The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (1/96713)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/96713)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (3/96713)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (4/96713)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/96713)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (6/96713)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (7/96713)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (8/96713)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Purified U2OS PRα Protein Interaction Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. U2OS PRα Protein Interaction Assay Kit can be used for research.
Purified U2OS PRβ Protein Interaction Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. U2OS PRβ Protein Interaction Assay Kit can be used for research.
Detection of Protein-Protein Interactions Using the GST Fusion Protein Pull-down Technique. Bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused proteins are used as probes to perform direct measure of protein-protein interactions and for affinity purification. Slideshow 6521621 by...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biophysical characterization and modeling of human Ecdysoneless (ECD) protein supports a scaffolding function. AU - Mir, Riyaz A.. AU - Lovelace, Jeff. AU - Schafer, Nicholas P.. AU - Simone, Peter D.. AU - Kellezi, Admir. AU - Kolar, Carol. AU - Spagnol, Gaelle. AU - Sorgen, Paul L. AU - Band, Hamid. AU - Band, Vimla. AU - Borgstahl, Gloria E. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - The human homolog of Drosophila ecdysoneless protein (ECD) is a p53 binding protein that stabilizes and enhances p53 functions. Homozygous deletion of mouse Ecd is early embryonic lethal and Ecd deletion delays G1-S cell cycle progression. Importantly, ECD directly interacts with the Rb tumor suppressor and competes with the E2F transcription factor for binding to Rb. Further studies demonstrated ECD is overexpressed in breast and pancreatic cancers and its overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. ECD overexpression together with Ras induces cellular transformation through upregulation of ...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for English for Common Interactions in the Workplace: Basic Level from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed English for Common Interactions in the Workplace: Basic Level and wanted to share their experience. I have been very happy with my experience using coursera Its was High-quality video and flexible ti...
The invention provides reagents and methods for multivalent binding and quantitative capture of components in a sample. In one aspect, reagents and methods for diagnostic assay for antigen, ligand, binding agent, or antibody are provided. Compositions of a non-natural or deliberately constructed nucleic acid-like polymeric scaffold are provided, to which multiple antibodies, peptides or other binding agents can be affixed by hybridization of a oligonucleotide: binding agent complex such that the nucleic acid: binding agent construction displays multivalent behavior when interacting with a multivalent analyte. Methods for constructing and using the scaffolds are described. Such compositions may include assembly of mixed specificity binding agents such that the composition displays multivalent binding behavior against a target containing mixed analytes which can be bound by the construct to effect a binding affinity increase such as is observed in avidity reagents against single analytes expressed
Yeast Two Hybrid system uses a reporter gene to detect the interaction of pair of proteins inside the yeast cell nucleus. In the yeast Two Hybrid System, The interaction of target protein to the protein will bring together transcriptional activator, which then switches on the expression of reporter gene.
This article describes a HaloTag® bioluminescent pull-down workflow for validating protein:protein interaction results obtained with NanoBRET™ assays.
Kinases transfer the γ-phosphate of ATP to other biological molecules, serving as chemical messengers that make the tight regulation of cell-signaling pathways possible. For example, non-receptor tyrosine kinases are found in the cytoplasm (not membrane-bound) and transfer the γ-phosphate of ATP to tyrosine residues of other proteins, often turning these proteins on or off in the context of their respective signaling pathway. This notion of on or off can be useful to holistically conceptualize these pathways but is a gross oversimplification; in reality, many of these enzymes are multi-domain proteins that can exist in multiple conformational states, participate in multiple protein-protein interactions, and experience a gradient of variable activity levels depending on these states. The molecular mechanisms that govern the activity of these kinases is extraordinarily complex, and though much has been discovered in recent years, much remains to be understood, especially for the Tec ...
Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 × 10(6) pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, >99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and phosphorylation include regulation of potassium channel activity through abscisic acid signaling, transporter activity by a WNK kinase, ...
Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 × 106 pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, >99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and phosphorylation include regulation of potassium channel activity through abscisic acid signaling, transporter activity by a WNK kinase, ...
This article discusses the pull-down technique, which is an invaluable tool for scientists interested in studying cellular pathways via protein-protein interactions.
NanoBRET protein interaction assays use NanoLuc luciferase as the energy donor to create sensitive BRET-based protein:protein interaction assays.
Signals can be regulated by many flexible strategies, including blocking protein catalytic activity, reducing product accumulation, or sequestrating proteins from their site of action. Several protein binding domains that regulate the interaction of proteins with each other have been identified. More recently, the binding domains that allow proteins to bind lipids and, therefore, the plasma membrane have gained increased appreciation. Hurley and Misra review the domains that specifically bind lipid moities. Of great importance is understanding the subtle differences in overall domain structures and how these differences relate to binding specificity. For example, within the C2 domain family, some members bind lipids or proteins and do so in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Of course, as the authors point out, specificity is imparted by the residues flanking each domain and by less conserved residues within the domain. The moderately biophysical approach taken by Hurley and Misra provides a fresh ...
gst pulldown - posted in Protein and Proteomics: hi everyone, I have purified my fusion protein and is now conjugated with gst beads. MY question is, how long can i keep these fusion protein beads? Or should i do gst pulldown immediately? Thank you.
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Herring MP et al. 2021. Dynamic associations between anxiety, depression, and tobacco use in older adults: Results from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2021;139:99-105
How UL44 binds to DNA and the role of DNA binding in processivity function have not been yet elucidated. To begin to understand these mechanism, we characterized the interaction of UL44 with DNA by means of filter-binding assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). We found that, similar to HSV-1 UL42, UL44 binds directly to DNA with nanomolar affinity in a manner that does not require ATP hydrolysis or accessory proteins. UL44 binds DNA as a dimer in a sequence-non specific manner and displays higher affinity for ds DNA compared to ss DNA. Affinity of UL44 for ds DNA decreases with increasing ionic strength and this effect is mediated by ion release, suggesting that DNA binding entails electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged phosphates on DNA backbone and the positive charge of basic residues on the back face and disordered loops of UL44 ...
Hi, I´m performing GST Pulldown to identify protein-protein interactions between GST-X and prey proteins in a cellular lysate. The results are not so good so far, because I identify a lot of unspecific proteins (cytoskeletal proteins and so on). So I think i´ll have to improve my method. What things would you change ...
Plexera® develops products for detection and quantification of molecular binding interactions such as protein-protein, antibody-antigen, protein-oligonucleotide, and other molecular binding interactions.
An integral component of understanding E3 ligase function is identifying the enzymes cognate substrate(s) and/or binding proteins. Previous binding partners of BCA2 included Rab7, isolated through yeast-II-hybrid screening [17], tetherin, which was found though brute-force GST-pulldowns [18], and ubiquitin and UBC9 from bacteria-II- hybrid screening [7, 16]. Bacteria and yeast screening systems were used in this study to identify additional potential binding partners of BCA2 (Table 1). Of the potential partners found, 14-3-3σ and hHR23a were chosen for further investigation in the context of BCA2 activity and expression. Through binding experiments we confirmed that the BCA2 protein bound both to 14-3-3σ and hHR23a (Figure 1B and 1C). hHR23a and BCA2 were co-expressed in a mammalian system, while 14-3-3σ was expressed in a bacterial system and incubated with recombinant purified BCA2. The expression levels of wild-type BCA2 and the S132, 133A mutant in HEK293T cells were much lower than ...
Understanding protein-protein interactions (PPI) and their specific functions underpins basic molecular research as well as the development of novel drugs. However, many of the conventional analysis methods do not provide important contextual information that reveals how a protein works in its native cellular environment, nor do they suit high-throughput screening campaigns. This eBook highlights several examples of robust, reproducible protein interaction assays,
The yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) approach shows considerable promise for the unbiased identification of novel small molecule-protein interactions. In recent years, it has been successfully used to link a number of bioactive molecules to novel protein binding partners. However despite its potential importance as a protein target identification method, the Y3H technique has not yet been widely adopted, in part due to the challenges associated with the synthesis of the complex chemical inducers of dimerisation (CIDs). The development of a modular approach using potentially
Biochemical processes within a cell or an organism are usually induced by molecular interaction and recognition events. One major aim of drug discovery is to identify bioactive molecular structures that can be used to sufficiently interfere with such molecular interaction processes and thereby positively influence and eventually cure a disease. Antagonists which prohibit the interactions between naturally occurring ligands and their protein receptors could be represented as good drug candidates. Low molecular weight ligands can interact with macromolecular target through covalent and noncovalent interactions. Noncovalent binding is characterized by equilibrium thermodynamics. Important noncovalent interactions are hydrogen bonds, ionic interactions and hydrophobic contacts. Steric and electronic complementarity between protein receptor and low molecular ligand seem to be the most important prerequisite to allow a tightly and selectively association. In almost any drug discovery project based on ...
AMG 232 is a potent, selective and orally available inhibitor of p53-MDM2 interaction, with an IC50 of 0.6 nM. AMG 232 binds to MDM2 with a Kd of 0.045 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
There being a myriad of microbes living on every square inch of our skin, researchers at University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and
Capto Core 700 Resin Binding Efficiency - Dear Expert, I am using Capto Core 700 for sample run (sample temp. max. 10 deg. Celsius). In case of capto core 700 resin what is the minimum and maximum temperature which can effectively used for...
Capto Core 700 Resin Binding Efficiency - Dear Expert, I am using Capto Core 700 for sample run (sample temp. max. 10 deg. Celsius). In case of capto core 700 resin what is the minimum and maximum temperature which can effectively used for...
U okviru ove doktorske disertacije metodama molekulskog modeliranja proučavane su interakcije nukleinskih kiselina s nekoliko skupina organskih spojeva: derivatima bisfenantridina, guanidiniokarbonil-pirol- arilnim konjugatima, cijaninskim spojevima, te translacijskim (benzimidazolnim i diaminopiperidinskim) inhibitorima hepatitis C virusa. Istraženi su procesi njihovog kompleksiranja, interkaliranja, vezanja u utor te elektrostatskog međudjelovanja s polinukleotidima. Prve tri skupine spojeva imaju svojstvo molekulskog prepoznavanja nukleobaza, pa mogu poslužiti za razvoj novih specifičnih obilježivača pri istraživanju nukleinskih kiselina, te kao predložak za razvoj antitumorskih i antivirusnih lijekova sa svojstvom selektivnog blokiranja određenih sljedova DNA ili RNA. Kao polazišne točke za modeliranje korišteni su rezultati spektroskopskih mjerenja (UV-Vis i CD spektri, fluorimetrijske titracije) te difrakcijske i NMR analize. Istraživanja su provedena metodama molekulskog ...
131D: The low-temperature crystal structure of the pure-spermine form of Z-DNA reveals binding of a spermine molecule in the minor groove.
Dynamic covalent chemistry offers an opportunity to develop synthetic protocols that incorporate a degree of error checking through the dynamic and reversible association of the components of a target structure through covalent bonds. The limited number of organic reactions that form covalent bonds and that are also completely reversible under mild conditions hampers the development of this field. In addition, the ability of systems to select and amplify one species over all others in an equilibrating mixture is limited in approaches which consider only the thermodynamics of the system. We have developed a new dynamic exchange reaction and incorporated it within synthetic replicating systems. The coupling of dynamic exchange and replication creates systems capable of selecting and amplifying single molecular species from complex mixtures with selectivities of better than 15:1 ...
