The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-positive, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacteria in the family BACILLACEAE.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The conversion of uncharged TRANSFER RNA to AMINO ACYL TRNA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the terminal amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination process is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (1/24808)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (2/24808)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (3/24808)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (4/24808)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (5/24808)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (6/24808)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (7/24808)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (8/24808)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

A new technique developed at UC Davis may have broken the barrier to rapid assembly of pure protein synthesis machinery outside of living cells.
The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate how genome engineering might be used to generate Escherichia coli strains with increased capacities for recombinant protein production. As translation constitute a possible bottleneck in recombinant production processes [Mahalik et. al, 2014] this work focused on evaluating and increasing translational capacities in E. coli. Two methods were used to evaluate translational capacities in E. coli: 1. Two plasmid reporter systems were established to investigate levels of ribosome expression. These plasmids carried red fluorescent protein genes (mCherry), under control of ribosomal promoters. Levels of expression of ribosomal constituents were evaluated by measuring fluorescence from strains carrying reporter plasmids.. 2. Exponential phase growth rates were used to assess translational capacities. Protein synthesis is generally the growth rate limiting factor during exponential phases, and a positive linear correlation between growth rates and ...
Upon EV-A71 infection of a host cell, EV-A71 RNA is translated into a viral polyprotein. Although EV-A71 can use the cellular translation machinery to produce viral proteins, unlike cellular translation, which is cap-dependent, the viral RNA genome of EV-A71 does not contain a 5′ cap and the translation of EV-A71 protein is cap-independent, which is mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ UTR of EV-A71 mRNA. Like many other eukaryotic viruses, EV-A71 manipulates the host cell translation devices, using an elegant RNA-centric strategy in infected cells. During viral translation, viral RNA plays an important role in controlling the stage of protein synthesis. In addition, due to the cellular defense mechanism, viral replication is limited by down-regulating translation. EV-A71 also utilizes protein factors in the host to overcome antiviral responses or even use them to promote viral translation rather than host cell translation. In this review, we provide an introduction
Abstract: The development of cancer is a consequence of mutations that lead to dysfunctional cell processes such as unrestrained cell proliferation resistance to apoptosis and improper regulation of cell processes such as translation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are linked to specific gene expression events regulated by protein synthesis which begins with the binding of various eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) to mRNA and ribosomes to initiate translation. eIF4G-1 catalyzes two types of translation initiation. Cap-dependent translation requires eIF4E to bind a 5-methylated mRNA cap and eIF4G-1. This in turn facilitates recruitment and promotes translation of cell cycle and growth-related proteins. Cap-independent translation initiates internally through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) in the 5 UTR of mRNA and promotes translation of apoptotic mRNAs such as Apaf-1. Previous studies found that eight variants of eIF4G-1 mRNA exist and five protein isoforms can be resolved by ...
There is extensive evidence that the structurally complex, negatively charged GAG side chains of HSPGs are crucial for signaling by diverse secreted ligands, including BMPs. Although the distribution of HSPGs is generally assumed to be ubiquitous, our data showing that GAGs are absent in the first three hours after egg laying but are rapidly synthesized thereafter demonstrates that HSPG expression can, in fact, be precisely temporally regulated. We have shown that this regulation results from an absence of enzymes essential for HSPG synthesis, owing to a block to their translation. Furthermore, our data strongly support the notion that the translational control mechanism involves the use of developmentally regulated internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in mRNA 5′ UTRs. Translationally blocking GAG synthesis may enable generation of the Dpp/Scw activity gradient in the absence of GAGs, while permitting rapid GAG synthesis from the abundant maternal mRNA supply coincident with the expression of ...
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Aims: Rational use of antibiotics against the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: Repositioning and repurposing adequate antibiotics to cure the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Background: It is widely accepted that viral infections such as the SARS-CoV-2 cannot be cured by antibiotics, whereas bacterial infections can. It is because the SARS-CoV-2 virus has no protein synthesis machinery (usually targeted by antibiotics) to produce from its RNA genome, the viral proteins and enzymes essential for its replication and/or for the assembly of viral particles. However, the antibiotics must be capable of inhibiting the ribosomes of the protein synthesis machinery of the SARS-CoV-2-infected human host cells, in order to prevent them from synthesizing new proteins that they do not need, but are needed for the virus to spread. Unfortunately, the only antibiotic capable of selectively inhibiting the human 80S ribosomes, namely cycloheximide, was found to
Deregulation of translational control can promote cellular transformation. Protein synthesis and the expression of components of the translation machinery are elevated in cancers and contribute to tumorigenesis (1-5, 7). Here, we show that nuclear ErbB2 promotes binding of RNA Pol I to rDNA, co-occupies the rRNA gene with β-actin and RNA Pol I, and stimulates rRNA production and protein translation independently of traditional ErbB2 downstream PI3-K and ERK signalings, suggesting that nuclear ErbB2 may contribute to oncogenesis by upregulating total cellular translation. rRNA synthesis by RNA Pol I plays a critical role in production of mature ribosomes that are central protein synthesis machinery of the cells. Perturbation of RNA Pol I activity as well as rRNA and protein biosynthesis (i.e., translation control) by oncoproteins such as Myc or tumor suppressors p53, RB, and ADP ribosylation factor has been reported to be associated with tumor development (1, 2, 7-10). The capability of Myc to ...
Localization of the cytoplasmic translation and mitochondrial import machinery relative to newly-made mitochondrial transcripts. Cells were grown in BrU for 30
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrically stimulated contraction accelerates protein synthesis rates in adult feline cardiocytes. AU - Ivester, C. T.. AU - Kent, R. L.. AU - Tagawa, H.. AU - Tsutsui, Hiroyuki. AU - Imamura, T.. AU - Cooper IV, G.. AU - McDermott, P. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Cardiocytes were induced to contract via electrical field stimulation with an 8 V/cm electrical square-wave pulse of 5 ms at 0.125-2.0 Hz for up to 6 h. Protein synthesis rates were measured as rate of incorporation of [3H]- phenylalanine into total cell protein. Rates of protein synthesis were accelerated 43 ± 4%, P , 0.001, by 4 h. The acceleration of total protein synthesis showed a frequency dependence between 0.125 and 0.5 Hz. In addition to accelerating rates of total protein synthesis, electrical stimulation of contraction accelerated fractional rates of synthesis of myosin heavy chain by 42 ± 8%, P , 0.05. Protein synthesis rates were not accelerated upon electrical stimulation using subthreshold ...
Several control mechanisms of eukaryotic gene expression target the initiation step of mRNA translation. The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) followed by an energy-dependent, sequential ‘scanning’ of the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Scanning through the 5′UTR requires the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A and its efficiency contributes to the specific rate of protein synthesis. Thus, understanding the molecular details of the scanning mechanism remains a priority task for the field. Here, we studied the effects of inhibiting ATP-dependent translation and eIF4A in cell-free translation and reconstituted initiation reactions programmed with capped mRNAs featuring different 5′UTRs. An aptamer that blocks eIF4A in an inactive state away from mRNA inhibited translation of capped mRNA with the
A technique for image alignment with global translation and linear stretch determines translation parameters for three corresponding linearly displaced blocks in a reference image and a corresponding distorted test image. From the differences between the translation parameters for the three blocks the presence of stretch is detected and, if detected, a stretch factor is estimated. The estimated stretch factor is used as a starting point to stretch the reference image to overlap the distorted test image as a refinement process. The resulting refined stretch factor is then used in a reverse stretch process to shrink the distorted test image, and the distorted test image is then aligned with the reference image to obtain picture quality metrics.
Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B) that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA
Quiescence (G0) represents an assortment of reversible, cell cycle-arrested states that are resistant to unfavorable conditions and associated with cancer persistence. G0 involves regulated gene expression with selective mRNA expression and decreased canonical translation. Low mTOR activity in G0 activates the cap complex inhibitor, eIF4EBP, and impairs canonical translation. The alternative translation mechanisms in G0 remain to be uncovered. Our data show that microRNAs, regulatory, non-coding RNAs that target distinct mRNAs to alter gene expression, can associate with alternative complexes and translation factors to regulate specific mRNA translation in G0. One subset of transcripts expressed in G0 includes specific mRNAs recruited by an FXR1a-associated microRNP (microRNA-protein complex) for translation activation in G0 mammalian cells. MicroRNPs predominantly mediate repression and downregulation; however, FXR1a-microRNP lacks conventional microRNP repressors, and instead, contains a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Translation-independent circadian control of the cell cycle in a unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote. AU - Miyagishima, Shin Ya. AU - Fujiwara, Takayuki. AU - Sumiya, Nobuko. AU - Hirooka, Shunsuke. AU - Nakano, Akihiko. AU - Kabeya, Yukihiro. AU - Nakamura, Mami. N1 - Funding Information: We thank A. Yamashita for technical support and K. Fukaya and BSIs Research Resources Center of RIKEN for LC-MS/MS analyses. This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (no. 19870033 to S.-y.M.) and by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) (to S.-y.M.).. PY - 2014/5/8. Y1 - 2014/5/8. N2 - Circadian rhythms of cell division have been observed in several lineages of eukaryotes, especially photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes. However, the mechanism underlying the circadian regulation of the cell cycle and the nature of the advantage conferred remain ...
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR results in an increase in transcription of ER-resident proteins that facilitate protein folding in the ER. A key regulatory step in UPR activation is the regulated splicing of HAC1 mRNA, which encodes Hac1p, a transcription factor dedicated to this pathway. Hac1p can be detected only when the spliced form of HAC1 mRNA (termed HAC1i mRNA, for induced) is produced; this was surprising because the unspliced HAC1u mRNA (HAC1u for uninduced) is equally stable in cells.. ...
Looking for translation of block? block translation from English to German. block in other languages. German translation of block.
A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) stores translation entries. The translation entries include a virtual address, a physical address and a memory local/not-local flag. When a processor is in a low power/local memory mode a virtual address is received. A matching translation entry has a local/not-local flag. Upon the local/not-local flag indicating the physical address of the matching translation entry being outside the local memory, an out-of-access-range memory access exception is generated.
Learn about DNA Delivery and Protein Synthesis. Topics cover DNA delivery, screening of recombinant clones, protein synthesis machinery, and expression systems.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation is an important element of gene expression that can be modulated by alterations in translation, such as reductions in initiation or elongation rates. Reducing translation initiation strongly affects mRNA degradation by driving mRNA toward the assembly of a decapping complex, leading to decapping. While mRNA stability decreases as a consequence of translational inhibition, in apparent contradiction several external stresses both inhibit translation initiation and stabilize mRNA. A key difference in these processes is that stresses induce multiple responses, one of which stabilizes mRNAs at the initial and rate-limiting step of general mRNA decay. Because this increase in mRNA stability is directly induced by stress, it is independent of the translational effects of stress, which provide the cell with an opportunity to assess its response to changing environmental conditions. After assessment, the cell can store mRNAs, reinitiate their translation or, ...
Every protein in a cell is produced from a transiently synthesized messenger molecule, termed mRNA. This mRNA is then recognized by a cellular machinery that translates the base sequence of mRNA into its corresponding protein (which is a sequence of amino acids). This protein synthesis machinery, termed ribosome, is actually a ribozyme, i.e. it is a catalytically active assembly of several RNA molecules. Consequently, RNAs do not only serve as messenger molecules or perform structural functions as e.g. in tRNA but may also act as catalysts that perform biochemical reactions as is the case for protein enzymes. Of course, the ribosome also contains numerous proteins as it is a very complex ribonucleoprotein particle but these predominantly serve structural functions, e.g. to give the ribosome its shape. Fascinatingly, the initial analysis of the human genome sequence revealed that, apparently, only a very small fraction of the DNA of our genome is encoding proteins. Scientists at first thought ...
To gain preferential access to the protein synthesis machinery and to disrupt induction of antiviral responses by infected cell many viruses block host gene expression. This blockade is called host shutoff and it is mediated by viral factors that either destroy host messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or interfere with their synthesis. Influenza A virus (IAV) encodes…
Gene expression in human tissue has primarily been studied on the transcriptional level, largely neglecting translational regulation. Here, we analyze the translatomes of 80 human hearts to identify new translation events and quantify the effect of translational regulation. We show extensive translational control of cardiac gene expression, which is orchestrated in a process-specific manner. Translation downstream of predicted disease-causing protein-truncating variants appears to be frequent, suggesting inefficient translation termination. We identify hundreds of previously undetected microproteins, expressed from lncRNAs and circRNAs, for which we validate the protein products in vivo . The translation of microproteins is not restricted to the heart and prominent in the translatomes of human kidney and liver. We associate these microproteins with diverse cellular processes and compartments and find that many locate to the mitochondria. Importantly, dozens of microproteins are translated from ...
