The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (1/96713)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/96713)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (3/96713)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (4/96713)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/96713)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (6/96713)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (7/96713)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (8/96713)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Blisters are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface, which causes the top layer of skin to separate from the underlying layer. This separation creates a space that fills with fluid, forming a blister. Blisters can also be caused by burns, chemical exposure, or other types of injury.

There are different types of blisters, including:

1. Friction blisters: These are the most common type of blister and are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface. They are often seen on the hands, feet, and buttocks.
2. Burn blisters: These are caused by burns and can be more severe than friction blisters.
3. Chemical blisters: These are caused by exposure to chemicals and can be very painful.
4. Blisters caused by medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as epidermolysis bullosa (a genetic disorder that affects the skin), can cause blisters to form easily.

Blisters can be treated in several ways, depending on their size and location. Small blisters may not require treatment and can heal on their own within a few days. Larger blisters may need to be drained and covered with a bandage to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Preventing blisters is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. To prevent blisters, it is important to:

1. Wear properly fitting shoes and clothing to reduce friction.
2. Use lubricating creams or powders to reduce friction.
3. Take regular breaks to rest and allow the skin to recover.
4. Avoid using harsh chemicals or detergents that can cause irritation.
5. Keep the affected area clean and dry to prevent infection.

In conclusion, blisters are a common and uncomfortable condition that can be caused by a variety of factors. While they can be treated and managed, prevention is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. By taking steps to prevent blisters and seeking medical attention if they do occur, individuals can reduce their risk of developing this uncomfortable condition.

The symptoms of choriocarcinoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
* Pelvic pain
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Nausea and vomiting

If choriocarcinoma is suspected, a variety of tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:

* Ultrasound: This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to create pictures of the uterus and ovaries. It can help doctors identify any abnormal growths or tumors in the area.
* Hysteroscopy: This procedure involves inserting a thin, lighted tube through the cervix to visualize the inside of the uterus. Doctors may use hysteroscopy to collect samples of tissue for testing.
* Laparoscopy: This procedure involves making small incisions in the abdomen and using a thin, lighted tube to visualize the inside of the pelvis. Doctors may use laparoscopy to collect samples of tissue for testing or to remove any tumors that are found.
* Biopsy: In this test, doctors take a small sample of tissue from the uterus and examine it under a microscope for cancer cells.

If choriocarcinoma is confirmed, treatment may involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for choriocarcinoma varies depending on the stage of the cancer when it is diagnosed. In general, the prognosis is good if the cancer is caught early and treated promptly. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis may be poorer.

It's important for women who have had a molar pregnancy or choriocarcinoma to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly to ensure that any remaining tissue is removed and to monitor for any signs of recurrence.

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disorder called Graves' disease, which causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Other causes include inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis), thyroid nodules, and certain medications.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Rapid weight loss
* Nervousness or irritability
* Increased heart rate
* Heat intolerance
* Changes in menstrual cycle
* Fatigue
* Muscle weakness
* tremors

If left untreated, hyperthyroidism can lead to more serious complications such as heart problems, bone loss, and eye problems. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism include medications to reduce hormone production, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

In pregnant women, untreated hyperthyroidism can increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and intellectual disability in the baby. Treatment options for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism are similar to those for non-pregnant adults, but may need to be adjusted to avoid harm to the developing fetus.

It is important for individuals suspected of having hyperthyroidism to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