Typically, response-repetition effects are obtained in task-switching experiments: In task repetitions, performance is enhanced when the response, too, rep
Prof. Dr. Winfried Römer and his research team at the University of Freiburg have recently found that bacterial protein impairs important cellular processes
MARCKS like protein Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our MARCKS like protein Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Identification of rickettsial immunoreactive proteins using a proximity ligation assay Western blotting and the traditional immunoproteomic approach (2018)
The C type natriuretic peptide receptor (NPRC) also known as NPR3 is a widely expressed single transmembrane-spanning protein. NPRC functions as a homodimer at the cell surface for the metabolic clearance of a broad range of natriuretic peptides from circulation. The intracellular domain of NPRC is coupled to inhibitory G proteins and is involved in mediating signal transduction. In order to further elucidate the role of NPRC in signal transduction a proteomic approach was taken to identify putative protein binding partners for NPRC in different cell-types. An interrogation of the molecular association between NPRC and its identified protein binding partner(s) was carried out in different cell types to identify the specific interacting domains. The physiological role of the association between NPRC and its protein binding partner(s) were investigated in situ. Furthermore NPRC is subject to post translation modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation. Although evidence suggests NPRC is
Author: Cartieaux, F. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008; Keywords: induced systemic resistance|br/|chromatography-mass spectrometry|br/|salicylic-acid|br/|functional genomics|br/|acquired-resistance|br/|gene-expression|br/|fusarium-wilt|br/|photosynthetic bradyrhizobia|br/|microarray experiments|br/|biocontrol bacteria; Title: Simultaneous interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana with Bradyrhizobium sp strain ORS278 and Pseudomonas syriugae pv. tomato DC3000 leads to complex transcriptome changes
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Protein binding microarrays (PBM) are a high throughput technology used to characterize protein-DNA binding. The arrays measure a proteins affinity toward thousands of double-stranded DNA sequences at once, producing a comprehensive binding specificity catalog. We present a linear model for predicting the binding affinity of a protein toward DNA sequences based on PBM data. Our model represents the measured intensity of an individual probe as a sum of the binding affinity contributions of the probes subsequences. These subsequences characterize a DNA binding motif and can be used to predict the intensity of protein binding against arbitrary DNA sequences. Our method was the best performer in the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods 5 (DREAM5) transcription factor/DNA motif recognition challenge. For the DREAM5 bonus challenge, we also developed an approach for the identification of transcription factors based on their PBM binding profiles. Our approach for TF identification ...
PDZ domains direct protein-protein interactions and serve as models for protein design. Here, we optimized a protein design energy function for the Tiam1 and Cask PDZ domains that combines a molecular mechanics energy, Generalized Born solvent, and an empirical unfolded state model. Designed sequences were recognized as PDZ domains by the Superfamily fold recognition tool and had similarity scores comparable to natural PDZ sequences. The optimized model was used to redesign the two PDZ domains, by gradually varying the chemical potential of hydrophobic amino acids; the tendency of each position to lose or gain a hydrophobic character represents a novel hydrophobicity index. We also redesigned four positions in the Tiam1 PDZ domain involved in peptide binding specificity. The calculated affinity differences between designed variants reproduced experimental data and suggest substitutions with altered specificities.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the peptide-binding specificity of Mamu-A*11 results in the identification of SIV-derived epitopes and interspecies cross-reactivity. AU - Sette, Alessandro. AU - Sidney, John. AU - Bui, Huynh Hoa. AU - Del Guercio, Marie France. AU - Alexander, Jeff. AU - Loffredo, John. AU - Watkins, David I.. AU - Mothé, Bianca R.. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - The SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaque is the most established model of HIV infection, providing insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. However, only a limited amount of information is available regarding the peptide-binding motifs and epitopes bound by their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we utilized a library of over 1,000 different peptides and a high throughput MHC-peptide binding assay to detail the binding specificity of the rhesus macaque class I molecule Mamu-A*11. These studies defined the fine specificity of primary anchor positions, and dissected the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Many-to-one binding by intrinsically disordered protein regions. AU - Alterovitz, Wei Lun. AU - Faraggi, Eshel. AU - Oldfield, Christopher J.. AU - Meng, Jingwei. AU - Xue, Bin. AU - Huang, Fei. AU - Romero, Pedro. AU - Kloczkowski, Andrzej. AU - Uversky, Vladimir N.. AU - Dunker, A. Keith. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Disordered binding regions (DBRs), which are embedded within intrinsically disordered proteins or regions (IDPs or IDRs), enable IDPs or IDRs to mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. DBR-protein complexes were collected from the Protein Data Bank for which two or more DBRs having different amino acid sequences bind to the same (100% sequence identical) globular protein partner, a type of interaction herein called many-to-one binding. Two distinct binding profiles were identified: independent and overlapping. For the overlapping binding profiles, the distinct DBRs interact by means of almost identical binding sites (herein called similar), or the ...
This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one against the CDC20 protein, and the other against the BUB1B protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See Publication Reference below. (DI0076) - Products - Abnova
This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one against the TRAF5 protein, and the other against the TRAF3 protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See Publication Reference below. (DI0413) - Products - Abnova
We report a new method, Interaction-Dependent PRobe Incorporation Mediated by Enzymes, or ID-PRIME, for imaging protein-protein interactions (PPIs) inside living cells. ID-PRIME utilizes a mutant of Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase, LplA[superscript W37V], which can catalyze the covalent ligation of a coumarin fluorophore onto a peptide recognition sequence called LAP1. The affinity between the ligase and LAP1 is tuned such that, when each is fused to a protein partner of interest, LplA[superscript W37V] labels LAP1 with coumarin only when the protein partners to which they are fused bring them together. Coumarin labeling in the absence of such interaction is low or undetectable. Characterization of ID-PRIME in living mammalian cells shows that multiple protein-protein interactions can be imaged (FRB-FKBP, Fos-Jun, and neuroligin-PSD-95), with as little as 10 min of coumarin treatment. The signal intensity and detection sensitivity are similar to those of the widely used fluorescent protein ...
Protein-protein interactions are critical to most biological processes, and locating protein-protein interfaces on protein structures is an important task in molecular biology. We developed a new experimental strategy called the absence of interference approach to determine surface residues involved in protein-protein interaction of established yeast two-hybrid pairs of interacting proteins. One of the proteins is subjected to high-level randomization by error-prone PCR. The resulting library is selected by yeast two-hybrid system for interacting clones that are isolated and sequenced. The interaction region can be identified by an absence or depletion of mutations. For data analysis and presentation, we developed a Web interface that analyzes the mutational spectrum and displays the mutational frequency on the surface of the structure (or a structural model) of the randomized protein†. Additionally, this interface might be of use for the display of mutational distributions determined by ...
PDZ domains most commonly bind the C-terminus of their protein targets. Typically the C-terminal four residues of the protein target are considered as the binding motif, particularly the C-terminal residue (P0) and third-last residue (P-2) that form the major contacts with the PDZ domains binding groove. We solved crystal structures of seven human PDZ domains, including five of the seven PDLIM family members. The structures of GRASP, PDLIM2, PDLIM5, and PDLIM7 show a binding mode with only the C-terminal P0 residue bound in the binding groove. Importantly, in some cases, the P-2 residue formed interactions outside of the binding groove, providing insight into the influence of residues remote from the binding groove on selectivity. In the GRASP structure, we observed both canonical and noncanonical binding in the two molecules present in the asymmetric unit making a direct comparison of these binding modes possible. In addition, structures of the PDZ domains from PDLIM1 and PDLIM4 also presented here
Protein sequence and surface plasmon resonance analysis of the anti-IGFBP7 sdAb 4.43. (A) Protein sequence of anti-IGFBP7 sdAb 4.43; CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 are und
Our results show that LCRs are preferentially located towards sequence extremities, and that proteins with LCRs in their sequence extremities have more protein binding partners than proteins with LCRs in their central regions. Furthermore, we have shown the length of LCRs to be positively correlated with the number of binding partners, but only in the sequence extremities. While t-LCRs can extend free from the rest of the protein structure, c-LCRs are likely to be surrounded by protein globular domains, thus limiting their flexibility and accessibility, and therefore the number of different proteins to which they can mediate binding. By contrast, if t-LCRs themselves tend to act as promiscuous interfaces for protein binding, this would explain our observation that proteins with longer t-LCR regions have a tendency towards a higher number of protein binding partners. Examining the list of over-represented GO terms in Table 7, we hypothesise that t-LCRs play major roles in low-specificity ...
The binding modes of a DNA or RNA binding protein refer to the different possible stable binding conformations between the protein and the nucleic acids. There are two main factors that can produce multiple modes of binding:. 1. Many proteins can contain multiple DNA and RNA binding domains with different sequence-binding preferences. When different combinations of these domains bind to different binding sites, we refer to each DNA or RNA interacting combination as a binding mode of the protein.. 2a. Many proteins can oligomerize into homo- and heterodimers and tetramers - whereby the protein-complex now has more DNA and/or RNA binding domains to bind to larger binding sites. In addition, many of these oligomerizing proteins can also bind as monomers to smaller sites. Often, differently sized protein-complexes have different binding properties and are referred to as having different binding modes. Latent specificity is when the binding specificity of a protein changes significantly when bound ...
ATG8 is a highly-conserved ubiquitin-like protein that modulates autophagy pathways by binding autophagic membranes and numerous proteins, including cargo receptors and core autophagy components. Throughout plant evolution, ATG8 has expanded from a single protein in algae to multiple isoforms in higher plants. However, the degree to which ATG8 isoforms have functionally specialized to bind distinct proteins remains unclear. Here, we describe a comprehensive protein-protein interaction resource, obtained using in planta immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, to define the potato ATG8 interactome. We discovered that ATG8 isoforms bind distinct sets of plant proteins with varying degrees of overlap. This prompted us to define the biochemical basis of ATG8 specialization by comparing two potato ATG8 isoforms using both in vivo protein interaction assays and in vitro quantitative binding affinity analyses. These experiments revealed that the N-terminal β-strand -and, in particular, a ...
Over the past two decades, there have been many attempts to isolate and characterize pharmacological inhibitors targeting Ras-dependent signaling pathways. The small GTPase Ras normally transmits signals downstream of diverse inputs and is a critical signaling node for many cellular activities. Aberrant Ras activity leads to the deregulation of numerous cellular processes including proliferation, survival, cell adhesion and migration, that in turn can contribute to cellular transformation, invasion and metastasis [1], and Ras is mutationally activated in ~30% of cancers [2]. Among the downstream effectors of Ras, the most well-characterized is the Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling pathway, in which Ras interaction with the serine/threonine kinase Raf causes a cascade of kinase activation, with Raf activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK, or MEK) and MEK activating the ERK MAPK, which then translocates to the nucleus to phosphorylate and activate transcription factors to carry out the ...
Binding Affinity Prediction of Protein-Ligand complex containing Zinc [ BAPPL-Z ] server computes the binding free energy of a zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complex using an all atom energy based empirical scoring function
There are many characteristics of a protein-protein interaction that are important. Obviously, it is important to know which proteins are interacting. In many experiments and computational studies, the focus is on interactions between two different proteins. However, you can have one protein interacting with other copies of itself (oligomerization), or three or more different proteins interacting. The stoichiometry of the interaction is also important - that is, how many of each protein involved are present in a given reaction. Some protein interactions are stronger than others, because they bind together more tightly. The strength of binding is known as affinity. Proteins will only bind each other spontaneously if it is energetically favorable. Energy changes during binding are another important aspect of protein interactions. Many of the computational tools that predict interactions are based on the energy of interactions.. In recent years there has been a strong focus on predicting protein ...
Allelic differences in nuclear protein binding at a genome-wide significant risk variant for schizophrenia in ZNF804A [Letter to the editor]. Molecular Psychiatry 16 (8) , pp. 787-789. 10.1038/mp.2011.21 ...