Eukaryotic cells respond to unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), amino acid starvation, or oxidants by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). This adaptation inhibits general protein synthesis while promoting translation and express …
By using a systemic mtEF4 gene knockout mouse model, researchers from the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that mtEF4 knockout damages the oxidative phosphorylation function in germ cells of male mice, thus causing male sterility.
In mammals, such as humans, DNA contains genetic instructions that are transcribed-or copied-into RNA. While DNA remains in the cells nucleus, RNA carries the copies of genetic information to the rest of the cell by way of various combinations of amino acids, which it delivers to ribosomes. The ribosomes link the amino acids together to form proteins that then carry out functions within the human body. The viral RNA is sneaky: its features cause the protein synthesis machinery of our cells to mistake it for RNA produced by our own DNA. COVID-19 enters the body through the nose, mouth, or eyes and attaches to our cells. Once the virus is inside our cells, it releases its RNA. Our hijacked cells serve as virus factories, reading the viruss RNA and making long viral proteins to compromise the immune system. The virus assembles new copies of itself and spreads to more parts of the body and-by way of saliva, sweat, and other bodily fluids-to other humans. RNA research at the University of Rochester
HIV causes the serious disease AIDS yet it has a fascinating life cycle that can be used to teach many key concepts in molecular biology. With this model your students will see how the virus uses parts of the infected cells protein synthesis machinery to replicate itself. Using real DNA sequence, the crucial steps of r
Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response pathways, and down
In recent years, linguists have increasingly focused on the interaction between languages and the material contexts of interaction: studies on the linguistic landscape have flourished (Landry and Bourhis 1997; Gorter 2013), and a growing area of research asserts the need to consider language, objects, and spaces together as a semiotic assemblage (Pennycook 2017; Zhu, Otsuji, and Pennycook 2017). In translation studies, the topic has received less attention, even though Littau has sparked a discussion with her 2016 paper in Translation Studies that called for greater attention to the material forms of communication and translation. The availability of specific media can influence translators, and have a concrete impact on the creation, circulation and reception of translations (Littau 2016; OConnor 2019, 2020). The material dimensions of translation are a compelling issue for the field of translation studies as it seeks to understand not just the interaction between carrier and translation ...
Figure 2. The phenotype of FoxC1 depleted gastulae. A:Xenopus FoxC1 pseudoalleles aligned against the reverse complement of the morpholino oligo used in the study using Clustal alignment in Macvector. B: FoxC1 MO (MO) blocks translation of FoxC1 mRNA (FoxC1) in a dose-responsive fashion, but does not block translation of a protected FoxC1 RNA, (MOR-), in an in vitro translation assay. C: HA-tagged Fox1 mRNA was injected alone or together with different doses of FoxC1 MO at the 2-cell stage to confirm a reduction of FoxC1 translation. D-G: Wild type sibling embryos and embryos injected with 40 ng MO (MO), or 40 ng MO and 50 pg MO-R FoxC1 mRNA (MO+RNA) were cultured until early (stage 10), mid (stage 11), and late gastrula (stage 11.5) stages before freezing and analyzing by real time RT-PCR for the expression of Mespo (D), Endodermin (E), Bix4 (F), and CK1ϵ (G). Expression levels are normalized to ODC. H,I: Whole mount in situ hybridization on FoxC1-depleted mid-gastrulae (bottom) as compared to ...
If you really want to expand your business, market or extend to new audience, you definitely need professional translations services for your corporate documentation. You can also give your employees language skills for translation. But hiring a professional and experienced translator is always beneficial, because translation is not just a matter of words only. It is actually adapting your written communication to another language that is need of your readers. Professional translators are expert in judicial translation, juridical translation, marketing translation, certified translation and other kind of translations. They have extensive grip on different languages. There are various translators who also provide legal translation services in Dubai, but it is hard to find legal translation services. Because legal translation is not a cup of tea for everyone. Here are some major reasons of hiring translation services.. It is economical:. Getting translation services for business is always ...
Abstract : Escherichia coli holds important secrets of the life, and persists with its metallic sheen among the model organisms used in modern biology research. Exploration of core biological processes in this classical model organism continues to provide a wealth of new information relevant to all life forms. In my lecture, I will discuss how the excellent amenability of E. coli to the classical genetics approaches in conjunction with the modern molecular methods continues to unravel evolutionary complexities of biological systems. In particular, I will discuss examples of how E. coli has been instrumental in addressing many questions in our pursuit of understanding the protein synthesis machinery.. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Florian Markowetz.. Translation efficiency is determined, in part, by the supply-to-demand relationships between the tRNA and mRNA pools in cells. To better understand translation we perturb the system through tRNA gene manipulation and recoding open reading frames. We then follow such perturbed and genome engineered bacteria and yeast cells through lab evolution and comparative genomics and reveal how evolution acts to adapt supply to demand. I will also discuss our study of the cancerous tRNA and mRNA pools. I will show how cancers sustain high translation efficiency of genes that carry out cell autonomous, hence oncogenic, functionalities.. Hosted by Duncan Odom. This talk is part of the Seminars on Quantitative Biology @ CRUK Cambridge Institute series.. ...
Large and systematic mRNA library design disentangles the complex sequence determinants of translation efficiency in bacteria. Comparative analyses of natural and mutated sequences have been used to probe mechanisms of gene expression, but small sample sizes may produce biased outcomes. We applied an unbiased design-of-experiments approach to disentangle factors suspected to affect translation efficiency in E. coli. We precisely designed 244,000 DNA sequences implementing 56 replicates of a full factorial design to evaluate nucleotide, secondary structure, codon and amino acid properties in combination. For each sequence, we measured reporter transcript abundance and decay, polysome profiles, protein production and growth rates. Associations between designed sequences properties and these consequent phenotypes were dominated by secondary structures and their interactions within transcripts. We confirmed that transcript structure generally limits translation initiation and demonstrated its physiological
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Plants respond to changes in sugar concentrations by altering their transcriptional profile and their metabolic processes. Sucrose triggers the translational repression of the transcription factor bZIP11 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Rahmani et al. show that this repression requires the 5′-leader sequence of bZIP11, which, when transferred to a reporter gene, decreased the expression of the reporter gene product (luciferase) in response to sucrose, consistent with sugar-induced translational repression. Deletion analysis revealed that the second upstream open reading frame (uORF2) was required. When the mRNA sequence of uORF2 was mutated without affecting the encoded peptide, sugar-induced translational repression occurred. Transplantation of the 82 nucleotides of the uORF2 sequence into the promoter of a gene not normally regulated by sucrose caused the production of the reporter gene to decrease in response to sucrose. Mutation of the encoded peptide, or changing the length of the encoded ...
FIGURE 1. Posttranscriptional and translational mechanisms of gene regulation in CD4+ T cell subsets. (1) Increased translational events cause differentiated Tregs to proliferate, whereas Foxp3 induction and Treg differentiation are facilitated by decreased translation and posttranscriptional mechanisms. (2) miR-155 can cause an increase in IFN-Rα expression and initiate naive T cell differentiation toward the Th1 cell type. (3) miR-155 also blocks SOCS1 translation and, in turn, induces Foxp3 transcription. (4) Environmental cues like hypoxia can influence T cell differentiation into various lineages, with the Th17 and Treg types shown in this figure. (5) miR-126 blocks the translation of PU.1, an inhibitor of GATA-3 interaction with DNA, thus promoting the development of Th2 cells. (6) Interaction of eIF4E with mature mRNAs governs translation, and its activity is controlled by the eIF4E-binding proteins. (7) Poly(A)-binding proteins cause circularization of mRNAs and increase translation. ...
A rapid method for gene expression analysis, PURExpress® is a novel cell-free transcription/translation system reconstituted from the purified components necessary for E. coli translation. The relative nuclease-free and protease-free nature of the PURExpress platform preserves the integrity of DNA and RNA templates/ complexes and results in proteins that are free of modification and degradation. Transcription and translation are carried out in a one-step reaction, and require the mixing of only two tubes. With results available in a few hours, PURExpress saves valuable laboratory time and is ideal for high throughput technologies.
View Notes - Control of Gene Expression from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. mRNA and translational mechanisms control the synthesis of protein after mRNA has been produced. Operons Operons are
The decay of eukaryotic mRNA is triggered mainly by deadenylation, which leads to decapping and degradation from the 5 end of an mRNA. Poly(A)-binding protein has been proposed to inhibit the decapping process and to stabilize mRNA by blocking the recruitment of mRNA to the P-bodies where mRNA degradation takes place after stimulation of translation initiation. In contrast, several lines of evidence show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p) has distinct functions in mRNA decay and translation in yeast. To address the translation-independent function of Pab1p in inhibition of decapping, we examined the contribution of Pab1p to the stability of non-translated mRNAs, an AUG codon-less mRNA or an mRNA containing a stable stem-loop structure at the 5-UTR. Tethering of Pab1p stabilized non-translated mRNAs, and this stabilization did not require either the eIF4G-interacting domain of Pab1p or the Pab1p-interacting domain of eIF4G. In a ski2Δ mutant in which 3 to 5 mRNA degradation activity is ...
Protein synthesis is the ultimate step of gene expression and a key control point for regulation. In particular, it enables cells to rapidly manipulate protein production without new mRNA synthesis, processing, or export. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the translation initiation p …
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
The DNA that makes up an organisms genome contains genes that hold the nucleic acid codes for protein synthesis, resulting in the production of unique proteins that perform numerous and specific functions. Protein synthesis involves two steps: transcription and translation. Transcription creates a complementary RNA copy of a DNA sequence and translation is the subsequent process where RNA is used to synthesize the actual protein from amino acids. Inhibition of this translation step has the effect of blocking protein production and ultimately its function. Sigma-Aldrich offers several small molecules that inhibit protein translation, making these compounds useful research tools to better understand the role proteins play in certain disease states.
By by ... Detlef --- dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c , 7 +++++-- 1 files changed, 5 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c b/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c index fb37e27..0da31b5 100644 --- a/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c +++ b/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c @@ -121,6 +121,9 @@ static const WCHAR de_engb2[] ={E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , K,0xF6,n,i,g,r,e,i,c,0}; static const WCHAR de_enus[] = {E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , (,U,S,A,),0}; +static const WCHAR de_enus2[] ={E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , + (,V,e,r,e,i,n,i,g,t,e, , + S,t,a,a,t,e,n,),0}; static const WCHAR de_de[] = {D,e,u,t,s,c,h, , (,D,e,u,t,s,c,h,l,a,n,d,),0}; static const WCHAR de_deat[] = {D,e,u,t,s,c,h, , @@ -184,11 +187,11 @@ static const info_table_entry info_table[] = { {MAKELANGID(LANG_ENGLISH, SUBLANG_NEUTRAL), MAKELANGID(LANG_GERMAN, SUBLANG_DEFAULT), TODO_NAME, en, de_en}, ...
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P.341 left column: [Investigators] show that cecER and the pmaER (cytoplasmic face) have the highest ribosome densities ranging from ∼600 to 1,100 ribosomes/µm^2 for the cecER and ∼550 to 900 ribosomes/µm^2 for the pmaER (cytoplasmic face). The ribosome density of yeast cecER is similar to that of mitotic mammalian BSC1 cell cisternae, which was determined by similar methods (1,000 ± 300 µm^2, primary source). The tubER is bound by ribosomes, although it does have less bound ribosomes than the other domains (typically ∼250-400 ribosomes/µm^2 density for tubER, Fig. 5 E). ER ribosome densities are generally lower in the bud than in the mother, suggesting that ribosomes may dissociate and then need to reassociate during inheritance (compare densities in Fig. 5, E and F). Together, these data demonstrate that tubER does have less bound ribosomes than cecER and pmaER. However, membrane curvature alone does not define ER ribosome density because pmaER and cecER have very similar levels of ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein synthesis is mediated by a highly conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES), mostly located at the 5′ untranslatable region (UTR) of the viral genome. The translation mechanism is different from that used by cellular cap-mRNAs, making IRESs an attractive target site for new antiviral drugs. The present work characterizes a chimeric RNA molecule (HH363-50) composed of two inhibitors: a hammerhead ribozyme targeting position 363 of the HCV genome and an aptamer directed towards the essential stem-loop structure in domain IV of the IRES region (which contains the translation start codon). The inhibitor RNA interferes with the formation of a translationally active complex, stalling its progression at the level of 80S particle formation. This action is likely related to the effective and specific blocking of HCV IRES-dependent translation achieved in Huh-7 cells. The inhibitor HH363-50 also reduces HCV RNA levels in a subgenomic replicon system. The present findings
Usage of presumed 5′UTR or downstream in-frame AUG codons, next to non-AUG codons as translation start codons contributes to the diversity of a proteome as protein isoforms harboring different N-terminal extensions or truncations can serve different functions. Recent ribosome profiling data revealed a highly underestimated occurrence of database nonannotated, and thus alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS), at the mRNA level. N-terminomics data in addition showed that in higher eukaryotes around 20% of all identified protein N termini point to such aTIS, to incorrect assignments of the translation start codon, translation initiation at near-cognate start codons, or to alternative splicing. We here report on more than 1700 unique alternative protein N termini identified at the proteome level in human and murine cellular proteomes. Customized databases, created using the translation initiation mapping obtained from ribosome profiling data, additionally demonstrate the use of initiator ...