DNA-binding protein Single-strand binding protein Telomere-binding protein RNA-binding protein Poly(A)-binding protein Nuclear ... binding protein Syntaxin binding protein 2 Oxysterol-binding protein E3 binding protein Iron-responsive element-binding protein ... cap-binding protein complex CREB-binding protein Calcium-binding protein Calcium-binding protein 1 S100 calcium-binding protein ... C4b-binding protein Rap GTP-binding protein Calmodulin-binding proteins Iron-binding proteins Thyroxine-binding proteins Folate ...
In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. They are located in the lumen ... Palme K, Hesse T, Campos N, Garbers C, Yanofsky MF, Schell J (February 1992). "Molecular analysis of an auxin binding protein ... 2002). "Crystal structure of auxin-binding protein 1 in complex with auxin". EMBO J. 21 (12): 2877-85. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf291 ... which could represent a signal for translocation of the protein to the ER. The mature protein comprises around 165 residues, ...
Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769 ... Guanylate-binding proteins (GBP) fall into the last class. In humans, there are seven GBPs (hGBP1-7). Structurally, hGBP1 ... In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. ... "Human guanylate binding protein-1 is a secreted GTPase present in increased concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of ...
A duffy-binding-like domain is also found in proteins of the family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. ... The presence of duffy-binding-like domains defines the family of erythrocyte binding-like proteins (EBL), a family of cell ... The other universal invasion protein is reticulocyte binding protein homologs. Both families are essential for cell invasion, ... Babaeekho, L.; Zakeri, S.; Djadid, N. D. (2009). "Genetic mapping of the duffy binding protein (DBP) ligand domain of ...
Example metal binding proteins Metal-binding proteins are proteins or protein domains that chelate a metal ion. Binding of ... Alternatively, a metal-binding protein may maintain its structure without the metal (apo form) and bind it as a ligand (e.g. as ... Furthermore, histidine-rich low-complexity regions are found in metal-binding and especially nickel-cobalt binding proteins. ... Poly-histidine tags (of six or more consecutive His residues) are utilized for protein purification by binding to columns with ...
... are carrier proteins and metalloproteins that are important in iron metabolism and the immune response. ... proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Brock JH (1989). "Iron-binding proteins". Acta ... De Sousa M, Breedvelt F, Dynesius-Trentham R, Trentham D, Lum J (1988). "Iron, iron-binding proteins and immune system cells". ... Oxygen binding is fully cooperative for each of the subunits because as the first oxygen binds to one of the four heme groups, ...
Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300)". Biochem. J. 339 (3): 751-8. doi:10.1042/0264-6021: ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box ... gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional complex containing TATA-binding protein, ... "Wild-type p53 binds to the TATA-binding protein and represses transcription". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (24): 12028-32. ...
... (FBP) are proteins that bind folate, typically the folate receptors and reduced folate carrier. FBP can ... Trowsdale, John; Foulkes, William D.; Jones, Tania A.; Campbell, Ian G. (1991). "Folate-binding Protein Is a Marker for Ovarian ... FBP can refer to protein(s) (e.g. extracted from cow's milk) used to do folic acid assays. Kelemen, L. E. (2006). "The role of ... Membrane proteins, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
OBPs are small proteins on the order of 14 kDa in size. All odorant binding proteins are believed to have a common structure ... Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small (10 to 30 kDa) soluble proteins secreted by auxiliary cells surrounding olfactory ... Pelosi, P. (2005-01-01). "Diversity of Odorant-binding Proteins and Chemosensory Proteins in Insects". Chemical Senses. 30 ( ... "Structure of a specific alcohol-binding site defined by the odorant binding protein LUSH from Drosophila melanogaster". Nature ...
... (BiP) also known as 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78) or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 ( ... binding to misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, translocation of secretory proteins, and initiation of the UPR. ... SBDβ serves as a binding pocket for client proteins or peptide and SBDα serves as a helical lid to cover the binding pocket. An ... GRP78 (HSPA5), also referred to as 'immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein' (BiP), is a member of the heat-shock protein-70 ...
A drug that is 99% bound means that 99% of the drug molecules are bound to blood proteins not that 99% of the blood proteins ... assume that Drug A and Drug B are both protein-bound drugs. If Drug A is given, it will bind to the plasma proteins in the ... a proportion of the drug may become bound to the proteins, with the remainder being unbound. If the protein binding is ... Protein binding can influence the drug's biological half-life. The bound portion may act as a reservoir or depot from which the ...
Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABPs) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... This is a list of actin-binding proteins in alphabetical order. List: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W x Y Z ... Zipper protein Zo-1 Zyxin Cytoskeletal drugs dos Remedios CG, Chhabra D, Kekic M, et al. (April 2003). "Actin binding proteins ... Mayven Myelin basic protein Naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein (NPA) N-RAP Nebulin N-WASP Neurabin Nullo Neurexins ...
A thyroxine-binding protein is any of several transport proteins that bind thyroid hormone and carry it around the bloodstream ... Examples include: Thyroxine-binding globulin Transthyretin Serum albumin Thyroxine-binding+proteins at the US National Library ... of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Human proteins, Blood proteins, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
N-Terminal Fusion of Target Protein to Maltose-Binding Protein at Michigan Technological University maltose-binding+protein at ... The fusion protein binds to amylose columns while all other proteins flow through. The MBP-protein fusion can be purified by ... Ferenci T, Randall LL (October 1979). "Precursor maltose-binding protein is active in binding substrate". The Journal of ... In these systems, the protein of interest is often expressed as a MBP-fusion protein, preventing aggregation of the protein of ...
... (C4BP) is a protein complex involved in the complement system where it acts as inhibitor. C4BP has an ... Ubiquitous surface protein 1 and 2 from Moraxella. Ermert D, Blom AM (January 2016). "C4b-binding protein: The good, the bad ... Complement+C4b-Binding+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with ... streptococcal M-proteins, gonococcal porins, Outer membrane protein A from E. coli, ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding protein Binding Protein (CREB-binding protein), also known as CREBBP or ... Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB)-Binding Protein] Research Using Computational Techniques". The Protein Journal. 40 (1 ... Some of the proteins that bind to this domain have been shown to bind competitively-such as CREB and Myb-whereas others bind ... activates cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which then binds to CBP as a coactivator for transcription of FOXO1. ...