Defective binding and function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in peripheral mononuclear cells of patients with end-organ resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvita
The global protein binding assay market size was USD 374.06 million in 2020 & is expected to register a CAGR of 10.8%. Increasing focus on new drug discovery and development processes and rapid developments in pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries are primary factors fueling global market revenue growth
A multiauthored, 17-chapter text based on the workshop held at the Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, California, early in 1971 under the sponsorship of the Endocrine Society. Text includes the discussions that followed each lecture.. This form of the workshop papers provides a systematic, logical, detailed introduction to theoretical concepts and practical execution of radioimmunoassays in the various applications.. The typewriter-typography permitted rapid and relatively inexpensive publication for a book of this size but makes for irritating reading.. Recommended for medical-school, research-institute, and large-hospital libraries. ...
The advantages of the induced fit mechanism arise due to the stabilising effect of strong enzyme binding. There are two different mechanisms of substrate binding; uniform binding which has strong substrate binding, and differential binding which has strong transition state binding. The stabilizing effect of uniform binding increases both substrate and transition state binding affinity and differential binding increases only transition state binding affinity. Both are used by enzymes and have been evolutionarily chosen to minimize the ΔG of the reaction. Enzymes which are saturated, ie. have a high affinity substrate binding, require differential binding to reduce the ΔG, whereas largely substrate unbound enzymes may use either differential or uniform binding. These effects have lead to most proteins using the differential binding mechanism to reduce the ΔG, so most proteins have high affinity of the enzyme to the transition state. Differential binding is carried out by the induced fit ...
This entry represents a domain found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. It is known as the PLAT (Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin) domain or LH2 (Lipoxygenase homology) domain, is found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. Structurally, this domain forms a beta-sandwich composed of two sheets of four strands each [(PUBMED:10469604), (PUBMED:11985859), (PUBMED:11412104)]. The most highly conserved regions coincide with the beta-strands, with most of the highly conserved residues being buried within the protein. An exception to this is a surface lysine or arginine that occurs on the surface of the fifth beta-strand of the eukaryotic domains. In pancreatic lipase, the lysine in this position forms a salt bridge with the procolipase protein. The conservation of a charged surface residue may indicate the location of a conserved ligand-binding site. It is thought that this domain may mediate membrane attachment via other protein binding partners.. ...
This entry represents a domain found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. It is known as the PLAT (Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin) domain or LH2 (Lipoxygenase homology) domain, is found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. Structurally, this domain forms a beta-sandwich composed of two sheets of four strands each [(PUBMED:10469604), (PUBMED:11985859), (PUBMED:11412104)]. The most highly conserved regions coincide with the beta-strands, with most of the highly conserved residues being buried within the protein. An exception to this is a surface lysine or arginine that occurs on the surface of the fifth beta-strand of the eukaryotic domains. In pancreatic lipase, the lysine in this position forms a salt bridge with the procolipase protein. The conservation of a charged surface residue may indicate the location of a conserved ligand-binding site. It is thought that this domain may mediate membrane attachment via other protein binding partners.. ...
DNA constructs and protein interaction assays. All constructs were generated by subcloning PCR amplification products into appropriate vectors, and each construct was verified by automated DNA sequencing. cDNA fragments encoding the C terminus of the D1 (residues 365-446), D2 (residues 428-443), D3 (residues 385-400), D4 (residues 370-387), and D5 (residues 360-477) receptors were ligated into the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain expression vector pAS2-1 (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). For the D2 receptor screen, the D2-pAS2-1 bait plasmid and the human brain cDNA library in the GAL4 activation domain vector pACT2 (Clontech) were simultaneously cotransformed into the yeast strain MaV103 as previously described (Lin et al., 2001). Positive clones were identified by growth on Leu−/Trp−/His−/Ura−selection plates. Protein interaction was assayed for by β-galactosidase activity via the nitrocellulose filter lift method (Lin et al., 2001).. To identify the sites of interaction between D2 or D3 ...
The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a protein interaction domain (PID) contained within SRC and other intracellular signal-transducing proteins, many of which drive tumorigenesis, which mediates protein-protein interactions via the docking of SH2 domain-containing proteins to phosphotyrosine (pY) residues on other proteins. Membrane lipids have recently been shown to regulate protein-protein interactions mediated by a different PID and to bind to several SH2 domains. To elucidate the role of lipids in SH2 domain-mediated protein-protein interactions and signal transduction, Park, Sheng, Silkov, Jung, and colleagues performed surface plasmon resonance analysis to systematically characterize the binding affinities of 76 of the 121 known SH2 domains for plasma membrane (PM)-mimetic vesicles which recapitulate the lipid profile of cytofacial PM. Sixty-eight out of the 76 SH2 domains analyzed exhibited moderately high to high levels of affinity for PM-mimetic vesicles. Twelve of 18 SH2 domains ...
The regulation of protein function through oligomerization is a common theme in biological systems. In this work, I have focused on the effects of the oligomeric states of the human Rad52 protein on activities related to DNA binding. HsRad52, a member of the RAD52 epistasis group, is thought to play an important and as yet undefined role in homologous recombination. HsRad52 preferentially binds to ssDNA over dsDNA and stimulates HsRad51-mediated strand exchange (Benson et al., 1998). In either the presence or absence of DNA, HsRad52 has been observed to form both 10 nm ring-like structures as well as higher order oligomers consisting of multiple 10 nm rings (Van Dyck et al., 1998; Van Dyck et al., 1999). Earlier protein-protein interaction studies mapped the domain responsible for HsRad52 self-association in the N-terminus (residues 85-159) (Shen et al., 1996). Data presented here identifies a novel self-association domain in the C-terminus of HsRad52 that is responsible for the formation of higher
Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to characterise the binding of the 58 kDa protein OppA to 11 peptides with diverse properties. Peptides with two, three and five amino acid residues were added to OppA, and the mass spectra showed that the highest-affinity complexes are formed between OppA and tripeptide ligands. Lower-affinity complexes were observed for OppA and dipeptide ligands, and no complex formation was detected with pentapeptides or a tripeptide in which the N-terminal amino group was acetylated. Tripeptides containing a single d amino acid residue were found not to bind to native OppA. Evidence from the peak width and the, charge in the spectra of the complexes suggests that the bound peptides are encapsulated by the protein in a solvent-filled cavity in the gas phase of the mass spectrometer. Analysis of the proportions of peptide-bound and free proteins under low-energy MS conditions shows a good correlation with solution-phase K(d) measurements where available. Increasing the internal energy
Integrins undergo large‐scale conformational changes (Springer & Dustin, 2012). In the bent‐closed (BC) conformation, the integrin ectodomain folds at knees in the α‐ and β‐subunits so that the head and upper legs associate with the lower legs (Fig 1A). In two extended states, the extended‐closed (EC) and extended‐open (EO) conformations, extension of the α‐ and β‐knees raises the headpiece above the lower legs on cell surfaces (Fig 1A). In transition from EC to EO, that is, headpiece opening, the ligand‐binding metal ion‐dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) in the β‐subunit βI domain rearranges. This reshaping of the ligand‐binding site is linked by α‐helix pistoning within the βI domain to swing of the hybrid domain away from the integrin α‐subunit (Fig 1A). Although the affinities of these states have not yet been measured, previous studies have correlated integrin adhesiveness and high affinity for ligand with the EO conformation (Takagi et al, 2002, 2003; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-covalent complexes of HIV gp120 with CD4 and/or mAbs enhance activation of gp120-specific T clones and provide intermolecular help for anti-CD4 antibody production. AU - Manca, F.. AU - Seravalli, E.. AU - Valle, M. T.. AU - Fenoglio, D.. AU - Kunkl, A.. AU - Li Pira, G.. AU - Zolla-Pazner, S.. AU - Celada, F.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The dangerous liaison between CD4 and gp120 that offers the first entry opportunity to HIV may also provoke perturbations of the immune control of the host with far-reaching immunopathological consequences. We wondered whether a mechanism of intermolecular help (T help across the gap of a non-covalent bond, in contrast to the intramolecular help of carrier to hapten) could break self-tolerance and be the cause of the frequent anti-CD4 autoantibodies found in AIDS patients. To determine whether this hypothesis deserves further testing, we designed a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments of increasing complexity, focused on the ...
We present a technological advancement for the estimation of the affinities of Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) in living cells. A novel set of vectors is introduced that enables a quantitative yeast two-hybrid system based on fluorescent fusion proteins. The vectors allow simultaneous quantification of the reaction partners (Bait and Prey) and the reporter at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. We validate the applicability of this system on a small but diverse set of PPIs (eleven protein families from six organisms) with different affinities; the dissociation constants range from 117 pM to 17 µM. After only two hours of reaction, expression of the reporter can be detected even for the weakest PPI. Through a simple gating analysis, it is possible to select only cells with identical expression levels of the reaction partners. As a result of this standardization of expression levels, the mean reporter levels directly reflect the affinities of the studied PPIs. With a set of PPIs with known
The covalent interaction of 2-methoxystypandrone (2-MS) with DTT. (a) The Michael addition reaction of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl of 2-MS with DTT; (b) TLC phot
protein binding. • lipid binding. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase binding. • phosphatidylethanolamine binding. • serine- ... bovine phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein and rat 23-kDa protein associated with the opioid-binding protein". Brain Res. ... Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PEBP1 gene.[5][6] ... ATP binding. • enzyme binding. • peptidase inhibitor activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... SCAP, in turn, can bind reversibly with another ER-resident membrane protein, INSIG. In the presence of sterols, which bind to ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ...
TNF binding proteins[edit]. A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating ... protein synthesis inhibitors.. Methotrexate[edit]. Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and ... It binds to FKBP1A like tacrolimus, however the complex does not inhibit calcineurin but another protein, mTOR. Therefore, ... It binds to the immunophilin FKBP1A, followed by the binding of the complex to calcineurin and the inhibition of its ...
... , like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ...
Protons bind at various places on the protein, while carbon dioxide binds at the α-amino group.[63] Carbon dioxide binds to ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... in which CO2 is bound to the heme protein. The molecule also carries the important regulatory molecule nitric oxide bound to a ... and heme-bearing protein subunits bound together into a single protein complex with a molecular mass greater than 3.5 million ...
Protein binding. 60%. Metabolism. Hepatic via CYP3A4. Elimination half-life. 1.8 ± 0.4 hours. ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
The elimination half-life is around 2 hours.[8][118] It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin.[8] However ... binding to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA).[111] Moclobemide is chemically unrelated to irreversible MAOI antidepressants ... It has been described as a 'slow binding inhibitor', whereby conformational changes to either moclobemide or the enzyme to MAO- ... The reversible binding to MAO-A by moclobemide allows amines such as tyramine to displace moclobemide from MAO-A allowing its ...
Protein binding. ≥98.9%. Metabolism. UGT1A1 and CYP3A. Elimination half-life. ~14 hours. ...
Protein binding. 50% (active metabolite). Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP2D6- and 3A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 7-8 hours ( ...
... is primarily (99.9%) bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. Three metabolites of Isotretinoin are detectable in ... Studies in mice and rats have found that retinoids, including isotretinoin, bind to dopaminergic receptors in the central ... Isotretinoin also directly and indirectly increases the translation of the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), leading to ...
Distribution: When injected, pentamidine binds to tissues and proteins in the plasma. It accumulates in the kidney, liver, ... phospholipid and protein synthesis.[9][19] Pentamidine binds to adenine-thymine-rich regions of the Trypanosoma parasite DNA, ... Pentamidine is brought into the mitochondria through carrier proteins, and the absence of these carriers prevents the drug from ... "Structural insights into calcium-bound S100P and the V domain of the RAGE complex". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e103947. Bibcode ...
The HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases, termed PHDs/EGLNs (prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins/EGL nine homologues), bind to a ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... which lose SVCT proteins during maturation.[105] In both vitamin C synthesizers (example: rat) and non-synthesizers (example: ... protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, and salt. Voluntary nutrients may be shown if present in significant ...
