The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-positive, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacteria in the family BACILLACEAE.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The conversion of uncharged TRANSFER RNA to AMINO ACYL TRNA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the terminal amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination process is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (1/24808)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (2/24808)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (3/24808)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (4/24808)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (5/24808)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (6/24808)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (7/24808)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (8/24808)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

A new technique developed at UC Davis may have broken the barrier to rapid assembly of pure protein synthesis machinery outside of living cells.
The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate how genome engineering might be used to generate Escherichia coli strains with increased capacities for recombinant protein production. As translation constitute a possible bottleneck in recombinant production processes [Mahalik et. al, 2014] this work focused on evaluating and increasing translational capacities in E. coli. Two methods were used to evaluate translational capacities in E. coli: 1. Two plasmid reporter systems were established to investigate levels of ribosome expression. These plasmids carried red fluorescent protein genes (mCherry), under control of ribosomal promoters. Levels of expression of ribosomal constituents were evaluated by measuring fluorescence from strains carrying reporter plasmids.. 2. Exponential phase growth rates were used to assess translational capacities. Protein synthesis is generally the growth rate limiting factor during exponential phases, and a positive linear correlation between growth rates and ...
Upon EV-A71 infection of a host cell, EV-A71 RNA is translated into a viral polyprotein. Although EV-A71 can use the cellular translation machinery to produce viral proteins, unlike cellular translation, which is cap-dependent, the viral RNA genome of EV-A71 does not contain a 5′ cap and the translation of EV-A71 protein is cap-independent, which is mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ UTR of EV-A71 mRNA. Like many other eukaryotic viruses, EV-A71 manipulates the host cell translation devices, using an elegant RNA-centric strategy in infected cells. During viral translation, viral RNA plays an important role in controlling the stage of protein synthesis. In addition, due to the cellular defense mechanism, viral replication is limited by down-regulating translation. EV-A71 also utilizes protein factors in the host to overcome antiviral responses or even use them to promote viral translation rather than host cell translation. In this review, we provide an introduction
Abstract: The development of cancer is a consequence of mutations that lead to dysfunctional cell processes such as unrestrained cell proliferation resistance to apoptosis and improper regulation of cell processes such as translation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are linked to specific gene expression events regulated by protein synthesis which begins with the binding of various eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) to mRNA and ribosomes to initiate translation. eIF4G-1 catalyzes two types of translation initiation. Cap-dependent translation requires eIF4E to bind a 5-methylated mRNA cap and eIF4G-1. This in turn facilitates recruitment and promotes translation of cell cycle and growth-related proteins. Cap-independent translation initiates internally through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) in the 5 UTR of mRNA and promotes translation of apoptotic mRNAs such as Apaf-1. Previous studies found that eight variants of eIF4G-1 mRNA exist and five protein isoforms can be resolved by ...
There is extensive evidence that the structurally complex, negatively charged GAG side chains of HSPGs are crucial for signaling by diverse secreted ligands, including BMPs. Although the distribution of HSPGs is generally assumed to be ubiquitous, our data showing that GAGs are absent in the first three hours after egg laying but are rapidly synthesized thereafter demonstrates that HSPG expression can, in fact, be precisely temporally regulated. We have shown that this regulation results from an absence of enzymes essential for HSPG synthesis, owing to a block to their translation. Furthermore, our data strongly support the notion that the translational control mechanism involves the use of developmentally regulated internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in mRNA 5′ UTRs. Translationally blocking GAG synthesis may enable generation of the Dpp/Scw activity gradient in the absence of GAGs, while permitting rapid GAG synthesis from the abundant maternal mRNA supply coincident with the expression of ...
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Aims: Rational use of antibiotics against the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: Repositioning and repurposing adequate antibiotics to cure the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Background: It is widely accepted that viral infections such as the SARS-CoV-2 cannot be cured by antibiotics, whereas bacterial infections can. It is because the SARS-CoV-2 virus has no protein synthesis machinery (usually targeted by antibiotics) to produce from its RNA genome, the viral proteins and enzymes essential for its replication and/or for the assembly of viral particles. However, the antibiotics must be capable of inhibiting the ribosomes of the protein synthesis machinery of the SARS-CoV-2-infected human host cells, in order to prevent them from synthesizing new proteins that they do not need, but are needed for the virus to spread. Unfortunately, the only antibiotic capable of selectively inhibiting the human 80S ribosomes, namely cycloheximide, was found to
Deregulation of translational control can promote cellular transformation. Protein synthesis and the expression of components of the translation machinery are elevated in cancers and contribute to tumorigenesis (1-5, 7). Here, we show that nuclear ErbB2 promotes binding of RNA Pol I to rDNA, co-occupies the rRNA gene with β-actin and RNA Pol I, and stimulates rRNA production and protein translation independently of traditional ErbB2 downstream PI3-K and ERK signalings, suggesting that nuclear ErbB2 may contribute to oncogenesis by upregulating total cellular translation. rRNA synthesis by RNA Pol I plays a critical role in production of mature ribosomes that are central protein synthesis machinery of the cells. Perturbation of RNA Pol I activity as well as rRNA and protein biosynthesis (i.e., translation control) by oncoproteins such as Myc or tumor suppressors p53, RB, and ADP ribosylation factor has been reported to be associated with tumor development (1, 2, 7-10). The capability of Myc to ...
Localization of the cytoplasmic translation and mitochondrial import machinery relative to newly-made mitochondrial transcripts. Cells were grown in BrU for 30
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrically stimulated contraction accelerates protein synthesis rates in adult feline cardiocytes. AU - Ivester, C. T.. AU - Kent, R. L.. AU - Tagawa, H.. AU - Tsutsui, Hiroyuki. AU - Imamura, T.. AU - Cooper IV, G.. AU - McDermott, P. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Cardiocytes were induced to contract via electrical field stimulation with an 8 V/cm electrical square-wave pulse of 5 ms at 0.125-2.0 Hz for up to 6 h. Protein synthesis rates were measured as rate of incorporation of [3H]- phenylalanine into total cell protein. Rates of protein synthesis were accelerated 43 ± 4%, P , 0.001, by 4 h. The acceleration of total protein synthesis showed a frequency dependence between 0.125 and 0.5 Hz. In addition to accelerating rates of total protein synthesis, electrical stimulation of contraction accelerated fractional rates of synthesis of myosin heavy chain by 42 ± 8%, P , 0.05. Protein synthesis rates were not accelerated upon electrical stimulation using subthreshold ...
Several control mechanisms of eukaryotic gene expression target the initiation step of mRNA translation. The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) followed by an energy-dependent, sequential ‘scanning’ of the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Scanning through the 5′UTR requires the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A and its efficiency contributes to the specific rate of protein synthesis. Thus, understanding the molecular details of the scanning mechanism remains a priority task for the field. Here, we studied the effects of inhibiting ATP-dependent translation and eIF4A in cell-free translation and reconstituted initiation reactions programmed with capped mRNAs featuring different 5′UTRs. An aptamer that blocks eIF4A in an inactive state away from mRNA inhibited translation of capped mRNA with the
A technique for image alignment with global translation and linear stretch determines translation parameters for three corresponding linearly displaced blocks in a reference image and a corresponding distorted test image. From the differences between the translation parameters for the three blocks the presence of stretch is detected and, if detected, a stretch factor is estimated. The estimated stretch factor is used as a starting point to stretch the reference image to overlap the distorted test image as a refinement process. The resulting refined stretch factor is then used in a reverse stretch process to shrink the distorted test image, and the distorted test image is then aligned with the reference image to obtain picture quality metrics.
Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B) that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA
Quiescence (G0) represents an assortment of reversible, cell cycle-arrested states that are resistant to unfavorable conditions and associated with cancer persistence. G0 involves regulated gene expression with selective mRNA expression and decreased canonical translation. Low mTOR activity in G0 activates the cap complex inhibitor, eIF4EBP, and impairs canonical translation. The alternative translation mechanisms in G0 remain to be uncovered. Our data show that microRNAs, regulatory, non-coding RNAs that target distinct mRNAs to alter gene expression, can associate with alternative complexes and translation factors to regulate specific mRNA translation in G0. One subset of transcripts expressed in G0 includes specific mRNAs recruited by an FXR1a-associated microRNP (microRNA-protein complex) for translation activation in G0 mammalian cells. MicroRNPs predominantly mediate repression and downregulation; however, FXR1a-microRNP lacks conventional microRNP repressors, and instead, contains a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Translation-independent circadian control of the cell cycle in a unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote. AU - Miyagishima, Shin Ya. AU - Fujiwara, Takayuki. AU - Sumiya, Nobuko. AU - Hirooka, Shunsuke. AU - Nakano, Akihiko. AU - Kabeya, Yukihiro. AU - Nakamura, Mami. N1 - Funding Information: We thank A. Yamashita for technical support and K. Fukaya and BSIs Research Resources Center of RIKEN for LC-MS/MS analyses. This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (no. 19870033 to S.-y.M.) and by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) (to S.-y.M.).. PY - 2014/5/8. Y1 - 2014/5/8. N2 - Circadian rhythms of cell division have been observed in several lineages of eukaryotes, especially photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes. However, the mechanism underlying the circadian regulation of the cell cycle and the nature of the advantage conferred remain ...
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR results in an increase in transcription of ER-resident proteins that facilitate protein folding in the ER. A key regulatory step in UPR activation is the regulated splicing of HAC1 mRNA, which encodes Hac1p, a transcription factor dedicated to this pathway. Hac1p can be detected only when the spliced form of HAC1 mRNA (termed HAC1i mRNA, for induced) is produced; this was surprising because the unspliced HAC1u mRNA (HAC1u for uninduced) is equally stable in cells.. ...
A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) stores translation entries. The translation entries include a virtual address, a physical address and a memory local/not-local flag. When a processor is in a low power/local memory mode a virtual address is received. A matching translation entry has a local/not-local flag. Upon the local/not-local flag indicating the physical address of the matching translation entry being outside the local memory, an out-of-access-range memory access exception is generated.
Learn about DNA Delivery and Protein Synthesis. Topics cover DNA delivery, screening of recombinant clones, protein synthesis machinery, and expression systems.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation is an important element of gene expression that can be modulated by alterations in translation, such as reductions in initiation or elongation rates. Reducing translation initiation strongly affects mRNA degradation by driving mRNA toward the assembly of a decapping complex, leading to decapping. While mRNA stability decreases as a consequence of translational inhibition, in apparent contradiction several external stresses both inhibit translation initiation and stabilize mRNA. A key difference in these processes is that stresses induce multiple responses, one of which stabilizes mRNAs at the initial and rate-limiting step of general mRNA decay. Because this increase in mRNA stability is directly induced by stress, it is independent of the translational effects of stress, which provide the cell with an opportunity to assess its response to changing environmental conditions. After assessment, the cell can store mRNAs, reinitiate their translation or, ...
Every protein in a cell is produced from a transiently synthesized messenger molecule, termed mRNA. This mRNA is then recognized by a cellular machinery that translates the base sequence of mRNA into its corresponding protein (which is a sequence of amino acids). This protein synthesis machinery, termed ribosome, is actually a ribozyme, i.e. it is a catalytically active assembly of several RNA molecules. Consequently, RNAs do not only serve as messenger molecules or perform structural functions as e.g. in tRNA but may also act as catalysts that perform biochemical reactions as is the case for protein enzymes. Of course, the ribosome also contains numerous proteins as it is a very complex ribonucleoprotein particle but these predominantly serve structural functions, e.g. to give the ribosome its shape. Fascinatingly, the initial analysis of the human genome sequence revealed that, apparently, only a very small fraction of the DNA of our genome is encoding proteins. Scientists at first thought ...
To gain preferential access to the protein synthesis machinery and to disrupt induction of antiviral responses by infected cell many viruses block host gene expression. This blockade is called host shutoff and it is mediated by viral factors that either destroy host messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or interfere with their synthesis. Influenza A virus (IAV) encodes…
Gene expression in human tissue has primarily been studied on the transcriptional level, largely neglecting translational regulation. Here, we analyze the translatomes of 80 human hearts to identify new translation events and quantify the effect of translational regulation. We show extensive translational control of cardiac gene expression, which is orchestrated in a process-specific manner. Translation downstream of predicted disease-causing protein-truncating variants appears to be frequent, suggesting inefficient translation termination. We identify hundreds of previously undetected microproteins, expressed from lncRNAs and circRNAs, for which we validate the protein products in vivo . The translation of microproteins is not restricted to the heart and prominent in the translatomes of human kidney and liver. We associate these microproteins with diverse cellular processes and compartments and find that many locate to the mitochondria. Importantly, dozens of microproteins are translated from ...
Eukaryotic cells respond to unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), amino acid starvation, or oxidants by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). This adaptation inhibits general protein synthesis while promoting translation and express …
By using a systemic mtEF4 gene knockout mouse model, researchers from the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that mtEF4 knockout damages the oxidative phosphorylation function in germ cells of male mice, thus causing male sterility.