Retinol-binding proteins (RBP) are a family of proteins with diverse functions. They are carrier proteins that bind retinol. ... Plasma retinol-binding protein, the retinol transport vehicle in serum. CRBP I/II, cellular-binding proteins involved in ... MacDonald PN, Bok D, Ong DE (June 1990). "Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells ... Assessment of retinol-binding protein is used to determine visceral protein mass in health-related nutritional studies. Retinol ...
Calcium-binding proteins are proteins that participate in calcium cell signalling pathways by binding to Ca2+, the calcium ion ... low-affinity calcium-binding protein calsequestrin. Calretinin is another type of Calcium binding protein weighing 29kD. It is ... Calcium-binding proteins have specific domains that bind to calcium and are known to be heterogeneous. One of the functions of ... Calcium binding proteins also serve an important physiological role for cells. The most ubiquitous Ca2+-sensing protein, found ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACRBP gene. The protein encoded by this gene is similar ... This protein is located in the sperm acrosome and is thought to function as a binding protein to proacrosin for packaging and ... "Entrez Gene: Acrosin binding protein". Retrieved 2016-08-01. Okumura H, Noguchi Y, Uenaka A, Aji T, Ono T, Nakagawa K, Aoe M, ... This protein is a member of the cancer/testis family of antigens and it is found to be immunogenic. In normal tissues, this ...
1994). "Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein. LPS binding properties and ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene. LBP is a soluble acute-phase ... Sato M, Saeki Y, Tanaka K, Kaneda Y (1999). "Ribosome-associated protein LBP/p40 binds to S21 protein of 40S ribosome: analysis ... 2000). "Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein and Phospholipid Transfer Protein Release Lipopolysaccharides from Gram-Negative ...
... (BBP) is an Orem RNA processing factor. The protein complex binds to the branchpoint sequence (BPS ... The BPS that the protein binds to in yeast is UACUAAC. "BBP Involved in Splice Site Recognition". Archived from the original on ... Rymond, B. C. (2010). "The branchpoint binding protein: in and out of the spliceosome cycle". Adv Exp Med Biol. 693: 123-41. ... The role of the protein in yeast cells has been the subject of study, as for other eukaryotic cells. ...
In particular, telomere-binding protein refers to TTAGGG repeat binding factor-1 (TERF1) and TTAGGG repeat binding factor-2 ( ... Telomere-binding proteins can generate a T-loop to protect chromosome ends. TRFs are double-stranded proteins which are known ... The DNA-binding proteins include TERF1, TERF2, and POT1, which have specific sequences, altering binding affinity or regulatory ... Telomere-binding proteins (also known as TERF, TRBF, TRF) function to bind telomeric DNA in various species. ...
... also known as pyruvate dehydrogenase protein X component, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is ... E3 binding protein (E3BP). This gene encodes the E3 binding protein subunit; also known as component X of the pyruvate ... The protein encoded by the human PDHX gene, also known as E3 binding protein (E3BP), is part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase ... "How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase ...
DNA-binding protein RNA-binding protein database Ribonucleoprotein Wikimedia Commons has media related to RNA-binding proteins ... identification of RNA-binding proteins has extended the number of RNA-binding proteins significantly RNA-binding protein Sam68 ... RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and ... CPSF binds to the 3' tail (AAUAAA) sequence and together with another protein called poly(A)-binding protein, recruits and ...
... are, as their name implies, proteins which bind calmodulin. Calmodulin can bind to a variety of ... Proteins that get activated upon binding to Ca2+-bound state, include Myosin light-chain kinase, Phosphatase, Ca2+/calmodulin- ... Studies have proven that calmodulin's affinity for Ca2+ increases when it is bound to a calmodulin-binding protein, which ... in the inactive Ca2+ unbound state and active Ca2+ bound state. Calmodulin binds to the targeted proteins via their short ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EBP gene, located on the X chromosome. The protein is ... which lack the EBP protein in nature) to study the high-affinity drug binding effects. Emopamil Cholestenol Delta-isomerase ... "Phenylalkylamine Ca2+ antagonist binding protein. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and heterologous expression". The ... Isolation, replication and characterization of the EBP and EBP-like protein have been performed in yeast/E. Coli strains ( ...
A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins are the DNA-binding proteins that specifically bind single-stranded DNA. In humans, ... Deoxyribonucleoprotein Protein-DNA interaction site prediction software RNA-binding protein Single-strand binding protein Zinc ... DNA-binding proteins are proteins that have DNA-binding domains and thus have a specific or general affinity for single- or ... Other non-specific DNA-binding proteins in chromatin include the high-mobility group (HMG) proteins, which bind to bent or ...
... (PBPs) are a group of proteins that are characterized by their affinity for and binding of ... Presence of the protein penicillin binding protein 2A (PBP2A) is responsible for the antibiotic resistance seen in methicillin- ... "Isolation of the membrane-bound 26 000-Mr penicillin-binding protein of Streptomyces strain K15 in the form of a penicillin- ... "Crystal structures of penicillin-binding protein 3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: comparison of native and antibiotic-bound forms ...
The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are a family of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Concretely, they ... One way is by presenting a lipid to a second lipid-binding protein. (5)Another way is preventing the lipid-binding protein from ... Universal protein resource accession number Q96SU4 for "Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 9 - Homo sapiens (Human)" at ... Universal protein resource accession number Q9BXB5 for "Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 10 - Homo sapiens (Human)" at ...
... 1 (IGBP1), a protein that binds B-cells in the blood. Protein A, a 42 kDa protein originally ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein, or sometimes Immunoglobulin binding protein is a generic name for any protein that binds ... It, therefore, can mean: Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP, or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5, with an official symbol HSPA5), a ... Protein G, expressed in group C and G Streptococcal bacteria much like Protein A. Protein L, isolated from the surface of a ...
2002). "Epstein-Barr virus encoded nuclear protein EBNA-3 binds a novel human uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase ... 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization". Nat. ...
