, to be specific H2a, H2b, H3, and H4, as well as entire nucleosomal units . (
  • Some telomeric proteins bind double-stranded regions of the telomeric DNA, while others bind the single-stranded DNA 'tail' at the very end of the chromosome. (
  • Finally, we incubate the nanoparticles with the protein solution to allow the nanoparticles and proteins to bind, transfer the solution onto a transmission electron microscopy grid, and analyze the complexes using state-of-the-art electron microscopes. (
  • By binding simultaneously to both RNAPII and the growing RNA, the complex presumably helps the cell to keep long mRNAs in the vicinity of the CTD - to which proteins involved in the processing of nascent transcripts also bind. (
  • They are known to bind other proteins in other plants (and animals). (
  • Linear motifs normally bind with only medium binding affinity ( K d of ∼0.1-10 µ M ) to shallow protein-interaction surfaces on their binding partners. (
  • In some cases like those involving ion channels (considered as the reliable target class earlier), the process of directing the compounds against individual proteins has not been possible whereas hist is implemented in many other cases. (
  • Many compounds that had been developed to act against individual proteins are now being implemented in acting against other targets. (
  • Individual proteins can participate in the formation of a variety of different protein complexes. (
  • Purification of protein complexes is more difficult than that of individual proteins. (
  • Krepel pieced the puzzle together by combining and comparing existing data about the atomic structures and genetic sequences of the individual proteins. (
  • We show for a benchmark that known protein-chemical structures are reconstructed with good accuracy and sometimes via very different proteins and chemicals. (
  • 125 KDa in vertebrates and contains about 50 or more different proteins. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Crystallogenesis of protein-DNA complexes is favoured by careful choice of the sequence and the terminal bases and/or base pairs of the DNA target. (
  • The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple homologs. (
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (
  • FKRP patients have reduced glycosylation of the extracellular protein dystroglycan, and FKRP itself shows sequence similarity to glycosyltransferases, implicating FKRP in the processing of dystroglycan. (
  • Pfam is a comprehensive collection of protein domains and families, represented as multiple sequence alignments and as profile hidden Markov models. (
  • The structures came from available X-ray crystallography of protein fragments, and sequence information through direct coupling analysis (DCA), a statistics-based program introduced by Onuchic and his colleagues in 2011 that compares amino acid residues in proteins that coevolve. (
  • According to Marmorstein, NatA works with an amazing specificity for a particular sequence of amino acids the individual building blocks of proteins and unraveling the roots of that specificity has proven an alluring puzzle for scientists. (
  • New approaches to study posttranslational modifications, and adaptation of detection methods for quantitative analyses, are also being used to advance the study of protein complexes. (
  • Gómez-Márquez, J. & Rodríguez, P. Prothymosin α is a chromatin-remodelling protein in mammalian cells. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Mass spec-based analysis has in recent years seen increasing uptake as a tool for research into the structures of proteins and protein complexes. (
  • The elucidation of these processes will advance our understanding of e.g. protein-protein interaction, ligand recognition, product-substrate channeling, posttranslational modifications, up to the formation of supramolecular complexes and their spatial positioning within the cell. (
  • We have prepared and optimized the HIP complex formation process of BSA with DS. (
  • Protein complex formation sometimes serves to activate or inhibit one or more of the complex members and in this way, protein complex formation can be similar to phosphorylation. (
  • Component of the MICOS complex, a large protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane that plays crucial roles in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane. (
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease characterized by the formation of benign tumors in multiple organs. (
  • The formation of a NPC1-NPC2 protein-protein complex is believed to be necessary for the transfer of cholesterol and lipids out of the late endosomal (LE)/lysosomal (Lys) compartments. (
  • The formation of protein complexes is a highly organised process that does not begin with the "finished" proteins. (
  • This ensures efficient complex formation, according to Dr Shiber, the lead author of the study. (