In mammals, such as humans, DNA contains genetic instructions that are transcribed-or copied-into RNA. While DNA remains in the cells nucleus, RNA carries the copies of genetic information to the rest of the cell by way of various combinations of amino acids, which it delivers to ribosomes. The ribosomes link the amino acids together to form proteins that then carry out functions within the human body. The viral RNA is sneaky: its features cause the protein synthesis machinery of our cells to mistake it for RNA produced by our own DNA. COVID-19 enters the body through the nose, mouth, or eyes and attaches to our cells. Once the virus is inside our cells, it releases its RNA. Our hijacked cells serve as virus factories, reading the viruss RNA and making long viral proteins to compromise the immune system. The virus assembles new copies of itself and spreads to more parts of the body and-by way of saliva, sweat, and other bodily fluids-to other humans. RNA research at the University of Rochester
HIV causes the serious disease AIDS yet it has a fascinating life cycle that can be used to teach many key concepts in molecular biology. With this model your students will see how the virus uses parts of the infected cells protein synthesis machinery to replicate itself. Using real DNA sequence, the crucial steps of r
Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response pathways, and down
Figure 2. The phenotype of FoxC1 depleted gastulae. A:Xenopus FoxC1 pseudoalleles aligned against the reverse complement of the morpholino oligo used in the study using Clustal alignment in Macvector. B: FoxC1 MO (MO) blocks translation of FoxC1 mRNA (FoxC1) in a dose-responsive fashion, but does not block translation of a protected FoxC1 RNA, (MOR-), in an in vitro translation assay. C: HA-tagged Fox1 mRNA was injected alone or together with different doses of FoxC1 MO at the 2-cell stage to confirm a reduction of FoxC1 translation. D-G: Wild type sibling embryos and embryos injected with 40 ng MO (MO), or 40 ng MO and 50 pg MO-R FoxC1 mRNA (MO+RNA) were cultured until early (stage 10), mid (stage 11), and late gastrula (stage 11.5) stages before freezing and analyzing by real time RT-PCR for the expression of Mespo (D), Endodermin (E), Bix4 (F), and CK1ϵ (G). Expression levels are normalized to ODC. H,I: Whole mount in situ hybridization on FoxC1-depleted mid-gastrulae (bottom) as compared to ...
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Abstract : Escherichia coli holds important secrets of the life, and persists with its metallic sheen among the model organisms used in modern biology research. Exploration of core biological processes in this classical model organism continues to provide a wealth of new information relevant to all life forms. In my lecture, I will discuss how the excellent amenability of E. coli to the classical genetics approaches in conjunction with the modern molecular methods continues to unravel evolutionary complexities of biological systems. In particular, I will discuss examples of how E. coli has been instrumental in addressing many questions in our pursuit of understanding the protein synthesis machinery.. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Florian Markowetz.. Translation efficiency is determined, in part, by the supply-to-demand relationships between the tRNA and mRNA pools in cells. To better understand translation we perturb the system through tRNA gene manipulation and recoding open reading frames. We then follow such perturbed and genome engineered bacteria and yeast cells through lab evolution and comparative genomics and reveal how evolution acts to adapt supply to demand. I will also discuss our study of the cancerous tRNA and mRNA pools. I will show how cancers sustain high translation efficiency of genes that carry out cell autonomous, hence oncogenic, functionalities.. Hosted by Duncan Odom. This talk is part of the Seminars on Quantitative Biology @ CRUK Cambridge Institute series.. ...
Large and systematic mRNA library design disentangles the complex sequence determinants of translation efficiency in bacteria. Comparative analyses of natural and mutated sequences have been used to probe mechanisms of gene expression, but small sample sizes may produce biased outcomes. We applied an unbiased design-of-experiments approach to disentangle factors suspected to affect translation efficiency in E. coli. We precisely designed 244,000 DNA sequences implementing 56 replicates of a full factorial design to evaluate nucleotide, secondary structure, codon and amino acid properties in combination. For each sequence, we measured reporter transcript abundance and decay, polysome profiles, protein production and growth rates. Associations between designed sequences properties and these consequent phenotypes were dominated by secondary structures and their interactions within transcripts. We confirmed that transcript structure generally limits translation initiation and demonstrated its physiological
Plants respond to changes in sugar concentrations by altering their transcriptional profile and their metabolic processes. Sucrose triggers the translational repression of the transcription factor bZIP11 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Rahmani et al. show that this repression requires the 5′-leader sequence of bZIP11, which, when transferred to a reporter gene, decreased the expression of the reporter gene product (luciferase) in response to sucrose, consistent with sugar-induced translational repression. Deletion analysis revealed that the second upstream open reading frame (uORF2) was required. When the mRNA sequence of uORF2 was mutated without affecting the encoded peptide, sugar-induced translational repression occurred. Transplantation of the 82 nucleotides of the uORF2 sequence into the promoter of a gene not normally regulated by sucrose caused the production of the reporter gene to decrease in response to sucrose. Mutation of the encoded peptide, or changing the length of the encoded ...
FIGURE 1. Posttranscriptional and translational mechanisms of gene regulation in CD4+ T cell subsets. (1) Increased translational events cause differentiated Tregs to proliferate, whereas Foxp3 induction and Treg differentiation are facilitated by decreased translation and posttranscriptional mechanisms. (2) miR-155 can cause an increase in IFN-Rα expression and initiate naive T cell differentiation toward the Th1 cell type. (3) miR-155 also blocks SOCS1 translation and, in turn, induces Foxp3 transcription. (4) Environmental cues like hypoxia can influence T cell differentiation into various lineages, with the Th17 and Treg types shown in this figure. (5) miR-126 blocks the translation of PU.1, an inhibitor of GATA-3 interaction with DNA, thus promoting the development of Th2 cells. (6) Interaction of eIF4E with mature mRNAs governs translation, and its activity is controlled by the eIF4E-binding proteins. (7) Poly(A)-binding proteins cause circularization of mRNAs and increase translation. ...
A rapid method for gene expression analysis, PURExpress® is a novel cell-free transcription/translation system reconstituted from the purified components necessary for E. coli translation. The relative nuclease-free and protease-free nature of the PURExpress platform preserves the integrity of DNA and RNA templates/ complexes and results in proteins that are free of modification and degradation. Transcription and translation are carried out in a one-step reaction, and require the mixing of only two tubes. With results available in a few hours, PURExpress saves valuable laboratory time and is ideal for high throughput technologies.
View Notes - Control of Gene Expression from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. mRNA and translational mechanisms control the synthesis of protein after mRNA has been produced. Operons Operons are
The decay of eukaryotic mRNA is triggered mainly by deadenylation, which leads to decapping and degradation from the 5 end of an mRNA. Poly(A)-binding protein has been proposed to inhibit the decapping process and to stabilize mRNA by blocking the recruitment of mRNA to the P-bodies where mRNA degradation takes place after stimulation of translation initiation. In contrast, several lines of evidence show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p) has distinct functions in mRNA decay and translation in yeast. To address the translation-independent function of Pab1p in inhibition of decapping, we examined the contribution of Pab1p to the stability of non-translated mRNAs, an AUG codon-less mRNA or an mRNA containing a stable stem-loop structure at the 5-UTR. Tethering of Pab1p stabilized non-translated mRNAs, and this stabilization did not require either the eIF4G-interacting domain of Pab1p or the Pab1p-interacting domain of eIF4G. In a ski2Δ mutant in which 3 to 5 mRNA degradation activity is ...
Protein synthesis is the ultimate step of gene expression and a key control point for regulation. In particular, it enables cells to rapidly manipulate protein production without new mRNA synthesis, processing, or export. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the translation initiation p …
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
The DNA that makes up an organisms genome contains genes that hold the nucleic acid codes for protein synthesis, resulting in the production of unique proteins that perform numerous and specific functions. Protein synthesis involves two steps: transcription and translation. Transcription creates a complementary RNA copy of a DNA sequence and translation is the subsequent process where RNA is used to synthesize the actual protein from amino acids. Inhibition of this translation step has the effect of blocking protein production and ultimately its function. Sigma-Aldrich offers several small molecules that inhibit protein translation, making these compounds useful research tools to better understand the role proteins play in certain disease states.
By by ... Detlef --- dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c , 7 +++++-- 1 files changed, 5 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c b/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c index fb37e27..0da31b5 100644 --- a/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c +++ b/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c @@ -121,6 +121,9 @@ static const WCHAR de_engb2[] ={E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , K,0xF6,n,i,g,r,e,i,c,0}; static const WCHAR de_enus[] = {E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , (,U,S,A,),0}; +static const WCHAR de_enus2[] ={E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , + (,V,e,r,e,i,n,i,g,t,e, , + S,t,a,a,t,e,n,),0}; static const WCHAR de_de[] = {D,e,u,t,s,c,h, , (,D,e,u,t,s,c,h,l,a,n,d,),0}; static const WCHAR de_deat[] = {D,e,u,t,s,c,h, , @@ -184,11 +187,11 @@ static const info_table_entry info_table[] = { {MAKELANGID(LANG_ENGLISH, SUBLANG_NEUTRAL), MAKELANGID(LANG_GERMAN, SUBLANG_DEFAULT), TODO_NAME, en, de_en}, ...
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Studies like this found that 20 to 40 grams of protein stimulates maximal protein synthesis.. That is, 20 to 40 grams of protein in a meal is as anabolic as you can get and increasing intake beyond this amount accomplishes little-to-nothing in terms of muscle/tissue growth and repair.. This limit to protein synthesis is then construed as a limit to absorption.. If eating more protein doesnt further elevate protein synthesis rates, the story goes, that must mean your body cant handle any more, right?. Wrong.. How high protein synthesis rates go is only one dimension of what happens with them when you eat. How long they remains elevated is equally if not more important.. For example, research shows that 30 grams of whey protein spikes protein synthesis rates higher than 30 grams of casein does. But, due to wheys rapid absorption, protein synthesis rates also fall back to baseline sooner.. (Whey causes a shorter, larger increase in protein synthesis whereas casein causes a smaller, longer ...
It sounds like the autoradiography is done directly on the gel. Since the protein contains the hot sulfur, you dont need a radiolabeled antibody to detect it. You can infer the mass of the protein from its mobility (location of gel band). However, if you need to unambiguously prove the identity of the protein you might need a Western as well, since your radiolabelled gel gives mass information but not an epitope-antigen interaction. If you have a single mRNA produced in the transcription-translation system then that simplifies the system. Without knowing the source of the DNA and how many different kinds of mRNA would be expected to be present, its tough to tell whether a Western would be necessary to prove your band is what it should be ...
P.341 left column: [Investigators] show that cecER and the pmaER (cytoplasmic face) have the highest ribosome densities ranging from ∼600 to 1,100 ribosomes/µm^2 for the cecER and ∼550 to 900 ribosomes/µm^2 for the pmaER (cytoplasmic face). The ribosome density of yeast cecER is similar to that of mitotic mammalian BSC1 cell cisternae, which was determined by similar methods (1,000 ± 300 µm^2, primary source). The tubER is bound by ribosomes, although it does have less bound ribosomes than the other domains (typically ∼250-400 ribosomes/µm^2 density for tubER, Fig. 5 E). ER ribosome densities are generally lower in the bud than in the mother, suggesting that ribosomes may dissociate and then need to reassociate during inheritance (compare densities in Fig. 5, E and F). Together, these data demonstrate that tubER does have less bound ribosomes than cecER and pmaER. However, membrane curvature alone does not define ER ribosome density because pmaER and cecER have very similar levels of ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein synthesis is mediated by a highly conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES), mostly located at the 5′ untranslatable region (UTR) of the viral genome. The translation mechanism is different from that used by cellular cap-mRNAs, making IRESs an attractive target site for new antiviral drugs. The present work characterizes a chimeric RNA molecule (HH363-50) composed of two inhibitors: a hammerhead ribozyme targeting position 363 of the HCV genome and an aptamer directed towards the essential stem-loop structure in domain IV of the IRES region (which contains the translation start codon). The inhibitor RNA interferes with the formation of a translationally active complex, stalling its progression at the level of 80S particle formation. This action is likely related to the effective and specific blocking of HCV IRES-dependent translation achieved in Huh-7 cells. The inhibitor HH363-50 also reduces HCV RNA levels in a subgenomic replicon system. The present findings
Usage of presumed 5′UTR or downstream in-frame AUG codons, next to non-AUG codons as translation start codons contributes to the diversity of a proteome as protein isoforms harboring different N-terminal extensions or truncations can serve different functions. Recent ribosome profiling data revealed a highly underestimated occurrence of database nonannotated, and thus alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS), at the mRNA level. N-terminomics data in addition showed that in higher eukaryotes around 20% of all identified protein N termini point to such aTIS, to incorrect assignments of the translation start codon, translation initiation at near-cognate start codons, or to alternative splicing. We here report on more than 1700 unique alternative protein N termini identified at the proteome level in human and murine cellular proteomes. Customized databases, created using the translation initiation mapping obtained from ribosome profiling data, additionally demonstrate the use of initiator ...
In this study, we present a novel technique for the synthesis of complex prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins by using a continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) protein synthesis system based on extracts from cultured insect cells. Our approach consists of two basic elements: First, protein synthesis is performed in insect cell lysates which harbor endogenous microsomal vesicles, enabling a translocation of de novo synthesized target proteins into the lumen of the insect vesicles or, in the case of membrane proteins, their embedding into a natural membrane scaffold. Second, cell-free reactions are performed in a two chamber dialysis device for 48 h. The combination of the eukaryotic cell-free translation system based on insect cell extracts and the CECF translation system results in significantly prolonged reaction life times and increased protein yields compared to conventional batch reactions. In this context, we demonstrate the synthesis of various representative model proteins, among them cytosolic
Plant growth throughout the world is often limited by unfavourable environmental conditions. This paper reports results of a study on long- and short-term osmotic stress (−0.5 MPa) followed by a recovery on in vitro translational capacity of polysomes and on the composition of polysome-associated proteins in germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Here we show that, under osmotic stress, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes were charaterized by the highest translation activity, which may be indicative of an important role that this population of polysomes plays in the synthesis of the so-called stress proteins. We also find out that in response to osmotic stress, new proteins (22.01, 96.47 and 105.3 kDa), absent in the unstressed sample, associated with the total pool of polysomes, whereas the protein of 22.95 kDa, which was present in the embryonic tissue of seeds germinating under unstressed conditions, disappeared. These changes may have affected both the stability and the translational ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A fission yeast general translation factor reveals links between protein synthesis and cell cycle controls. AU - Grallert, B. AU - Kearsey, SE. AU - Lenhard, M. AU - Carlson, CR. AU - Nurse, P. AU - Boye, E. AU - Labib, K. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - In two independent screens we isolated fission yeast mutations with phenotypes suggesting defects ill B-cyclin function or expression. These mutations define a single gene which we call ded1, We show that ded1 encodes a general translation factor that is related in sequence and function to RNA helicases required for translation in other species. Levels of the B-cyclins Cig2 and Cdc13 are dramatically reduced upon inactivation of Ded1, and this reduction is independent of degradation by the anaphase promoting complex. When a ded1 mutant is grown under semi-restrictive conditions, the translation of Cig2 land to a lesser extent Cdc13), is impaired relative to other proteins. We show that B-cyclin translation is specifically inhibited ...