In this study, we present a novel technique for the synthesis of complex prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins by using a continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) protein synthesis system based on extracts from cultured insect cells. Our approach consists of two basic elements: First, protein synthesis is performed in insect cell lysates which harbor endogenous microsomal vesicles, enabling a translocation of de novo synthesized target proteins into the lumen of the insect vesicles or, in the case of membrane proteins, their embedding into a natural membrane scaffold. Second, cell-free reactions are performed in a two chamber dialysis device for 48 h. The combination of the eukaryotic cell-free translation system based on insect cell extracts and the CECF translation system results in significantly prolonged reaction life times and increased protein yields compared to conventional batch reactions. In this context, we demonstrate the synthesis of various representative model proteins, among them cytosolic
Plant growth throughout the world is often limited by unfavourable environmental conditions. This paper reports results of a study on long- and short-term osmotic stress (−0.5 MPa) followed by a recovery on in vitro translational capacity of polysomes and on the composition of polysome-associated proteins in germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Here we show that, under osmotic stress, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes were charaterized by the highest translation activity, which may be indicative of an important role that this population of polysomes plays in the synthesis of the so-called stress proteins. We also find out that in response to osmotic stress, new proteins (22.01, 96.47 and 105.3 kDa), absent in the unstressed sample, associated with the total pool of polysomes, whereas the protein of 22.95 kDa, which was present in the embryonic tissue of seeds germinating under unstressed conditions, disappeared. These changes may have affected both the stability and the translational ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A fission yeast general translation factor reveals links between protein synthesis and cell cycle controls. AU - Grallert, B. AU - Kearsey, SE. AU - Lenhard, M. AU - Carlson, CR. AU - Nurse, P. AU - Boye, E. AU - Labib, K. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - In two independent screens we isolated fission yeast mutations with phenotypes suggesting defects ill B-cyclin function or expression. These mutations define a single gene which we call ded1, We show that ded1 encodes a general translation factor that is related in sequence and function to RNA helicases required for translation in other species. Levels of the B-cyclins Cig2 and Cdc13 are dramatically reduced upon inactivation of Ded1, and this reduction is independent of degradation by the anaphase promoting complex. When a ded1 mutant is grown under semi-restrictive conditions, the translation of Cig2 land to a lesser extent Cdc13), is impaired relative to other proteins. We show that B-cyclin translation is specifically inhibited ...
MOTIVATION: Deep sequencing based ribosome footprint profiling can provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of protein translation. However, the observed ribosome profile is fundamentally confounded by transcriptional activity. In order to decipher principles of translation regulation, tools that can reliably detect changes in translation efficiency in case-control studies are needed. RESULTS: We present a statistical framework and an analysis tool, RiboDiff, to detect genes with changes in translation efficiency across experimental treatments. RiboDiff uses generalized linear models to estimate the over-dispersion of RNA-Seq and ribosome profiling measurements separately, and performs a statistical test for differential translation efficiency using both mRNA abundance and ribosome occupancy ...
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One of the hallmark metabolic responses to stress (i.e. injury, sepsis, surgery) is catabolism. Generally speaking, the degree of catabolism is proportional to the degree of stress. Catabolism is caused by increased breakdown of skeletal muscle. The subsequent release of amino acids provides some of the substrate for increased hepatic gluconeogenesis.. During periods of stress, the overall nitrogen balance is negative. However, there is conflicting data regarding the degree of skeletal muscle protein synthetic activity. Studies have reported reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis after open cholecystectomy, decreased hepatic protein synthesis that becomes directly proportional to the duration of surgery, and a reduction in the protein synthesis within tissues that have rapidly replicating cells. Other studies postulate that the negative nitrogen balance is the result of protein breakdown that exceeds the increased protein synthetic rate.. Stress hormones like cortisol and cytokines such as ...
When faced with the selection pressure of chronic mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by AZD8055, SW620 cells remodelled mTOR signalling to allow them to continue to proliferate. We anticipated that this adaptation might involve a switch from cap-dependent to IRES-dependent translation because: (1) compensatory IRES-dependent translation is seen upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation (supplementary material Fig. S2) (Svitkin et al., 2005); (2) this was observed upon acute AZD8055 treatment (Fig. 1D); and (3) some oncogenes are translated by IRES-dependent mechanisms (Stoneley and Willis, 2004). However, IRES-dependent translation was not upregulated in SW620:8055R cells. Rather the cells adapted to chronic mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by amplifying eIF4E (Fig. 4) to increase eIF4E protein levels, thereby maintaining or even increasing cap-dependent translation (Fig. 5). RNAi to eIF4E revealed that SW620:8055R cells remained addicted to the increased expression of eIF4E to maintain AZD8055 ...
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Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are potent inhibitors of virus replication. The antiviral activity has been associated with the induction of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) synthesis. In this report, we describe that in African green monkey kidney cells infected with Sendai virus (SV) and treated with prostaglandin A1 (PGA1), SV protein synthesis was selectively blocked as long as HSP70 was being synthesized by the host cell. The block appeared to be at the translational level, as indicated by the following (i) PGA1 had no effect on SV primary transcription, and a dramatic decrease in the abundance of SV mRNA occurred only at later stages of infection; and (ii) treatment with PGA1 started at 6 h postinfection, at which time SV mRNA had already accumulated in infected cells, did not suppress the levels of NP mRNA, but it reduced the amount of ribosome-bound NP mRNA and caused a dramatic decrease in the level of genomic RNA. The PGA1-induced block of SV protein synthesis appeared to be cell ...
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1. RESULTS: The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded new insights into the translational regulon containing the ribosomal protein mRNAs. First, the ribosome occupancy defects in the rpl24b mutant partially overlapped with those in a previously analyzed initiation factor mutant, eif3h. Second, a group of mRNAs with incomplete coding sequences appeared to be uncoupled from
Principal Investigator:SUYAMA Akira, Project Period (FY):2011-04-01 - 2016-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area), Project Area:Synthetic biology for the comprehension of biomolecular networks
What is Translation Process Gene? Definition of Translation Process Gene. Translation Process Gene FAQ. Learn more about Translation Process Gene. Translation Process Gene facts.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Cell-free Synthesis of Macromolecular Complexes. AU - Botte, Mathieu. AU - Deniaud, Aurelien. AU - Schaffitzel, Christiane. PY - 2016/5/11. Y1 - 2016/5/11. N2 - Cell-free protein synthesis based on E. coli cell extracts has been described for the first time more than 50 years ago. To date, cell-free synthesis is widely used for the preparation of toxic proteins, for studies of the translation process and its regulation as well as for the incorporation of artificial or labeled amino acids into a polypeptide chain. Many efforts have been directed towards establishing cell-free expression as a standard method for gene expression, with limited success. In this chapter we will describe the state-of-the-art of cell-free expression, extract preparation methods and recent examples for successful applications of cell-free synthesis of macromolecular complexes.. AB - Cell-free protein synthesis based on E. coli cell extracts has been described for the first time more than 50 years ago. To ...
GPR41 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by short chain fatty acids. The gene encoding GPR41 is located immediately downstream of a related gene encoding GPR40, a receptor for long chain fatty acids. Expression of GPR41 has been reported in a small number of cell types, including gut enteroendocrine cells and sympathetic ganglia, where it may play a role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. We now demonstrate that GPR41, like GPR40, is expressed in pancreatic beta cells. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for transcriptional control elements or transcriptional initiation in the intergenic GPR40-GPR41 region. Rather, using 5-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, we demonstrated that GPR41 is transcribed from the promoter of the GPR40 gene. We confirmed this finding by generating bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmids, and we were able to map a potential internal ribosome entry site-containing region to a 2474-nucleotide region of the intergenic sequence. Consistent with this, we
What is the most efficient translation initiation signal? Does the small subunit ribosome do the scanning for the start codon or can a fully formed ribosome scan for start codon, too? When to scan from the 5 end and when to scan from the middle of 5UTR (internal ribosomal entry)? If secondary structure embedding start codon (or Shine-Dalgarno sequence or Kozak consensus) can obscure the translation initiation signal, how would highly expressed genes avoid this? What is the best way of measuring gene expression experimentally or bioinformatically? Do translation initiation efficiency affect elongation efficiency/accuracy? How to measure translation elongation efficiency/accuracy? Will a few closely spaced minor codons severely affect translation elongation? What is the optimal translation stop signal? How do release factors decode the stop signal? How the relative concentration and decoding capacity of different release factors affect stop codon usage? How frequent do tRNAs misread stop codons ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human lymphocyte messenger RNA activity profiles in type I and type II diabetes. T2 - A tool for classification of metabolic disease. AU - Mariash, C. N.. AU - Burmeister, L. A.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - We have previously used rat hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) activity profiles to categorize various pathophysiologic states. To test the hypothesis that similar techniques can be used to categorize disease states in humans, we examined the mRNA activity profiles by using in vitro translational assays of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated mononuclear cells obtained from six normal volunteers, six patients with type I diabetes, and five patients with type II diabetes as examples of different disease states. Translated proteins were labeled with sulfur 35-labeled methionine, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and quantitated by videodensitometry of autoradiographs derived from the two-dimensional gels. Of approximately 160 quantitated mRNAs, the levels of ...
Surveying the relative impact of mRNA features on local ribosome profiling read density in 28 datasets. Patrick OConnor , Dmitry Andreev , Pavel Baranov doi: Ribosome profiling is a promising technology for exploring gene expression. However, ribosome profiling data are characterized by a substantial number of outliers due to technical and biological factors. Here…
Enucleated mouse 1-cell embryos arrest development at the 2-cell stage following transplantation of cleavage stage nuclei. Earlier studies employing one-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis failed to reveal obvious differences in gene expression in the manipulated embryos that might account for this block. We report here the results of a quantitative, two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis that reveals at least 50 alterations in protein synthesis in the 8--|1-cell nuclear transplant embryos. Approximately half of these alterations involve proteins that normally decrease in synthesis between the 2-cell and 8-cell stages and half involve proteins that are synthesized constitutively between these two stages. These results are the first to reveal significant biochemical alterations that accompany the morphological and cytological differences previously described and indicate that the 8-cell stage nucleus is unable to completely recapitulate the normal progression of changes in protein
Oxygen and glucose metabolism play pivotal roles in many (patho)physiological conditions. In particular, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) during ischemia and stroke results in extensive tissue injury and cell death. Using time-resolved ribosome profiling, we assess gene expression levels in a neural cell line, PC12, during the first hour of OGD. The most substantial alterations are seen to occur within the first 20 minutes of OGD. While transcription of only 100 genes is significantly altered during one hour of OGD, the translation response affects approximately 3,000 genes. This response involves reprogramming of initiation and elongation rates, as well as the stringency of start codon recognition. Genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are most affected. Detailed analysis of ribosome profiles reveals salient alterations of ribosome densities on individual mRNAs. The mRNA-specific alterations include increased translation of upstream open reading frames, site-specific ribosome pauses, and
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has long been known as a signaling component in insulin regulation of metabolism and, more recently, as a key part of the Wnt signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation, cell fate, and other processes during development. Unlike most other kinases, GSK3 is constitutively active and is regulated by inhibition. Full expression of this constitutive activity in the mammalian enzyme appears to require phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue in the activation loop of GSK3, which the enzyme accomplishes by intramolecular autophosphorylation, even though the kinase phosphorylates strictly serine and threonine residues on its exogenous substrates. Lochhead et al. explored the mechanism by which this switch in residue specificity is possible. Tagged GSK-3β synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system showed rapid autophosphorylation that was inhibited by inhibitors of the molecular chaperone protein Hsp90. This chaperone-assisted tyrosine kinase ...