Protein binding. 55%. Metabolism. Liver (mostly UGT1A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 29 hours. ... Lamotrigine binds to melanin-containing tissues such as the iris of the eye. The long-term consequences of this are unknown.[51 ... Lamotrigine binds to the eye and melanin-containing tissues which can accumulate over time and may cause toxicity. Prescribers ... The capacity of available tests to detect potentially adverse consequences of melanin binding is unknown. Clinical trials ...
protein binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • specific granule. • intracellular. • extracellular exosome. • ... a novel antimicrobial lipopolysaccharide-binding protein". Infection and Immunity. 63 (4): 1291-7. PMC 173149 . PMID 7890387.. ... Patients with a high level of this protein were 3.7 times more likely to survive kidney dialysis for a year without a fatal ... Higher plasma levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), which are up-regulated by vitamin D, appear to ...
Despite being 96% bound to plasma proteins, it has few interactions with other drugs, and the 5-mg dose can be given safely to ... Protein binding. 96%, albumin (about 75%) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (21%).[2][1]. ... Donepezil binds and reversibly inactivates the cholinesterases, thus inhibiting hydrolysis of acetylcholine. This increases ...
Protein binding. ~92%[1]. Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP3A4/5) and intestinal (first-pass)[1][4]. ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... "Cancer drug prevents build-up of toxic brain protein". 10 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.. ... 2010). "Extended kinase profile and properties of the protein kinase inhibitor nilotinib". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Proteins and Proteomics. 1754 (1-2): 3-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2005.07.040. PMID 16172030.. ...
Protein binding. 70-95%[1]. Metabolism. Liver (mostly CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated). ...
Protein binding. 60 %. Metabolism. Liver. Elimination half-life. 30 min. Excretion. Kidney. ...
Protein binding = 99%; volume of distribution = 0.2 L/kg; half-life = 3-5 hours; excretion = faeces (51%), urine (42%).[67][68] ... Protein binding = 40%; extensive first-pass metabolism; half-life = 12-16 hours, 30 hours (repeated dosing).[99][100]. Acute/ ... Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122]. Chronic pain.. CNS toxicity (abnormal gait, ... Protein binding , 99%; volume of distribution = 0.1-0.2 L/kg; hepatic metabolism; half-life = 2-4 hours.[79]. Ankylosing ...
Protein binding. 93%. Metabolism. Liver (CYP450). Elimination half-life. 18 hours. Excretion. Feces; ,1% urine. ... The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... the MDR1 gene mutation affects function of this protein). Crossing may still become significant if ivermectin is given at high ...
Protein binding. 92-94%. Metabolism. Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4-mediated). Biological half-life. 3 hours. ... Romidepsin acts as a prodrug with the disulfide bond undergoing reduction within the cell to release a zinc-binding thiol.[3][ ... 10][11] The thiol reversibly interacts with a zinc atom in the binding pocket of Zn-dependent histone deacetylase to block its ...
In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ...
Protein binding. 87%. Metabolism. hepatic. Elimination half-life. 17 hours. Excretion. biliary/renal. ...
... of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is ... Protein binding. 80-90%[1]. Metabolism. Liver, (CYP2C19 and possibly CYP3A), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut ... Acetylation of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post- ... Aspirin is known to displace a number of drugs from protein-binding sites in the blood, including the antidiabetic drugs ...
Protein binding. 99.9%. Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP3A4, CYP2C9 & CYP2C19-mediated). Biological half-life. 41±20 hours. ... Etravirine is a diarylpyrimidine (DAPY), a type of organic molecule with some conformational isomerism that can bind the enzyme ...
Protein binding. 78%. Metabolism. liver primarily, kidney, tissues; CYP450: 3A4 substrate. Elimination half-life. urine; Half- ... Unbound glucocorticoids cross cell membranes and bind with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic receptors, modifying ... The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, ... transcription and protein synthesis. By this mechanism, glucocorticoids can inhibit leukocyte infiltration at the site of ...
Protein binding. 99%[1][2][3][4]. Metabolism. Hepatic via CYP1A2 & CYP3A4[1][2][3][4]. ...
... has a high plasma protein binding rate (95%),[25] indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk ...
... s bind to some other proteins in addition to their hormone receptors (FXR and TGR5) and their transporters. Among ... the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor/TGR5.[7][10] They bind less specifically to some other ... Bile acid sequestrants bind bile acids in the gut, preventing reabsorption. In so doing, more endogenous cholesterol is shunted ... Another bile acid receptor is the cell membrane receptor known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 or TGR5. Many of their ...
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Zhou W, Resh MD (1997). "Differential membrane binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein". J. Virol. 70 ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... protein binding. 细胞成分. · nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol ... Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein. Mol. Biol. Cell. December 2002 ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ...
"Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ... A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ...
"Protein Science. 8 (1): 13-24. doi:10.1110/ps.8.1.13. PMC 2144112. PMID 10210179.. ... "Tyrosine 151 is part of the substrate activation binding site of bovine trypsin: identification by covalent labelling with p- ... Protein Expression and Purification. 21 (1): 134-140. doi:10.1006/prep.2000.1353. PMID 11162398.. ... where he is a full professor of cell and molecular biology and head of the Center for Protein Chemistry of Hemocentro de ...
J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi:10.1007/BF01024882. تحقق من التاريخ في: ,date=. (مساعدة) ... "Cysteine residues in a synthetic peptide corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit receptor-binding ...
Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary ... A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, with ...
... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
protein binding. •extracellular matrix constituent conferring elasticity. •extracellular matrix binding. Componente celular. • ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... 2010). «Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin». J. Biol. ...
IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... as well as a protein inside mesolimbic neurons called delta FosB. An associative process may contribute to addiction, for ...
Once interferon has bound to its receptors on the neighbouring cell, the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and ... EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signalling protein in the ... This processing appears to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ...
Scan the nascent protein in order to recognize and bind sequons.. *Move these two large substrates into their proper locations ... ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ...
... by G protein-coupled receptors that can activate or inhibit the NALCN channels depending on the neurotransmitter that binds the ... A lack of serotonin binding to the serotonin receptor 2 leads to the inability to autoresuscitation due to the lack of drive ... Since NALCN sodium leak channels appear to contribute to the depolarization of neurons, their regulation by G-protein coupled ... Since many of these neurons express GABA, glutamate, serotonin and adenosine receptors, chemicals custom tailored to bind at ...
cAMP-zavisna regulatorna aktivnost protein kinaza. Celularna komponenta. • ekstracelularni region. • ekstracelularni prostor. • ... Booth (2002). „The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions.". Biochemistry. 41. PMID 12173928 ... Angiolillo (1995). „Human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo". J. Exp. Med. 182: 155 ... Dufour (2002). „IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10; CXCL10) -deficient mice reveal a role for IP-10 in effector T cell ...
Role of beer lipid-binding proteins in preventing lipid destabilization of foam. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50. vsk, nro 26, s ... Townsend A-A, Nakai S. (1983). Relationships between hydrophobicity and foaming characteristics of food proteins. Journal of ... Zhu H, Damodaran S. (1994). Heat-induced conformational changes in whey protein isolate and its relation to foaming properties ...
Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene and the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the ... Large game animals such as deer were an important source of protein in Middle and Upper Paleolithic diets. ...
This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] ... GABRA4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... 14-3-3 proteins only bind to chloroplast preproteins.[43] It is also bound by the heat shock protein Hsp70 that keeps the ... These proteins consist of 35-mer repeated amino acids, the sequence of which determines the cis binding site for the edited ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ...
... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ...
The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death.[2] Rituximab was approved for medical use in 1997.[6] It is on the World ... Rituximab binds to amino acids 170-173 and 182-185 on CD20, which are physically close to each other as a result of a disulfide ...
Mannan-binding lectin. S. *Serum albumin. *Serum amyloid P component. *Serum total protein ... Pages in category "Blood proteins". The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total. This list may not reflect ... Retrieved from "" ...
acrosin binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • carbohydrate binding. • identical protein binding. • receptor ligand activity ... Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, also known as zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (Zp-3) or the sperm receptor, is a ZP ... The protein encoded by this gene is a major structural component of the ZP and functions in primary binding and stimulation of ... binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • negative regulation of binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • positive regulation of ...
protein kinase inhibitor activity. • collagen binding. • extracellular matrix structural constituent conferring compression ... negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of JAK-STAT ... a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12212-21. ... a novel member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family closely related to decorin and biglycan". The Journal of Biological ...
Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP and its antagonists are present in the extracellular loops and ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... "Receptor binding sites for substance P, but not substance K or neuromedin K, are expressed in high concentrations by ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ...
Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to plasma proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin, ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... transthyretin (previously called 'thyroxine-binding prealbumin'), and albumin.[15] Only free hormone is metabolically active.[ ... transcription and protein synthesis.[20] Like its naturally secreted counterpart, levothyroxine is a chiral compound in the L- ...
This results in a series of unstable intermediates, the last of which binds stronger to a G protein in the membrane, called ... The membranous photoreceptor protein opsin contains a pigment molecule called retinal. In rod cells, these together are called ... The photoreceptor proteins in the three types of cones differ in their sensitivity to photons of different wavelengths (see ... When glutamate binds to an ionotropic receptor, the bipolar cell will depolarize (and therefore will hyperpolarize with light ...
protein binding. • lipid binding. • receptor binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • lipopeptide binding. Cellular component. ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) ... 1994). "Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein. LPS binding properties and ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.[5][6] ...
GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of ... between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. ... They are active or ON when it is bound to GTP and inactive or OFF when bound to GDP.[1] Activation and deactivation of ...
One is related to protein folding and binding, and the other is related to the diffusion of a protein in space. During binding ... The capture radius of fly-casting binding could be affected by many factors, including protein binding affinity and limitations ... The binding of proteins to various substrates in a biological system is a basic but essential process to maintain the function ... The mechanisms underlying protein binding have been the focus of theoretical and experimental research for many years. Many ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (IPR008914) *Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein, eukaryotic (IPR035810). *YbhB/ ... The PEBP (PhosphatidylEthanolamine-Binding Protein) family is a highly conserved group of proteins that have been identified in ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Cholesterol-binding cytolysins (CBCs) are a large family of 50- to 60-kDa single-chain proteins produced by 23 taxonomically ... Membrane cholesterol is thought to be the toxin-binding site at the surface of eukaryotic cells. Toxins molecules bind as ... The deduced primary structure of the proteins shows obvious sequence homology particularly in the C-terminal part and a ...
Human protein-coding gene RBBP6. Represented by 594 ESTs from 250 cDNA libraries. Corresponds to 3 reference sequences ( ... Protein sequence * * Protein/EST matches (ProtEST) * * Protein/protein matches (BLink) * retinoblastoma-binding protein 6 ... Protein/EST matches (ProtEST) * * Protein/protein matches (BLink) * PREDICTED: retinoblastoma-binding protein 6 isoform 5. M. ... Protein sequence * * Protein/EST matches (ProtEST) * * Protein/protein matches (BLink) * PREDICTED: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ...
The main reason doctors order the IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) test is to see if a person is producing a normal amount of ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is the main carrier of somatomedin C (also called insulin-like growth ... Blood levels of both these proteins are controlled by human growth hormone (hGH), a hormone thats produced by the pituitary ...
... employing ten different recombinant plant bZIP proteins demonstrated that nucleotides flanking the ACGT core affected binding ... Plant bZIP proteins exhibit a relaxed DNA-binding specificity for DNA sequence motifs containing an ACGT core. Gel mobility ... Group 1 proteins exhibit a stronger binding affinity for G-box elements, group 2 proteins bind both G-box and C-box motifs with ... Plant bZIP protein DNA binding specificity J Mol Biol. 1993 Apr 20;230(4):1131-44. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1993.1230. ...