MOTIVATION: Deep sequencing based ribosome footprint profiling can provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of protein translation. However, the observed ribosome profile is fundamentally confounded by transcriptional activity. In order to decipher principles of translation regulation, tools that can reliably detect changes in translation efficiency in case-control studies are needed. RESULTS: We present a statistical framework and an analysis tool, RiboDiff, to detect genes with changes in translation efficiency across experimental treatments. RiboDiff uses generalized linear models to estimate the over-dispersion of RNA-Seq and ribosome profiling measurements separately, and performs a statistical test for differential translation efficiency using both mRNA abundance and ribosome occupancy ...
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One of the hallmark metabolic responses to stress (i.e. injury, sepsis, surgery) is catabolism. Generally speaking, the degree of catabolism is proportional to the degree of stress. Catabolism is caused by increased breakdown of skeletal muscle. The subsequent release of amino acids provides some of the substrate for increased hepatic gluconeogenesis.. During periods of stress, the overall nitrogen balance is negative. However, there is conflicting data regarding the degree of skeletal muscle protein synthetic activity. Studies have reported reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis after open cholecystectomy, decreased hepatic protein synthesis that becomes directly proportional to the duration of surgery, and a reduction in the protein synthesis within tissues that have rapidly replicating cells. Other studies postulate that the negative nitrogen balance is the result of protein breakdown that exceeds the increased protein synthetic rate.. Stress hormones like cortisol and cytokines such as ...
When faced with the selection pressure of chronic mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by AZD8055, SW620 cells remodelled mTOR signalling to allow them to continue to proliferate. We anticipated that this adaptation might involve a switch from cap-dependent to IRES-dependent translation because: (1) compensatory IRES-dependent translation is seen upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation (supplementary material Fig. S2) (Svitkin et al., 2005); (2) this was observed upon acute AZD8055 treatment (Fig. 1D); and (3) some oncogenes are translated by IRES-dependent mechanisms (Stoneley and Willis, 2004). However, IRES-dependent translation was not upregulated in SW620:8055R cells. Rather the cells adapted to chronic mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by amplifying eIF4E (Fig. 4) to increase eIF4E protein levels, thereby maintaining or even increasing cap-dependent translation (Fig. 5). RNAi to eIF4E revealed that SW620:8055R cells remained addicted to the increased expression of eIF4E to maintain AZD8055 ...
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Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are potent inhibitors of virus replication. The antiviral activity has been associated with the induction of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) synthesis. In this report, we describe that in African green monkey kidney cells infected with Sendai virus (SV) and treated with prostaglandin A1 (PGA1), SV protein synthesis was selectively blocked as long as HSP70 was being synthesized by the host cell. The block appeared to be at the translational level, as indicated by the following (i) PGA1 had no effect on SV primary transcription, and a dramatic decrease in the abundance of SV mRNA occurred only at later stages of infection; and (ii) treatment with PGA1 started at 6 h postinfection, at which time SV mRNA had already accumulated in infected cells, did not suppress the levels of NP mRNA, but it reduced the amount of ribosome-bound NP mRNA and caused a dramatic decrease in the level of genomic RNA. The PGA1-induced block of SV protein synthesis appeared to be cell ...
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1. RESULTS: The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded new insights into the translational regulon containing the ribosomal protein mRNAs. First, the ribosome occupancy defects in the rpl24b mutant partially overlapped with those in a previously analyzed initiation factor mutant, eif3h. Second, a group of mRNAs with incomplete coding sequences appeared to be uncoupled from
Principal Investigator:SUYAMA Akira, Project Period (FY):2011-04-01 - 2016-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area), Project Area:Synthetic biology for the comprehension of biomolecular networks
What is Translation Process Gene? Definition of Translation Process Gene. Translation Process Gene FAQ. Learn more about Translation Process Gene. Translation Process Gene facts.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Cell-free Synthesis of Macromolecular Complexes. AU - Botte, Mathieu. AU - Deniaud, Aurelien. AU - Schaffitzel, Christiane. PY - 2016/5/11. Y1 - 2016/5/11. N2 - Cell-free protein synthesis based on E. coli cell extracts has been described for the first time more than 50 years ago. To date, cell-free synthesis is widely used for the preparation of toxic proteins, for studies of the translation process and its regulation as well as for the incorporation of artificial or labeled amino acids into a polypeptide chain. Many efforts have been directed towards establishing cell-free expression as a standard method for gene expression, with limited success. In this chapter we will describe the state-of-the-art of cell-free expression, extract preparation methods and recent examples for successful applications of cell-free synthesis of macromolecular complexes.. AB - Cell-free protein synthesis based on E. coli cell extracts has been described for the first time more than 50 years ago. To ...
GPR41 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by short chain fatty acids. The gene encoding GPR41 is located immediately downstream of a related gene encoding GPR40, a receptor for long chain fatty acids. Expression of GPR41 has been reported in a small number of cell types, including gut enteroendocrine cells and sympathetic ganglia, where it may play a role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. We now demonstrate that GPR41, like GPR40, is expressed in pancreatic beta cells. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for transcriptional control elements or transcriptional initiation in the intergenic GPR40-GPR41 region. Rather, using 5-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, we demonstrated that GPR41 is transcribed from the promoter of the GPR40 gene. We confirmed this finding by generating bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmids, and we were able to map a potential internal ribosome entry site-containing region to a 2474-nucleotide region of the intergenic sequence. Consistent with this, we
What is the most efficient translation initiation signal? Does the small subunit ribosome do the scanning for the start codon or can a fully formed ribosome scan for start codon, too? When to scan from the 5 end and when to scan from the middle of 5UTR (internal ribosomal entry)? If secondary structure embedding start codon (or Shine-Dalgarno sequence or Kozak consensus) can obscure the translation initiation signal, how would highly expressed genes avoid this? What is the best way of measuring gene expression experimentally or bioinformatically? Do translation initiation efficiency affect elongation efficiency/accuracy? How to measure translation elongation efficiency/accuracy? Will a few closely spaced minor codons severely affect translation elongation? What is the optimal translation stop signal? How do release factors decode the stop signal? How the relative concentration and decoding capacity of different release factors affect stop codon usage? How frequent do tRNAs misread stop codons ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human lymphocyte messenger RNA activity profiles in type I and type II diabetes. T2 - A tool for classification of metabolic disease. AU - Mariash, C. N.. AU - Burmeister, L. A.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - We have previously used rat hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) activity profiles to categorize various pathophysiologic states. To test the hypothesis that similar techniques can be used to categorize disease states in humans, we examined the mRNA activity profiles by using in vitro translational assays of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated mononuclear cells obtained from six normal volunteers, six patients with type I diabetes, and five patients with type II diabetes as examples of different disease states. Translated proteins were labeled with sulfur 35-labeled methionine, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and quantitated by videodensitometry of autoradiographs derived from the two-dimensional gels. Of approximately 160 quantitated mRNAs, the levels of ...
Surveying the relative impact of mRNA features on local ribosome profiling read density in 28 datasets. Patrick OConnor , Dmitry Andreev , Pavel Baranov doi: Ribosome profiling is a promising technology for exploring gene expression. However, ribosome profiling data are characterized by a substantial number of outliers due to technical and biological factors. Here…
Enucleated mouse 1-cell embryos arrest development at the 2-cell stage following transplantation of cleavage stage nuclei. Earlier studies employing one-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis failed to reveal obvious differences in gene expression in the manipulated embryos that might account for this block. We report here the results of a quantitative, two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis that reveals at least 50 alterations in protein synthesis in the 8--|1-cell nuclear transplant embryos. Approximately half of these alterations involve proteins that normally decrease in synthesis between the 2-cell and 8-cell stages and half involve proteins that are synthesized constitutively between these two stages. These results are the first to reveal significant biochemical alterations that accompany the morphological and cytological differences previously described and indicate that the 8-cell stage nucleus is unable to completely recapitulate the normal progression of changes in protein
Oxygen and glucose metabolism play pivotal roles in many (patho)physiological conditions. In particular, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) during ischemia and stroke results in extensive tissue injury and cell death. Using time-resolved ribosome profiling, we assess gene expression levels in a neural cell line, PC12, during the first hour of OGD. The most substantial alterations are seen to occur within the first 20 minutes of OGD. While transcription of only 100 genes is significantly altered during one hour of OGD, the translation response affects approximately 3,000 genes. This response involves reprogramming of initiation and elongation rates, as well as the stringency of start codon recognition. Genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are most affected. Detailed analysis of ribosome profiles reveals salient alterations of ribosome densities on individual mRNAs. The mRNA-specific alterations include increased translation of upstream open reading frames, site-specific ribosome pauses, and
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has long been known as a signaling component in insulin regulation of metabolism and, more recently, as a key part of the Wnt signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation, cell fate, and other processes during development. Unlike most other kinases, GSK3 is constitutively active and is regulated by inhibition. Full expression of this constitutive activity in the mammalian enzyme appears to require phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue in the activation loop of GSK3, which the enzyme accomplishes by intramolecular autophosphorylation, even though the kinase phosphorylates strictly serine and threonine residues on its exogenous substrates. Lochhead et al. explored the mechanism by which this switch in residue specificity is possible. Tagged GSK-3β synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system showed rapid autophosphorylation that was inhibited by inhibitors of the molecular chaperone protein Hsp90. This chaperone-assisted tyrosine kinase ...
Abstract: Among various membrane-bound polyribosomes from chicken embryos the polyribosomes loosely bound with membranes proved to be highly active in synthesis of total proteins as well as of collagens in vitro. These data suggest that polyribosomes loosely bound with membranes were not an impurity of free polyribosomes in the total preparation of the membrane-bound polyribosomes. These polyribosomes constituted a definite class of polyribosomes active in the synthesis of secreted proteins (i.e. of collagen). In polyribosome fractions identified by their size (monosomes, light and heavy polyribosomes) all the three fractions of loosely-bound polyribosomes as well as light and heavy fractions of tightly-bound polyribosomes were active in synthesis of total proteins. Differences between tightly-and loosely-bound polyribosomes were noted also in studies of cell-free synthesis of collagen proteins. Heavy fractions of tightly-bound polyribosomes were the most active in synthesis of these proteins, ...
Microsome; Translation machinery The ribosome is the central component of the protein synthesis machinery in the cell. It contains both RNAand protein and is composed of two subunits. Ribosomes...
Most of our current knowledge about gene regulation is based on studies of mRNA levels, despite both the greater functional importance of protein abundance, and evidence that post-transcriptional regulation is pervasive. However, understanding the molecular basis of regulatory variation within and between species may prove very useful. Indeed, the majority of identified human disease-risk alleles lie in non-coding regions of the genome, suggesting that they affect gene regulation. Until recently, the lack of performant high-throughput methods for detecting protein abundance hampered the in-depth study of gene regulation. However, a new method known as ribosome profiling has enabled us to study divergence in the regulation of translation.. Ribosome profiling or riboprofiling involves the construction of two RNA-seq libraries: one measuring mRNA abundance (the mRNA fraction), and the second capturing the portion of the transcriptome that is actively being translated by ribosomes (the Ribo ...
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the interconnection between translation and metabolism. Important oncogenic pathways, like those elicited by c-Myc transcription factor and mTOR kinase, couple the activation of the translational machinery with glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is a factor necessary for 60S ribosome maturation. eIF6 acts also as a cytoplasmic translation initiation factor, downstream of growth factor stimulation. eIF6 is up-regulated in several tumor types. Data on mice models have demonstrated that eIF6 cytoplasmic activity is rate-limiting for Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. In spite of this, eIF6 is neither transcriptionally regulated by Myc, nor post-transcriptionally regulated by mTOR. eIF6 stimulates a glycolytic and fatty acid synthesis program necessary for tumor growth. eIF6 increases the translation of transcription factors necessary for lipogenesis, such as CEBP/β, ATF4 and CEBP/δ. Insulin stimulation leads
An miRNA-Mediated Therapy for SCA6 Blocks IRES-Driven Translation of the CACNA1A Second Cistron Researchers identified miR-3191-5p as a microRNA (miRNA) that targeted CACNA1A internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and preferentially inhibited the CACNA1A IRES-driven translation of α1ACT in an Argonaute 4-dependent manner. They found that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), eIF4AII and eIF4GII, interacted with the CACNA1A IRES to enhance α1ACT translation. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract Neurons Differentiated from Transplanted Stem Cells Respond Functionally to Acoustic Stimuli in the Awake Monkey Brain Researchers examined whether neurons differentiated from transplanted stem cells can integrate into the host neural network and function in awake animals, a goal of transplanted stem cell therapy in the brain. [Cell Rep] Full Article , Graphical Abstract Cardiac Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MR Imaging Tracking of Cell Survival or Rejection in Mouse Models of Cell Therapy One million C2C12 ...
Kits and reagents for cell-free protein expression in just a few hours using mRNA templates in translational systems, or DNA template (plasmid DNA or PCR fragments) in coupled transcription and translation systems.
In response to viral pathogens, the host upregulates antiviral genes that suppress translation of viral mRNAs. However, induction of such antiviral responses may not be exclusive to viruses, as the pathways lie at the intersection of broad inflammatory networks that can also be induced by bacterial pathogens. Using a model of Gram-negative sepsis, we show that propagation of kidney damage initiated by a bacterial origin ultimately involves antiviral responses that result in host translation shutdown. We determined that activation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 2/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (Eif2ak2/Eif2α) axis is the key mediator of translation initiation block in late-phase sepsis. Reversal of this axis mitigated kidney injury. Furthermore, temporal profiling of the kidney translatome revealed that multiple genes involved in formation of the initiation complex were translationally altered during bacterial sepsis. Collectively, our findings imply ...