Abstract: Among various membrane-bound polyribosomes from chicken embryos the polyribosomes loosely bound with membranes proved to be highly active in synthesis of total proteins as well as of collagens in vitro. These data suggest that polyribosomes loosely bound with membranes were not an impurity of free polyribosomes in the total preparation of the membrane-bound polyribosomes. These polyribosomes constituted a definite class of polyribosomes active in the synthesis of secreted proteins (i.e. of collagen). In polyribosome fractions identified by their size (monosomes, light and heavy polyribosomes) all the three fractions of loosely-bound polyribosomes as well as light and heavy fractions of tightly-bound polyribosomes were active in synthesis of total proteins. Differences between tightly-and loosely-bound polyribosomes were noted also in studies of cell-free synthesis of collagen proteins. Heavy fractions of tightly-bound polyribosomes were the most active in synthesis of these proteins, ...
Microsome; Translation machinery The ribosome is the central component of the protein synthesis machinery in the cell. It contains both RNAand protein and is composed of two subunits. Ribosomes...
Most of our current knowledge about gene regulation is based on studies of mRNA levels, despite both the greater functional importance of protein abundance, and evidence that post-transcriptional regulation is pervasive. However, understanding the molecular basis of regulatory variation within and between species may prove very useful. Indeed, the majority of identified human disease-risk alleles lie in non-coding regions of the genome, suggesting that they affect gene regulation. Until recently, the lack of performant high-throughput methods for detecting protein abundance hampered the in-depth study of gene regulation. However, a new method known as ribosome profiling has enabled us to study divergence in the regulation of translation.. Ribosome profiling or riboprofiling involves the construction of two RNA-seq libraries: one measuring mRNA abundance (the mRNA fraction), and the second capturing the portion of the transcriptome that is actively being translated by ribosomes (the Ribo ...
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the interconnection between translation and metabolism. Important oncogenic pathways, like those elicited by c-Myc transcription factor and mTOR kinase, couple the activation of the translational machinery with glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is a factor necessary for 60S ribosome maturation. eIF6 acts also as a cytoplasmic translation initiation factor, downstream of growth factor stimulation. eIF6 is up-regulated in several tumor types. Data on mice models have demonstrated that eIF6 cytoplasmic activity is rate-limiting for Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. In spite of this, eIF6 is neither transcriptionally regulated by Myc, nor post-transcriptionally regulated by mTOR. eIF6 stimulates a glycolytic and fatty acid synthesis program necessary for tumor growth. eIF6 increases the translation of transcription factors necessary for lipogenesis, such as CEBP/β, ATF4 and CEBP/δ. Insulin stimulation leads
An miRNA-Mediated Therapy for SCA6 Blocks IRES-Driven Translation of the CACNA1A Second Cistron Researchers identified miR-3191-5p as a microRNA (miRNA) that targeted CACNA1A internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and preferentially inhibited the CACNA1A IRES-driven translation of α1ACT in an Argonaute 4-dependent manner. They found that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), eIF4AII and eIF4GII, interacted with the CACNA1A IRES to enhance α1ACT translation. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract Neurons Differentiated from Transplanted Stem Cells Respond Functionally to Acoustic Stimuli in the Awake Monkey Brain Researchers examined whether neurons differentiated from transplanted stem cells can integrate into the host neural network and function in awake animals, a goal of transplanted stem cell therapy in the brain. [Cell Rep] Full Article , Graphical Abstract Cardiac Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MR Imaging Tracking of Cell Survival or Rejection in Mouse Models of Cell Therapy One million C2C12 ...
Kits and reagents for cell-free protein expression in just a few hours using mRNA templates in translational systems, or DNA template (plasmid DNA or PCR fragments) in coupled transcription and translation systems.
In response to viral pathogens, the host upregulates antiviral genes that suppress translation of viral mRNAs. However, induction of such antiviral responses may not be exclusive to viruses, as the pathways lie at the intersection of broad inflammatory networks that can also be induced by bacterial pathogens. Using a model of Gram-negative sepsis, we show that propagation of kidney damage initiated by a bacterial origin ultimately involves antiviral responses that result in host translation shutdown. We determined that activation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 2/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (Eif2ak2/Eif2α) axis is the key mediator of translation initiation block in late-phase sepsis. Reversal of this axis mitigated kidney injury. Furthermore, temporal profiling of the kidney translatome revealed that multiple genes involved in formation of the initiation complex were translationally altered during bacterial sepsis. Collectively, our findings imply ...
The potential impact can mean the impact on international Translation Studies of the translation of a key text from a minority language or a language of lesser diffusion into a majority language , or it can mean the impact of a translation of a key text from a majority language into a minority language or language of lesser diffusion, i.e. its impact on the development of research and teaching of Translation Studies in that language community ...
Mitochondria have their own transcriptional and translational apparatus, even though they produce only a handful of proteins, therefore most of the proteins are imported from the cytoplasm. Trancription, translation and protein insertion into the membrane are interconnected: translational activators regulating mitochondrial translation are interacting with mitochondrial RNA polymerase via Nam1p and Sls1p proteins (Bryan et al. Genetics 2002), Puf proteins connect cytoplasmic translation and protein import into mitochondria by direct interaction with Tom20 subunit of the TOM protein import channel (Saint-Georges et al. PLoS ONE 2008 ...
The study is published in the Aug. 14 online edition of the journal Nature Chemical Biology.. This work began when University of Toronto scientists exploring the origins of Salmonellas virulence identified three genes that were clear players in the process. These three genes - called YjeK, PoxA and EF-P - were unusual in this context. Genes that confer virulence in bacteria typically have a specific job, such as producing toxins or transporters. But these three virulence genes all looked like they should have a role in the protein synthesis machinery - which is Ibbas expertise.. Under normal circumstances in cells, an enzyme will select amino acids in the cell and place them on a molecule called transfer RNA, or tRNA, which leads to translation of the genetic code into proteins.. In Salmonella cells, these steps are similar, but with a few surprising twists, Ibba said. He and colleagues confirmed that the YjeK gene makes beta lysine, and showed that the PoxA gene takes that beta lysine and ...
In the past decades, translation studies have increasingly focused on the ethical dimension of translational activity, with an emphasis on reflexivity to assert the role of the researcher in highlighting issues of visibility, creativity and ethics. In Reflexive Translation Studies, Silvia Kadiu investigates the viabili
The demand for recombinant therapeutic proteins grows larger every year. These medicines are used for treatment of myriad disorders and conditions, including cancer, lysosomal storage diseases, and diabetes. The vast majority of therapeutic proteins are glycoproteins, meaning that they have short, distinctive carbohydrate chains attached to particular amino acids of the protein backbone. These carbohydrate chains are often required for proper function or targetting of the protein.. Many different eukaryotic hosts, including yeast, hamster and insect cell cultures, plants, chickens, and even lactating mammals have been engineered to produce therapeutic proteins at industrial scale. The issue is that while the core protein synthesis machinery is more-or-less conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms, the carbohydrate chains that are added to the proteins by the cell are highly variable. Even the glycosylation patterns of mammalian cell cultures can prove difficult to control. If the protein is produced ...
The results of the genome-wide ribosome profiling analysis significantly redefine our understanding of the mode of action of macrolide antibiotics. In contrast to the previously prevailing view, and in agreement with the more recent proteomic and biochemical experiments, ribosome profiling clearly reveals these antibiotics as context- and thus protein-specific inhibitors of translation. Synthesis of the protein is interrupted not simply when the nascent chain reaches the site of the drug binding in the NPET but also when the drug-bound ribosome comes across a sequence of codons specifying specific combinations of amino acids.. A striking finding that emerged from the results of the profiling analysis and biochemical experiments is that the sites of macrolide-dependent translation arrest are defined primarily not by the sequence of the nascent chain juxtaposed with the antibiotic in the NPET but by the nature of the amino acid residues in the PTC: specifically, the C-terminal amino acids of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis in dendrites. T2 - an overview.. AU - Martin, Kelsey C.. AU - Zukin, R. Suzanne. PY - 2006/7/5. Y1 - 2006/7/5. N2 - It is now widely accepted that mRNAs localize to dendrites and that translation of these mRNAs is regulated in response to neuronal activity. Recent studies have begun to reveal the underpinnings of these processes and to underscore the importance of local protein synthesis to synaptic remodeling and plasticity. When Steward and Levy (1982) first reported their observation of polyribosomes at the base of spines, the prevailing view was that all proteins were synthesized in the cell body and then transported to distal compartments of neurons. Steward and Levys discovery, however, raised the intriguing possibility that mRNAs could be transported to synapses and locally translated in response to synaptic stimulation. This provided an elegant mechanism for spatially restricting gene expression within the neuron, such that ...
Homologous recombination. The mouse Eif4ebp2 gene was obtained by screening a λ FixII 129/SvJ mouse genomic library (Tsukiyama-Kohara et al., 2001). The targeting vector consisted of a 4.9 kb XbaI Eif4ebp2 genomic fragment upstream of exon 2, a pTK-Neo cassette (pMC1neo; Stratagene, La Jolla, CA), and a 1.2 kb AflIII-BclI Eif4ebp2 genomic fragment downstream of exon 2. Electroporation of the linearized vector (NotI) into 129/Sv embryonic stem (ES) cell line J1 (Li et al., 1992) and selection of G418-resistant transformants were performed as described previously (You-Ten et al., 1997). G418-resistant colonies were analyzed for homologous recombination by Southern blot analysis.. Mutant mice. Generation of chimeric and mutant mice was performed as described previously (You-Ten et al., 1997). Genotyping was performed by Southern blot analysis with probes derived from a 1.8 kb XbaI fragment located upstream of the targeting vector, a fragment derived from the 3′ untranslated region of Eif4ebp2, ...
When programmed with yeast prepro-α-factor mRNA, the heterologous reticulocyte/dog pancreas translation system synthesizes two pheromone related polypeptides, a cytosolically located primary translation product (pp-α-Fcyt, 21 kDa) and a membrane-specific and multiply glycosylated e-factor precursor (pp-α-F3, 27.5 kDa). Glycosylation of the membrane specific pp-α-F3 species is competitively inhibited by synthetic peptides containing the consensus sequence Asn-Xaa-Thr as indicated by a shift of its molecular mass from 27.5 kDa to about 19.5 kDa (pp-α-F0), whereas the primary translation product pp-α-F cyt is not affected. Likewise, only the glycosylated pp-α-F3 structure is digested by Endo H yielding a polypeptide with a molecular mass between PP-α-F0 and pp-α-F cyt. These observations strongly suggest that the primary translation product is proteolytically processed during/on its translocation into the lumen of the microsomal vesicles. We believe that this proteolytic processing is due ...
Efficient neuronal function depends on the continued modulation of the local neuronal proteome. Local protein synthesis plays a central role in tuning the neuronal proteome at specific neuronal regions. Various aspects of translation such as the localization of translational machinery, spatial spread of the newly translated proteins, and their site of action are carried out in specialized neuronal subcompartments to result in a localized functional outcome. In this review, we focus on the various aspects of these local translation compartments such as size, biochemical and organelle composition, structural boundaries, and temporal dynamics. We also discuss the apparent absence of definitive components of translation in these local compartments and the emerging state‐of‐the‐art tools that could help dissecting these conundrums in greater detail in the future. ...
Cambio, distributor of molecular biology reagents and consumables to scientific research laboratories within the UK, has added an innovative new product to its portfolio. ARTseq™ (Active mRNA Translation) ribosome profiling kits, produced by Epicentre, enable users to create RNA sequence libraries from ribosome-protected mRNA. This novel technique is used to investigate translational control, measure gene expression, identify translation start sites and predict protein abundance, making them ide
Mitochondria do not have IF1 (all mitochondria), and unlike mammals, yeast ones do not have IF3! Also they seem to use mitochondria-specific initiation factor AEP3. Do mammals have AEP3 homologue? Worth checking... To make things more complicated, mitochondria have their own special mRNA-specific factors... and again, there is a catch. Yeast mRNA have long 5 UTRs (untranslated regions), and mammals have short, they basically have leaderless mRNAs (Id love to see a good reference for that! THIS is a little bit out of date...) - therefore I would expect that these mRNA-specific IFs work differently in yeast in mammals. So yeast and mammalian mitochondrial translation seems to have very, very different translational apparatus. Isnt is weird ...