The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces. D. Reichmann, O. Rahat, S. Albeck, R. Meged, O. Dym, G. ... The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces. D. Reichmann, O. Rahat, S. Albeck, R. Meged, O. Dym, G. ... is the driving force behind tight binding. A protein-protein binding site is not just a conglomerate of proximate residues ... The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces. D. Reichmann, O. Rahat, S. Albeck, R. Meged, O. Dym, and G. ...
n-Sec1 binds to syntaxin 1a, 2, and 3 fusion proteins coupled to agarose beads, but not to syntaxin 4 fusion protein or beads ... n-Sec1: a neural-specific syntaxin-binding protein.. J Pevsner, S C Hsu, and R H Scheller ... These findings indicate that n-Sec1 is a neural-specific, syntaxin-binding protein that may participate in the regulation of ... The rat brain cDNA is predicted to encode a 68-kDa protein with 65% amino acid identity to Drosophila rop, 59% identity to ...
Calcium Binding Proteins in Non-Muscle Tissues. * Front Matter Pages 91-91 ... Calmodulin and Calmodulin Binding Proteins During Differentiation of Human Intestinal Brush Borders ... the other sessions were devoted to calmodulin-related calcium binding proteins in muscle and non- muscle tissues and to some ... Calcium Binding to Troponin C and the Regulation of Muscle Contraction: a Comparative Approach ...
it was a select all question and one of the answers was protein binding. cant remember what the other answers were. most of the ... most of the class put protein binding as an answer but when we did the test review the professor said it was wrong. that we ... it was a select all question and one of the answers was protein binding. cant remember what the other answers were. ... while it is true that some drugs bind heavily to protein, the therapeutic effect isnt usually an issue since the ...
C4b-binding protein elevates as an acute phase protein that may lead to enhanced protein S binding and decreased free protein S ... In blood, PS exists in a free and bound state. Sixty percent to 70% of plasma protein S circulates complexed to C4b-binding ... resulting in increased protein S binding and a theoretically relative deficiency of free protein S. Acquired deficiency of free ... protein S due to acute phase elevation of C4b binding protein has been disputed.7 C4bBP is elevated in inflammation, pregnancy ...
... binds with high affinity to single-stranded DNA but does not bind well to double-stranded ... E. coli Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein (SSB) consists of four identical 18.9kDa subunits that cooperatively bind to single ... Cooperatively Binds ssDNA with High Affinity. *Consists of four identical 18.9kDa subunits ... This protein is involved in DNA replication and in recombination in vivo. ...
The inhibition of the direct interaction between ACE2 and the S-protein could provides a suitable strategy to prevent the ... Using MD simulations, we investigate the assembly process of a Coronavirus Spike protein fragment, the hexapeptide YKYRYL on ... and its inhibitzory effect on the aggregation and activation of the CoV-2 spike receptor protein at the same receptor protein. ... protein of CoV-2 is one target for the development of a vaccine to prevent the viral entry into human cells. ...
... is a highly-conserved protein found in the cells of all eukaryotes from yeast to humans. The protein binds activated fatt... ... AcylCoA Binding Protein (thing). See all of AcylCoA Binding Protein, no other writeups in this node. ... AcylCoA binding protein (ACBP) is a highly-conserved protein found in the cells of all eukaryotes from yeast to humans. The ... protein binds activated fatty acids (acylCoAs) with an extremely high affinity and is thought to be the intracellular carrier ...
Na+-dependent proteins Sodium: An alkali metal (Na) with atomic number 11. Sodium ion (Na+) is essential for numerous ... Sodium-binding protein: Any protein or enzyme that requires the binding of a sodium ion to its structural stability or ... Lev B., Roux B., Noskov S.Y. (2013) Sodium-Binding Site Types in Proteins. In: Kretsinger R.H., Uversky V.N., Permyakov E.A. ( ... Several studies regarding the evolution of Na+-binding proteins suggest that its abundance in the water... ...
... Itisam Sarangi via (by itisam.sarangi from ... Previous message: [Protein-analysis] PREDITOP *Next message: [Protein-analysis] Re: Protocol needed from study the protein ... Previous message: [Protein-analysis] PREDITOP *Next message: [Protein-analysis] Re: Protocol needed from study the protein ... Dear all Presently I am trying to purifying a DNA binding protein from E.coli..and trying to remove the contaminating DNA... I ...
The level of protein binding of a drug indicates... ... binding is an interaction in which a drug binds to proteins in ... Newly developed drugs may be tested for their tendency to bind to proteins using a protein binding assay. This can be performed ... thedoctor-I think I remember this article; they actually used protein binding assays to find metal binding proteins in seafood ... Binding of Drugs. The proteins commonly involved in binding with drugs are albumin, lipoproteins, and a1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP ...
... For the first time, researchers have designed a protein from scratch that can bind a specific ... which fluoresces green only when bound to a protein. Of these, 20 folded into monomeric proteins when synthesized, and two of ... A designed protein with a β-barrel structure (backbone shown on left, space-filling shown on right) can bind a specific small ... Yet natural protein binding sites often occur within a three-dimensional structure called a β-barrel-a β-sheet twisted to form ...
The accurate prediction of protein-peptide binding without prior structural knowledge will ultimately enable better functional ... properties important for binding and when used to scan the surface of target proteins can accurately identify candidate binding ... involves a domain from one protein binding to a linear peptide stretch of another. Many methods identify peptides mediating ... We show that spatial atomic position specific scoring matrices of binding sites for each peptide residue can capture the ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
Regulation of this binding is therefore likely to be an important determinant of promoter activity. Incorporation of the TATA ... BINDING of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene ... Facilitated binding of TATA-binding protein to nucleosomal DNA Nature. 1994 Aug 11;370(6489):481-5. doi: 10.1038/370481a0. ... BINDING of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene ...
S. Zhang and M. C. Mehdy, "Binding of a 50-kD protein to a U-rich sequence in an mRNA encoding a proline-rich protein that is ... RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Immunity. Virginia Woloshen,1,2 Shuai Huang,1,2 and Xin Li1,2 ... N. V. Fedoroff, "RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?" Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. ... Z. Q. Fu, M. Guo, B. R. Jeong et al., "A type III effector ADP-ribosylates RNA-binding proteins and quells plant immunity," ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
CalPred is a "tool for EF-hand calcium binding protein prediction and calcium binding region identification" using machine ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... DNA damage-binding protein 2ARBA annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00678, WD_REPEATS_1, 1 hit. ... Damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2ARBA annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
Compare S100P binding protein Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Protein Deglycosylation Mix II (P6044S) Effectively Removes Sugars from Antibodies Protein Deglycosylation Mix II (P6044S) ...
Protein Z and MyoD. Protein Z is derived from staphylococcal protein A and holds an IgG Fc-binding domain. It consists of a ... we transplanted the DNA-binding region of MyoD intro helix 3 of protein Z. MyoD is a bHLH domain DNA-binding protein [17]. The ... MD Simulations of the Protein-DNA Complex. Simulations of the protein-DNA complexes were performed using Amber 10 [25]. Protein ... the immunoglobin Fc-binding site of the Z domain and the DNA-binding motif of MyoD bHLH. The resulting protein should be able ...
  • In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. (
  • ZBP is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of proteins that also includes hnRNP A2 and Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). (
  • Retinol-binding proteins (RBP) are a family of proteins with several functions. (
  • The capture radius of fly-casting binding could be affected by many factors, including protein binding affinity and limitations of protein folding. (
  • Dissociation constant values (Kd values) of these bZIP proteins for high affinity G-box and C-box elements and reciprocal competition gel mobility shift assays confirmed our classification scheme. (
  • Group 1 proteins exhibit a stronger binding affinity for G-box elements, group 2 proteins bind both G-box and C-box motifs with comparable binding affinity, whereas the group 3 proteins display a stronger binding affinity for C-box oligonucleotides. (
  • Studies using a panel of G-box and C-box oligonucleotides differing in their flanking sequences identified high affinity binding sites. (
  • Protein/DNA binding experiments using scanning mutants of a high affinity G-box element and G-box/C-box hybrid elements demonstrated that bZIP protein binding activity depends upon the affinity of protein dimer subunits for ACGT half-sites. (
  • Information provided by our systematic analysis of plant bZIP DNA binding specificity can be used to identify high affinity binding sites for the plant bZIP proteins studied here. (
  • Assuming that only high affinity bZIP binding sites are likely to function in vivo, identification of these sites will allow us to predict which genes are activated by a particular bZIP protein. (
  • The evolution of protein-protein binding sites is a result of optimization with three boundary conditions: the definition of the complex structure, optimization of the binding affinity for a given task, and the generation of specificity. (
  • The affinity of this interaction is in the nM range, with an association rate constant of ≈3 × 10 5 M -1 ·s -1 and a dissociation rate constant of 3 × 10 -4 s -1 , values which are commonly found for many protein-protein interactions ( 20 ). (
  • Interestingly, this protein fragment has a high affinity for ACE2, being the location of the dominant binding epitope. (
  • The aims of the study were, firstly, to quantify the binding affinity of the S protein to the ACE2 molecule. (
  • The protein binds activated fatty acid s (acylCoAs) with an extremely high affinity and is thought to be the intracellular carrier of activated fatty acids from the fatty acid synthetase to the acylCoA consuming enzyme s (in beta-oxidation, protein-acylation etc. (
  • The amount of binding and the fraction unbound - written as the amount of unbound drug over the total amount - are determined by the compound's affinity for the protein, and their relative concentrations. (
  • For example, if drug A saturated a certain binding protein and then drug B was not able to bind to it, then there would be a higher concentration of unbound B. Alternatively, if drug B has a stronger chemical affinity for the protein, it could displace A, raising its unbound fraction. (
  • Depending on a specific drug's affinity for plasma protein, a proportion of the drug may become bound to plasma proteins, with the remainder being unbound. (
  • domains bind with high affinity (low µM or nM Kd) to specific phosphoinositides such as phosphatidylinositol- 4,5-bisphosphate, PI-3, 4-P2 or PI-3,4,5-P3. (
  • However, the affinity of proteins to peptides and their interactions are not fully explored. (
  • The aim of this study is to automate a platform that can sort thousands of these beads and identify which peptides have affinity to proteins such as host cell proteins. (
  • The present invention relates generally to unique metal binding proteins having high binding affinity for heavy metals. (
  • The elastin receptor complex contains a component of 67 kilodaltons that binds to a glycoconjugate affinity column containing beta-galactoside residues and is eluted from this column with lactose. (
  • A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. (
  • I suppose this would be more of a probability or statistics based problem, but I have to take into consideration the protein binding affinity and ligand concentration. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene . (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. (
  • First, we used MiMIC technology to tag the still life (sif) gene, the fly homologue - that is, the fly's functional counterpart - of human DNMBP, with green fluorescent protein (GFP). (
  • BINDING of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box is required for transcription from many eukaryotic promoters in gene expression. (
  • We propose that the dynamic remodelling of chromatin structure to allow TBP binding is a key step in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • When a protein-coding gene is turned on, its DNA sequence gets copied into a messenger RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein that carries out a specific function. (
  • Less well understood are RNA binding proteins, such as IGF2BP3, which interact with the messenger RNA itself to regulate gene expression after transcription has occurred. (
  • This dual activity may depend on how the protein interacts with an important gene-silencing pathway mediated by short pieces of RNA called microRNAs. (
  • MicroRNAs can help silence gene expression by binding to messenger RNA as part of a complex known as the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (
  • [2] As one of the few proteins in the preinitiation complex that binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner, it helps position RNA polymerase II over the transcription start site of the gene. (
  • This protein is encoded by the gene S100A1. (
  • Within this genomic interval, an insertion/deletion polymorphism of 36 bp in the coding region of the latent TGF-β-binding protein 4 gene (Ltbp4) was found. (
  • Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified syntaxin-binding protein 5 ( STXBP5 ) as a candidate gene linked to changes in vWF plasma levels, though the functional relationship between STXBP5 and vWF is unknown. (
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (
  • The study found that these binding patterns and the resulting gene activation act like a key to different cancer types , allowing the researchers to understand the biology of cancer at its most basic level. (
  • Once the protein attaches to the site, a new gene is expressed, causing significant biological changes. (
  • The LIN28 protein is linked to growth and development and is important very early in human development," said principal investigator Gene Yeo, PhD, MBA, of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, the Stem Cell Research Program and the Institute for Genomic Medicine at UC San Diego. (
  • This process, known as autoregulation, helps to maintain a so-called "steady-state" system in which a protein positively regulates its own production by binding to a regulatory element of the mRNA for the gene coding it. (
  • In the splicing process, fragments that do not typically code for protein, called introns, are removed from gene transcripts, and the remaining sequences, called exons, are reconnected. (
  • The splicing factor proteins themselves, as well as the location where these proteins bind, dictate which pieces of the RNA are included or excluded in the final gene transcript - in much the same way that removing and inserting scenes, or splicing, can alter the plot of a movie. (
  • When there is no TATA box nucleotide sequence in the gene core promoter region of the DNA next to a gene, say A1BG of the human genome, a TATA binding protein associated factor (TAF) will bind sequence specifically and force the TATA box binding protein to bind non-sequence specifically to the DNA in the core promoter . (
  • Retinol-binding proteins and retinoic acid play important roles in the modulation of gene expression and overall development of an embryo. (
  • GWAS have consistently identified the gene encoding syntaxin-binding protein 5 (STXBP5) in this context. (
  • Down-regulation of T1A12/mac25, a novel insulin-like growth factor binding protein related gene, is associated with disease progression in breast carcinomas," Oncogene, 16:2459-67 (1998). (
  • Nevertheless, understanding of posttranscriptional regulation (a type of gene regulation) remains limited, in particular about the roles played by RNA-binding proteins (RBP) in myocardial infarction and the development of heart disease. (
  • Recombinant proteins for S100 calcium binding protein A1 are available from various sources. (
  • Your search returned 81 Proteins S100 calcium binding protein A1 Recombinant Proteins across 21 suppliers. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about paclitaxel protein-bound? (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound is used to treat cancer of the breast, lung, or pancreas. (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound is sometimes given with other cancer medicines. (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving paclitaxel protein-bound? (
  • an allergic reaction to medicines like paclitaxel protein-bound (such as cabazitaxel or docetaxel). (
  • If you are a woman, do not use paclitaxel protein-bound if you are pregnant. (
  • Tell your doctor right away if a pregnancy occurs while either the mother or the father is using paclitaxel protein-bound. (
  • How is paclitaxel protein-bound given? (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound is given as an infusion into a vein. (
  • Tell your caregivers if you feel any burning, pain, or swelling around the IV needle when paclitaxel protein-bound is injected. (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound can lower your blood cell counts. (
  • Call your doctor for instructions if you miss an appointment for your paclitaxel protein-bound injection. (
  • What should I avoid while using paclitaxel protein-bound? (
  • Paclitaxel protein-bound can be harmful if it gets in your eyes, mouth, or nose, or on your skin. (
  • What are the possible side effects of paclitaxel protein-bound? (
  • In some cases, health care professionals may use the trade name Abraxane® when referring to the generic drug name paclitaxel (protein bound). (
  • Paclitaxel (protein bound) is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (
  • Paclitaxel (protein bound) is administered into a vein by intravenous (IV) injection through a central line or a peripheral venous line. (
  • Paclitaxel (protein bound) is generally given over 30 minutes. (
  • Paclitaxel (protein bound) is an irritant. (
  • The nurse or doctor who gives paclitaxel (protein bound) must be carefully trained. (
  • If you experience pain or notice redness or swelling at the IV site while you are receiving paclitaxel (protein bound), alert your health care professional immediately. (
  • The amount of paclitaxel (protein bound) that you will receive depends on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health or other health problems, and the type of cancer or condition you have. (
  • There are many options to minimize or prevent the side effects of paclitaxel (protein bound). (
  • The following side effects are common (occurring in greater than 30%) for patients taking paclitaxel (protein bound). (
  • Arthralgias and myalgias - pain in the joints and muscles (usually temporary occurring 2-3 days after paclitaxel (protein bound). (
  • Before starting paclitaxel (protein bound) treatment, make sure you tell your doctor about any other medications you are taking (including prescription, over-the-counter, vitamins, herbal remedies, etc. (
  • The information below refers to medicines available in the United States that contain paclitaxel protein-bound. (
  • Using iodoquinol together with PACLitaxel protein-bound may increase the risk of nerve damage, which is a potential side effect of both medications. (
  • Grapefruits and grapefruit juice may increase the blood levels and effects of PACLitaxel protein-bound. (
  • The deduced primary structure of the proteins shows obvious sequence homology particularly in the C-terminal part and a characteristic common consensus sequence containing a unique Cys residue (ECTGLAWEWWR) near the C-terminus of the molecules (except pyolysin and intermedilysin). (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • See the reference protein sequence for PREDICTED: polcalcin Bra r 1 (XP_009126190.1). (
  • Plant bZIP proteins exhibit a relaxed DNA-binding specificity for DNA sequence motifs containing an ACGT core. (
  • Incorporation of the TATA sequence into nucleosomes dramatically reduces transcription initiation, presumably because of stereochemical constraints on binding of general transcription factors. (
  • We show here that binding of TBP to the TATA sequence is severely inhibited by incorporation of this sequence into a nucleosome. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • The primary structure of these proteins contains an N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence of 30-40 amino acids, which could represent a signal for translocation of the protein to the ER. (
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (
  • NO. 1 wherein said isolated nucleic acid sequence encodes an Artemia metallothionein (MT) protein. (
  • NO. 3 wherein said isolated nucleic acid sequence encodes a metal binding region of an Artemia MT protein. (
  • 8. The isolated nucleic acid according to claim 1 wherein said amino acid sequence is an Artemia MT protein. (
  • 14. The modified host cell according to claim 13 wherein said nucleic acid expresses an Artemia MT protein or metal binding amino acid sequence. (
  • The TATA-binding protein ( TBP ) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box . (
  • TBP is involved in DNA melting (double strand separation) by bending the DNA by 80° (the AT-rich sequence to which it binds facilitates easy melting). (
  • The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence can be associated with multiple homologs. (
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (
  • When a transcription factor finds an available section of chromatin and binds to it, that region of the DNA sequence unzips, allowing transcription to occur. (
  • One finding showed that mutations can occur within the chromatin sequence, thereby creating a new and accessible site where a transcription factor can bind. (
  • While it lacks the prion-like low-complexity sequences of the other two proteins, it sports a nuclear localization sequence, as FUS does (see image above). (
  • Secondary structure analysis of the S100PBP protein sequence was performed using the secondary structure consensus prediction tool ( [email protected] , Lyon, France). (
  • In the last decade, numerous computational approaches have been developed to predict protein DNA-binding sites based on protein sequence and/or structural information, which play an important role in complementing experimental strategies. (
  • At this time, approaches can be divided into three categories: sequence-based DNA-binding site prediction, structure-based DNA-binding site prediction, and homology modeling and threading. (
  • In this article, we review existing research on computational methods to predict protein DNA-binding sites, which includes data sets, various residue sequence/structural features, machine learning methods for comparison and selection, evaluation methods, performance comparison of different tools, and future directions in protein DNA-binding site prediction. (
  • n-Sec1: a neural-specific syntaxin-binding protein. (
  • These findings indicate that n-Sec1 is a neural-specific, syntaxin-binding protein that may participate in the regulation of synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. (
  • The N- and C-terminal regions are the least conserved, and may be involved in interactions with different protein partners. (
  • Protein-protein interactions are essential for life. (
  • The modular architecture of binding sites, which resembles human engineering design, greatly simplifies the design of new protein interactions and provides a feasible view of how these interactions evolved. (
  • Thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural studies of protein-protein interactions have taught us much of how proteins interact rapidly, tightly, and in a specific manner. (
  • However, from the modest degree of success of the aforementioned methods, it is clear that our understanding of protein-protein interactions is still lacking ( 5 ). (
  • A more elaborate approach to study the contributions of amino acids to binding and stability involves the use of double and higher-order mutant cycles, where interactions between amino acids are treated within their native contexts ( 7 , 9 ). (
  • The network of non-covalent interactions within or between proteins was defined based on an atomic distance threshold and the chemical properties of the involved groups. (
  • The methods available so far were subject to certain limits with regard to detecting and generally classifying RNA protein interactions which we have overcome here," Professor Vogel further. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Protein interactions" applicable to this article? (
  • A putative RNA-binding protein positively regulates salicylic acid-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis ," Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions , vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1573-1583, 2010. (
  • We don't know the exact mechanism of how the IGF2BP3 protein interacts with the RISC complex, but it gives us a lot to investigate in terms of this interesting network of interactions," Sanford said. (
  • We describe a method for permanently recording protein-DNA interactions in mammalian cells. (
  • But mapping the transcriptional networks that control cell-fate decisions is difficult given the limitations of the tools available to measure protein-DNA interactions. (
  • Even as they analyze the RBM45-containing stress bodies, Bowser's group is working to understand the protein and its interactions at a molecular level. (
  • Interactions between proteins and DNA play an important role in many essential biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and repair. (
  • We show that protein-protein binding sites have a modular architecture made up of clusters of residues with both strong intracluster connections and weak intercluster connections. (
  • The networks obtained resemble "small world"-like features, which have been used to identify key residues in proteins, as well as the native conformations from nonnative decoys ( 13 - 16 ). (
  • The mature protein comprises around 165 residues, and contains a number of potential N-glycosylation sites. (
  • The identification of amino acid residues involved in DNA-binding sites is critical for understanding the mechanism of these biological activities. (
  • The less bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or diffuse. (
  • They can more efficiently traverse cell membranes if they are not strongly bound to blood proteins. (
  • The method is also well suited to studying aquaporins - proteins embedded in cell membranes that regulate water flow - or ion channels, which transport ions along with water. (
  • type proteasome subunit and a transformer-2-like SR-related protein: early induction of the corresponding genes in tobacco cells treated with cryptogein," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 261-269, 1997. (
  • Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms," Genes and Development , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1484-1493, 2007. (
  • The research focuses on chromatin, the DNA-protein complex where all genes reside. (
  • Specifically, it evaluates chromatin's relationship to transcription factors - proteins that play a crucial role in managing which genes are activated within cells. (
  • Certain genes are turned on or off based on how transcription factors bind to specific parts of the chromatin. (
  • Members of the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 family have been shown to influence development by (1) acting as bridging molecules between the basal transcriptional machinery and specific DNA-binding transcription factors, (2) physically interacting with terminal members of signaling cascades, (3) acting as transcriptional coactivators of downstream target genes, and (4) playing a key role in chromatin remodeling. (
  • Genes bound by SP1 are more likely to be expressed in the HCT116 cell line we used, and SP1-bound CpG islands show a strong preference to be unmethylated. (
  • While they don't encode for proteins, miRNAs are important for regulating protein production in the cell by repressing or "turning off" genes. (
  • The discovery of thousands of precise binding sites for LIN28 within human genes offers a novel look at the role this protein plays in development and disease processes. (