The disulfide bond (-S-S-) plays a major role in the conformation of proteins and in the catalytic activity of enzymes. Sulfide ... Dimethyldisulfide has the chemical binding CH3-S-S-CH3, whereas carbon disulfide has no S-S bond, being S=C=S (linear molecule ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... The phosphoryl group binding entails juxtaposition between the carboxylate group and a negatively charged Asp residue (namely ... It is believed that the two separate catalytic sites fused into a single protein to stabilize its monomeric form. The covalent ... Homo sapiens OPRTase and ODCase activities lower to a greater extent when heated than the fused protein does. To determine the ...
6 also known as DNA-binding protein RFX6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RFX6 gene. The nuclear protein encoded ...
The N2 domain binds to the F pilus during virion infection freeing the N1 domain which then interacts with a TolA protein on ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...
... the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and protein that are required for DNA synthesis. Once the required proteins and ... Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: pRB binding to E2F family transcription factors downregulate ... In these cases where the G1 phase is affected, it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become ... In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. G1 ...
PTGS (COX, which can be confused with "cytochrome oxidase") enzymes are monotopic membrane proteins; the membrane-binding ... bind the COX site of E-cat. E-cat is regulated by E-allo in a way dependent on what ligand is bound to E-allo. Substrate and ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ... Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (January 1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1 ...
Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ... a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The most variable region of the viral ... "Mutations within the P2 domain of norovirus capsid affect binding to human histo-blood group antigens: evidence for a binding ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ...
... gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression ... Nfix has been shown to interact with SKI protein and it is also known to interact with AP-1. NFI-X3 has been shown to interact ... Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... NFIX+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Stimulating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, GC box elements and HMG box-containing protein 1. Like previously ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2021-08-01. (CS1 maint: url- ... PANO1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PANO1 gene. PANO1 is an apoptosis inducing protein that is able to ... These isoforms have proteins with 215 and 216 amino acids, respectively. No isoforms for the human PANO1 protein could be ...
Code used to identify the structure of a protein in the PDB database of protein structures. The 3D atomic structure of a ... Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme and to which it specifically binds. Cut: Cutting site and DNA ... Jeremy MB, John LT, Lubert S (2002). "3. Protein Structure and Function". Biochemistry. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0- ... 7167-4684-0. Anfinsen C.B. (1973). "Principles that Govern the Folding of Protein Chains". Science. 181 (4096): 223-30. doi: ...
Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Nymann-Andersen J, Wang H, Olsen RW (September 2002). "Biochemical identification of the binding domain in the GABA(A) receptor ... Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (January 2000). "Direct protein-protein coupling enables cross-talk ... Moss SJ, Doherty CA, Huganir RL (July 1992). "Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C ...
... domain which helps the SH3 domain interact with the flexible linker domain and thereby keeps the inactive unit tightly bound. ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Nada S, Okada M, MacAuley A, Cooper JA, Nakagawa H (May 1991). "Cloning of a complementary DNA for a protein-tyrosine kinase ...
A protein was identified in 2013 that could fit this role. Jiang M, Chen X, Guo ZF, Cao Y, Chen M, Guo Z (March 2008). " ... The enzyme exists in an open form until it binds the substrate, when it morphs into a closed form with an active catalytic ... The crystal structure of the MenH enzyme in E.coli (SHCHC synthase) exists as a complex of three protein molecules shown in the ...
Dhe-Paganon S, Duda K, Iwamoto M, Chi YI, Shoelson SE (2002). "Crystal structure of the HNF4 alpha ligand binding domain in ... This gene codes for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4-α) protein also known as transcription factor 14 (TCF14). HNF4α ... Duda K, Chi YI, Shoelson SE (2004). "Structural basis for HNF-4alpha activation by ligand and coactivator binding". J. Biol. ... and several proteins involved in glucose and mitochondrial metabolism. Although pancreatic beta cells produce adequate insulin ...
The drug has also been assessed at steroid hormone-associated carrier proteins, and shows very low binding to sex hormone- ... binding globulin (SHBG) but high affinity for corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) approximately equal to that of progesterone ... interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in human plasma". J. Clin. ... Ulrich Westphal (6 December 2012). Steroid-Protein Interactions II. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 501-. ISBN 978-3-642 ...
Accord.NET in C# ghmm C library with Python bindings that supports both discrete and continuous emissions. Jajapy Python ... Durbin, Richard (23 April 1998). Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge ...
... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ... C-jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK8IP3 gene. The protein ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8IP3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3". Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nishitoh Hideki; Takeda ... "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the neuronal protein JIP3". Mol Cell Biol. 20 (3): 1030 ...
The N protein binds to RNA to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures for packaging the genome into the viral capsid. The RNP ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. N protein is ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... In SARS-CoV, a cyclin box-binding region in the N protein can serve as a cyclin-CDK phosphorylation substrate. Trafficking of N ...
For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical ... The authors were able to show that the motif has DNA binding activity. A similar approach is commonly used by modern protein ... In 2018, a Markov random field approach has been proposed to infer DNA motifs from DNA-binding domains of proteins. The E. coli ... a computational tool to investigate protein function, disease, and genetic diversity. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. Vol. chapter 2. ...
Sterneck began to study the functions of CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) transcription factors, including their roles ...
... the N-terminal barrel binds 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltri-L-glutamic acid and the C-terminal barrel binds homocysteine. ... Protein families, All stub articles, EC 2.1 stubs). ... "Characterization of the zinc binding site in methionine ...