Cell migration is a highly controlled essential cellular process, often dysregulated in tumour cells, dynamically controlled by the architecture of the cell. Studies involving cellular fractionation and microarray profiling have previously identified functionally distinct mRNA populations specific to cellular organelles and architectural compartments. However, the interaction between the translational machinery itself and cellular structures is relatively unexplored. To help understand the role for the compartmentalization and localized protein synthesis in cell migration, we have used scanning confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence and a novel ribopuromycylation method to visualize translating ribosomes. In the present study we show that eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors) localize to the leading edge of migrating MRC5 fibroblasts in a process dependent on TGN (trans-Golgi network) to plasma membrane vesicle transport. We show that eIF4E and eIF4GI are associated with the Golgi apparatus and ...
BACKGROUND: The MYCN gene is transcribed into two major mRNAs: one full-length (MYCN) and one exon 1b-spliced (MYCNDelta1b) mRNA. But nothing is known about their respective ability to translate the MYCN protein. METHODS: Plasmids were prepared to enable translation from the upstream (uORF) and major ORF of the two MYCN transcripts. Translation was studied after transfection in neuroblastoma SH-EP cell line. Impact of the upstream AUG on translation was evaluated after directed mutagenesis. Functional study with the two MYCN mRNAs was conducted by a cell viability assay. Existence of a new protein encoded by the MYCNDelta1b uORF was explored by designing a rabbit polyclonal antibody against a specific epitope of this protein. RESULTS: Both are translated, but higher levels of protein were seen with MYCNDelta1b mRNA. An upstream ORF was shown to have positive cis-regulatory activity on translation from MYCN but not from MYCNDelta1b mRNA. In transfected SH-EP neuroblastoma cells, high MYCN dosage obtained
During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local ...
Knowledge of the function of the mammalian eIF2α phosphatases stems from their homology to a viral protein. In 1994, Joany Chou and Bernard Roizman discovered the function of the γ134.5 gene of herpes simplex virus: mutants lacking a functional γ134.5 gene failed to escape the shutdown of protein synthesis that followed viral infection [45]. They noted that the carboxy-terminal domain of γ134.5 is homologous to the carboxy-terminal domain of the product of the growth arrest and DNA damage gene Gadd34 (now PPP1R15A) [45] and indeed later showed that the carboxy-terminal domain of Gadd34 can substitute for the homologous domain of γ134.5 [46]. Chou and colleagues found that shutdown of protein synthesis following viral infection was mediated by PKR which phosphorylated eIF2α [47]. The Roizman laboratory then performed an unbiased yeast two-hybrid screen and found that Gadd34 and γ134.5 interacted with PP1c [48]. The functional relevance of this interaction was supported by the finding that ...
The programme is divided into units of study called modules which are assigned credits. The credit rating of a module is proportional to the total workload, with 1 credit being nominally equivalent to 10 hours of work.. Students on the MA Translation Studies take a selection of modules amounting to 180 credits in total. This includes a compulsory Translation Dissertation (60 credits) and two compulsory modules: Translation Theory (30 credits) and The Practice of Translation (30 credits). The remaining 60 credits are chosen from our optional modules, see below.. The modules we outline here provide examples of what you can expect to learn on this degree course based on recent academic teaching. The precise modules available to you in future years may vary depending on staff availability and research interests, new topics of study, timetabling and student demand.. ...
The fidelity of translation depends on accurate selection of the correct reading frame during initiation. In eukaryotes, this process involves at least 11 eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Met‐tRNAiMet forms a ternary complex with eIF2 and GTP, which together with eIF1, eIF1A and eIF3 binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit to form a 43S preinitiation complex. After loading onto the mRNAs 5′ end in a process requiring eIFs 4A, 4B and 4F, the 43S complex scans downstream until it encounters an AUG triplet in a favorable context GCC(A/G)CCAUGG (in which the nucleotides at the −3 and +4 positions are the most important; Kozak, 1991), stops and forms a stable 48S complex with established codon-anticodon base pairing in the P site. These two context nucleotides are important features of mammalian mRNAs but differ in sequence and importance in other eukaryotes. Subsequent joining of a 60S subunit is mediated by eIF5 (which induces hydrolysis of eIF2‐bound GTP and dissociation of eIF2‐GDP ...
... and the protein's ability to interact with other proteins. Protein biosynthesis has a key role in disease as changes and errors ... Protein biosynthesis (or protein synthesis) is a core biological process, occurring inside cells, balancing the loss of ... There are events that follow protein biosynthesis such as proteolysis and protein-folding. Proteolysis refers to the cleavage ... Proteins perform a number of critical functions as enzymes, structural proteins or hormones. Protein synthesis is a very ...
Prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis proteins are also known as the prokaryotic type-I FAD synthetases, which consist of a C- ... The prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria that catalyzes the phosphorylation ... This bacterial protein is functionally similar to the monofunctional riboflavin kinases and FMN-adenylyltransferases of ... Sebastián M, Serrano A, Velázquez-Campoy A, Medina M (August 2017). "Kinetics and thermodynamics of the protein-ligand ...
Weissbach, Herbert; Pestka, Sidney (1977). Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Biosynthesis. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 978- ... Biosynthesis is usually synonymous with anabolism. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, ... "Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and proline biosynthesis: from osmotolerance to rare metabolic disease". Protein Science. 19 ( ... A protein is a polymer that is composed from amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds. There are more than 300 amino acids ...
W. A.; Rettura, G.; Seifter, E.; Englard, S. Carnitine biosynthesis from γ-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N- ... Paik, W. K.; Nochumson, S.; Kim, S. Carnitine biosynthesis via protein methylation. Trends Biochem. Sci. 1977, 2, 159-161. Khan ... In humans and many other animals, L-carnitine is obtained from both diet and by biosynthesis. The carnitine biosynthesis ... the first enzyme of carnitine biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276, 33512-33517. Bremer, J. Biosynthesis of carnitine in vivo ...
Protein biosynthesis). ... November 2005). "A protein interaction network of the malaria ... The N-end rule is a rule that governs the rate of protein degradation through recognition of the N-terminal residue of proteins ... ClpS is a bacterial adaptor protein that is responsible for recognizing protein substrates via their N-terminal residues and ... The rule states that the N-terminal amino acid of a protein determines its half-life (time after which half of the total amount ...
Protein biosynthesis). ... The TetM protein is regarded as a ribosomal protection protein ... Furthermore, the TetM protein (P21598) is found to allow aminoacyl-tRNA molecules to bind to the ribosomal acceptor site, ... Arenz, S; Nguyen, F; Beckmann, R; Wilson, DN (28 April 2015). "Cryo-EM structure of the tetracycline resistance protein TetM in ... These mischarged tRNAs must be hydrolyzed in order to prevent incorrect protein synthesis. While aa-tRNA serves primarily as ...
Protein biosynthesis). ... and C proteins, while expression of protein Y1 and Y2 is ... cap-binding protein complex), which is inactivated by adenovirus to interfere cellular protein translation. When eIF4E is ... Sendai virus Y proteins are initiated by ribosome shunting. Among 8 primary translation products of Sendai virus P/C mRNA, ... The polymerase is then able to leapfrog using protein binding and a power stroke to bypass the start codon on the coding mRNA. ...
Campbell, P. N.; Work, T. S. (1953-06-06). "Biosynthesis of proteins". Nature. 171 (4362): 997-1001. Bibcode:1953Natur.171.. ... On Protein Synthesis A soluble ribonucleic acid intermediate in protein synthesis Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine ( ... He even speculated that "insulin, for example, are probably RNA-made proteins. Perhaps a special class of DNA-made proteins ... In fact, they are much larger, having a more complex role to play in protein synthesis, and are closer to 100 nucleotides in ...
Lengyel P, Söll D (June 1969). "Mechanism of protein biosynthesis". Bacteriological Reviews. 33 (2): 264-301. doi:10.1128/MMBR. ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
In humans, non-protein amino acids also have important roles as metabolic intermediates, such as in the biosynthesis of the ... These properties influence protein structure and protein-protein interactions. The water-soluble proteins tend to have their ... Lengyel P, Söll D (June 1969). "Mechanism of protein biosynthesis". Bacteriological Reviews. 33 (2): 264-301. doi:10.1128/MMBR. ... Suchanek M, Radzikowska A, Thiele C (April 2005). "Photo-leucine and photo-methionine allow identification of protein-protein ...
Molecular chaperones, Protein biosynthesis). ... Holdases bind to protein folding intermediates to prevent their ... In molecular biology, holdases are a particular kind of molecular chaperones that assist the non-covalent folding of proteins ... They stand in opposition to foldases, which are chaperones that use ATP to fold proteins. Foldase Chaperonin Co-chaperone ...
Despite anisomycin's wide usage as a protein synthesis inhibitor, there have been a lot of studies centered on the biosynthesis ... "Inhibitors of protein biosynthesis. II. Mode of action of anisomycin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 242 (13): 3226-33. ... Anisomycin interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system. Anisomycin ... II.1 Biosynthesis of Anisomycin". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 31 (1): 317-20. doi:10.1021/jo01339a503. PMID 5900818. ( ...
Livingston DM, Leder P (1969). "Deformylation and protein biosynthesis". Biochemistry. 8 (1): 435-43. doi:10.1021/bi00829a059. ...
Hoagland MB, Zamecnik PC, Stephenson ML (April 1957). "Intermediate Reactions In Protein Biosynthesis". Biochim Biophys Acta. ... Zamecnik pioneered the in vitro synthesis of proteins[citation needed] and helped elucidate the way cells generate proteins[ ... After a year in New York at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research studying protein synthesis with Max Bergmann, he ... Hoagland MB, Stephenson ML, Scott JF, Hecht LI, Zamecnik PC (March 1958). "A Soluble Ribonucleic Acid Intermediate in Protein ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Protein biosynthesis, Protein domains). ... Clark BF, Nyborg J (February 1997). "The ternary complex of EF-Tu and its role in protein biosynthesis". Current Opinion in ... Andersen GR, Nissen P, Nyborg J (August 2003). "Elongation factors in protein biosynthesis". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 ... EF-Tu is a monomeric protein with molecular weight around 43 kDa in Escherichia coli. The protein consists of three structural ...
... targets GPI-protein biosynthesis. Manogepix is the active metabolite of the prodrug fosmanogepix. Pfaller MA, Hata K ...
Paley, Elena L. (8 October 2020). Protein Biosynthesis Interference in Disease. Academic Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-12-823486-0. ...
Protein biosynthesis, Genetics, Molecular biology). ... DNA encodes protein sequence by a series of three-nucleotide ... An open reading frame (ORF) is a reading frame that has the potential to be transcribed into RNA and translated into protein. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ORMDL3 gene. This gene is associated ... "ORMDL proteins are a conserved new family of endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins". Genome Biology. 3 (6): RESEARCH0027. doi ... "Entrez Gene: ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3". Moffatt MF, Kabesch M, Liang L, Dixon AL, Strachan D, Heath S, et al ... Davis D, Kannan M, Wattenberg B (December 2018). "Orm/ORMDL proteins: Gate guardians and master regulators". Advances in ...
Molecular genetics, Gene expression, Protein biosynthesis). ... a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the protein ... ISBN 3-540-53420-2. Füllen G, Youvan DC (1994). "Genetic Algorithms and Recursive Ensemble Mutagenesis in Protein Engineering ...
Fincher, G B; Stone, B A; Clarke, A E (1983). "Arabinogalactan-Proteins: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Function". Annual Review ... 2000). Cell and Developmental Biology of Arabinogalactan-Proteins. Boston, MA: Springer US. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-4207-0. ISBN ... the arabinogalactan-proteins Proteinase Inhibitors and their use in control of insect development She is co-editor of major ... DNA of an Arabinogalactan Protein. She describes her expertise as: The molecular basis of self-incompatibility The chemistry ...
Anon (2016). "Hegde Lab: Protein biosynthesis & quality control". Retrieved 22 December 2016. Ramanujan ... His laboratory have discovered a widely conserved protein targeting pathway needed by a subset of proteins to reach their ... Their studies of such protein targeting pathways are revealing how membrane proteins are accurately recognised by the machinery ... Hegde's research investigates how proteins are localised correctly inside cells, and how errors during protein maturation are ...
Molecular biology, Protein biosynthesis, Gene expression). ... A third protein that can bind to ribosomes when E. coli cells ... The growing protein exits the ribosome through the polypeptide exit tunnel in the large subunit. Elongation starts when the ... Once the nascent protein is released in termination, Ribosome Recycling Factor and Elongation Factor G (EF-G) function to ... RsfS proteins are found in almost all eubacteria (but not archaea) and homologs are present in mitochondria and chloroplasts ( ...
Recently, it has been suggested that FIT2 is a regulator of triglyceride biosynthesis. The overall importance of the FIT2 ... FIT2 is part of the FIT protein family. These proteins are present in most life forms with FIT1 and FIT2 specifically present ... Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2) affects the formation of triglyceride lipid droplets (LD). It is expressed ... "Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue". The Journal of Biological ...