Mitochondria have their own transcriptional and translational apparatus, even though they produce only a handful of proteins, therefore most of the proteins are imported from the cytoplasm. Trancription, translation and protein insertion into the membrane are interconnected: translational activators regulating mitochondrial translation are interacting with mitochondrial RNA polymerase via Nam1p and Sls1p proteins (Bryan et al. Genetics 2002), Puf proteins connect cytoplasmic translation and protein import into mitochondria by direct interaction with Tom20 subunit of the TOM protein import channel (Saint-Georges et al. PLoS ONE 2008 ...
The study is published in the Aug. 14 online edition of the journal Nature Chemical Biology.. This work began when University of Toronto scientists exploring the origins of Salmonellas virulence identified three genes that were clear players in the process. These three genes - called YjeK, PoxA and EF-P - were unusual in this context. Genes that confer virulence in bacteria typically have a specific job, such as producing toxins or transporters. But these three virulence genes all looked like they should have a role in the protein synthesis machinery - which is Ibbas expertise.. Under normal circumstances in cells, an enzyme will select amino acids in the cell and place them on a molecule called transfer RNA, or tRNA, which leads to translation of the genetic code into proteins.. In Salmonella cells, these steps are similar, but with a few surprising twists, Ibba said. He and colleagues confirmed that the YjeK gene makes beta lysine, and showed that the PoxA gene takes that beta lysine and ...
In the past decades, translation studies have increasingly focused on the ethical dimension of translational activity, with an emphasis on reflexivity to assert the role of the researcher in highlighting issues of visibility, creativity and ethics. In Reflexive Translation Studies, Silvia Kadiu investigates the viabili
The demand for recombinant therapeutic proteins grows larger every year. These medicines are used for treatment of myriad disorders and conditions, including cancer, lysosomal storage diseases, and diabetes. The vast majority of therapeutic proteins are glycoproteins, meaning that they have short, distinctive carbohydrate chains attached to particular amino acids of the protein backbone. These carbohydrate chains are often required for proper function or targetting of the protein.. Many different eukaryotic hosts, including yeast, hamster and insect cell cultures, plants, chickens, and even lactating mammals have been engineered to produce therapeutic proteins at industrial scale. The issue is that while the core protein synthesis machinery is more-or-less conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms, the carbohydrate chains that are added to the proteins by the cell are highly variable. Even the glycosylation patterns of mammalian cell cultures can prove difficult to control. If the protein is produced ...
The results of the genome-wide ribosome profiling analysis significantly redefine our understanding of the mode of action of macrolide antibiotics. In contrast to the previously prevailing view, and in agreement with the more recent proteomic and biochemical experiments, ribosome profiling clearly reveals these antibiotics as context- and thus protein-specific inhibitors of translation. Synthesis of the protein is interrupted not simply when the nascent chain reaches the site of the drug binding in the NPET but also when the drug-bound ribosome comes across a sequence of codons specifying specific combinations of amino acids.. A striking finding that emerged from the results of the profiling analysis and biochemical experiments is that the sites of macrolide-dependent translation arrest are defined primarily not by the sequence of the nascent chain juxtaposed with the antibiotic in the NPET but by the nature of the amino acid residues in the PTC: specifically, the C-terminal amino acids of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis in dendrites. T2 - an overview.. AU - Martin, Kelsey C.. AU - Zukin, R. Suzanne. PY - 2006/7/5. Y1 - 2006/7/5. N2 - It is now widely accepted that mRNAs localize to dendrites and that translation of these mRNAs is regulated in response to neuronal activity. Recent studies have begun to reveal the underpinnings of these processes and to underscore the importance of local protein synthesis to synaptic remodeling and plasticity. When Steward and Levy (1982) first reported their observation of polyribosomes at the base of spines, the prevailing view was that all proteins were synthesized in the cell body and then transported to distal compartments of neurons. Steward and Levys discovery, however, raised the intriguing possibility that mRNAs could be transported to synapses and locally translated in response to synaptic stimulation. This provided an elegant mechanism for spatially restricting gene expression within the neuron, such that ...
Homologous recombination. The mouse Eif4ebp2 gene was obtained by screening a λ FixII 129/SvJ mouse genomic library (Tsukiyama-Kohara et al., 2001). The targeting vector consisted of a 4.9 kb XbaI Eif4ebp2 genomic fragment upstream of exon 2, a pTK-Neo cassette (pMC1neo; Stratagene, La Jolla, CA), and a 1.2 kb AflIII-BclI Eif4ebp2 genomic fragment downstream of exon 2. Electroporation of the linearized vector (NotI) into 129/Sv embryonic stem (ES) cell line J1 (Li et al., 1992) and selection of G418-resistant transformants were performed as described previously (You-Ten et al., 1997). G418-resistant colonies were analyzed for homologous recombination by Southern blot analysis.. Mutant mice. Generation of chimeric and mutant mice was performed as described previously (You-Ten et al., 1997). Genotyping was performed by Southern blot analysis with probes derived from a 1.8 kb XbaI fragment located upstream of the targeting vector, a fragment derived from the 3′ untranslated region of Eif4ebp2, ...
When programmed with yeast prepro-α-factor mRNA, the heterologous reticulocyte/dog pancreas translation system synthesizes two pheromone related polypeptides, a cytosolically located primary translation product (pp-α-Fcyt, 21 kDa) and a membrane-specific and multiply glycosylated e-factor precursor (pp-α-F3, 27.5 kDa). Glycosylation of the membrane specific pp-α-F3 species is competitively inhibited by synthetic peptides containing the consensus sequence Asn-Xaa-Thr as indicated by a shift of its molecular mass from 27.5 kDa to about 19.5 kDa (pp-α-F0), whereas the primary translation product pp-α-F cyt is not affected. Likewise, only the glycosylated pp-α-F3 structure is digested by Endo H yielding a polypeptide with a molecular mass between PP-α-F0 and pp-α-F cyt. These observations strongly suggest that the primary translation product is proteolytically processed during/on its translocation into the lumen of the microsomal vesicles. We believe that this proteolytic processing is due ...
Efficient neuronal function depends on the continued modulation of the local neuronal proteome. Local protein synthesis plays a central role in tuning the neuronal proteome at specific neuronal regions. Various aspects of translation such as the localization of translational machinery, spatial spread of the newly translated proteins, and their site of action are carried out in specialized neuronal subcompartments to result in a localized functional outcome. In this review, we focus on the various aspects of these local translation compartments such as size, biochemical and organelle composition, structural boundaries, and temporal dynamics. We also discuss the apparent absence of definitive components of translation in these local compartments and the emerging state‐of‐the‐art tools that could help dissecting these conundrums in greater detail in the future. ...
Cambio, distributor of molecular biology reagents and consumables to scientific research laboratories within the UK, has added an innovative new product to its portfolio. ARTseq™ (Active mRNA Translation) ribosome profiling kits, produced by Epicentre, enable users to create RNA sequence libraries from ribosome-protected mRNA. This novel technique is used to investigate translational control, measure gene expression, identify translation start sites and predict protein abundance, making them ide
Mitochondria do not have IF1 (all mitochondria), and unlike mammals, yeast ones do not have IF3! Also they seem to use mitochondria-specific initiation factor AEP3. Do mammals have AEP3 homologue? Worth checking... To make things more complicated, mitochondria have their own special mRNA-specific factors... and again, there is a catch. Yeast mRNA have long 5 UTRs (untranslated regions), and mammals have short, they basically have leaderless mRNAs (Id love to see a good reference for that! THIS is a little bit out of date...) - therefore I would expect that these mRNA-specific IFs work differently in yeast in mammals. So yeast and mammalian mitochondrial translation seems to have very, very different translational apparatus. Isnt is weird ...
Cell migration is a highly controlled essential cellular process, often dysregulated in tumour cells, dynamically controlled by the architecture of the cell. Studies involving cellular fractionation and microarray profiling have previously identified functionally distinct mRNA populations specific to cellular organelles and architectural compartments. However, the interaction between the translational machinery itself and cellular structures is relatively unexplored. To help understand the role for the compartmentalization and localized protein synthesis in cell migration, we have used scanning confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence and a novel ribopuromycylation method to visualize translating ribosomes. In the present study we show that eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors) localize to the leading edge of migrating MRC5 fibroblasts in a process dependent on TGN (trans-Golgi network) to plasma membrane vesicle transport. We show that eIF4E and eIF4GI are associated with the Golgi apparatus and ...
BACKGROUND: The MYCN gene is transcribed into two major mRNAs: one full-length (MYCN) and one exon 1b-spliced (MYCNDelta1b) mRNA. But nothing is known about their respective ability to translate the MYCN protein. METHODS: Plasmids were prepared to enable translation from the upstream (uORF) and major ORF of the two MYCN transcripts. Translation was studied after transfection in neuroblastoma SH-EP cell line. Impact of the upstream AUG on translation was evaluated after directed mutagenesis. Functional study with the two MYCN mRNAs was conducted by a cell viability assay. Existence of a new protein encoded by the MYCNDelta1b uORF was explored by designing a rabbit polyclonal antibody against a specific epitope of this protein. RESULTS: Both are translated, but higher levels of protein were seen with MYCNDelta1b mRNA. An upstream ORF was shown to have positive cis-regulatory activity on translation from MYCN but not from MYCNDelta1b mRNA. In transfected SH-EP neuroblastoma cells, high MYCN dosage obtained
During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local ...
Knowledge of the function of the mammalian eIF2α phosphatases stems from their homology to a viral protein. In 1994, Joany Chou and Bernard Roizman discovered the function of the γ134.5 gene of herpes simplex virus: mutants lacking a functional γ134.5 gene failed to escape the shutdown of protein synthesis that followed viral infection [45]. They noted that the carboxy-terminal domain of γ134.5 is homologous to the carboxy-terminal domain of the product of the growth arrest and DNA damage gene Gadd34 (now PPP1R15A) [45] and indeed later showed that the carboxy-terminal domain of Gadd34 can substitute for the homologous domain of γ134.5 [46]. Chou and colleagues found that shutdown of protein synthesis following viral infection was mediated by PKR which phosphorylated eIF2α [47]. The Roizman laboratory then performed an unbiased yeast two-hybrid screen and found that Gadd34 and γ134.5 interacted with PP1c [48]. The functional relevance of this interaction was supported by the finding that ...
The programme is divided into units of study called modules which are assigned credits. The credit rating of a module is proportional to the total workload, with 1 credit being nominally equivalent to 10 hours of work.. Students on the MA Translation Studies take a selection of modules amounting to 180 credits in total. This includes a compulsory Translation Dissertation (60 credits) and two compulsory modules: Translation Theory (30 credits) and The Practice of Translation (30 credits). The remaining 60 credits are chosen from our optional modules, see below.. The modules we outline here provide examples of what you can expect to learn on this degree course based on recent academic teaching. The precise modules available to you in future years may vary depending on staff availability and research interests, new topics of study, timetabling and student demand.. ...
The fidelity of translation depends on accurate selection of the correct reading frame during initiation. In eukaryotes, this process involves at least 11 eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Met‐tRNAiMet forms a ternary complex with eIF2 and GTP, which together with eIF1, eIF1A and eIF3 binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit to form a 43S preinitiation complex. After loading onto the mRNAs 5′ end in a process requiring eIFs 4A, 4B and 4F, the 43S complex scans downstream until it encounters an AUG triplet in a favorable context GCC(A/G)CCAUGG (in which the nucleotides at the −3 and +4 positions are the most important; Kozak, 1991), stops and forms a stable 48S complex with established codon-anticodon base pairing in the P site. These two context nucleotides are important features of mammalian mRNAs but differ in sequence and importance in other eukaryotes. Subsequent joining of a 60S subunit is mediated by eIF5 (which induces hydrolysis of eIF2‐bound GTP and dissociation of eIF2‐GDP ...
The IRESite database presents information about the experimentally studied IRES (Internal Ribosome Entry Site) segments. IRES regions are known to attract eukaryotic ribosomal translation initiation complex and thus promote translation initiation independently of the presence of the commonly utilized 5-terminal 7mG cap structure. It is not yet clear whether the activity could be attributed to a common sequence or to a common secondary structure present in them. Such IRES regions were found in a broad range of +RNA viruses and in some eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. Certain IRESs have been predicted based on the fact that closely related viruses should share its features and indeed, their sequences are in some regions conserved enough to allow identification of a new IRES. In contrast, cellular IRESs do not have almost anything in common in terms of their sequence or secondary structure. Therefore, cellular IRESs cannot be predicted. Either way, IRESite is focused only on IRESs which have been at ...
Biosynthesis regulatory protein FLU[edit]. In spite of numerous past attempts to find the mutant that overacumulates ... Flu (first described in [3]) is a nuclear-encoded, chloroplast-located protein that appears containing only protein-protein ... It is currently not known which other proteins interact through this linker. The regulatory protein is a transmembrane protein ... contains more protein-protein interactions sites, and even undergoes alternative splicing. It appears that the regulatory ...
Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... linear molecules (chromosomes) with histone proteins RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the ... The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric ... An overview of protein synthesis.. Within the nucleus of the cell (light blue), genes (DNA, dark blue) are transcribed into RNA ...
Protein biosynthesis ‎ *21:22, 12 December 2012 (diff , hist) . . (-4)‎ . . Casting couch ‎ (→‎Allegations from 'casting couch ... Protein biosynthesis ‎ *15:44, 25 February 2013 (diff , hist) . . (-3)‎ . . ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ... Mutated p53 proteins are typically more stable than wild-type, and can inhibit the activity of the wild-type protein in ... The tetramerization domain plays a major role in the oligomerization of the p53 protein, which exists as a tetramer.[6] This ... With pH in the low to normal physiological range (up to 7.5), the mutant protein forms normal oligomers and retains its ...
Lengyel P, Söll D (June 1969). "Mechanism of protein biosynthesis". Bacteriological Reviews. 33 (2): 264-301. doi:10.1128/MMBR. ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy released from passing ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined together in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique ...