  • We assume that the formation of this cryptochrome-period protein complex provides a mechanism by which the circadian clock interacts with the metabolism, while the zinc ion and the disulfide bond play an important role in regulating the stability of the complex," summarized Wolf. (
  • The method was demonstrated by the synthesis of a copper storage protein (CSP1) and in the reaction of ubiquitinated proteins for the formation of a strong (covalent) complex of nucleosome-enzyme. (
  • Second, they showed that a protein complex, which consists of Kibra, Merlin, and Expanded, regulates Hippo signaling by targeting the Wts protein, and these proteins cooperate with each other to suppress tumor formation. (
  • Herein we assessed how the spatial arrangement of the avidin- biotin interaction between protein building blocks affects the formation of a protein supramolecular complex (PSC). (
  • The histone protein CENP-A is the epigenetic mark for centromeres, but CENP-A nucleosomes can be sparsely integrated throughout the chromosome without recruiting a kinetochore. (
  • It is now possible to create complex, custom-designed transmembrane proteins from scratch, scientists report this week. (
  • In the living world, transmembrane proteins are found embedded in the membrane of all cells and cellular organelles. (
  • Some transmembrane proteins receive or transmit cell signals. (
  • Because of such roles, many drugs are designed to target transmembrane proteins and alter their function. (
  • But understanding how transmembrane proteins are put together and how they work has proved challenging. (
  • Because they act while embedded within the cellular membrane, transmembrane proteins have proven to be more difficult to study than proteins that operate in the watery solution that make up the cells' cytoplasm or in the extracellular fluid. (
  • Determining the structure of transmembrane proteins is difficult because portions of transmembrane proteins must pass though the membrane's interior, which is made of oily fats called lipids. (
  • Interestingly, other transmembrane proteins were mislocalized upon emc1 depletion, providing insight into additional patient phenotypes. (
  • 26S proteasomes are activated in response to large quantities of unfolded HAMLET protein in the cytoplasm, but degradation of HAMLET by the proteasome is unusually slow. (
  • 2009) Affinity purification strategy to capture human endogenous proteasome complexes diversity and to identify proteasome interacting proteins. (
  • The biochemical fractionation approach is an option for affinity purification based on a protein. (
  • Figure 2: ProTα and H1 form an electrostatically driven high-affinity complex. (
  • Techniques for protein complex purification include methods such as formaldehyde crosslinking and tandem affinity purification. (
  • A modification of the Western blot, called a gel overlay assay, is used to detect proteins with binding affinity for one another. (
  • Upon binding, the tRNA induces conformational changes throughout the protein:tRNA interface and within the catalytic site ( 2 ). (
  • Protein interfaces have conformational flexibility in constitutive complex too. (
  • Figure 3: Global analysis of protein conformational changes. (
  • The role of protein conformational fluctuations in allostery, function, and evolution. (
  • Proteus in the world of proteins: conformational changes in protein kinases. (
  • Heyduk, T. Measuring protein conformational changes by FRET/LRET. (
  • Even proteins that are disordered under physiological conditions or that contain large unstructured regions commonly interact with well-structured binding sites on other biomolecules. (
  • Telomerase is a fascinating biochemical system because a large DNA-protein complex (the chromosome end) must interact productively with an RNA-protein complex (telomerase). (
  • In aqueous fluids, amino acid residues that have polar sidechains - components that can have a charge under certain physiological conditions or that participate in hydrogen bonding -- tend to be located on the surface of the protein where they can interact with water, which has negatively and positively side charges to its molecule. (
  • ELF3 served as a docking protein that brought together ELF4 and LUX, but the latter two did not interact with each other without ELF3's help. (
  • The zone where two proteins interact presents a possible target for drug design. (
  • The goal of this study was to identify proteins that interact with LYST as a first step in understanding how LYST modulates lysosomal exocytosis. (
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation is a highly conserved, essential regulatory mechanism involved in a host of cellular processes. (
  • HAMLET cells and cells under conditions of amino acid starvation (a known initiator of macroautophagy) showed similar expression patterns of autophagocytotic proteins and responded equally well to addition of macroautophagy inhibitors. (
  • High-resolution X-ray crystallographic data exist for many PKs and, in many cases, these structures are co-complexed with inhibitors. (