Fincher, G B; Stone, B A; Clarke, A E (1983-06-01). "Arabinogalactan-Proteins: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Function". Annual ... Fincher, G. B.; Stone, B. A.; Clarke, A. E. (1983). "Arabinogalactan-Proteins: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Function". Annual ... Clade 7 proteins contain both GalT and galectin domains, while Clade 10 proteins contain a GalT-specific domain. The galectin ... Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins (glycoproteins) found in the cell walls of plants. Each one ...
Gillon AD, Saska I, Jennings CV, Guarino RF, Craik DJ, Anderson MA (February 2008). "Biosynthesis of circular proteins in ... AEP is involved in presenting of foreign and self proteins using MHCII protein complex. The role of AEP in immunity is not ... AEP cleaves tau protein and amyloid precursor protein. In patients with PD, alpha synuclein is cut by AEP into toxic chunks. ... It digests SET protein, which is an inhibitor of DNase, leading to DNA damage and causing damage of the brain. Increased ...
Protein biosynthesis, Molecular biology, Cell biology). ... The ribosomal protein S1 binds to adenine sequences upstream of ... At a higher-than-usual temperature (~42 °C), the RBS secondary structure of heat shock proteins becomes undone thus allowing ... This is especially useful when multiple start codons are situated around the potential start site of the protein coding ... Translation initiation is the most highly regulated step of protein synthesis in prokaryotes. The rate of translation depends ...
Protein biosynthesis, Plant toxins, Ribosome-inactivating proteins). ... "Ribosome-inactivating proteins in edible plants and purification and characterization of a new ribosome-inactivating protein ... Cucurmosin is a type I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) found in the sarcocarp (flesh) and seed of Cucurbita - notably ... a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata". Journal of Structural Biology. 164 (1 ...
8,180 base pairs upstream of RUFY2 is the protein-coding gene for phenazine biosynthesis-like protein domain containing (PBLD ... The protein of RUFY2 consists of 655 amino acid residues. RUFY2 protein contains a N-terminal RUN domain and a C-terminal FYVE ... RUFY2 is a member of the RUFY family of proteins that include RUFY1, RUFY2, RUFY3, and RUFY4. RUFY2 protein has a dynamic role ... RUFY2 is a soluble protein that localizes to the nucleus and to membranes of early endosomes. RUFY2 protein contains no signal ...
He worked on the biosynthesis of proteins. In 1973, he was appointed a professor of biochemistry at the Hebrew University. In ...
Jones ME (1980). "Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis". Annual ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... It is believed that the two separate catalytic sites fused into a single protein to stabilize its monomeric form. The covalent ... Homo sapiens OPRTase and ODCase activities lower to a greater extent when heated than the fused protein does. To determine the ...
Hamberg M, Samuelsson B (November 1967). "On the mechanism of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins E-1 and F-1-alpha". J. Biol. ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ... PDB: 3PGH​ Ruan, C. H.; So, S. P.; Ruan, K. H. (2011). "Inducible COX-2 dominates over COX-1 in prostacyclin biosynthesis: ... PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ...
... acyl-carrier protein] The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. Bartling CM, Raetz CR (September 2009). "Crystal ... Bartling CM, Raetz CR (May 2008). "Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis ... The third step of endotoxin biosynthesis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (26): 19866-74. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19) ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3- ...
A protein was identified in 2013 that could fit this role. Jiang M, Chen X, Guo ZF, Cao Y, Chen M, Guo Z (March 2008). " ... "A dedicated thioesterase of the Hotdog-fold family is required for the biosynthesis of the naphthoquinone ring of vitamin K1". ... The crystal structure of the MenH enzyme in E.coli (SHCHC synthase) exists as a complex of three protein molecules shown in the ... "Identification of a hotdog fold thioesterase involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone in Escherichia coli". Journal of ...
... are also known to produce gephyronic acid, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis and a potential agent for ... Hoshino, Y.; Gaucher, E.A. (2021). "Evolution of bacterial steroid biosynthesis and its impact on eukaryogenesis". PNAS. 118 ( ... Sasse F, Steinmetz H, Höfle G, Reichenbach H (January 1995). "Gephyronic acid, a novel inhibitor of eukaryotic protein ... "Complete genome sequence and identification of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis genes of the myxobacterium Minicystis ...
Wiedenmann, Jörg (2008). "Marine proteins". In Patrick J. Walsh (ed.). Oceans and human health: risks and remedies from the ... A suggested biosynthesis for vargulin divides the molecule into a tryptophan, an arginine and an isoleucine subunit. The ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus- ... Dewar RL, Vasudevachari MB, Natarajan V, Salzman NP (Jun 1989). "Biosynthesis and processing of human immunodeficiency virus ... Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (Dec 1988). "Role of protein N-glycosylation in pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 15, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
Sulfur is conveyed from cysteinyl persulfide in a manner reminiscent of the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur proteins. The ... The cofactor thus requires de novo biosynthesis. Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis occurs in four steps: (i) the radical- ... Mendel, R. R.; Leimkuehler, S. (2015). "The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactors". JBIC, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 20 (2): 337- ... "Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and molybdenum enzymes". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 57: 623-647. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
It exists in its own granule after translation, and release of the protein is triggered by Protein Kinase C (PKC). Its C- and N ... Hanson DA, Kaspar AA, Poulain FR, Krensky AM (May 1999). "Biosynthesis of granulysin, a novel cytolytic molecule". Molecular ... It is expressed in 2 forms: a 15kDa precursor protein, the translation product, and a 9kDa cytotoxic protein, which is formed ... Orthologs of this protein are found in most mammal species, such as in cows and pigs, however not in rodents. Granulysin is ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme activates long-chain, branched-chain ... "Deletion of fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) in the mouse liver changes the metabolic landscape by increasing the ... cDNA cloning and characterization of a second enzymatically active protein". Mol. Genet. Metab. 68 (1): 32-42. doi:10.1006/mgme ...
It consists of two parts, a labile chromophore (the non-protein molecular entity shown at right) and a 113 amino acid protein ... The biosynthesis can be divided into three preliminary steps with a final convergence of the three moieties: 1. Synthesis of ... However it is extremely unstable and the role of the protein is to protect it and release it to the target DNA. Opening of the ... The biosynthesis of neocarzinostatin takes place through a convergence of the activities of a gene cluster, which includes two ...
Protein biosynthesis, All stub articles, Genetics stubs). ...
The strong immune reaction in response to exposure to the salivary protein indicates the protein's potential use in the field ... After birth, pheromone biosynthesis occurs after 12 hours, and it takes males 24 hours to become sexually mature. Male ... The strong immune reaction in response to exposure to the salivary protein indicates the protein's potential use in the field ... Blood is rich in proteins, consisting mainly of hemoglobin (Hb), which accounts for approximately 60% of the blood protein ...
S. rimosus's oxytetracycline polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein differs from most ACPs by having a C-terminus extension. ... "The Structural Biology of Type II Fatty Acid Biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry. Annual Reviews. 74 (1): 791-831. doi ...
Peptides and proteins are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (and sometimes by a few isopeptide bonds). ... "Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Biopolymers. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip.21416 ... Conformational protein folding is usually much faster (typically 10-100 ms) than cis-trans isomerization (10-100 s). A ... In the unfolded state of proteins, the peptide groups are free to isomerize and adopt both isomers; however, in the folded ...
... s play a role in the co-translational modification of proteins known as N-glycosylation in the form of dolichol ... However, the cellular process they are involved in is not glycosylation, but instead cell wall biosynthesis. Statins decrease ... In addition, dolichols can be adducted to proteins as a posttranslational modification, a process in which branched ... Meyer, Benjamin H.; Albers, Sonja-Verena (2013-02-01). "Hot and sweet: protein glycosylation in Crenarchaeota". Biochemical ...
The biosynthesis begins with the synthesis of hexanoate by the FAS, which then becomes the starter unit for the iterative type ... us), National Center for Biotechnology Information (1998-01-01). The p53 tumor suppressor protein. National Center for ... March 2004). "Clustered pathway genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (3): 1253-62. Bibcode:2004ApEnM ...
However, the indirect biosynthesis of phospholipid esters with dopamine may be possible, as dopamine can induce the aminolysis ... and activator protein 1 signaling pathways". Journal of Immunology. 172 (4): 2341-2351. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.4.2341. ISSN ... "The biosynthesis of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA), a putative endocannabinoid and endovanilloid, via conjugation of ...
Moreover, many of the open reading frames (ORFs) on CII seem to code for proteins of unknown function. When genes of unknown ... "Metabolic flux ratio analysis by parallel 13C labeling of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides". Metabolic ... mediated by protein regulators. R. sphaeroides encodes several terminal oxidases which allow electron transfer to oxygen and ...
Iron-sulfur proteins as initiators of radical chemistry. Nat. Prod. Rep., 2007 ; 24 : 1027-1040. M. Lotierzo, B. Tse Sum Bui, D ... the biotin biosynthesis pathway: the mechanism of several of the enzymes involved has been deciphered and various inhibitors ... They have shown that it belongs to the newly discovered family of proteins (Fe-S) dependent on S-Adenosylmethionine, catalysing ... The main areas covered are : steroid biochemistry: inhibition of the biosynthesis of aldosterone (among the various compounds ...
However, this protein is considered a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily on the basis of sequence similarity rather than ... Hecker M, Ullrich V (1989). "On the Mechanism of Prostacyclin and Thromboxane A2 Biosynthesis". The Journal of Biological ... First, there is a fast initial binding to the protein and then a subsequent ligation to the heme iron. In the first step of the ... The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of ...
Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC (March 1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. 93 (6): ... Lys218 as the carboxylase active site base that deprotonates vitamin K hydroquinone to initiate vitamin K-dependent protein ...
Notably, "formation of the disaccharide moiety of the glycopeptide monomer occurs before the transfer to membrane protein by ... "Archaeal pseudomurein and bacterial murein cell wall biosynthesis share a common evolutionary ancestry". FEMS Microbes. 2: ... and two novel but conserved transmembrane proteins. GlmM and GlmU, which produce UDP-GlcNAc in bacteria, are also present with ...
Like other GT-B proteins, SPS contains two Rossmann fold domains that are named the A domain and the B domain. Generally, the ... This reversible step acts as the key regulatory control point in sucrose biosynthesis, and is an excellent example of various ... At low temperature, SPS activity and sucrose biosynthesis rates are increased. Sucrose accumulation is advantageous at low ... Sucrose-phosphate synthase is a plant enzyme involved in sucrose biosynthesis. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the transfer ...
Page for CsrC RNA family at Rfam Pfam page for the CsrA protein family v t e (Non-coding RNA, All stub articles, Molecular and ... was discovered using a genetic screen for factors that regulate glycogen biosynthesis. CsrC RNA binds multiple copies of CsrA, ... CsrC antagonises the regulatory effects of CsrA, presumably by sequestering this protein. The discovery of CsrC is intriguing, ... CsrB/RsmB RNA family PrrB/RsmZ RNA family RsmY RNA family RsmX CsrA protein Weilbacher T, Suzuki K, Dubey AK, Wang X, Gudapaty ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Due to the essential role of NADPH in lipid and DNA biosynthesis and the hyperproliferative nature of most cancers, NADK is an ... a key enzyme in NADP biosynthesis". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (7): 739-46. doi:10.2174/138955706777698688. PMID ... primarily by the pentose phosphate pathway to provide reducing power in biosynthetic processes such as fatty acid biosynthesis ...
Costilow RN, Laycock L (1971). "Ornithine cyclase (deaminating). Purification of a protein that converts ornithine to proline ... This enzyme participates in arginine and proline biosynthesis. It employs one cofactor, NAD+. As of late 2007, two structures ...
... are believed to share a common evolutionary origin with prokaryotic biosynthesis pathways for the cofactors thiamine and ... Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are a family of small proteins involved in post-translational modification of other proteins in ... "The dual role of ubiquitin-like protein Urm1 as a protein modifier and sulfur carrier". Protein & Cell. 2 (8): 612-9. doi: ... One additional protein, known as FUBI, is encoded as a fusion protein in the FAU gene, and is proteolytically processed to ...
"Biosynthesis of an Acetylenic Fatty Acid in Microsomal Preparations from Developing Seeds of Crepis Alpina.". In Williams JP, ... "Identification of non-heme diiron proteins that catalyze triple bond and epoxy group formation". Science. 280 (5365): 915-8. ...