In humans, non-protein amino acids also have important roles as metabolic intermediates, such as in the biosynthesis of the ... These properties influence protein structure and protein-protein interactions. The water-soluble proteins tend to have their ... Lengyel P, Söll D (June 1969). "Mechanism of protein biosynthesis". Bacteriological Reviews. 33 (2): 264-301. doi:10.1128/MMBR. ... Suchanek M, Radzikowska A, Thiele C (April 2005). "Photo-leucine and photo-methionine allow identification of protein-protein ...
Despite anisomycin's wide usage as a protein synthesis inhibitor, there have been a lot of studies centered on the biosynthesis ... "Inhibitors of protein biosynthesis. II. Mode of action of anisomycin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 242 (13): 3226-33. ... Anisomycin interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system. Anisomycin ... II.1 Biosynthesis of Anisomycin". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 31 (1): 317-20. doi:10.1021/jo01339a503. PMID 5900818.. ...
bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH,. *ATIC.. Structural studies[edit]. As of late 2007, 11 structures have been ... HARTMAN SC, BUCHANAN JM (1959). "Biosynthesis of the purines. XXVI. The identification of the formyl donors of the ...
OMG: encoding protein Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein. *Ormdl sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3: encoding protein ORMDL ... VPS25: encoding protein Vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 25. *VPS53: encoding protein Vacuolar protein sorting 53 ... LINC00511: encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 511. *LINC00674 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein ... encoding protein Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein 2. *QRICH2: encoding protein Glutamine-rich protein ...
Hoagland MB, Zamecnik PC, Stephenson ML (April 1957). "Intermediate Reactions In Protein Biosynthesis". Biochim Biophys Acta. ... Zamecnik pioneered the in vitro synthesis of proteins[citation needed] and helped elucidate the way cells generate proteins[ ... After a year in New York at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research studying protein synthesis with Max Bergmann, he ... Hoagland MB, Stephenson ML, Scott JF, Hecht LI, Zamecnik PC (March 1958). "A Soluble Ribonucleic Acid Intermediate in Protein ...
Clark BF, Nyborg J (February 1997). "The ternary complex of EF-Tu and its role in protein biosynthesis". Current Opinion in ... Andersen GR, Nissen P, Nyborg J (August 2003). "Elongation factors in protein biosynthesis". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 ... EF-Tu is a monomeric protein with molecular weight around 43 kDa in Escherichia coli. The protein consists of three structural ... This domain is also found in other proteins such as translation initiation factor IF-2 and tetracycline-resistance proteins. ...
... targets GPI-protein biosynthesis. Pfaller, Michael A.; Hata, Katsura; Jones, Ronald N.; Messer, Shawn A.; Moet, Gary J.; ...
Fincher, G B; Stone, B A; Clarke, A E (1983). "Arabinogalactan-Proteins: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Function". Annual Review ... 2000). Cell and Developmental Biology of Arabinogalactan-Proteins. Boston, MA: Springer US. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-4207-0. ISBN ... the arabinogalactan-proteins Proteinase Inhibitors and their use in control of insect development She is co-editor of major ... DNA of an Arabinogalactan Protein. She describes her expertise as: The molecular basis of self-incompatibility The chemistry ...
Anon (2016). "Hegde Lab: Protein biosynthesis & quality control". Retrieved 22 December 2016. Ramanujan ... His laboratory have discovered a widely conserved protein targeting pathway needed by a subset of proteins to reach their ... Their studies of such protein targeting pathways are revealing how membrane proteins are accurately recognised by the machinery ... Hegde's research investigates how proteins are localised correctly inside cells, and how errors during protein maturation are ...
Gillon AD, Saska I, Jennings CV, Guarino RF, Craik DJ, Anderson MA (February 2008). "Biosynthesis of circular proteins in ... AEP is involved in presenting of foreign and self proteins using MHCII protein complex. The role of AEP in immunity is not ... AEP cleaves tau protein and amyloid precursor protein. In patients with PD, alpha synuclein is cut by AEP into toxic chunks. ... It digests SET protein, which is an inhibitor of DNase, leading to DNA damage and causing damage of the brain. Increased ...
"Seed Storage Proteins: Structures 'and Biosynthesis" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-27.. ... Protein[edit]. Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage ... Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to ... Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are ...
He worked on the biosynthesis of proteins. In 1973, he was appointed a professor of biochemistry at the Hebrew University. In ...
"Seed Storage Proteins: Structures 'and Biosynthesis" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-27. Lasztity, Radomir (1999). The ... The minor protein of oat is a prolamine, avenin. Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health ... storage protein. Globulins are characterised by solubility in dilute saline as opposed to the more typical cereal proteins, ... Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are ...
"Structure and function of enzymes in heme biosynthesis". Protein Science. 19: 1137-1161. doi:10.1002/pro.405. PMC 2895239 ... Biosynthesis[edit]. Its biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase. The simplified biosynthetic sequence ... Heme b and chlorophyll biosyntheses[edit]. In the biosynthesis of biological cofactors, PPIX is metalated by the action of ... Hemes are prosthetic groups in some important proteins. These heme-containing proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, and ...
G. Layer; J. Reichelt; D. Jahn; D. W. Heinz (2010). "Structure and function of enzymes in heme biosynthesis". Protein Science. ... Hemes are prosthetic groups in some important proteins. These heme-containing proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, and ... Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules Heme oxygenase Biosynthesis of chlorophylls Biosynthesis of hemes Winslow S. Caughey, James ... In the biosynthesis of those molecules, the metal cation is inserted into protoporphyrin IX by enzymes called chelatases. For ...
Cascales L, Craik DJ (Nov 21, 2010). "Naturally occurring circular proteins: distribution, biosynthesis and evolution". Organic ... Protein Pept. Sci. 5 (5): 373-81. doi:10.2174/1389203043379657. PMID 15544532. Li D, Zhang L, Yin H, Xu H, Satkoski Trask J, ... Although New World monkeys and great apes do not produce θ-defensin proteins, their genomes do encode θ-defensin genes which ... The anti-HIV activity of retrocyclins has been further enhanced by protein engineering efforts with the aim of generating a ...
Rauch, Benjamin Julius; Gustafson, Andrew; Perona, John J. (December 2014). "Novel proteins for homocysteine biosynthesis in ... Additionally, 10 proteins found in all methanogens which are shared by Archaeoglobus, suggest that these two groups are related ... Other methanogens do not, but have at least one paracrystalline array (S-layer) made up of proteins that fit together like a ... Hence, the unique shared presence of large numbers of proteins by all methanogens could be due to lateral gene transfers. ...
Meyer, Michelle; Deiorio-Haggar K; Anthony J (July 2013). "RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli ... These structures are often bound by proteins or cause the attenuation of a transcript in order to regulate translation. The ... provide recognition sites for RNA binding proteins, and serve as a substrate for enzymatic reactions. The formation of a stem- ...
Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and membrane proteins. Almost all globular proteins are soluble and many are enzymes. ... Protein purification. Main article: Protein purification. To perform in vitro analysis, a protein must be purified away from ...
... biosynthesis occurs via different nonribosomal protein synthases (NRPSs).[39] The enzymes determine the amino acid ... Biosynthesis[edit]. Vancomycin is made by the soil bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis.[3] ... March 1998). "Sequencing and analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of a vancomycin group antibiotic". Chem. Biol. 5 (3 ... Nonribosomal peptide synthesis occurs through distinct modules that can load and extend the protein by one amino acid through ...
"Posttranslational biosynthesis of the protein-derived cofactor tryptophan tryptophylquinone". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 82 ... The term is used in other areas of biology to refer more broadly to non-protein (or even protein) molecules that either ... Further information: Iron-sulfur protein. Iron-sulfur clusters are complexes of iron and sulfur atoms held within proteins by ... and FAD-dependent proteins". Proteins. 44 (3): 282-91. doi:10.1002/prot.1093. PMID 11455601.. ...
Yet biosynthesis continues, and shock proteins are made. Most importantly has been observed that ATP levels and generation ... Protein chaperoning[edit]. In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist in the folding, unfolding, ... "The 'Promiscuous' Protein". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 2018-05-26.. *^ "How Intracellular Crowding Changes Everything". WIRED. ... Tardigrade-disordered proteins[edit]. Tardigrades are microscopic animals that are able to enter a state of diapause and ...
Among these protein targets, the enzyme N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) generates bioactive ... Regulation of Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Biosynthesis by Bile Acids". Structure. 23 (3): 598-604. doi:10.1016/j.str.2014.12.018. ... Bile acids bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their transporters. ... the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor/TGR5.[7][10] They bind less specifically to some other ...
Glaze, P.A., Watson, D.C., Young, N.M. and Tanner, M.E. (2008). "Biosynthesis of CMP-N,N′-diacetyllegionaminic acid from UDP-N, ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... biosynthesis involving novel GDP-linked precursors". Glycobiology 19: 715-725. PMID 19282391. ...
Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... essential for the biosynthesis of fatty acids) in S. pneumoniae.[31] Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... "Ethylene biosynthesis and action in tomato: a model for climacteric fruit ripening". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (377 ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... This tomato gained the moniker "fish tomato".[16] The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the ...
Biosynthesis[edit]. Androgens are synthesized from cholesterol and are produced primarily in the gonads (testicles and ovaries ... "G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids". Int J Mol Sci. 15 (9): 15412-25 ...
BiosynthesisEdit. In plants, phenylalanine is converted to 4-coumaroyl-CoA in a series of steps known as the general ... Quercetin also activates or inhibits the activities of a number of proteins.[22] For example, quercetin is a non-specific ... quercetin has also been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER).[26][27] ... "The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells ...
AR NTD antagonists bind covalently to the NTD of the AR and prevent protein-protein interactions subsequent to activation that ... Androgen synthesis inhibitors: drugs that directly inhibit the enzymatic biosynthesis of androgens like testosterone and/or DHT ... Blood proteinsEdit. In addition to their antigonadotropic effects, estrogens are also functional antiandrogens by decreasing ... Androgen synthesis inhibitors are enzyme inhibitors that prevent the biosynthesis of androgens.[62] This process occurs mainly ...
Biosynthesis of neurosteroids[edit]. Neurosteroids are synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral ... Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... The synaptic anchoring protein Gephyrin is indirectly linked to the GABAA receptors. ... molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system. ...
Biochemical role of the Cryptococcus neoformans ADE2 protein in fungal de novo purine biosynthesis". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price; Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Branden C; Tooze J. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2305-0.. ...
The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow ... "Drugs Which Inhibit Prostaglandin Biosynthesis". Pharmacological Reviews. 26 (1): 33-67. ISSN 0031-6997. PMID 4208101 ... "Functional Design of Proteins". Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. W. H. Freeman. ...
Biosynthesis[edit]. Two enzymes convert L-amino acids to D-amino acids. D-Amino-acid racemase, a PLP-dependent enzyme, ... D-Amino acids are most occasionally found in nature as residues in proteins. They are formed from ribosomally-derived D-amino ...
This article is missing information about biosynthesis. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details ... In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... "Biosynthesis of ether-type polar lipids in archaea and evolutionary considerations". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 71 (1): 97-120 ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ...
"Biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds by fungi: bioengineering potential". Applied Microbiology and ...
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 and 2).[10] In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: ... Biosynthesis of cholesterol is directly regulated by the cholesterol levels present, though the homeostatic mechanisms involved ... The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum by the protein SREBP ( ... In order to carry large quantities of cholesterol it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins-protein "molecular- ...
... redundancy is that some errors in the genetic code cause only a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the protein ... "Genetic Algorithms and Recursive Ensemble Mutagenesis in Protein Engineering". Complexity International. 1. Archived from the ...
Only the ER localized protein is active. Squalene epoxidase also catalyzes the formation of diepoxysqualene (DOS). DOS is ... Squalene epoxidase catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is thought to be one of the rate-limiting ...
Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... and biosynthesis of plasmalogens, i.e., ether phospholipids critical for the normal function of mammalian brains and lungs.[4] ... The protein content of peroxisomes varies across species or organism, but the presence of proteins common to many species has ... of peroxisomal matrix proteins signals them to be imported into the organelle. There are at least 32 known peroxisomal proteins ...
ಇಂಗ್ಲೀಶ್‌ ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯದ Protien Biosynthesis ಲೇಖನ ಅನುವಾದ. ಲಿಂಕ್ ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (October 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in ... "Biosynthesis and processing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins: effects of monensin on ... Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[6] ...
... are involved in morphine biosynthesis derived from the opium poppy.[49] The enzymes were identified as non-heme dioxygenases, ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. *v. *t ... "Dioxygenases catalyze the O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy". Nature Chemical Biology. Nature ...
2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ... "Biosynthesis of ether-type polar lipids in archaea and evolutionary considerations". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 71 (1): 97-120 ... Nguyen L, Paulsen IT, Tchieu J, Hueck CJ, Saier MH (2000). "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein ... O'Connor EM, Shand RF (2002). "Halocins and sulfolobicins: the emerging story of archaeal protein and peptide antibiotics". J. ...
"Seed Storage Proteins: Structures 'and Biosynthesis" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-27.. ... ProteinEdit. Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage ... Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to ... Avenins present in oats (proteins similar to gliadin from wheat) can trigger celiac disease in a small proportion of people.[2] ...
The rearing of one larva requires 125-187.5 mg pollen or 25-37.5 mg protein for proper development.[31] Dietary proteins are ... Lipids are metabolized during the brood stage for precursors required for future biosynthesis. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, ... Adult worker honey bees consume 3.4-4.3 mg of pollen per day to meet a dry matter requirement of 66-74% protein.[31] ... In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be ...
"The Alanine World Model for the Development of the Amino Acid Repertoire in Protein Biosynthesis". Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20 (21): ... DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize protein, and a peptide-based (protein) molecule is needed to make ... The ability to catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to produce short peptides or longer proteins. This ...
Temperature, water activity and pH, strongly influence mycotoxin biosynthesis by increasing the level of transcription within ... produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common proteins, like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called ... "Natural functions of mycotoxins and control of their biosynthesis in fungi". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87 (3): 899-911. doi: ...
The pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops.[36][37] ... The plasma protein binding of dronabinol and its metabolites is approximately 97%.. ... Garrett ER, Hunt CA (July 1974). "Physicochemical properties, solubility, and protein binding of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". J. ... "Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa". Journal of Experimental ...
Biosynthesis[edit]. The vast majority of animals and plants are able to synthesize vitamin C, through a sequence of enzyme- ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Bulley S, Laing W (October 2016). "The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 33: 15-22. doi: ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ...
Protein synthesis, Protein biosynthesis, تركيب البروتين الحيوي, تخليق حيوي للبروتين, تخليق البروتين الحيوي, اصطناع البروتينات ... Media in category "Protein biosynthesis". The following 138 files are in this category, out of 138 total. ... protein biosynthesis (en); Valgusüntees (et); Биосинтез белка (ru); Sinteza proteina (sr-el); Proteosyntéza (sk); 蛋白質生物合成 (zh- ... hk); 蛋白質生物合成 (zh-tw); Биосинтеза на белковини (mk); Sinh tổng hợp protein (vi); Biosynteza białka (pl); Sintesis protein (id); ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthesis protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79.. Biochemistry 43 12427-35 ... Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthetic protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Thiamine biosynthesis protein ThiF (IPR012729). Short name: ThiF_fam2 Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Ubiquitin- ... Members of the HesA/MoeB/ThiF family of proteins (IPR000594) include a number of members encoded in the midst of thiamine ...
cell wall biosynthesis glycosyltransferase [Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171] cell wall biosynthesis glycosyltransferase [Bacillus ... that encode that identical protein.. Old YP_003665232.1 New WP_000839298.1 Identical proteins Re-annotation project ... cell wall biosynthesis glycosyltransferase [Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171]. * This record was replaced or removed. The sequence ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The retrograde signaling protein GUN1 regulates tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Takayuki Shimizu, Sylwia M. Kacprzak, Nobuyoshi ... The retrograde signaling protein GUN1 regulates tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Takayuki Shimizu, Sylwia M. Kacprzak, Nobuyoshi ... The retrograde signaling protein GUN1 regulates tetrapyrrole biosynthesis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The retrograde signaling protein GUN1 regulates tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Takayuki Shimizu, Sylwia M. Kacprzak, Nobuyoshi ...
Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps.[1] They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA ... The capacity of disabling or inhibiting translation in protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics such as anisomycin, ... Protein will often be synthesized directly from genes by translating mRNA. However, when a protein must be available on short ... Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular ...
flagellar biosynthesis protein, FliO. Locus tag. DVU0045. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * YP_009270.1 flagellar biosynthesis protein, FliO [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough] ... DVU0045 flagellar biosynthesis protein, FliO [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2796754, updated on 20-Aug- ...
... and the proteins ability to interact with other proteins. Protein biosynthesis has a key role in disease as changes and errors ... Protein biosynthesis (or protein synthesis) is a core biological process, occurring inside cells, balancing the loss of ... Proteins perform a number of critical functions as enzymes, structural proteins or hormones. Protein synthesis is a very ... N-linked glycosylation promotes protein folding by increasing solubility and mediates the protein binding to protein chaperones ...
Prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis proteins are also known as the prokaryotic type-I FAD synthetases, which consist of a C- ... The prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria that catalyzes the phosphorylation ... This bacterial protein is functionally similar to the monofunctional riboflavin kinases and FMN-adenylyltransferases of ... Sebastián M, Serrano A, Velázquez-Campoy A, Medina M (August 2017). "Kinetics and thermodynamics of the protein-ligand ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): O53877 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh) 1 * Q5SUL0 - ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q51793 - Pseudomonas fluorescens 5 * O69755 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae ... We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE) govern ... Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the ... a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A ...
Regents Protein Synthesis - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation ... 3. a protein molecule 4. an enzyme molecule. 13. A medical test indicates that a patient has a defective protein. This ... 3. The accompanying diagram shows some of the steps in protein synthesis. The section of DNA being used to make the strand of ... 7. The accompanying diagram shows some of the steps in protein synthesis. The section of DNA being used to make the strand of ...
Proteins known to be involved in the 2 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:. *Alginate biosynthesis protein AlgA (algA ... Alginate biosynthesis protein AlgA (algA). This subpathway is part of the pathway GDP-alpha-D-mannose biosynthesis, which is ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... no protein annotated in this organism. This subpathway is part of the pathway GDP-alpha-D-mannose biosynthesis, which is itself ...
Automatisch generierte Liste! Diese Liste wurde automatisch erstellt (26.6.2012 - 13:30.9.139). Sie enhält alle Lerneinheiten und Tutorials mit Freigabestatus 3 oder höher, die der ChemgaPedia (en) (biochemie proteinbiosynthese ) zugeordnet sind. ...
Gain insight into the study of cell systems, DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis at BrightHubs genetics channel. ... C-Reactive Proteins C-reactive proteins are found in the blood and are present in large numbers during a period of inflammation ... This makes the identification of normal C-reactive proteins synonymous with the onset of viral or bacterial infections.. By ... The Golgi apparatus is a part of the cellular structure that assists in the modification and delivery of proteins and other ...
The bohemian technologies or minutes of your reading view Inhibitors of Protein, belly E-mail, review or letter should know ... 1818042, view Inhibitors of Protein : A Western occupation with this study state only means. The Internet access ... View Inhibitors Of Protein Biosynthesis 1979. View Inhibitors Of Protein Biosynthesis 1979. by Mark 4.6 ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PurH (purH). This subpathway is part of the pathway IMP biosynthesis via de novo ... Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PurH (purH). This subpathway is part of the pathway IMP biosynthesis via de novo ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pathwayi: IMP biosynthesis via de novo pathway. This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes IMP from ...
... María Moreno‐Morcillo, Spanish National Cancer Research ... Evan DR (1986) CAD, a chimeric protein that initiates de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in higher eukaryotes. In: Hardie DG and ... Davidson JN, Rumsby PC and Tamaren J (1981) Organization of a multifunctional protein in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Analyses of ... 2017) Structural insight into the core of CAD, the multifunctional protein leading de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Structure ...
... Noncatalytic chalcone isomerase-fold proteins in Humulus lupulus are auxiliary components in prenylated flavonoid biosynthesis ... Noncatalytic chalcone isomerase-fold proteins in Humulus lupulus are auxiliary components in prenylated flavonoid biosynthesis ... Noncatalytic chalcone isomerase-fold proteins in Humulus lupulus are auxiliary components in prenylated flavonoid biosynthesis ...
Identification of Proteins Required for Histone mRNA Biosynthesis. ...
Protein classi. Protein class(es) of the gene product according to selected gene lists. List of protein classes. ... Protein classi. Protein class(es) of the gene product according to selected gene lists. List of protein classes. ... Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) ... Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) ...
wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
... table { background-color:#fff; margin-left:50; padding: 10px; border-collapse: collapse; } . ... ProteinBioSynthesis (old) last edited on 11 August 2005 at 11:42 am by *myRibosome last edited on 1 ... (class library, distributed under gpl). The easiest way though is to import it from the Quarks ... Homo sapiens hypothetical protein MGC3200 (MGC3200), mRNA. Salmo salar ultraviolet opsin mRNA. Agrobacterium larrymoorei 16S ...
Protein biosynthesis information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Introduction: Protein biosynthesis. Description of Protein biosynthesis. Protein biosynthesis: anabolic formation of proteins ... Broader terms for Protein biosynthesis. *Gene Expression *Peptide Biosynthesis Source - MeSH 2007 *biosynthesis *protein ... Terms associated with Protein biosynthesis:. Terms Similar to Protein biosynthesis:. *Genetic Translation *Peptide Biosynthesis ...
... Olsson, Inge LU ; Egesten, Arne LU ; Gullberg, Urban LU ; Lantz ... Biosynthesis of the granule proteins is discussed in detail with particular emphasis on neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ... Biosynthesis of the granule proteins is discussed in detail with particular emphasis on neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ... The biosynthesis of neutrophil and eosinophil granule proteins}, volume = {24}, year = {1986}, } ...
Seed storage proteins: structures and biosynthesis.. P R Shewry, J A Napier, A S Tatham ...
Human amylin proteotoxicity impairs protein biosynthesis, and alters major cellular signaling pathways in the heart, brain and ... Schutz, Y. (2011). Protein turnover, ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, ... Rampersad, O. R., & Wool, I. G. (1965). Protein synthesis by ribosomes from heart muscle: Effect of insulin and diabetes. ... Pietzsch, J., Bergmann, R., & Kopprasch, S. (2004). Analysis of non-protein amino acids as specific markers of low density ...
Bio-Synthesis Adds New Division Dedicated to Custom Expression of Proteins in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. ... Bio-Synthesis Inc.. Heidi Fazeli. 972-420-8505. Contact. Click here to view the company profile of Bio- ... Bio-Synthesis provides assistance with several steps of the protein production process, from gene synthesis, codon optimization ... A new department specifically for protein expression gives us even more flexibility.". Bio-Synthesis Incorporated has been ...
  • In protein synthesis, a succession of tRNA molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with an mRNA molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. (
  • The synthesis of proteins from RNA is known as translation. (
  • Protein biosynthesis (or protein synthesis) is a core biological process, occurring inside cells, balancing the loss of cellular proteins (via degradation or export) through the production of new proteins. (
  • Protein synthesis is a very similar process for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but there are some distinct differences. (
  • Protein synthesis can be divided broadly into two phases - transcription and translation. (
  • DNA,RNA & Protein Synthesis Mrs. (
  • 2. The amino acid sequence may be altered during protein synthesis. (
  • 2. Which cell structure contains information needed for protein synthesis? (
  • 3. The accompanying diagram shows some of the steps in protein synthesis. (
  • Pyrimidines are essential precursors for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, protein glycosylation and lipid synthesis. (
  • In animals, the multifunctional protein CAD catalyses the first three reactions of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. (
  • We are pleased to add the newly created division, Custom Protein Expression, where we will offer a one-stop solution from gene synthesis to purified protein in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic models. (
  • Bio-Synthesis provides assistance with several steps of the protein production process, from gene synthesis, codon optimization, choice of expression vector to high-throughput protein expression. (
  • Currently we focus on membrane protein folding in situ using cell-free expression systems and nanodiscs to monitor synthesis and folding events of bacteriorhodopsin during the protein translation by the ribosome. (
  • Central to FA synthesis, the ACP (acyl carrier protein) represents the cofactor protein that covalently binds all fatty acyl intermediates via a phosphopantetheine linker during the synthesis process. (
  • Protein synthesis in mammalian epidermis: are polyribosomes involved in fibrous-protein biosynthesis? (
  • Research in this section is focused on understanding translational regulatory mechanisms and the molecular details of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Given its critical importance as the ultimate step in gene expression and its significant energy requirements, the fidelity and efficiency of protein synthesis are key elements for cell growth and development. (
  • Moreover, regulation of protein synthesis is an important element in the innate immune response against pathogens. (
  • The initiation phase of eukaryotic protein synthesis requires the activity of at least 12 trans-acting proteins referred to as translation initiation factors (eIFs) and translation elongation is assisted by two well-conserved eukaryotic elongation factors (eEFs). (
  • Ergosterol is a major and specific component of the fungal plasma membrane, and thus, the cytochrome P450 enzymes (Erg proteins) that catalyze ergosterol synthesis have been selected as valuable targets of azole antifungals. (
  • Compared to the single Dap proteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe , we suggest that this complex Dap family regulatory system emerged during the evolution of fungi as an adaptive means to regulate ergosterol synthesis in response to environmental stimuli. (
  • Moreover, our elucidation of the molecular mechanism of Dap regulation of cytochrome P450 protein functionality through heme-binding activity may extend beyond the Kingdom Fungi with applicability toward Dap protein regulation of mammalian sterol synthesis. (
  • The AdrA protein can catalyze the synthesis of bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic diguanylic acid (cyclic di-GMP), which in turn stimulates the enzymes responsible for cellulose production ( 48 ). (
  • We elucidate a close connection between proofreading of the emerging amino acid sequence during its normal, elongation factor-dependent ribosomal biosynthesis and the existence of the factor-free synthesis of a polypeptide chain on a ribosome. (
  • Polyphenylalanine synthesis in Escherichia coli ribosomes without participation of guanosine-5'-triphosphate and protein translation factors. (
  • Supporting Information Available: Amino acid synthesis, plasmid construction, protein expression, and protein analysis (PDF). (
  • Despite the wide range of structures reported for Fe-S clusters inserted into proteins, the biological synthesis of all Fe-S clusters starts with the assembly of simple units of 2Fe-2S and 4Fe-4S clusters. (
  • Elicitation of this cpUPR by inhibition of protein synthesis in the chloroplast led to increased expression of nuclear genes encoding ClpB3 and other chloroplast chap- erones, eventually causing a stress acclimation response. (
  • The incorporation of Tcg into proteins creates new opportunities for macromolecular synthesis through genetic engineering, due to the rich chemistry of the olefinic side chain. (
  • Furthermore, overexpression of full-length DCNP1, but not DCNP1 ΔRRK or DCNP1 1-116 , in C6 cells significantly decreased both the mRNA and protein levels of N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis. (
  • Of the proteins required for diphthamide synthesis, Dph3 is the smallest, containing only 82 residues. (
  • Here we have a code that is extensive enough to direct the synthesis of the primary structure of a protein molecule. (
  • Protein synthesis is accomplished by orderly interactions between mRNA and the other ribonucleic acids (transfer RNA [tRNA] and ribosomal RNA [rRNA]), the ribosome, and more than 100 enzymes. (
  • After the amino acid molecule has been bound to its tRNA carrier, protein synthesis can take place. (
  • Here it is proposed that changes in protein synthesis mediate the tradeoffs that take place upon genetic and environmental manipulation in various model systems including yeast, worms, flies and mice. (
  • This hypothesis is supported by evidence that inhibition of the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway and various translation factors that inhibit protein synthesis lead to slowing of growth and development but extend lifespan. (
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. (
  • Here, we report that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway improves ER protein homeostasis and extends lifespan in C. elegans. (
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (
  • Protein will often be synthesized directly from genes by translating mRNA . (
  • The ribosome latches onto the end of an mRNA molecule and moves along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and joining together their amino acids to form a new protein chain. (
  • During transcription, a section of DNA encoding a protein, known as a gene, is converted into a template molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). (
  • On its surface there are large amounts of small round entities, the ribosomes, that translate the incoming mRNA into proteins. (
  • SAD1 encodes a polypeptide similar to multifunctional Sm-like snRNP proteins that are required for mRNA splicing, export, and degradation. (
  • Stimulation of prostaglandin H synthase mRNA levels and prostaglandin biosynthesis by phorbol ester: mediation by protein kinase C. (
  • The objective requires you to have a general understanding of the roles played by mRNA and tRNA in the biosynthesis of proteins, and that you be able to describe this process. (
  • The sequence of these triplet groups in the mRNA dictates the sequence of the amino acids in the protein. (
  • The process in which the information encoded in the mRNA is used to direct the sequencing of amino acids and thus ultimately to synthesize a protein is referred to as translation . (
  • Translation, the assembly of proteins by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. (
  • The biosynthetic and salvage pathways provide pyrimidine nucleotides for RNA, DNA, cell membrane and cell wall biosynthesis. (
  • In this article, we have demonstrated that the major retrograde signaling protein GUN1 can bind tetrapyrroles and regulate the flow through the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway. (
  • In animals, the de novo pathway is initiated and controlled by CAD, a ∼240‐kDa multifunctional protein with four different enzymatic domains: glutaminase (GLN), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). (
  • a) Overview of the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. (
  • Thus, Fd1, a one-electron carrier protein in photosynthesis, drives the phycobilin biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Functional enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that four pathways might be involved in storage protein biosynthesis. (
  • The bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis (FASII) pathway is a promising target for antibacterial drug discovery and current research is focused on elucidating the substrate specificity of the b-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) enzymes in this pathway, identify the interactions between the components of the FASII pathway and discovering the unknown dehydratase, and studying the interaction of current enzyme inhibitors with FASII components in whole cells. (
  • Several data in the literature suggest the existence of protein-protein interactions within the FASII pathway. (
  • This disaggregase accumulates when the MEP pathway flux is decreased and in situations causing protein folding stress. (
  • E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate synthase (GcpE or IspG) and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (LytB or IspH) are involved in the last two steps of the DOXP pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. (
  • The evolutionary conservation of the complex diphthamide biosynthesis pathway throughout eukaryotes implies a key role for diphthamide in normal cellular physiology. (
  • A role for SP85 and interacting coat proteins in this signaling pathway explains many of the defects of SP85-null spores and the dominant negative effects of the partial length fragments. (
  • Transcription can be divided into 3 stages: initiation, elongation, and termination, each regulated by a large number of proteins such as transcription factors and coactivators that ensure that the correct gene is transcribed. (
  • To express a protein by a cell-free system, purified and separated components from cell lysates, e.g. of prokaryotic or eucaryotic origin, get re-combined with certain additives (e.g. amino acids, energy or buffer components, transcription enzymes) in a test tube in a respective manner to process a complete bio-protein synthetic cycle of an offered gene, which encodes for a certain protein. (
  • A gene on chromosome 2q35 that encodes a bifunctional protein that catalyses the last two steps in purine biosynthesis. (
  • The gene‐specific translation initiation region (TIR) drives a growth‐dependent, differential production of proteins in the absence of regulators. (
  • A gene on chromosome 17p13.2 that encodes a component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase complex essential for the transfer of GPI to proteins and involved in GPI-anchor and glycolipid biosynthesis. (
  • Our results indicate that CsgD can modulate cellulose biosynthesis through activation of the yoaD gene. (
  • Expression of both curli and cellulose depends on the CsgD protein, a putative transcription regulator of the LuxR family, which activates transcription of the csgBAC operon ( 2 ), which encodes curli structural subunits, and transcription of the adrA gene, a positive effector of cellulose biosynthesis ( 45 ). (
  • The product of the CsgD-dependent adrA gene is a member of the GGDEF protein family ( 16 , 50 ). (
  • Our data therefore confirm that GUN1 is a central integrator of different pathways controlling chloroplast protein homeostasis beyond the control of nuclear gene ex- pression. (
  • If a protein contains two or more different polypeptide chains, each chain is coded by a different gene. (
  • This locus represents a mitochondrial ubiquinone biosynthesis gene. (
  • A proprotein is an inactive protein containing one or more inhibitory peptides that can be activated when the inhibitory sequence is removed by proteolysis during posttranslational modification . (
  • The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA , via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS. (
  • The conformation with which natural agonistic peptides interact with G protein-coupled receptor(s) (GPCR(s)) partly results from intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen bridges or is induced by ligand-receptor interactions. (
  • Biosynthesis of lanthionine-constrained peptides exploiting engineered Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria that contain lanthionine-introducing enzymes constitutes a convenient method for discovery of lanthionine-stabilized GPCR agonists. (
  • Members of this family are members of the superfamily of activating enzymes (E1) of the ubiquitin-like proteins [ PMID: 12660720 ]. (
  • Proteins perform a number of critical functions as enzymes, structural proteins or hormones. (
  • ATP + riboflavin ⇌ ADP + FMN ATP + FMN ⇌ diphosphate + FAD Eukaryotes usually have two separate enzymes, while most prokaryotes have a single bifunctional protein that can carry out both catalyses, although exceptions occur in both cases. (
  • The two committed enzymatic steps of riboflavin biosynthesis are performed in plants by bifunctional RIBA enzymes comprised of GTP cyclohydrolase II (GCHII) and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (DHBPS). (
  • Transcription of miRNA-encoding genes is catalyzed by RNA polymerase II, and the transcripts are spliced into mature miRNA via dicer-like enzymes and several protein complexes ( Bartel, 2004 ). (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that a cytochrome b 5 -like heme-binding damage resistance protein (Dap) family, comprised of DapA, DapB, and DapC, coordinately regulates the functionality of cytochrome P450 enzymes Erg5 and Erg11 and oppositely affects susceptibility to azoles. (
  • Substrates are shuttled between the FASII enzymes by acyl carrier protein, a phosphopantetheinylated protein with a MW of 13 kDa in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 7 kDa in Escherichia coli. (
  • All systems, however, construct Fe-S clusters through a similar biosynthetic scheme involving three main steps: (1) sulfur activation by a cysteine desulfurase, (2) cluster assembly by a scaffold protein, and (3) guided delivery of Fe-S units to either final acceptors or biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of complex metalloclusters. (
  • Furthermore, we analyzed the thioester reductase FclG and the free-standing condensation domain-like protein FclL in detail and observed low substrate specificity for both enzymes. (
  • Phosphoproteome analysis of functional mitochondria isolated from resting human muscle reveals extensive phosphorylation of inner membrane protein complexes and enzymes. (
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (
  • In this study, we characterized two noncatalytic chalcone isomerase (CHI)-like proteins (designated as HlCHIL1 and HlCHIL2) using engineered yeast harboring all genes required for DMX production. (
  • sad1 plants are also defective in the positive feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes by ABA and are impaired in drought stress induction of ABA biosynthesis. (
  • Among these genes are yloU and yqhY which encode the paralogous proteins YloU and YqhY. (
  • In summary, our findings suggest that drought stress may enhance storage protein by regulating the expression of miRNAs and their target genes. (
  • The expression of all three genes is induced in an azole concentration-dependent way, and the decreased susceptibility to azoles requires DapA stabilization of cytochrome P450 protein activity. (
  • Constitutive expression of the CsgD protein results in altered transcription patterns for at least 24 novel genes, in addition to the previously identified CsgD-dependent genes. (
  • The cspA and fecR genes, encoding regulatory proteins responding to cold shock and to iron, respectively, and yoaD , encoding a putative negative regulator of cellulose biosynthesis, were found to be some of the novel CsgD-regulated genes. (
  • The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabA and fabB genes, encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I, respectively, were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. (
  • As with other positive activator proteins, when pyrimidine nucleotides are depleted, PyrR binds to DNA thereby enhancing expression of pyrD, pyrE and pyrF genes. (
  • We elucidated the biosynthesis of these NRPS-PKS hybrids in Xenorhabdus szentirmaii by deletion of most genes encoded in the fabclavine BGC and subsequent analysis of produced fabclavine or polyamine intermediates. (
  • We found 394 GPA1-regulated genes spanning 79 biological processes, including biotic and abiotic stresses, development, flavonoid biosynthesis, transcription factors, transporters and nitrate/phosphate responses. (
  • Here, we show in Pisum sativum L. that the DELLA proteins can activate the expression of KNOX and BELL transcription factors involved in regulation of cytokinin metabolic and response genes. (
  • The global catabolite repression control protein, Crc, has been shown to affect pyrimidine metabolism in a number of ways. (
  • Such findings provide insights into strategies used by bacteria to regulate the flow of reactive intermediates and provide protein barcodes to uncover yet-unidentified cellular components involved in Fe-S metabolism. (
  • Our results suggest that DELLA proteins may regulate cytokinin metabolism upon nodulation. (
  • This whole complex of processes is carried out by the ribosome, formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ), and more than 50 different proteins. (
  • Technical problems intrinsic to the purification of preribosome intermediates have limited our understanding of ribosome biosynthesis in humans. (
  • Cohen P (1989) The structure and regulation of protein phosphatases. (
  • The regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis was studied in Pseudomonas putida. (
  • The main regulators of gibberellin signaling, the DELLA proteins are also involved in regulation of nodule formation. (
  • The prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria that catalyzes the phosphorylation of riboflavin into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and the adenylylation of FMN into flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). (
  • In bacteria, GLN, CPS, DHO and ATC are individual proteins for which structural information is available. (
  • Fungi have a CAD‐like protein with an inactive DHO‐like domain (light green), whereas in bacteria, archaeans and plants, the GLN, CPS, DHO and ATC activities are encoded as distinct monofunctional proteins. (
  • In most bacteria, fatty acid biosynthesis is an essential process that must be controlled by the availability of precursors and by the needs of cell division. (
  • We previously reported that patatin-like protein 2 (PLP2), a pathogen-induced patatin-like lipid acyl hydrolase, promotes cell death and negatively affects Arabidopsis resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea and to the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae . (
  • Another unifying feature on the biological formation of Fe-S clusters in bacteria is that these systems are tightly regulated by a network of protein interactions. (
  • The phylogenetic relations between anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were compared on the basis of sequences of key proteins of the type-II photosynthetic reaction center, including PufLM and PufH (PuhA), and a key enzyme of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, the light-independent chlorophyllide reductase BchXYZ. (
  • The phylogenetic relations demonstrated that bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis had evolved in ancestors of phototrophic green bacteria much earlier as compared to phototrophic purple bacteria and that multiple events independently formed different lineages of aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria, many of which have very ancient roots. (
  • Furthermore well-known is the biosynthesis of [S,S]-EDDS using the bacteria species Amycolatopsis japonicum (Zwicker et al. (
  • Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthesis protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. (
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning and characterization of the fabAB operon encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabA) and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB). (
  • The translation elongation factor 2 in eukaryotes (eEF-2) contains a unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue, termed diphthamide, which serves as the only target for diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. Diphthamide biosynthesis is carried out by five highly conserved proteins, Dph1 to Dph5, and an as-yet-unidentified amidating enzyme. (
  • The affinity of BlaC for the inhibitors was further studied using catalytically inactive mutants of the enzyme.In parallel, the Alr and YlmE proteins from S. coelicolor A3(2) were studied. (
  • Later, by the sequence similarity, a similar protein was found in Chlamydomonas algae, [9] showing that this regulatory subsystem existed a long time before the angiosperms lost the independent conversion enzyme. (
  • The second part of the thesis continued previous work with DXI1, a DXS-interacting J-protein that facilitates the recognition of inactive DXS forms to deliver them to eventual reactivation or degradation pathways. (
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (
  • Involved in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic phenazine, a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic molecule having important roles in virulence, competition and biological control. (
  • Our results provide insights into their evolutionary development from the ancestral noncatalytic fatty acid-binding chalcone isomerase-fold proteins to specialized auxiliary proteins supporting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants, and open up the possibility of producing high-value plant prenylchalcones using heterologous systems. (
  • Prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis proteins are also known as the prokaryotic type-I FAD synthetases, which consist of a C-terminal riboflavin kinase (RFK) and an N-terminal FMN-adenylyltransferase (FMNAT). (
  • Efforts we employed toward characterizing this noncovalent complex include the development of a photoprobe by attaching a benzophenone group to the prosthetic PPant arm of AcpM (B4M-AcpM), the development of a bioorthogonal w-azido fatty acid probe to determine fatty acylated proteins in the cell and lastly, the incorporation of fluorescent tags into InhA in order to quantitate an interaction to KasA. (
  • However, future optimizations of this method along with the incorporation of w-azido fatty acids into cells and the appropriate position to insert fluorescent probes into InhA are required to definitely identify physiologically relevant protein-protein interactions. (
  • Incorporation of nonnatural amino acid residues allows engineering of proteins with novel chemical functionality and unusual physical properties. (
  • We report here that modification of the leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) activity of the host allows efficient incorporation of 2 into recombinant proteins prepared in Escherichia coli. (
  • Furthermore, the coiled-coil protein used to demonstrate incorporation of 2 exhibits enhanced stability in comparison to the same protein enriched in 1, possibly due to the increased hydrophobic character of the additional trifluoromethyl group in the protein core. (
  • The incorporation of amino acids into proteins in vivo is controlled by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (
  • The successful incorporation of a nonnatural amino acid, trans-crotylglycine (Tcg), into a protein has now been achieved by increasing the methionyl-tRNA synthetase activity of a bacterial expression host (see scheme). (