Liu QL, Kishi H, Ohtsuka K, Muraguchi A (September 2003). "Heat shock protein 70 binds caspase-activated DNase and enhances its ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ... The protein caspase DNase is an endonuclease involved in the cell apoptotic process that facilitates the DNA breakup. Cell ... It also depends on the activity of a protein or a common signal. The factor that seems to induce more cell differentiation is ...
Nucleolar protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOL3 gene. NOL3 has been shown to interact with SFRS9 and ... Jo DG, Jun JI, Chang JW, Hong YM, Song S, Cho DH, Shim SM, Lee HJ, Cho C, Kim DH, Jung YK (2004). "Calcium binding of ARC ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
... which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ... It is hypothesized that DNA stretching by DnaA bound to the origin promotes strand separation which allows more DnaA to bind to ... The rest eight DnaA boxes are low affinity sites that preferentially bind to DnaA-ATP. During initiation, DnaA bound to high ...
... a mammalian-type single-stranded DNA-binding protein, in a halophilic archaeon". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 98 (4 ... NRC-1. This work showed that its proteins are highly acidic, providing an understanding of how proteins may function in high ... Post-genomic research in his laboratory established the core and signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of ... Capes, Melinda D.; DasSarma, Priya; DasSarma, Shiladitya (2012-01-01). "The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea". BMC ...
Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is treated with ... Yang X, Khosravi-Far R, Chang HY, Baltimore D (1997). "Daxx, a novel Fas-binding protein that activates JNK and apoptosis". ... Yang X, Khosravi-Far R, Chang HY, Baltimore D (1997). "Daxx, a novel Fas-binding protein that activates JNK and apoptosis". ... Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. Daxx, a Death domain- ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus- ... 1-deoxynojirimycin on the lectin binding to HIV-1 glycoproteins". Japanese Journal of Medical Science & Biology. 43 (3): 75-87 ... Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (Dec 1988). "Role of protein N-glycosylation in pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 15, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
... xanthine dehydrogenase from bacteria has been found to contain tungsten-molybdopterin and also non-protein-bound selenium (thus ... The monophosphate is adenylated (coupled to ADP) in a step that activates the cofactor toward binding Mo or W. These metals are ... In some enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, the metal is bound to one molybdopterin, whereas, in other enzymes, e.g., DMSO ... Sulfur is conveyed from cysteinyl persulfide in a manner reminiscent of the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur proteins. ...
Clinical resource with information about Pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency and its clinical features, PDHX, ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency. Synonyms. E3-Binding Protein (Component X) Deficiency; LACTIC ACIDEMIA ... PYRUVATE HYDROGENASE E3-BINDING PROTEIN DEFICIENCY. Modes of inheritance. Autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal recessive ... CROGMitochondrial myopathy with a defect in mitochondrial-protein transport ...
Vitamin D and all its metabolites are circulating in blood bound to vitamin D binding protein, (VDBP). This highly polymorphic ... Recommendations on the measurement and the clinical use of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein - A position ... Recommendations on the measurement and the clinical use of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein - A position ... protein is not only the major transport protein which, along with albumin, binds over 99% of the circulating vitamin D ...
Bipartite Interaction Sites Differentially Modulate RNA-Binding Affinity of a Protein Complex Essential for Germline Stem Cell ... Bipartite Interaction Sites Differentially Modulate RNA-Binding Affinity of a Protein Complex Essential for Germline Stem Cell ... Abstract Bipartite Interaction Sites Differentially Modulate RNA-Binding Affinity of a Protein Complex Essential for Germline ... Synopsis Bipartite Interaction Sites Differentially Modulate RNA-Binding Affinity of a Protein Complex Essential for Germline ...
HIV Proteins and Their Cellular Binding Partners (R21/R33) PA-06-388. NIAID ... 7 structural proteins, 2 regulatory proteins and 4 accessory proteins). In order to replicate and cause disease, HIV proteins ... Title: HIV Proteins and Their Cellular Binding Partners (R21/R33) Announcement Type New ... This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), HIV Proteins with their Cellular Binding Partners, is for a new program being ...
developmentally-regulated GTP-binding protein 1 [Rattus norvegicus] developmentally-regulated GTP-binding protein 1 [Rattus ... Developmentally Regulated GTP binding protein 1 (DRG1) controls microtubule dynamics. [Sci Rep. 2017] Developmentally Regulated ... developmentally-regulated GTP-binding protein 1 [Rattus norvegicus]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001009685.1 ... RefSeq protein isoforms See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the Drg1 gene (XP_038947931.1). ...
Solution NMR structure of selenium-binding protein from Methanococcus vannielii Motoshi Suzuki et al. J Biol Chem. 2008. . ... Solution NMR structure of selenium-binding protein from Methanococcus vannielii Motoshi Suzuki 1 , Duck-Yeon Lee, Nwakaego ... DSC of wild type and I9A mutant proteins. The solid line represents the DSC scan for wild-type SeBP protein under the ... Methanococcus vannielii selenium-binding protein (SeBP): chemical reactivity of recombinant SeBP produced in Escherichia coli. ...
... family of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) including zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36) commonly referred to as TTP, zinc finger protein ... These proteins bind to AU-rich elements (AREs) on the 3untranslated regions (3UTRs) of target mRNAs and promote their decay. ... 36 like 1 (ZFP36L1), and zinc finger protein 36 like 2 (ZFP36L2), are the key players in post-transcriptional regulation of a ... liver disease and the potential identification of TTP family RBPs as endogenous anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic proteins whose ...
... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Plasma protein binding prediction software. Quantum Plasma Protein Binding References. * Shargel, Leon (2005). Applied ... This effect of protein binding is most significant with drugs that are highly protein-bound (>95%) and have a low therapeutic ... assume that Drug A and Drug B are both protein-bound drugs. If Drug A is given, it will bind to the plasma proteins in the ...
A substitution matrix based on data produced with these binding experiments was constructed and named AFFI. AFFI is the first ... which could be shown to be an accurate method for assigning measured signal intensities to three different binding affinity ... including the relationship between amino acid substitutions and binding affinity changes. A preliminary step in this work was ... substitution matrix that is based solely on binding affinity. A theoretical approach has additionally revealed that an AFFI- ...