Timeline for Protein Riboflavin biosynthesis protein RibD from c.97.1.2: Deoxycytidylate deaminase-like: *Protein Riboflavin ... Lineage for Protein: Riboflavin biosynthesis protein RibD. *Root: SCOPe 2.08 *. Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349 ... Protein Riboflavin biosynthesis protein RibD from c.97.1.2: Deoxycytidylate deaminase-like appears in SCOPe 2.07. ... More info for Protein Riboflavin biosynthesis protein RibD from c.97.1.2: Deoxycytidylate deaminase-like. ...
Researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign have discovered an unexpected reaction within a protein family. ... The YcaO protein family is found in throughout nature, including in marine bacteria where it can make a class of antibiotics. ... "It turns out that one protein, belonging to a large group of called the YcaOs, which is supposed to do one thing, actually does ... There is also a biotechnology interest: we can use one protein to both modify a peptide and cut away the extraneous bits after ...
... a chloroplast outer membrane protein required for jasmonate biosynthesis. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... In this study, we characterized a protein residing in the chloroplast outer membrane, JASSY, which has proven indispensable for ...
Polysialic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis Protein Siac (Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B). Find diseases associated with this ...
Crystal structure of succinoglycan biosynthesis protein at the resolution 1.7 A. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium ... Succinoglycan biosynthesis protein. A. 445. Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BC_3205. ... Crystal structure of succinoglycan biosynthesis protein at the resolution 1.7 A. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium ... Crystal structure of succinoglycan biosynthesis protein at the resolution 1.7 A. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium ...
Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Proteins - Yersinia massiliensis. [ Brite menu , Download htext , Download json , Copy URL , ...
A discriminator code-based DTD surveillance ensures faithful glycine delivery for protein biosynthesis in bacteria. ... A discriminator code-based DTD surveillance ensures faithful glycine delivery for protein biosynthesis in bacteria ... A discriminator code-based DTD surveillance ensures faithful glycine delivery for protein biosynthesis in bacteria ... DTD avoids glycine misincorporation into proteins.. (a) GFP-based fluorescence reporter assay for visualizing alanine-to- ...
Protein Sequence. ,Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein ADE16 MGKYTKTAILSVYDKTGLLDLAKGLVENNVRILASGGTANMVREAGFPVDDVSSITHAPE ... "Global analysis of protein expression in yeast." Nature 425:737-741.14562106 ...
The world suffers from deficiency of protein sources. Fish are considered as an important source of high quality animal protein ... Gel Pro analysis of the protein electrophoresis of different sites revealed the disappearance of two protein peaks from serum ... who reported that the heavy metals have an inhibitory effect on protein biosynthesis via its effect on RNA and ribosomal ... The latter decreases can in turn cause decreases in protein biosynthesis including those of the muscle content of catfish which ...
... on prostate cancer cells and inhibits protein biosynthesis. It was tested with respect to its effects on the expression of anti ... New therapeutic approaches aim to target the Bcl-2 proteins for the restoration of apoptosis. Methods: The immunotoxin hD7-1(VL ... Bcl-2 proteins. Combination with the BAD-like mimetic ABT-737 was examined on prostate cancer cells and 3D spheroids and in ... of anti-PSMA immunotoxin plus ABT-737 represents the first tumor-specific therapeutic approach on the level of Bcl-2 proteins ...
mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_145167.3 → NP_660150.1 GPI mannosyltransferase 1. See identical proteins and their annotated locations ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. GPI mannosyltransferase 1. Names. DPM:GlcN-(acyl-) ... phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class Mprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:18858 See related. Ensembl: ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38 ...
Cholesterol & free-fatty acids biosynthesis during protein malnutrition & steroid maintained pregnancy in rats. Indian Journal ... Cholesterol & free-fatty acids biosynthesis during protein malnutrition & steroid maintained pregnancy in rats. ...
The MOCS2 gene provides instructions for making two different proteins, MOCS2A and MOCS2B, which combine to form an enzyme ... some protein function may remain. Without either piece of molybdopterin synthase, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis is impaired ... The MOCS2 gene provides instructions for making two different proteins, MOCS2A and MOCS2B, which combine to form an enzyme ... Molybdopterin synthase performs the second of a series of reactions in the formation (biosynthesis) of a molecule called ...
Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1. 10.74. IFIT2. Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide ... Protein biosynthesis related. NACA. Nascent-polypeptide-associated complex polypeptide. -2.17. Main Article ...
Name: Recombinant Burkholderia phytofirmans Probable ubiquinone biosynthesis protein UbiB (ubiB). Size: 0,01 mg. Catalog no.: MBS7032576. Order on ...
Alcohol and abnormal protein biosynthesis; : biochemical and clinical,. Title Alcohol and abnormal protein biosynthesis;. Title ...,Alcohol and abnormal protein ...,Alcohol and abnormal protein ... The item Alcohol and abnormal protein biosynthesis; : biochemical and clinical,, edited by Marcus A. Rothschild, Murray Oratz [ ...
In this study, we found that the expressions of a gene encoding pyridoxine biosynthesis protein (PDX1) were significantly ... Pyridoxine biosynthesis protein MoPdx1 affects the development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae. ... Pyridoxine biosynthesis protein MoPdx1 affects the development and pathogenicity of ,i,Mag ... In addition, vitamin B6 acts as the coenzymes in amino acid biosynthesis, decarboxylation, racemic reactions, and other ...
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Image file , Help ] ...
Items where Division is "Department of Protein Biosynthesis" and Year is 2015. Up a level. ...
Hepatic mitochondrial protein biosynthesis in miniature swine voluntarily consuming ethanol. J. P. Burke, K. W. Hicklin, Mike E ... Hepatic mitochondrial protein biosynthesis in miniature swine voluntarily consuming ethanol. / Burke, J. P.; Hicklin, K. W.; ... Hepatic mitochondrial protein biosynthesis in miniature swine voluntarily consuming ethanol. Federation Proceedings. 1974;33(3 ... Hepatic mitochondrial protein biosynthesis in miniature swine voluntarily consuming ethanol. In: Federation Proceedings. 1974 ...
In contrast to cell-based protein expression, cell-free production is highly consistent, scalable, and amenable to automation. ... Protein Biosynthesis* * Protein Conformation * Proteomics * Recombinant Proteins / chemistry * Recombinant Proteins / genetics ... Automated cell-free protein production methods for structural studies Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1140:117-35. doi: 10.1007/978-1- ... In contrast to cell-based protein expression, cell-free production is highly consistent, scalable, and amenable to automation. ...
Copper resistance in Pseudomonas syringae mediated by periplasmic and outer membrane proteins. journal, October 1991 * Cha, J. ... The biosynthesis of abscisic acid in Cercospora rosicola journal, January 1982 * Neill, Steven J.; Horgan, Roger; Walton, ... Arabidopsis thaliana ACS8 plays a crucial role in the early biosynthesis of ethylene elicited by Cu 2+ ions journal, August ... DOE PAGES® Journal Article: Copper ions suppress abscisic acid biosynthesis to enhance defence against Phytophthora infestans ...
... protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. ... protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.. Title. Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, ... Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. ... This model encompasses a complex network of proteins that control milk synthesis with a cross talk between milk fat, protein, ...
O3 plays a central role in rice grain development by participating in the regulation of storage protein and starch biosynthesis ... OPAQUE3, encoding a transmembrane bZIP transcription factor, regulates endosperm storage protein and starch biosynthesis in ... A rice UBR7 protein functions as an H2BK148ub E3 ligase in coordination with the E2 conjugase OsUBC18. OsUBR7 regulates plant ... The development of smaller Cas proteins will lead to reduced viral vector sizes that can be more widely adopted in versatile ...
Protein-biosynthesis; Protein-chemistry; Protein-synthesis; Proteins; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-factors; ...
Crystal structure of the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MobA from Escherichia coli at near-atomic resolution ... Crystal structure of the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MobA from Escherichia coli at near-atomic resolution. ...
Specific deletion of each of the neo8, neo15 and neo16 genes confirmed that they are all essential for neomycin biosynthesis. ... and of the deacetylase Neo16 in neomycin biosynthesis. ... Biosynthesis Is Catalyzed by a TldD/PmbA Family Protein.. * ... Biochemistry of the Initial Steps of Mycothiol Biosynthesis*. *G. Newton, P. Ta, K. Bzymek, R. C. Fahey ... Unique O-ribosylation in the biosynthesis of butirosin.. *F. Kudo, T. Fujii, S. Kinoshita, T. Eguchi ...
Protein Synonyms Start End Strand PubMed ID MSMEG_4310 MSMEG_4310 cobD cobD, MSMEG_4310 Cobalamin biosynthesis protein CobD (EC ... MSMEG_4310 MSMEG_4310 Cobalamin biosynthesis protein CobD (EC Mycobacterium smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155 ... NCBI Protein EnsemblBacteria InterPro EggNOG OrthoDB A0R0A0 4536838; WP_011729726.1, YP_888588.1 ABK73682, AIU09402 IPR004485 ...
... interacts with the cell wall and controls its biosynthesis. Supplementary information. Supplementary Fig. 4d, AFM data ... The Staphylococcus aureus cell division protein, DivIC, interacts with the cell wall and controls its biosynthesis. ... The Staphylococcus aureus cell division protein, DivIC, interacts with the cell wall and controls its biosynthesis. ... The Staphylococcus aureus cell division protein, DivIC, ...
jejuni serotype O:2 Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein Gcp (gcp) ... Order Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni serotype O 2 Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein ... Order Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni serotype O 2 Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein ...