  • Recent data on the location of quinone analogue inhibitors define its pathway of transfer through the internal labyrinthine structure of the b 6 f complex [Ann. (
  • The cytochrome bc complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains are hetero-oligomeric integral membrane proteins. (
  • Protein complex dynamics orchestrate biochemical processes at all stages of life. (
  • Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling. (
  • But without knowing the position of every molecule in the complex, there is no way to completely understand its function and dynamics. (
  • Characterizing the effect of population heterogeneity on evolutionary dynamics on complex networks. (
  • One method of separating microbiological polyphosphate from proteins and nucleic acids is digestion of the sample in strongly basic solutions [H]. This is the same procedure which is followed in the removal of phosphate from mammalian phosphoproteins [4, 12]. (
  • The human Na + /H + exchanger 1 is a membrane scaffold protein for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. (
  • The binding of the p53/p21 complex to its targets may depend on various factors, including subcellular localization of p53 and p21, cellular physiology, and extracellular stressors. (
  • Furthermore, for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) the protein-peptide docking surface is comprised of a small hydrophobic surface patch that is often engaged in the crystal packing of apo ERK2 crystals. (
  • Many of the proteins in food are enzymes that are able to improve a certain number of biochemical reactions. (
  • The selective conversion of this information into the set of proteins required to carry out the biochemical functions of each cell is a highly complex, multistep process. (
  • Protein complexes enact most biochemical functions in the cell. (
  • Biochemical analyses revealed that mouse muscle FKRP and dystroglycan co-enrich and co-fractionate, indicating that FKRP coexists with dystroglycan in the native dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. (
  • As they requested, we have presented coimmunoprecipitation data showing endogenous p53-p21 protein interaction in IMR-32 and H460 cells ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • No coimmunoprecipitation experiments documenting endogenous p53:p21 protein interaction were performed. (
  • Methods for isolation of a complex for study include in vitro reconstitution, coexpression and endogenous complex purification. (
  • One universal mechanism relies on signal amplification via intracellular cascades mediated by heterotrimeric G-proteins. (
  • We conclude that Tor1 is more effective than Tor2 at providing rapamycin-sensitive Tor signaling under conditions of amino acid limitation, and that an intact class C Vps complex is required to mediate intracellular amino acid homeostasis for efficient Tor signaling. (
  • Many of the techniques used to break open cells and isolate proteins are inherently disruptive to such large complexes, so it is often difficult to determine the components of a complex. (
  • This formula offers a superior quality stack of complete isolate proteins and added micronized BCAAs and Glutamine. (
  • HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces cell death in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. (
  • It has been shown that HAMLET binds to the cell surface and rapidly invades cells, with tumor cells taking up far more protein than healthy, differentiated cells. (
  • The mechanism of its entry is poorly understood, but recent studies indicate that the oleic acid in the HAMLET complex interacts with phosphatidylserine and o-glycosylated mucin on the plasma membrane, both of which are expressed in greater amounts on the plasma membrane of tumor cells, possibly providing for HAMLET's specificity. (
  • Protein structure determination in living cells by in-cell NMR spectroscopy. (
  • GINS is a protein complex essential to the DNA replication process in the cells of eukaryotes. (
  • This breakthrough paves the way for inspiring future discoveries, such as the live observation of how viruses use protein complexes to infect cells. (
  • Hi everybody, I have expressed a recombinant mouse protein, p97, in High Five insect cells using Gibco's baculovirus protocol. (
  • One is my recombinant fusion protein, MBP-p97, the other is the native p97 from the insect cells. (
  • In human cells, a protein complex termed the Constitutive Centromere-Associated Network (CCAN), is critical for recruiting the kinetochore to a specific point on each chromosome. (
  • In parallel, by studying all sixteen CCAN proteins biochemically, McKinley was able to refine the relationships seen in cells and establish how each individual subcomplex touches the others. (
  • Levels of the p53-p21 complex elevated upon γ-irradiation of H460 cells, consistent with the ability of γ-irradiation to increase p53 and p21 levels. (
  • Proteins are vital components of the living cell from which organelles are built into cells, muscles, and more, and the ability of the Technion-Johns Hopkins team to create them artificially could dramatically affect such endeavors. (