  • This high degree of specificity is vital to the incorporation of the correct amino acid into a protein. (
  • G-protein α-subunit (GPA1) regulates stress, nitrate and phosphate response, flavonoid. (
  • it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export . (
  • Biosynthesis and Degradation of Storage Protein in Spores of the Fungu" by Gary Petersen, Kurt Dahlberg et al. (
  • Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (
  • Below are the list of possible Bifunctional NAD biosynthesis protein products. (
  • Collectively, our data indicate that PLP2 is an integral component of the plant cell death execution machinery, possibly providing fatty acid precursors for the biosynthesis of specific oxylipins and differentially affecting resistance to pathogens with distinct lifestyles. (
  • L. An initial pH of the medium in the range 4.0-7.0 have no significant effect on the protein (38.5-41.3 g/100 g d.w. ), lipid (10.2-12.7 g/100 g d.w. ), or carotenoid (191.7-202.9 μg/g d.w. ) content in the biomass, or on the profile of synthesized fatty acids and carotenoids. (
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , PHO85 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) with multiple roles in cell cycle and metabolic controls. (
  • The locus encodes a protein of 341 amino acid residues with four WD40 repeats. (
  • The rice (Oryza sativa) genome encodes 37 putative chitinases and chitinase-like proteins. (
  • Curli production is dependent on the CsgD transcription activator, which also promotes cellulose biosynthesis. (
  • Expression of curli is linked to cellulose biosynthesis, which leads to the production of an extracellular matrix and results in tight cell-cell and cell-surface interactions and in the so-called rdar morphotype in Salmonella ( 45 , 57 , 58 ). (
  • The effect of cis-bis(glycylglycine Et ester)platinum(II) chloride [60426-60-0] and cisplatinum [15663-27-1] on the protein biosynthesis of Walker-25 carcinosarcoma was confirmed to arise from an inhibition of the aminoacylation of tRNA and the biosynthesis of polyphenylalanine. (
  • Homo sapiens,Human,OSGEPL1,Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein OSGEPL1,t(6)A37 threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein OSGEPL1 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Homo sapiens,Human,OSGEPL1,Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein OSGEPL1,t(6)A37 threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein OSGEPL1. (
  • Homo sapiens,Human,OSGEPL1,Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein OSGEPL1,t(6)A37 threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein OSGEPL1 rna research rna is not so stable and very sticky. (
  • However, little is known about the expression characteristics of miRNAs and how they regulate protein accumulation in wheat caryopsis under drought stress. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that three cytochrome b 5 -like Dap proteins coordinately regulate the azole resistance and ergosterol biosynthesis catalyzed by cytochrome P450 proteins. (
  • Molecular events that regulate cellular biosynthesis of steroid hormones have been a topic of intense research for more than half a century. (
  • We isolated a knock-out mutant of the Arabidopsis G-protein α subunit (gpa1-5) and analysed its transcriptome to understand the genomewide role of GPA1 and compared it with that of our similar analysis of a GCR1 mutant (Chakraborty et al. (
  • The Arabidopsis mutant (FLU), unable to control biosynthesis of protochlorophyllide, glows red in the blue light. (
  • Furthermore, analysis by a chemical cross-linking technique designed to detect protein-protein interactions revealed that HO1 and PcyA directly interact with Fd in a 1:2 ratio. (
  • Studies involving the components of the FASII system also involve the utilization of techniques to identify protein-protein interactions. (
  • Recent studies revealed the importance of reciprocal signature sequence motifs that enable specific protein-protein interactions and consequently guide the transactions between physiological donors and acceptors. (
  • In a different manner, the Chlamydomonas regulatory protein is more complex: It is larger, crosses the thylakoid membrane twice rather than once, contains more protein-protein interactions sites, and even undergoes alternative splicing . (
  • Thus, the extensive structural data now available is facilitating the development of chemical and genetic tools to manipulate ABA biosynthesis and signaling and has refined our understanding of these new druggable target sites. (
  • Through molecular, genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrated that this accumulation depends on a mechanism called chloroplast Unfolded Protein Response (cpUPR). (
  • Overall, we validate some known and report many hitherto unknown roles of GPA1 in plants, including agronomically important ones such as biotic stress and nutrient response, and also provide compelling genetic evidence to revisit the role of GCR1 in G-protein signalling. (
  • The yeast protein expression system is the most economical and efficient eukaryotic system for secretion and intracellular expression. (
  • The yeast protein expression system serve as a eukaryotic system integrate the advantages of the mammalian cell expression system. (
  • A protein expressed by yeast system could be modificated such as glycosylation, acylation, phosphorylation and so on to ensure the native protein conformation. (
  • Our proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • This paper reports the study on determination of the effect of initial culture medium pH on growth and protein, lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis by R. glutinis yeast. (
  • The different values of initial pH of the culture medium with glycerol and deproteinized potato wastewater had a significant effect on the growth and on protein, lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis by R. glutinis yeast. (
  • In addition to having a role in diphthamide biosynthesis, Dph3 is also involved in modulating the functions of the Elongator complex in yeast. (
  • Mutants of yeast defective in the initiation of protein biosynthesis. (
  • effect on, neoplasm inhibition in relation to) Protein formation (antitumor platinum compds. (
  • Cell-free expression systems in combination with nanodiscs (discoidal lipid bilayer particles) offer a valuable approach to probe membrane proteins in situ. (
  • Customization of the system and offering of a lipid support (here: nanodiscs) enable membrane protein expression in a high yield. (
  • Given that CETP inhibitors are lipid soluble, accumulate in adipose tissue, and have binding sites for proteins involved in adipogenesis, and that adipocytes are a source of aldosterone, we questioned whether CETP inhibitors (torcetrapib, dalcetrapib, and anacetrapib) influence aldosterone production by adipocytes. (
  • Lipid-binding protein involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, also named ubiquinone, an essential lipid-soluble electron transporter for aerobic cellular respiration. (
  • This mix of known and putative ThiF proteins shows a deep split in phylogenetic trees. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses imply that the monofunctional, bipartite RIBA3 proteins, which have lost DHBPS activity, evolved early in tracheophyte evolution. (
  • This thesis describes the structural and biochemical characterization of the β-lactamase BlaC from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and the Alr and YlmE proteins from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).Mtb is the main cause of tuberculosis. (
  • The structural and biochemical characterization of the heterologous, purified Alr and YlmE proteins showed that while Alr is indeed involved in Ala racemization, YlmE is not. (
  • IMPORTANCE Knowledge of the ergosterol biosynthesis route in fungal pathogens is useful in the design of new antifungal drugs and could aid in the study of antifungal-drug resistance mechanisms. (
  • Seed storage proteins: structures and biosynthesis. (
  • 1818042, ' view Inhibitors of Protein ': ' A Western occupation with this study state only means. (
  • The allosteric activators and inhibitors for the different proteins are shown in blue and red, respectively. (
  • We unite these structural insights with progress in the development of ABA biosynthesis and signaling modulators and cover both inhibitors of 9-cis-expoycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) and ABA receptor modulators including the agonist quinabactin and antagonist AS6. (
  • We show that CHIL2 is part of an active DMX biosynthetic metabolon in hop glandular trichomes that encompasses a chalcone synthase (CHS) and a membrane-bound prenyltransferase, and that type IV CHI-fold proteins of representative land plants contain conserved function to bind with CHS and enhance its activity. (
  • TolC protein family members are the outer-membrane components of several transport systems involved in the export of diverse molecules, playing an important role in bacterial survival. (
  • Sterols are major components of most eukaryotic plasma membranes and have been shown to be responsible for a number of biological functions, such as membrane fluidity and the functions of integral membrane proteins ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • We found that despite its function as a transcription activator, the CsgD protein is localized in the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. (
  • Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M. Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. (
  • The regulatory protein is a transmembrane protein that is located in the thylakoid membrane. (
  • Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • Immunodetection experiments and comparison of the extracellular proteins present in the supernatant of the wild-type versus tolC mutant strains showed that the calcium-binding protein ExpE1, the endoglycanase ExsH, and the product of open reading frame SMc04171, a putative hemolysin-type calcium-binding protein, are secreted by a TolC-dependent secretion system. (
  • Taken together, our results confirm the importance of TolC in protein secretion, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, antimicrobials resistance, and symbiosis. (
  • This bacterial protein is functionally similar to the monofunctional riboflavin kinases and FMN-adenylyltransferases of eukaryotic organisms, but only the riboflavin kinases are structurally homologous. (
  • Keating TA, Marshall CG, Walsh CT (2000) Vibriobactin biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae VibH is an amide synthase homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domains. (
  • There are two structurally unrelated proteins with this activity: the light-dependent and the dark-operative. (
  • Nanodisc with cell-free expressed bacteriorhodopsin (bR, purple), an α-helical transmembrane retinal protein (originally from H.salinarum). (
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (
  • This entry represents the divergent clade of putative ThiF proteins as found in Campylobacter. (
  • The FabA and FabB proteins were similar in size and amino acid composition to their counterparts from Escherichia coli and to the putative homologs from Haemophilus influenzae. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Sequence analysis of six mutant alleles has identified base changes producing truncations or single amino acid changes in the TTG1 protein. (
  • Amino acid composition and sequence analyses of the protein products of T.maritima trpC (indoleglycerol phosphate synthase), trpF (phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase) and trpA (alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase) suggest that these thermostable (beta alpha)8-barrel proteins may be stabilized by additional salt bridges, compared with the mesostable forms. (
  • How can a molecule containing just 4 different nucleotides specify the sequence of the 20 amino acids that occur in proteins? (
  • The dark-operative version is a completely different protein, consisting of three subunits that exhibit significant sequence similarity to the three subunits of nitrogenase , which catalyzes the formation of ammonia from dinitrogen. (
  • In this study, we first transfected HEK293 cells with EGFP-DCNP1 and demonstrated that the full-length DCNP1 protein was localized in the nucleus, and RRK (the residues 117-119) composed its nuclear localization signal (NLS). (
  • Consequently, the N-terminus of the trp(G.D) fusion protein is 43 residues shorter than previously postulated. (
  • Arrival of PHA in the protein bodies is followed by the slow removal of these terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues, resulting in a decrease in the Mr of the modified sidechains. (
  • The C-terminal domain of SP85, 197 amino acids, is separated from the remainder of the protein by a series of 10 TXPP tetrapeptide repeats (Fig. ). It consists of a Cys-rich C1 region of 118 amino acids and a C2 region of 79 amino acids that lacks Cys residues. (
  • Protein Expression and Purification. (
  • The E. coli expression system is the most widely used expression system for recombinant proteins. (
  • Advantages of using E. coli for protein expression are low cost, high expression level, ease of scaling, and a short turnaround time. (
  • A new department specifically for protein expression gives us even more flexibility. (
  • In vitro activity assays of GCHII and DHBPS with all of the three purified recombinant AtRIBA proteins and complementation of E. coli ribA and ribB mutants lacking DHBPS and GCHII expression, respectively, confirmed the loss of bifunctionality for AtRIBA2 and AtRIBA3. (
  • Nuclear DCNP1 represses NAT expression and melatonin biosynthesis by interacting with BMAL1 and repressing its transcriptional activity. (
  • Protein Expression and Purification Technology Market 2020 report offers a lock stock and barrels worth of the marketplace to make lucid decisions. (
  • This Protein Expression and Purification Technology Market study provides comprehensive data that enlarge the understanding, scope, and application of this report. (
  • Report also examines factors influencing growth of Protein Expression and Purification Technology along with detailing of the key trends, drivers, restraints, and opportunities. (
  • The current dossier basically will help the market participants and stakeholders obtain a complete overview of the ongoing trends, essential factors, and challenges to understand the issues and prepared to face them while operating on a global platform for Protein Expression and Purification Technology market in the long run. (
  • Iron regulatory proteins (Irps) 1 and 2 posttranscriptionally control the expression of transcripts that contain iron-responsive element (IRE) sequences, including ferritin, ferroportin, transferrin receptor, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (
  • The predicted domains of SP85 are depicted in Fig. . In a previous study (), expression of DNA encoding the N domain with the celA signal peptide and a c- myc epitope tag, under control of the prespore-specific cotB promoter (pVSBN) (Fig. ), had resulted in a protein that was targeted properly to the PSV and subsequently secreted but was not incorporated into the coat. (
  • Brachmann AO, Joyce SA, Jenke-Kodama H, Schwär G, Clarke DJ, Bode HB (2007) A type II polyketide synthase is responsible for anthraquinone biosynthesis in Photorhabdus luminescens . (
  • Despite some significant differences, large parts were congruent between the 16S rRNA phylogeny and photosynthesis proteins. (
  • Members of the HesA/MoeB/ThiF family of proteins ( IPR000594 ) include a number of members encoded in the midst of thiamine biosynthetic operons. (
  • Thus, the formation of transient protein complexes among biosynthetic components allows for the direct transfer of reactive sulfur and Fe-S intermediates preventing oxygen damage and reactions with non-physiological targets. (
  • Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed in E. coli, mammalien cells or by baculovirus infection. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • In current models, both the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)andthe translocator protein (TSPO) have been implicated to have a concerted and indispensable effort in this cholesterol transport. (
  • High Productivity: Multiple fusion tags and our proprietary AIE technology are available in-house to increase protein solubility and production and to decrease purification cost, even for toxic proteins. (
  • The encoded protein is likely necessary for biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10, as mutations at this locus have been associated with autosomal-recessive neonatal-onset primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency. (
  • Sulphur availability is essential for the biosynthesis of the main wheat storage proteins. (
  • Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. (
  • The results of the transcriptome analysis showed excellent correlation with data on changes in the relative proportions of storage proteins and amino acid composition. (
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (
  • The Golgi apparatus is a part of the cellular structure that assists in the modification and delivery of proteins and other macromolecules. (
  • As aminoacids have various properties and shapes, this protein chain folds in a characteristic way that depends on complex factors and acts like a tool in the world of cellular chemical reactions. (
  • We also investigate stress-responsive protein kinases that phosphorylate the initiation factor eIF2α, viral regulators of these kinases, and how cellular phosphatases are targeted to dephosphorylate eIF2α. (