  • The action mechanism is an esterase system that interferes with the amino acid metabolism of pathogenic bacteria, destroys the biosynthesis of proteins, inhibits the growth of hyphae and causes cell granulation, and causes the pathogenic bacteria to lose their ability to reproduce and infect, thereby achieving the purpose of killing pathogenic bacteria and preventing diseases. (
  • Potential functional profiles of gut microbiome in amino acid metabolism, lipid biosynthesis proteins and steroid biosynthesis were remarkably increased, while the capacity in renin-angiotensin system was remarkably decreased following vaccines. (
  • Results showed that Pi limitation facilitates up-regulation of Pi-associated metabolism, RNA degradation, and triacylglycerol biosynthesis while down-regulation of ribosome biosynthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. (
  • Our data suggest that Pi limitation activates Pi-related metabolism, RNA degradation, and TAG biosynthesis while inhibits ribosome biosynthesis and TCA cycle, leading to enhanced carbon fluxes into lipids. (
  • Because phosphorus is an essential element for DNA, RNA, several ubiquitous cofactors, and phosphorylated proteins, Pi-limitation has major affects on cellular metabolism and physiology. (
  • Synthetic vs natural, is not precise enough to separate chemicals made in a factory from those atoms found in nature, small compounds made in the body (metabolism, biosynthesis), or larger hormones, mediators and even amino acids and proteins. (
  • involved PARs cyanide via G effectiveness histone( 4) and via the metabolism: system fructose of the G-protein( 5). (
  • Upon analysis of differential expression for the sets of phosphonull and phosphomimetic mutants, they showed the proteins most affected by histone methylation clustered into GO categories consistent with cellular response to stress, e.g. ion membrane transport, lipid biosynthesis, ergosterol biosynthesis, and protein mannosylation. (
  • Pi limitation leads to dephosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate and the allosteric activator of isocitrate dehydrogenase key to lipid biosynthesis. (
  • Because the reaction is not normally associated with members of the YcaO protein family, the Nair Lab is now exploring and predicting other examples of YcaOs that can also cut peptides. (
  • The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES , directed by MESSENGER RNA , via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS . (
  • Shifting gears, he pursued graduate studies in natural products biosynthesis in the laboratory of Eric Schmidt where his work focused on the biosynthesis of a class of highly posttranslationally modified peptides from cyanobacteria known as cyanobactins. (
  • Without either piece of molybdopterin synthase, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis is impaired. (
  • Function of a membrane-embedded domain evolutionarily multiplied in the GPI lipid anchor pathway proteins PIG-B, PIG-M, PIG-U, PIG-W, PIG-V, and PIG-Z. Eisenhaber B, et al . (
  • Milk protein synthesis is highly regulated by insulin, amino acids, and amino acid transporters via transcriptional and posttranscriptional routes, with the insulin-mTOR pathway playing a central role. (
  • Of the tryptophan not incorporated into proteins, more than 95% is metabolized via the kynurenine pathway (KP), with a smaller portion used for serotonin synthesis ( Fig. 1 ) ( 1 ). (
  • These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. (
  • It was found that NADPH, the key cofactor for fatty acid biosynthesis, is limited due to reduced flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and transhydrogenation cycle and that this can be overcome by over-expression of an endogenous malic enzyme. (
  • Caused by mutations in the EBP gene (Xp11.23-p11.22) encoding the emopamil binding protein (EBP), which acts as a delta8-delta7-sterol isomerase that catalyses the conversion of 8(9)-cholestenol to lathosterol in the distal cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. (
  • Bactericidal activity results from inhibiting cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more penicillin-binding proteins. (
  • However, unlike other cephalosporins, cefiderocol has a unique side chain that allows it to bind to ferric iron, a key nutrient for bacterial growth, and use the bacterial iron transport system to cross the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.Once inside the bacterial cell, cefiderocol's cephalosporin moiety binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are enzymes involved in the final step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls. (
  • Ceftazidime functions by binding to the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in bacterial cell walls, which inhibits the final step of peptidoglycan synthesis and consequently prevents cell wall biosynthesis. (
  • Nishizuka was born in Ashiya City (Hyogo Prefecture, Japan) on July 12, 1932 and was made famous by his discovery of protein kinase C. He will be sadly missed by all who knew him. (
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (
  • My first project is to understand nuclear phosphorylation events controlled by the tomato protein kinase Adi3, which is a host PCD regulator during resistance to pathogens. (
  • Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability. (
  • Gene expression profiling of the Deltahog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. (
  • Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase by the PTP2 and PTP3 protein tyrosine phosphatases. (
  • The protein kinase Ire1 has a Hac1-independent essential role in iron uptake and virulence of Candida albicans. (
  • Inhibits bacterial protein translation by binding to 30S ribosomal subunit and blocks entry of amino-acyl tRNA molecules in ribosome A site. (
  • Order Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni serotype O 2 Probable tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthesis protein Gcp gcp 01015952056 at Gentaur Campylobacter jejuni subsp. (
  • This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in GPI-anchor biosynthesis. (
  • The MOCS2 gene provides instructions for making two different proteins, MOCS2A and MOCS2B, which combine to form an enzyme called molybdopterin synthase. (
  • The MOCS2 gene mutations involved in molybdenum cofactor deficiency likely eliminate the function of MOCS2A, MOCS2B, or both, although in rare cases that are less severe, some protein function may remain. (
  • In this study, we found that the expressions of a gene encoding pyridoxine biosynthesis protein (PDX1) were significantly upregulated in the early infectious stages in M. oryzae. (
  • Pfam term enrichment analysis revealed 172 protein families/domains were significantly associated with the H-D-R cycle and confirmed early rehydration (i.e. the R2 stage) as exhibiting the maximum stress-induced changes in gene expression. (
  • Candida albicans response regulator gene SSK1 regulates a subset of genes whose functions are associated with cell wall biosynthesis and adaptation to oxidative stress. (
  • The SBDS gene contains 5 exons, which encode a 250-amino-acid protein of unknown function. (
  • Decrease of interleukin (IL)17a gene expression in leucocytes and in the amount of IL-17a protein in CD4+ T cells in children with Down syndrome. (
  • The efficiency of milk synthesis can be improved by taking advantage of the accumulated knowledge of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis of fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland. (
  • Recent data indicate the possibility of nutrigenomic interventions to increase milk fat synthesis by feeding long-chain fatty acids and milk protein synthesis by feeding amino acids. (
  • This model encompasses a complex network of proteins that control milk synthesis with a cross talk between milk fat, protein, and lactose regulation, with mTOR functioning as a central hub. (
  • The structure, function and synthesis of proteins, RNA and DNA and their interrelated biological functions within the cell. (
  • synthesis VI is the most PLK1 s expression signaling circulation browser, an migration defined from its breast with the FcRI protein pro-IL1B. (
  • Molybdopterin synthase performs the second of a series of reactions in the formation (biosynthesis) of a molecule called molybdenum cofactor. (
  • [ 48 ] which is known to play a role in ribosome biosynthesis, mitotic spindle assembly, chemotaxis, and regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. (
  • Fish are considered as an important source of high quality animal protein as they contain large amounts of essential amino acids. (
  • For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. (
  • These pictures allowed us to figure out what the protein looked like, and more importantly, how it might carry out this peptide-cutting activity. (
  • There is also a biotechnology interest: we can use one protein to both modify a peptide and cut away the extraneous bits after its been modified. (
  • With cryoEM images providing a road map, the Nair Lab carried out biochemical studies to pinpoint the active site elements that enabled the unusual peptide cutting activity in ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. (
  • The lab demonstrated that this particular YcaO protein (MusD) is able to cut a peptide using a molecule called ATP as a co-factor. (
  • Genomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the molecular basis of the divergence of the TPS family in Lauraceae and contrasting evolutionary fates of the TPS-a and TPS-b subfamilies in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids in P. bournei . (
  • Although PpiD is known to function in protein translocation, the functional significance of PpiD-YfgM complex formation as well as the molecular mechanisms of PpiD-YfgM and PpiD/YfgM-Sec translocon interactions remain unclear. (
  • An introduction to molecular biology techniques and methods of protein purification and analysis. (
  • We identified neutralizing epitopes of DENV located at residues K310 and E311 of viral envelope protein domain III (E-DIII) through the combination of biological and molecular strategies. (
  • My research interests range from the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the resistance of plants against pathogens to the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon compounds by algae that can be used as fuel in modern combustion engines. (
  • This event is prevented by small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) acting as molecular chaperones. (
  • Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a ubiquitous family of molecular chaperones that play a vital role in maintaining protein homeostasis in cells. (
  • The YcaO protein family is found in throughout nature, including in marine bacteria where it can make a class of antibiotics. (
  • Methylation patterns are "written" by enzymes in response to signals and then "read" by effector proteins recognizing methyl residues on highly specific lysine residues, leading to either large- or small-scale alterations in the transcriptional state of chromatin. (
  • One of the major class of virulence factors includes effector proteins that are delivered into the host through a type III protein secretion system (TTSS) to suppress plant immune responses, and also to facilitate disease development [ 4 ]. (
  • Silvaggi, N. R., Structural characterization of three noncanonical NTF2-like superfamily proteins: implications for polyketide biosynthesis . (
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (
  • The mAbs were further dissected using recombinant E protein domain I-II (E-DI-II) and III (E-DIII) of DENV-2. (
  • Starting from native material or recombinant systems, we succeed with all types of membrane proteins: GPCRs, Ions Channels, Transporters, Receptors and Viral Proteins. (
  • Recombinant proteins, like insulin, certainly require a safety assessment with similar aims to the toxicological assessment of small molecule drugs etc. (
  • cDNA cloning, expression analysis, chromosome localization and characterization of the recombinant protein. (
  • In addition, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays investigating potential MoPdx1-interacting proteins suggested that MoPdx1 might take part in multiple pathways, especially in the ribosome and in biosynthesis of some substances. (
  • R2R3-MYB-, HD-ZIP IV-, TPS-, CYP-, and SDR-encoding genes are key regulatory factors and genes in the pathways of glandular secretory trichome formation and monoterpenoid biosynthesis. (
  • Discovery of parallel pathways of kanamycin biosynthesis allows antibiotic manipulation. (
  • Now, a team from Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) and the University of Oxford has discovered how hydrogen-producing enzymes (hydrogenases) are activated during their biosynthesis. (
  • Within their protein scaffold, the enzymes have an active center-the H-cluster-where the hydrogen is produced. (
  • The overall theme of my research is based on reaching an understanding of structure-function relationship of proteins, enzymes and their complexes, including those involved in disease (e.g. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC76745","bglF","Escherichia coli","fused beta-glucoside-specific PTS enzymes: IIA component/IIB component/IIC component [Ensembl]. (
  • However, in various diseases such as neurological diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and autoimmune diseases, a disturbance of this redox balance occurs in mitochondria, which activates inflammasomes, RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), leading to the activation of innate immune and inflammatory responses [14] . (
  • By measuring the levels of heat shock proteins as well as the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), we could not detect any differences upon RF exposure. (
  • They are classified as integral, peripheral membrane proteins and polypeptide toxins. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Cholesterol & free-fatty acids biosynthesis during protein malnutrition & steroid maintained pregnancy in rats. (
  • This data will allow for analysis of the selected steroid hormones and related binding protein that can be used to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases, such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), androgen deficiency, certain cancers, and hormone imbalances. (
  • This work elucidated the N-deacetylation of the mycothiol-derived N-acetyl-l-cysteine residue of a lincosamide intermediate, which is comprised of an amino acid and an aminooctose connected via an amide bond, and presented a sequence similarity network of TldD/PmbA proteins, which suggests that the l incosamide N- deacetylases are unique among these widely distributed proteins. (
  • The researchers clarified the precise sequence of the process using protein engineering, protein film electrochemistry and infrared spectroscopy. (
  • For more information, see the paper from 2019 on GapMind for amino acid biosynthesis, the paper from 2022 on GapMind for carbon sources, or view the source code . (
  • PpiD and YfgM are inner membrane proteins that are both composed of an N-terminal transmembrane segment and a C-terminal periplasmic domain. (
  • CALIXAR's approach allows to preserve the original structure and function of membrane proteins (GPCRs, Ion Channels, Transporters, Receptors, Anchors and Viral Proteins) providing solutions for pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology companies and academic teams to develop conformational antibodies, formulate new vaccines, carry out Structure Based Drug Discovery and/or HTS assays. (
  • Membrane proteins roughly constitute 30% of open reading frames in a genome and form 70% of current drug targets. (
  • Escherichia coli YfgM and PpiD form a stable complex that interacts with the SecY/E/G (Sec) translocon, a channel that allows protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC73596","tesA","Escherichia coli","acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 and protease I and lysophospholipase L1 [Ensembl]. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC76562","bcsF","Escherichia coli","DUF2636 family cellulose production small membrane protein [Ensembl]. (
  • Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins. (
  • His work during that period included studies on the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the involvement of GTP in ribosomal protein translation and ADP-ribosylation by diphtheria toxin. (
  • The GPI-anchor is found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. (
  • In contrast to cell-based protein expression, cell-free production is highly consistent, scalable, and amenable to automation. (
  • In addition, described is a cell-free method for preparing protein complexes. (
  • The Staphylococcus aureus cell division protein, DivIC, interacts with the cell wall and controls its biosynthesis. (
  • The biomass of U. maydis declined most severely over time and may be attributed to the action of F. verticillioides, which secretes toxic secondary metabolites and expresses genes encoding adhesive and cell wall-degrading proteins at higher levels than when grown alone. (
  • It is postulated that this receptor function as folate scavengers when folate supply is low or rapid cell growth requires elevated uptake of folate for methylation reactions including DNA biosynthesis. (
  • Treatment duration is guided by the resolution of clinical symptoms and decline in inflammatory markers like C- reactive protein and white blood cell count. (
  • My lab continues to study plant-pathogen interactions by researching protein kinases regulating host cell death. (
  • However, the amounts of MCFO proteins and the cell surface ferric reductase activity were increased in the Deltahog1 in comparison to wild type cells. (
  • In the first 30 min of treatment, the response was similar to the cell culture: there was a decrease in metabolites of the TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis and the transcriptomic response was dominated by up-regulation of DNA regulatory proteins. (
  • DeMarini, and Chapter 20, by Rice and cell death determine the size protein in several signal ing path- and Herceg). (
  • Probably catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (
  • The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. (
  • Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam ). (
  • Bacterial regulatory proteins [Interproscan]. (
  • Low cholesterol content - While many whey protein powders still contain a substantial level of cholesterol and sodium, the rice protein is safe and low in these elements, and consequentially, can reduce the negative effects of excessive cholesterol intake. (
  • Proteins are large biomolecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. (
  • Pyridoxal phosphate biosynthetic protein PdxA [Interproscan]. (
  • As classic biochemical approaches have failed to identify rubber biosynthetic proteins or genes, we have taken an alternative proteomic- and genomic-based approach with four rubber producing plant species including Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and Ficus elastica. (
  • Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. (
  • Functional studies of the Ssk1p response regulator protein of Candida albicans as determined by phenotypic analysis of receiver domain point mutants. (
  • infected bisecting proteins re-enter endosomal body chains to promote with the SAMM50 regulator and extracellular plasma metazoans to have with the TIMM22 superpathway. (
  • However, VB6 content in different strains cultured in CM media has no significant difference, suggested that MoPdx1 was involved in de novo VB6 biosynthesis not in uptake process, and VB6 regulates the vegetative growth of M. oryzae. (
  • I did my B.S. (1991) and M.S. (1993) studies at Michigan Technological University where I studied with John Adler working on the biosynthesis of insect molting hormones in plants as a defense mechanism against insect attack. (