Scgn secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding protein [Mus musculus] Scgn secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding protein [Mus ... secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding proteinprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:2384873 See related. Ensembl: ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_145399.1 → NP_663374.1 secretagogin. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_ ... Scgn secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding protein [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 214189, updated on 12-Apr-2023 ...
... which is often referred to as just hyaluronan binding protein (HABP), however, the hyaluronan carbohydrate structure recognized ... Hyaluronan specifically binds to aggrecan globular domain 1, which is often referred to as just hyaluronan binding protein ( ... Essential hyaluronan structure for binding with hyaluronan-binding protein (HABP) determined by glycotechnological approach ... of the hyaluronan-unit are essential for complete HABP binding activity, and for any HABP binding activity, respectively. It is ...
Using the bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) system bound to a diverse set of ligands as our target, we show that robust ... MMPBSA is most commonly used to assess binding affinities from a single trajectory of a protein bound to its target ligand but ... Application of ESMACS binding free energy protocols to diverse datasets: Bromodomain-containing protein 4. *David W. Wright ... The effect of protein mutations on drug binding suggests ensuing personalised drug selection *Shunzhou Wan ...
... and domain binding to ubiquitin in protein degradation pathways. ... A scientific resource for the CUE protein domain containing ... CUE domains have been shown to both bind mono and polyubiquitin and some CUE domain-containing proteins are themselves ... and human Tollip proteins. The domain is approximately 40 amino acids in length and is found in proteins that have a variety of ... Domain Binding and Function. The CUE domain was first described as a region of homology between the yeast Cue1 (coupling of ...
Retroviral Gag polyprotein is the structural determinant that assembles in a protein lattice on the hosts plasma membrane to ... P2 binding. We thus observe that the isolated matrix protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the ... SPR on well-defined membrane models is used to quantify binding affinities and amounts of protein and yields free binding ... Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation. ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
protein coding gene. Chr11:90367318-90528962 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0018939. protein coding gene. Chr11:92310899- ... protein coding gene. Chr11:91424327-91595746 (-). BALB/cJ MGP_BALBcJ_G0018880. protein coding gene. Chr11:89143752-89302363 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr11:91677963-91841210 (-). PWK/PhJ MGP_PWKPhJ_G0018019. protein coding gene. Chr11:89144227-89302288 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr11:91239709-91400130 (-). WSB/EiJ MGP_WSBEiJ_G0018298. protein coding gene. Chr11:91540251-91702607 (-) ...
Binding of Folic Acid to Serum Proteins: II. The Effect of Diphenylhydantoin Treatment and of Various Diseases Subject Area: ... Binding of Folic Acid to Serum Proteins: V. Tritiated Folic Acid in the Liver Acta Haematol (March,2009) ... In osteomyelitis the binding had decreased clearly in all protein fractions. Whenever the serum FAA had fallen below 3.0 ng/ml ... T. Markkanen, P. Himanen, R.-L. Pajula, G. Molnár; Binding of Folic Acid to Serum Proteins: II. The Effect of Diphenylhydantoin ...
RNA-binding proteins in (re)programming patterns of gene expression ... Roles of regulatory RNAs & RNA-binding proteins in (re)programming patterns of gene expression. Download VideoCast. You can ... As one example of our success, we identified the RNA-binding protein Lin28b as a lineage-determining factor for fetal ... As one example of our success, we identified the RNA-binding protein Lin28b as a lineage-determining factor for fetal ...
A protein called stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) or hairpin binding protein (HBP) specifically binds the 3 end of histone ... The protein that binds the 3 end of histone mRNA: a novel RNA-binding protein required for histone pre-mRNA processing. ... Stem-loop binding protein: Biological Overview , References Gene name - Stem-loop binding protein Synonyms - Cytological map ... The stem-loop is recognized by the stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), also referred to as the hairpin binding protein (HBP). The ...
Crystal Structure of a Periplasmic Heme Binding Protein from Shigella dysenteriae ... A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B(12)-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD ... Holo- and apo-bound structures of bacterial periplasmic heme-binding proteins.. Ho, W.W., Li, H., Eakanunkul, S., Tong, Y., ... Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between ...
Enhancement of MHC class I binding and immunogenic properties of the CTL epitope peptides derived from dengue virus NS3 protein ... Enhancement of MHC class I binding and immunogenic properties of the CTL epitope peptides derived from dengue virus NS3 protein ... induced epitope peptide/H-2Kd tetramer-binding CD8+ cells indicating specific CTLs.Competition-based binding assay with ... in order to provide the complete H-2Kd-binding motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the original epitope peptide, DENV-2/4 ...
How to find 3D protein structures bound to a specific chemical ... Protein Structures option to see 3D protein structures bound to ... How to find 3D protein structures bound to a specific chemical. SEE ALL "HOW TO" >>. ... Retrieve protein structures bound to the query compound or to similar compounds (e.g., aspirin or chemicals like it):. ... Retrieve protein structures that are bound to a specific compound (e.g., aspirin):. ...
Online version: ...
Alzheimer amyloid protein precursor complexes with brain GTP-binding protein G(o). Nature. 1993 Mar 4;362(6415):75-9. PubMed. ...
Protein target information for Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831). Find diseases associated ...
Learn about GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits at ... G-Protein gamma Subunit. GTP Binding Protein gamma Subunit. GTP Binding Protein gamma Subunits. GTP-Binding Protein gamma ... Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and ... GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits. Synonyms. G Protein gamma Subunit. ...
... protein). While binding is consistent across the tree, structural responses to binding are quite variable. Further, mutational ... Many S100 proteins bind Zn2+, Cu2+, and/or Mn2+ as part of their biological functions; however, the evolutionary origins of ... Our work reveals an evolutionary pattern in which the overall phenotype of binding is a constant feature of S100 proteins, even ... This is consistent with multiple origins of transition metal binding over the evolution of this protein family. ...
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis have is specific to the mechanism of resistance to penicillin G com- very similar mechanisms of resistance to penicillin G, which mon to S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis and mediated by the are mediated by the decreased affinity of penicillin-binding decrease in affinity of their PBPs. (
  • Depending on a specific drug's affinity for plasma protein, a proportion of the drug may become bound to plasma proteins, with the remainder being unbound. (