  • Modifying protein structures is one way that our cells control how proteins function," Marmorstein explained, "and enzymes in the NAT family modify nearly 85 percent of human proteins, and 50 percent of these are modified by NatA. (
  • Marmorstein says, understanding the structure of NatA has allowed his team to better understand how to inactivate the protein in cancer cells. (
  • Background: CD40, also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5 (TNFRSF5), is a type I transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of B cells and professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, as well as on several non-hematopoietic cell types and cancers (1-4). (
  • Interaction of overexpressed p53 and p21 proteins in p53-null H1299 cells correlated with decreased cell invasion. (
  • Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal . (
  • A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (
  • Furthermore, polyphosphates in microorganisms are known to form tightly bound ionic complexes with proteins and nucleic acids [10]. (
  • A large number of crystal screens are now commercially available, including those designed for crystallisation of protein-nucleic acid complexes. (
  • Although large protein complexes provide more insight to native function, it has been difficult to stabilize and crystallize these structures. (
  • however, especially for the focus on large protein complexes, one technique is simply superior to the others: cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). (
  • Previously, we demonstrated that the p53/p21 complex promotes Mdm2-dependent Slug ubiquitination and degradation ( 7 ). (
  • This complex initiates a cascade that tags proteins for degradation. (
  • Although contact maps based on the static structure of the complex give an initial approximation to the physical communication network, the inclusion of dynamical correlations provides a more accurate picture of the network topology and approximates the strength of the allosteric signal that can be related to experimental observations. (
  • Though recent protein complex analysis methods are efficient in identifying the structure and of protein complex, there are some limiting factors. (
  • Eftink, M.R. Fluorescence techniques for studying protein structure. (
  • Ilari, A. & Savino, C. Protein structure determination by x-ray crystallography. (
  • Pelton, J.T. & McLean, L.R. Spectroscopic methods for analysis of protein secondary structure. (
  • Probing protein structure by limited proteolysis. (
  • Again the ability to deuterate proteins and lipids enables SANS to resolve the inner structure of big, dynamic, lipid-protein complexes. (
  • Protein complexes are a form of quaternary structure. (
  • However, some proteins can't be found to create a stable well-folded structure alone, but can be found as a part of a protein complex which stabilizes the constituent proteins. (
  • In the new study, Lu and his coworkers used a computer program, developed in the Baker lab and called Rosetta, that can predict the structure a protein will fold into after it has been synthesized. (
  • The architecture of a protein is crucial because a protein's structure determines its function. (
  • As a result, the interaction between the water-loving and water-fearing residues of the protein and the surrounding watery fluids helps drive protein folding and stabilizes the protein's final structure. (
  • At the present time, interest in the function of proteins with rapidly exchangeable phosphate groups remains high, but research into the structure of this highenergy phosphate bond has dropped to a low level. (
  • The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity distribution. (
  • An x-ray diffraction structure of that complex has since been published, confirming many aspects of the prediction. (
  • Although this valuable information confirms the precise structure of PKs and their complexes, it ignores the dynamic movements of the structures which are relevant to explain the affinities and selectivity of the ligands, to characterize the thermodynamics of the solvated complexes, and to derive predictive models. (
  • This study presents the 3-D atomic structure of the complete C. tyrobutyricum endolysin bound to a smaller protein called cell-wall bound domain, or CBD - the structure of which was solved by the group in 2014 . (
  • The structure of the largest protein complex in the respiratory chain, that of mitochondrial complex I, has been elucidated by scientists from the Frankfurt "Macromolecular Complexes" cluster of excellence, working together with the University of Freiburg, by X-ray diffraction analysis. (
  • The Rice lab of José Onuchic has determined the structure of the condensin protein complex. (
  • Their work is the first step toward understanding the activity of proteins over the structure of chromosomes throughout mitosis and all phases of the cell life cycle. (