  • Individual cells within the eye are exposed to many extracellular signals, express multiple surface receptors, and make use of a large complement of cell-subtype-specific DNA-binding transcription factors. (
  • Thus, creating such a precise array of unit eyes reproducibly using multiple diffusible signals is an impressive feat. A key question is: How does an individual cell correctly relay the multiple bits of information received at the cell surface to the appropriate assortment of specific DNA-binding transcription factors and how is this information correctly used during cell fate decisions. (
  • A potential solution to this paradigm is to have a ubiquitously expressed protein act as a conduit for linking signaling pathways to nuclear transcription factors by interacting with (1) terminal members of the many signaling cascades and (2) the specific combination of transcription factors that are expressed in each different cell type. (
  • We endow transcription factors with the ability to deposit a transposon into the genome near to where they bind. (
  • The TATA box is a binding site of either general transcription factors or histones . (
  • Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. (
  • Mass spectroscopic analysis of human serum following molecular mass fractionation, demonstrated that the majority of LMM biomarkers exist bound to carrier proteins. (
  • S. van Nocker and R. D. Vierstra, "Two cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana encode putative RNA binding proteins containing glycine-rich domains," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 695-699, 1993. (
  • New findings from Sanford's lab at UC Santa Cruz, where he is an associate professor of molecular, cell, and developmental biology, point toward a possible mechanism by which this protein drives metastasis. (
  • In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. (
  • Instead, their test tube was filled with some "contaminant": A high molecular weight polymer they would soon identify as the first actin-binding protein, later called filamin A. (
  • Due to the extremely small cross section of the conductive path (50 nm x 50 nm), changes close to the surface significantly affect the apparent conduction in the semicircle and can be monitored electronically to determine the occurrence of molecular binding events. (
  • We report here the identification of one such human cellular Rb-associated protein of relative molecular mass 46,000 (46K) (RbAP46). (
  • Indeed their excitement was shared by many researchers who, over the next decade, characterized the dendritic presence of the molecular machinery required for protein synthesis. (
  • According to the researchers, their study - published in the September 6 online issue of Molecular Cell - will change how scientists view this protein and its impact on human disease. (
  • The strain-specificity of these proteins demonstrates the need for the careful molecular design and selection of probiotics,' says Dr Juge. (
  • Other PEBP-like proteins that show strong structural homology to PEBP include Escherichia coli YBHB and YBCL, the Rattus norvegicus (Rat) neuropeptide HCNP, and Antirrhinum majus (Garden snapdragon) protein centroradialis (CEN). (
  • Using homology modeling and binding and contractility assays with recombinant KBTBD13, Kbtbd13-knockout and Kbtbd13R408C-knockin mouse models, and a GFP-labeled Kbtbd13-transgenic zebrafish model, we discovered that KBTBD13 binds to actin - a major constituent of the thin filament - and that mutations in KBTBD13 cause structural changes impairing muscle-relaxation kinetics. (
  • No homology to any currently described protein is seen. (
  • The S2 subunit of the S protein has a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that fits the ACE2 molecule. (
  • The receptor-binding motif (RBM) is an extended insertion between a pair of beta-sheets, and this binds to the N-terminal end of the ACE2 molecule. (
  • The chemical properties of the binding site, and the other molecule, are also important: bonding will only take place if it is chemically feasible. (
  • It has four sites that can bind to an oxygen molecule. (
  • Acidic and neutral compounds will tend to bond with albumin, which is basic, while basic substances will primarily bind to the acidic AGP molecule. (
  • A designed protein with a β-barrel structure (backbone shown on left, space-filling shown on right) can bind a specific small molecule (green, right). (
  • Now, researchers report in Nature that they've achieved the task, creating a 110-amino-acid protein, unlike any in nature, that binds a specific molecule, activating it to glow green in cells ( Nature 2018, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0509-0 ). (
  • We present the fabrication and characterization of a nano-scale sensor made of amorphous silicon (a-Si) for electronic detection of small molecule -protein binding. (
  • The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (
  • Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevent exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action. (
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (
  • In contrast to the situation observed for G-box elements, C-box motifs displayed a very much more stringent flanking nucleotide requirement for binding activity. (
  • ZBP1 binds to a 54 nucleotide "zipcode" in the 3′-UTR of β-actin mRNA. (
  • The rat brain cDNA is predicted to encode a 68-kDa protein with 65% amino acid identity to Drosophila rop, 59% identity to Caenorhabditis elegans unc-18, and 27% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec1p. (
  • They found that most of the targeted RNAs encode proteins that have some role in cancer biology, such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. (
  • Messenger RNA or mRNA, are RNA molecules that encode a chemical 'blueprint' for the synthesis of a protein. (
  • Membrane cholesterol is thought to be the toxin-binding site at the surface of eukaryotic cells. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, synthesis of most proteins is driven by cap-dependent mRNA translation ( Sonenberg and Dever, 2003 ). (
  • The PEBP (PhosphatidylEthanolamine-Binding Protein) family is a highly conserved group of proteins that have been identified in numerous tissues in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, nematodes, plants, drosophila and mammals. (
  • The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the prototype of a novel family of serine protease inhibitors. (
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein. (
  • Examples include: DNA-binding protein Single-strand binding protein Telomere-binding protein RNA-binding protein Poly(A)-binding protein Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CREB-binding protein Calcium-binding protein Calcium-binding protein 1 S100 calcium-binding protein A1 TATA-binding protein Actin-binding protein Most actin binding proteins bind on the actin surface, despite having different functions and structures. (
  • Stossel and Hartwig had proof that the actin-binding protein initiated gelation. (
  • This document assesses the correspondence between retinol and retinol-binding protein (RBP), as well as the stability of RBP subjected to varying temperature conditions over time, the effect of light, and the feasibility of using dried blood spots. (
  • Assessment retinol-binding protein is often used to determine visceral protein mass in nutritional studies related to health. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14 , TLR2 , TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2. (
  • Circulating lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) concentration is known to be increased in patients with obesity. (
  • Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. (
  • The control of the latter two pathways involves the PEBP protein RKIP, which interacts with MEK and Raf-1 to inhibit the MAP kinase pathway, and with TAK1, NIK, IKKalpha and IKKbeta to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway. (
  • Raf kinase inhibitor protein interacts with NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and TAK1 and inhibits NF-kappaB activation. (
  • When we mapped the positions where IGF2BP3 interacts, we noticed that many of them overlap with binding sites for RISC. (
  • Toxins molecules bind as monomers to the membrane surface with subsequent oligomerization into arc-and ring-shaped structures surrounding large pores generated by this process. (
  • The structures of the complex ( 17 ) and of the unbound proteins ( 18 , 19 ) have been determined to high resolution. (
  • The structures of the different regulatory RNA molecules are shown left, their preferred protein binding partners on the right. (
  • We can now build an unlimited number of protein structures from scratch and optimize them for the function that we really want," says David Baker of the University of Washington, Seattle, who led the work. (
  • Serre L, Pereira de Jesus K, Zelwer C, Bureaud N, Schoentgen F, Benedetti H. Crystal structures of YBHB and YBCL from Escherichia coli, two bacterial homologues to a Raf kinase inhibitor protein. (
  • In nature, building such structures is achieved by evolutionary optimized protein molecules and complex biological machinery. (
  • The metal binding proteins include have amino acid sequences analogous to at least one metal binding protein, and conservative amino acid substitutions thereof from a brine shrimp (Artemia). (
  • Also provided are the associated nucleic acid sequences encoding metal binding proteins. (
  • Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to download protein sequences or forward to NCBI BLAST. (
  • You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, human and rat homologs of the mouse superfamily members. (
  • We have identified n-Sec1, a rat brain homolog of the yeast Sec1p protein that participates in the constitutive secretory pathway between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. (
  • In this pathway, glutamate release is orchestrated by Ca2+-sensor proteins, with N-terminal EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) being particular abundant. (
  • The major components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex are proteins recruited at different stages of the vesicular transport pathway. (
  • Detection of mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human melanoma," Clin. (
  • AcylCoA binding protein (ACBP) is a highly-conserved protein found in the cells of all eukaryote s from yeast to humans. (
  • Proteins carry numerous functions that are essential for the sustenance and growth of humans and all forms of life. (
  • In humans, this protein has a Uniprot ID of P23297 and has an annotated function: 'Probably acts as a Ca(2+) signal transducer. (
  • This protein is part of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including BPI, plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). (
  • In the presence of syntaxin 1a, a plasma membrane protein implicated in synaptic vesicle docking, n-Sec1 becomes membrane-associated. (
  • Several insights emerged: a) Accumulation of LMM biomarkers on circulating carrier proteins greatly amplifies the total serum/plasma concentration of the measurable biomarker, b) The total serum/plasma biomarker concentration is largely determined by the carrier protein clearance rate, not the unbound biomarker clearance rate itself, and c) Examination of the LMM species bound to a specific carrier protein may contain important diagnostic information. (
  • Sixty percent to 70% of plasma protein S circulates complexed to C4b-binding protein (C4bBP), a 570 kilodalton complement system regulator. (
  • Acquired protein S deficiency may be, theoretically, the result of elevated plasma C4bBP, decreased synthesis of protein S synthesis, or increased protein S consumption/loss. (
  • C4bBP is an acute phase reactant, thus, its plasma concentration increases with inflammation and hormonal changes, resulting in increased protein S binding and a theoretically relative deficiency of free protein S. Acquired deficiency of free protein S due to acute phase elevation of C4b binding protein has been disputed. (
  • Protein binding describes the ability of proteins to form bonds with other substances, and most commonly refers to the bonding of drugs to these molecules in blood plasma , red blood cells, other components of the blood, and to tissue membranes. (
  • A drug's efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma . (
  • This means that of the amount of warfarin in the blood, 97% is bound to plasma proteins. (
  • The fraction unbound can be altered by a number of variables, such as the concentration of drug in the body, the amount & quality of plasma protein, and other drugs that bind to plasma proteins. (
  • Higher drug concentrations would lead to a higher fraction unbound, because the plasma protein would be saturated with drug and any excess drug would be unbound. (
  • If the amount of plasma protein is decreased (such as in catabolism , malnutrition , liver disease, renal disease ), there would also be a higher fraction unbound. (
  • Additionally, the quality of the plasma protein may affect how many drug-binding sites there are on the protein. (
  • If Drug A is given, it will bind to the plasma proteins in the blood. (
  • If a patient on warfarin takes another drug that displaces warfarin from plasma protein, it could result in an increased risk of bleeding. (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Plasma_protein_binding" . (
  • CDPX2 is a rare disorder of defective cholesterol biosynthesis, biochemically characterized by an increased amount of 8-dehydrocholesterol and cholest-8(9)-en-3-beta-ol in the plasma and tissues. (
  • Recent advances have been made through the application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic loci associated with plasma levels of procoagulant proteins and risk of thrombotic disease. (
  • A comparison between the standard gold sensor and Hydroxyapatite (HA)-plasma coated sensor denoted a clearly favourable cell attachment on HA coated sensor as a significantly higher signal of cell binding was detected. (
  • The associations remained significant after controlling for age, BMI, fat mass and plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein. (
  • Microbeads can be used as surfaces to allow different ligands to bind to proteins. (
  • Siderocalin captures iron indirectly by forming a complex with ligands that bind iron. (
  • Because these ligands can bind multiple metals, that means siderocalin can as well. (
  • This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. (
  • They are carrier proteins that bind retinol. (
  • Experiments showed that the ProQ protein binds to 98 regulatory RNAs of the enterobacterial Salmonella enterica. (