  • For an effective immune response, antibodies are subjected to a micro-evolutionary process that includes multiple rounds of diversification by somatic hypermutation resulting in increased binding affinity to a particular pathogen. (
  • The goal of this work was to provide insights into the microevolution of antibodies during the immune response, including the relationship between amino acid substitutions and binding affinity changes. (
  • A preliminary step in this work was to determine the accuracy of the SPOT synthesis technique, which could be shown to be an accurate method for assigning measured signal intensities to three different binding affinity classes. (
  • AFFI is the first substitution matrix that is based solely on binding affinity. (
  • One of the most common computational binding affinity prediction techniques is molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA) 14 . (
  • The CUE domain has also been reported to exist as a domain-swapped dimer that makes additional contacts with ubiquitin, and consequently binds ubiquitin with a higher affinity. (
  • Charge-charge interactions in the absence of the phosphatidylinositide PI(4,5)P 2 attract the protein to acidic membrane surfaces, and myristoylation increases the affinity by a factor of 10, arguing against a PI(4,5)P 2 -trigger of myristate exposure. (
  • While cholesterol does not directly engage in interactions, it augments protein affinity strongly, apparently by unlocking steric obstacles to efficient myristate insertion and PI(4,5)P 2 binding. (
  • The team used the new software to generate high-affinity binding proteins against 12 distinct molecular targets. (
  • Buspirone has no significant affinity for benzodiazepine receptors and does not affect GABA binding in vitro or in vivo when tested in preclinical models. (
  • NCI scientists discovered a family of short peptides that bind to the N-terminal domains of STAT proteins and have shown that they can be used as therapeutic agents for certain types of cancer. (
  • See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the Drg1 gene (XP_038947931.1). (
  • Dysregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 gene in HIV treatment-experienced individuals. (
  • To help resolve the function of YTH domain proteins we will employ CRISPR-interference using a multiplex gene editing strategy, generating mutants with different combinations of YTH family proteins loss of function. (
  • Melanoma differentiation associated gene-9/syndecan binding protein promotes hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • The oncogene Melanoma differentiation associated gene -9/ syndecan binding protein (MDA-9/SDCBP) is overexpressed in many cancers , promoting aggressive, metastatic disease . (
  • Diphenylhydantoin markedly increased the binding of FAA to serum proteins, especially transferrin. (
  • Whenever the serum FAA had fallen below 3.0 ng/ml, all activity was bound to serum proteins. (
  • Given the limitations of serum creatinine as a biomarker of kidney function, different urinary and serum proteins, molecules, and, most recently, microRNAs have been rigorously investigated over the past decade as possible biomarkers for kidney disease. (
  • The domain is approximately 40 amino acids in length and is found in proteins that have a variety of functions, including the degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and protein sorting. (
  • Association with endoplasmic reticulum promotes proteasomal degradation of GADD34 protein. (
  • These targets include important cellular receptors such as TrkA, EGFR, Tie2, and the insulin receptor , as well proteins on the surface of the influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). (
  • Here we seek to elucidate how m6A interacting proteins of the YTH family influence mRNA metabolism. (
  • A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. (
  • TATA-box binding protein associated factor, RNA polymerase I subunit C (TAF1C) is a component of selectivity factor 1 belonging to RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery. (
  • A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake. (
  • Since albumin is basic, acidic and neutral drugs will primarily bind to albumin. (
  • Basic drugs will bind to the acidic alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. (
  • Antibodies are today's most common protein-based drugs. (
  • A team led by two postdoctoral scholars in the Baker lab-Longxing Cao and Brian Coventry-combined recent advances in the field of computational protein design to arrive at a strategy for creating new proteins that bind molecular targets in a manner similar to antibodies. (
  • An in vitro protein binding study indicated that approximately 86% of buspirone is bound to plasma proteins. (
  • An in vitro study indicated that buspirone did not displace highly protein-bound drugs such as phenytoin, warfarin, and propranolol from plasma protein, and that buspirone may displace digoxin. (
  • Longxing Cao et al, Design of protein binding proteins from target structure alone, Nature (2022). (
  • Heterotrimeric GTP - binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS . (
  • The ability to generate new proteins that bind tightly and specifically to any molecular target that you want is a paradigm shift in drug development and molecular biology more broadly," said Baker. (
  • This effect of protein binding is most significant with drugs that are highly protein-bound (>95%) and have a low therapeutic index, such as warfarin. (
  • Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A C-terminal motif found in the beta2-adrenergic receptor, P2Y1 receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator determines binding to the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor family of PDZ proteins. (
  • The Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) binds to the tail of the beta2-adrenergic receptor and plays a role in adrenergic regulation of Na+/H+ exchange. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2" by people in Profiles. (
  • Inhibiting these STAT proteins has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of certain cancers and a common approach to inhibition of these proteins involves targeting the kinases that activate STAT. This method typically leads to non-selective inhibitors and is associated with off-target related toxicity. (
  • The CUE domain was first described as a region of homology between the yeast Cue1 (coupling of ubiquitin to ER degradation) and human Tollip proteins. (
  • Small proteins (darker shade) designed to bind to the insulin receptor (left) and a component of the influenza virus (right). (
  • Using computers, they designed molecules that can target important proteins in the body, such as the insulin receptor, as well as vulnerable proteins on the surface of viruses. (
  • We look forward to seeing how these molecules might be used in a clinical context, and more importantly how this new method of designing protein drugs might lead to even more promising compounds in the future," said Coventry. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • SPR on well-defined membrane models is used to quantify binding affinities and amounts of protein and yields free binding energy contributions, Δ}G, of the various signals. (
  • We thus observe that the isolated matrix protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length Gag, binds the membrane with sub-micromolar affinities. (
  • The CUE domain is structurally related to the ubiquitin-binding UBA domain and is comprised of a three-helix bundle. (