  • Condensin is a member of a family of proteins that have an important role in DNA organization, but little was known about its full structure until now. (
  • It's easier to crystallize one protein, but it's very difficult to figure out the structure of this entire complex. (
  • That's why it was ideal to look at coevolution, which lets us get information about the complex even if we don't have the structure. (
  • hree-dimensional structure of the mouse cryptochrome-period clock protein complex. (
  • Together with another clock protein called period they form a complex, the structure of which has just been determined by Wolf's team. (
  • The NPC is in turn anchored in the NE by the nuclear lamina, a meshwork of lamins and lamin-associated proteins that forms a 15 nm thick fibrous structure between the inner nuclear membrane and peripheral chromatin. (
  • Structure of palmitoylated BET3: insights into TRAPP complex assembly and membrane localization. (
  • The structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. (
  • Here, the structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. (
  • SCOP2 prototype: a new approach to protein structure mining. (
  • Among the 7 prosthetic groups, three, a chlorophyll, a beta-carotene, and a unique c-type cytochrome, are unique in terms of their structure or placement in the complex. (
  • Determine three-dimensional structure of protein complexes, aggregates and large virus assemblies. (
  • We tricked the milk bacteria into producing the endolysin and the CBD for us, but these proteins remain trapped inside the bacterial cell," explains Meijers. (
  • The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The enzymatic site-specific internal labeling of a symmetric protein scaffold, bacterial alkaline phosphatase (AP), with specifically designed biotinylation substrates revealed that the precise positioning of the biotinylation sites on AP and the linker flexibility of the substrate are critical factors for the growth of PSCs in the presence of streptavidin ( SA ). (
  • Thus, it remains an open question whether Gtβγ is required for effective signal amplification in intact rods, and the physiological role of the Gtβγ complex in vision is still unclear. (
  • Together with a complex variety of behavioral, physiological, morphological, and neurobiological innovations, mammals are characterized by the development of an extensive isocortex (also called neocortex) that is both laminated and radially organized, as opposed to the brain of birds and. (
  • GABA B receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate inhibitory synaptic actions through a series of downstream target proteins. (
  • It is increasingly appreciated that the GABA B receptor forms part of larger signaling complexes, which enable the receptor to mediate multiple different effects within neurons. (
  • Rogers JV, McMahon C, Baryshnikova A, Hughson FM, Rose MD. ER-associated retrograde SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex mediate an alternative, Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion pathway. (
  • C. Chrysostomou and H. Seker, "Construction of protein dendrograms based on amino acid indices and discrete fourier transform," in Proceedings of the 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC '14) , pp. 816-819, IEEE Computer Society, 2014. (
  • Prothymosin α: a biologically active protein with random coil conformation. (
  • Our findings fundamentally alter our understanding of how biologically active protein complexes form in the cell," reports Prof. Dr Bernd Bukau. (
  • We investigated the NPC1(NTD)-NPC2 protein-protein complex computationally using two putative binding interfaces. (
  • For this research, the scientists attached gold nanoparticles to an enzyme complex that helps drug-resistant tuberculosis bacteria survive, which has been studied by Brookhaven Lab biologist Huilin Li. (
  • EWG scientists reviewed Kiss my Face Oat Protein Complex, SPF 18 (old formulation) for safety according to the methodology outlined in our Skin Deep Cosmetics Database. (
  • Until recently, scientists have had to engineer and crystalize proteins in order to reconstruct and visualize them via X-ray crystallography. (
  • In stable complexes, large hydrophobic interfaces between proteins typically bury surface areas larger than 2500 square Ås. (
  • With the advent of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric protein identification methods, it is feasible to identify directly protein complexes on a proteome-wide scale. (
  • MRNIP/C5orf45 Interacts with the MRN Complex and Contributes to the DNA Damage Response. (
  • In doing so, it interacts with the transcription machinery and recruits mRNA exporter proteins to the mRNA that transport the mRNAs to the cytoplasm. (
  • We show that Far11 , a member of the Far3-7-8-9-10-11 complex involved in pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest, interacts with Tpd3 and Pph21 , conserved components of PP2A, and deletions of components of the Far3-7-8-9-10-11 complex and PP2A rescue growth defects in lst8 Δ and tor2 -21 mutants. (