  • Surprisingly, we discovered that LIN28 not only binds to the non-coding microRNAs, but can also bind directly to thousands of messenger RNAs," said first author Melissa Wilbert, a doctoral student in the UC San Diego Biomedical Sciences graduate program. (
  • These results have been translated into the development of in silico tools to calculate binding free energies, to weigh the energetic consequence of mutations, and for protein design ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • Based on these data and other biochemical information, researchers speculate that the mutations in the LDL receptor affect the receptor1s ability to bind calcium and therefore its ability to fold into its proper shape. (
  • How Rb acts to bring about this suppression is not clear 5 but one clue is that the Rb protein forms complexes with the transforming oncoproteins of several DNA tumour viruses 6-8 , and that two regions of Rb essential for such binding frequently contain mutations in tumour cells 9,10 . (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is activated in prostate tumors but not mediated by B-RAF mutations," Eur Urol. (
  • Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum albumin , lipoprotein , glycoprotein , α, β‚ and γ globulins. (
  • Thyroid hormone consisting of one or more of the iodothyronines bound to one or more of the serum proteins. (
  • A test to determine thyroid function in which serum protein-bound iodine is measured. (
  • The bound drug is kept in the blood stream while the unbound component may be metabolized or excreted, making it the active part. (
  • After a given time interval the bound and unbound portions are separated - for example, by using a very fine filter that will not allow large protein molecules to pass through - and the extent of binding can then be determined. (
  • A drug in blood exists in two forms: bound and unbound. (
  • The bound portion may act as a reservoir or depot from which the drug is slowly released as the unbound form. (
  • Since the unbound form is being metabolized and/or excreted from the body, the bound fraction will be released in order to maintain equilibrium. (
  • If Drug B is also given, it can displace Drug A from the protein, thereby increasing Drug A's fraction unbound. (
  • domains are structurally well-characterized modules of ~120 amino acids found in a wide variety of signaling proteins involved intracellular trafficking, cellular signaling and cytoskeletal remodeling. (
  • Overexpression of APP relieved appoptosin-induced caspase-3 cleavage in all cases but one-the APP mutant lacking the 57-amino-acid intracellular domain that binds appoptosin. (
  • n-Sec1 binds to syntaxin 1a, 2, and 3 fusion proteins coupled to agarose beads, but not to syntaxin 4 fusion protein or beads coupled to a variety of other proteins. (
  • These observations suggest that endogenous cellular proteins might exist that bind to the same regions of Rb and thereby mediate its function. (
  • and second, both T antigen and T peptide (amino acids 101-118) were able to compete with RbAP46 for binding to Rb. (
  • FBP is a membrane-bound, tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in various tumor types, including breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers. (
  • Cholesterol-binding cytolysins (CBCs) are a large family of 50- to 60-kDa single-chain proteins produced by 23 taxonomically different species of Gram-positive bacteria from the genera Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria and Arcanobacterium. (
  • Our MAX binding protein RNAi can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Our MALTOSE BINDING PROTEIN Peptides and MALTOSE BINDING PROTEIN Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Bacteria. (
  • Harding MM (2002) Metal-ligand geometry relevant to proteins and in proteins: sodium and potassium. (
  • Translation is primarily regulated during steps one and two by complexes of proteins that interact with the mRNA. (
  • In both cellular locations, it makes a speckled pattern consistent with the large protein/RNA complexes formed by RNA-binding proteins. (
  • A new study by researchers at Germany's Jülich Research Centre reports the inhibition of the aggregation and activation of the spike receptor protein of the virus causing the current pandemic, by a peptide on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. (
  • Secondly, the researchers used MD to assess the free energy released when the ligand adsorbs to its binding site at the ACE2 receptor. (
  • Many researchers believed the protein contractions were controlled by calcium, similar to muscle cells. (
  • In a hunt for molecules that bind amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), researchers have discovered a mitochondrial ion transporter that promotes programmed cell death in neurons. (
  • Further experiments honed the researchers' focus by showing that the AICD-binding protein induced cell death through mitochondrial caspase-3. (
  • Understanding when and where proteins bind to DNA may be the ticket to identifying cancer at the cellular level, according to researchers at Stanford. (
  • Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators at other institutions have identified a link between how proteins bind to our DNA and how cancer develops. (
  • As Chang explained, ATAC-seq is like spray-painting your DNA but only the accessible chromatin gets painted, giving researchers a fast and easy way to identify key protein-binding areas. (
  • Researchers from Sweden's KTH Royal Institute of Technology and the German research center, DESY, recently reported they have spun strands of proteins derived from ordinary milk proteins, namely whey powder. (
  • A study led by researchers at the UC San Diego Stem Cell Research program and funded by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) looks at an important RNA binding protein called LIN28, which is implicated in pluripotency and reprogramming as well as in cancer and other diseases. (
  • Studying embryonic stem cells and somatic cells stably expressing LIN28, the researchers defined discrete binding sites of LIN28 in 25 percent of human transcripts. (
  • Using genome-wide biochemical methods to look at the set of all RNA molecules across the transcriptome, the researchers found that LIN28 recognizes and binds to a known hairpin-like structure found on the let-7 family of miRNA, but surprisingly, this same structure is also found on mRNAs, allowing LIN28 to directly regulate thousands of targets. (
  • Panning the cerebrospinal fluid of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, researchers discovered a new pathological marker in RNA-binding motif 45 (RBM45). (
  • Researchers have uncovered a protein that may help beneficial gut bacteria bind to the mucus membrane of the gastrointestinal tract enabling them to more effectively colonise and produce their health promoting effects. (
  • Experimentally, this phenomenon is shown on the interaction between TEM1-βlactamase and β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) by using multiple-mutant analysis and x-ray crystallography. (
  • As a model system, we use the interface between TEM1-β-lactamase (TEM1) and its protein inhibitor, β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP). (
  • Baritaki S, Katsman A, Chatterjee D, Yeung K, Spandidos D, Bonavida B. Regulation of tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the metastatic suppressor Raf kinase inhibitor protein via Yin Yang 1 inhibition and death receptor 5 up-regulation. (
  • Protein-bound conformation of a specific inhibitor against Candid. (
  • Ltbp4 encodes a latent TGF-β-binding protein that sequesters TGF-β and regulates its availability for binding to the TGF-β receptor. (
  • When the team performed ATAC-seq on the tissue, they noticed that a chromatin mutation created a new protein-binding site that was associated with a strong increase in the activity of a neighboring genethat regulates cell size, motility and shape - all of which are classic factors in cancer growth. (
  • For now, it's known as IGF2BP3, which stands for "insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3. (
  • In this review I focus on the mRNA-binding proteins that control mRNA translation in neurons and how they may participate in local, synaptodendritic protein synthesis. (
  • It is now clear that both processes involve mRNA-binding proteins that are primarily bound to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of responsive mRNAs. (
  • Although several mRNA-binding proteins that regulate mRNA transport and translation in neurons have been described, identification of the target mRNAs to which they bind has lagged behind. (
  • Initially described as a protein involved in mRNA transport, it is now apparent that ZBP1 plays a role in both transport and translational repression. (
  • Staufen1 and 2 represent the other conserved family of RNA-binding proteins with demonstrable roles in mRNA transport in neurons. (
  • Once in the cytoplasm, these mRNA-binding proteins and their target mRNAs are packaged into granules for transport out of the cell body ( Hirokawa, 2006 ). (
  • One such vaccine target is the spike (S) protein of the coronavirus since this facilitates viral entry into the cell. (
  • It binds to the retinoids in the interphotoreceptor matrix and facilitates their exchange between the IPM and the cells that carry out the visual cycle [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. (
  • CalPred is a "tool for EF-hand calcium binding protein prediction and calcium binding region identification" using machine learning techniques. (
  • Si J, Zhao R, Wu R. An Overview of the Prediction of Protein DNA-Binding Sites. (
  • One effective mechanism of preventing viral infection and thus containing the outbreak could be by the inhibition of the ACE2-S protein interaction that leads to viral entry. (
  • Thirdly, they looked into how the peptide affects the S protein-ACE2 interaction. (
  • Thus, it is inferred that the self-assembly induced by dimerization is unlikely in situ, and that some interaction between proteins is required for cluster formation. (
  • Although SPR is extensively utilized in interaction studies, recent research of protein or cell adsorption on hydroxyapatite coatings for prostheses applications was not found. (
  • The MP-SPR was used to measure lysozyme protein and human mesenchymal stem cells interaction to the hydroxyapatite coating. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • 2001). RNA-binding protein Musashi2: developmentally regulated expression in neural precursor cells and subpopulations of neurons in mammalian CNS. (
  • Regulation of this binding is therefore likely to be an important determinant of promoter activity. (
  • Regulation of protein expression in neurons by controlling not only when, but where, mRNAs are translated is likely to play an important role in neuronal function. (
  • Being able to design proteins that can bind to specific, chosen targets would open up a world of possibilities, including medicines targeting previously undruggable pathways and chemical sensors that detect specific molecules. (
  • Functional protein S synthesis is diminished in vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, with some chemotherapy agents, warfarin therapy, and L-asparaginase therapy. (
  • Dubbed "appoptosin," the protein drives synthesis of heme, the iron-containing porphyrin in hemoglobins. (
  • That protein synthesis may occur outside the neuronal cell body was first suggested in the early 1980s by the finding that polyribosomes are localized to subsynaptic regions ( Steward and Levy, 1982 ). (
  • Of the potential functional significance for local protein synthesis, Steward and Levy (1982) wrote, "It is difficult to conceive of a situation which is intuitively more appealing as a mechanism for protein synthesis-dependent maintenance or modification of a synapse as a function of the activity over that synapse. (
  • This review focuses on RNA-binding proteins and their role in regulating local protein synthesis in neurons. (
  • Logically, if protein synthesis were to occur in distinct cellular compartments, mRNAs must be identified shortly after transcription and held in a translationally dormant state during transport to the appropriate compartment. (
  • let the symbol TBP represent the TATA binding protein , or TATA box binding protein . (
  • The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerases I, II and III, from promoters with or without a TATA box. (
  • let the symbol TAF stand for TATA binding protein associated factor . (
  • any factor associating with the TATA binding protein (TBP) is called a TBP associated factor (TAF). (
  • LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4 . (
  • Confirmation and characterization of protein S (PS) deficiency: C4b-binding protein elevates as an acute phase protein that may lead to enhanced protein S binding and decreased free protein S levels. (
  • proteins to respond to lipid messengers by localizing to membranes and transmitting signals to downstream targets. (
  • domain inhibit lipid binding and result in defects in the sorting of ubiquitinated cargo. (
  • Al Mulla F, Bitar M, Taqi Z, Rath O, Kolch W. RAF kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) modulates cell cycle kinetics and motility. (
  • This region modulates the DNA binding activity of the C-terminus, and modulation of DNA-binding affects the rate of transcription complex formation and initiation of transcription. (
  • Corbit KC, Trakul N, Eves EM, Diaz B, Marshall M, Rosner MR. Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein. (
  • domain plays a critical role in its ability to bind PtdIns3p and translocate Vps36 to endosomes. (
  • Nonetheless, mPEBP-2 is seen to be very similar in structure to other PEBP proteins from human, bovine and plant sources. (
  • Retinol-binding proteins have been identified in the uterus, embryo and extraembryonic tissue of the ovine, bovine and porcine. (
  • The most popular approach for studying the energetic contribution of an amino acid to the free energy of binding (or stability) of proteins is to introduce a mutation and then measure the subsequent change in free energy ( 6 ). (
  • Since lactose also blocks elastic fiber formation by cultured chondroblasts, the galactoside-binding property of the elastin receptor is implicated in this process. (
  • For the purposes of the invention, proteins are biologically active substances, preferably enzymes. (
  • However, as yet no process for binding or immobilizing biologically active substances has been found which is substantially free from significant shortcomings. (