  • A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B(12)-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B(12), compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore. (
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (
  • Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum albumin , lipoprotein , glycoprotein , α, β‚ and γ globulins. (
  • If albumin becomes saturated, then these drugs will bind to lipoprotein. (
  • The fraction unbound can be altered by a number of variables, such as the concentration of drug in the body, the amount & quality of plasma protein, and other drugs that bind to plasma proteins. (
  • For example, assume that Drug A and Drug B are both protein-bound drugs. (
  • A team of scientists has created a powerful new method for generating protein drugs. (
  • They typically function by binding to a specific molecular target, which then becomes either activated or deactivated. (
  • In total, the team produced over half a million candidate binding proteins for the 12 selected molecular targets. (
  • A drug's efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma . (
  • This means that of the amount of warfarin in the blood, 97% is bound to plasma proteins. (
  • Higher drug concentrations would lead to a higher fraction unbound, because the plasma protein would be saturated with drug and any excess drug would be unbound. (
  • If the amount of plasma protein is decreased (such as in catabolism , malnutrition , liver disease, renal disease ), there would also be a higher fraction unbound. (
  • Additionally, the quality of the plasma protein may affect how many drug-binding sites there are on the protein. (
  • If Drug A is given, it will bind to the plasma proteins in the blood. (
  • If a patient on warfarin takes another drug that displaces warfarin from plasma protein, it could result in an increased risk of bleeding. (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Plasma_protein_binding" . (
  • Retroviral Gag polyprotein is the structural determinant that assembles in a protein lattice on the host's plasma membrane to trigger formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. (
  • Lipid-specific interactions wit the PI(4,5)P 2 , the major signal lipid in the inner plasma membrane, increase membrane attraction at a similar level as the protein lipidation. (
  • In order to identify laminin-binding components in the muscle cell surface, plasma membranes from mouse thigh muscle and from rat L6 myoblasts were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose paper by electroblotting. (
  • A nucleosome-guided map of transcription factor binding sites in yeast. (
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PACLITAXEL PROTEIN-BOUND PARTICLES FOR INJECTABLE SUSPENSION (ALBUMIN-BOUND) safely and effectively. (
  • Do not substitute Paclitaxel Protein-Bound Particles for Injectable Suspension (Albumin-Bound) for other paclitaxel products. (
  • Recommended dosage of Paclitaxel Protein-Bound Particles for Injectable Suspension (Albumin-Bound) is 260 mg/m 2 intravenously over 30 minutes every 3 weeks. (
  • administer carboplatin on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle immediately after Paclitaxel Protein-Bound Particles for Injectable Suspension (Albumin-Bound). (
  • For injectable suspension: white to yellow, sterile, lyophilized powder containing 100 mg of paclitaxel formulated as albumin-bound particles in single-dose vial for reconstitution. (
  • Severe hypersensitivity reactions to Paclitaxel Protein-Bound Particles for Injectable Suspension (Albumin-Bound). (
  • Finding functional DNA binding sites of transcription factors (TFs) throughout the genome is a crucial step in understanding transcriptional regulation. (
  • The less bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or diffuse. (
  • An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. (
  • Stress-induced endogenous and ectopically expressed GADD34 proteins were present both in the cytoplasm and in membranes, with their membrane association showing similar biochemical properties. (
  • Isolation of a laminin-binding protein from muscle cell membranes. (
  • The aim of this initiative is to promote collaborations between biochemists and structural biologists to define the interactions of HIV proteins with their host-cell partners towards determining the three dimensional structure of these complexes. (
  • The goal is to gain an in-depth understanding of HIV protein-containing complexes throughout the virus life cycle. (
  • Nishimoto I, Okamoto T, Matsuura Y, Takahashi S, Murayama Y, Ogata E . Alzheimer amyloid protein precursor complexes with brain GTP-binding protein G(o) . (
  • If Drug B is also given, it can displace Drug A from the protein, thereby increasing Drug A's fraction unbound. (
  • The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. (
  • These results indicate that modification of dengue virus-derived CTL epitope peptide by replacing a.a. residue at theposition of anchor residue increases the binding avidity to MHC class I, resulting in the induction ofspecific CTLs. (
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (
  • In this process, it employs multiple signals - electrostatic, hydrophobic and lipid-specific interactions conferred by the matrix domain - to recruit the protein to the proper cellular location and assist protein-protein interactions located on full-length Gag in lattice formation. (
  • During Drosophila oogenesis , large amounts of histone mRNAs and proteins are deposited in the developing oocyte. (
  • Hyaluronan specifically binds to aggrecan globular domain 1, which is often referred to as just hyaluronan binding protein (HABP), however, the hyaluronan carbohydrate structure recognized by HABP had not been studied in detail. (
  • CUE domains have been shown to both bind mono and polyubiquitin and some CUE domain-containing proteins are themselves ubiquitinylated in a CUE domain-dependent manner. (
  • These proteins share a YTH domain, which is highly conserved across all eukarya, and allows these proteins to interact with RNA in an m6A dependent manner. (
  • A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an "in" position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an "out" orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. (
  • They developed software that can scan a target molecule, identify potential binding sites, generate proteins targeting those sites, and then screen from millions of candidate binding proteins to identify those most likely to function. (
  • Studies on the function of this proteins family in multiple cell types have reached diverse and often contradictory results. (
  • These compounds are the first inhibitors that can directly bind to N-domains of STATs and exhibit a direct inhibitory effect. (
  • As one example of our success, we identified the RNA-binding protein Lin28b as a lineage-determining factor for fetal hematopoietic stem cells, a discovery with potentially important implications for Regenerative and Precision Medicine. (
  • Specifically, the laboratory studies how these systems are controlled by non-coding RNAs and RNA-binding proteins. (
  • Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. (
  • Using the bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) system bound to a diverse set of ligands as our target, we show that robust rankings can be produced only through combining ensemble sampling with multiple trajectories and enhanced solvation via an explicit ligand hydration shell. (