Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.OrosomucoidPromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Iodohippuric Acid: An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Disopyramide: A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nordazepam: An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Alfalfa mosaic virus: The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Oxazepam: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Progesterone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Canavalia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Apazone: An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Radioimmunosorbent Test: Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Protein Footprinting: A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Lac Repressors: Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Y-Box-Binding Protein 1: Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.Magnetic Phenomena: Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.CresolsTranscription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.PhosphoproteinsMacromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.snRNP Core Proteins: The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Blotting, Southwestern: A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (1/96713)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/96713)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (3/96713)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (4/96713)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/96713)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (6/96713)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (7/96713)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (8/96713)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Purified U2OS PRα Protein Interaction Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. U2OS PRα Protein Interaction Assay Kit can be used for research.
Purified U2OS PRβ Protein Interaction Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. U2OS PRβ Protein Interaction Assay Kit can be used for research.
Detection of Protein-Protein Interactions Using the GST Fusion Protein Pull-down Technique. Bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused proteins are used as probes to perform direct measure of protein-protein interactions and for affinity purification. Slideshow 6521621 by...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biophysical characterization and modeling of human Ecdysoneless (ECD) protein supports a scaffolding function. AU - Mir, Riyaz A.. AU - Lovelace, Jeff. AU - Schafer, Nicholas P.. AU - Simone, Peter D.. AU - Kellezi, Admir. AU - Kolar, Carol. AU - Spagnol, Gaelle. AU - Sorgen, Paul L. AU - Band, Hamid. AU - Band, Vimla. AU - Borgstahl, Gloria E. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - The human homolog of Drosophila ecdysoneless protein (ECD) is a p53 binding protein that stabilizes and enhances p53 functions. Homozygous deletion of mouse Ecd is early embryonic lethal and Ecd deletion delays G1-S cell cycle progression. Importantly, ECD directly interacts with the Rb tumor suppressor and competes with the E2F transcription factor for binding to Rb. Further studies demonstrated ECD is overexpressed in breast and pancreatic cancers and its overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. ECD overexpression together with Ras induces cellular transformation through upregulation of ...
The invention provides reagents and methods for multivalent binding and quantitative capture of components in a sample. In one aspect, reagents and methods for diagnostic assay for antigen, ligand, binding agent, or antibody are provided. Compositions of a non-natural or deliberately constructed nucleic acid-like polymeric scaffold are provided, to which multiple antibodies, peptides or other binding agents can be affixed by hybridization of a oligonucleotide: binding agent complex such that the nucleic acid: binding agent construction displays multivalent behavior when interacting with a multivalent analyte. Methods for constructing and using the scaffolds are described. Such compositions may include assembly of mixed specificity binding agents such that the composition displays multivalent binding behavior against a target containing mixed analytes which can be bound by the construct to effect a binding affinity increase such as is observed in avidity reagents against single analytes expressed
This article describes a HaloTag® bioluminescent pull-down workflow for validating protein:protein interaction results obtained with NanoBRET™ assays.
Kinases transfer the γ-phosphate of ATP to other biological molecules, serving as chemical messengers that make the tight regulation of cell-signaling pathways possible. For example, non-receptor tyrosine kinases are found in the cytoplasm (not membrane-bound) and transfer the γ-phosphate of ATP to tyrosine residues of other proteins, often turning these proteins "on" or "off" in the context of their respective signaling pathway. This notion of "on" or "off" can be useful to holistically conceptualize these pathways but is a gross oversimplification; in reality, many of these enzymes are multi-domain proteins that can exist in multiple conformational states, participate in multiple protein-protein interactions, and experience a gradient of variable activity levels depending on these states. The molecular mechanisms that govern the activity of these kinases is extraordinarily complex, and though much has been discovered in recent years, much remains to be understood, especially for the Tec ...
Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 × 106 pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, >99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and phosphorylation include regulation of potassium channel activity through abscisic acid signaling, transporter activity by a WNK kinase, ...
Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 × 10(6) pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, >99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and phosphorylation include regulation of potassium channel activity through abscisic acid signaling, transporter activity by a WNK kinase, ...
This article discusses the pull-down technique, which is an invaluable tool for scientists interested in studying cellular pathways via protein-protein interactions.
NanoBRET protein interaction assays use NanoLuc luciferase as the energy donor to create sensitive BRET-based protein:protein interaction assays.
gst pulldown - posted in Protein and Proteomics: hi everyone, I have purified my fusion protein and is now conjugated with gst beads. MY question is, how long can i keep these fusion protein beads? Or should i do gst pulldown immediately? Thank you.
Hi, I´m performing GST Pulldown to identify protein-protein interactions between GST-X and prey proteins in a cellular lysate. The results are not so good so far, because I identify a lot of unspecific proteins (cytoskeletal proteins and so on). So I think i´ll have to improve my method. What things would you change ...
Plexera® develops products for detection and quantification of molecular binding interactions such as protein-protein, antibody-antigen, protein-oligonucleotide, and other molecular binding interactions.
An integral component of understanding E3 ligase function is identifying the enzymes cognate substrate(s) and/or binding proteins. Previous binding partners of BCA2 included Rab7, isolated through yeast-II-hybrid screening [17], tetherin, which was found though brute-force GST-pulldowns [18], and ubiquitin and UBC9 from bacteria-II- hybrid screening [7, 16]. Bacteria and yeast screening systems were used in this study to identify additional potential binding partners of BCA2 (Table 1). Of the potential partners found, 14-3-3σ and hHR23a were chosen for further investigation in the context of BCA2 activity and expression. Through binding experiments we confirmed that the BCA2 protein bound both to 14-3-3σ and hHR23a (Figure 1B and 1C). hHR23a and BCA2 were co-expressed in a mammalian system, while 14-3-3σ was expressed in a bacterial system and incubated with recombinant purified BCA2. The expression levels of wild-type BCA2 and the S132, 133A mutant in HEK293T cells were much lower than ...
The yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) approach shows considerable promise for the unbiased identification of novel small molecule-protein interactions. In recent years, it has been successfully used to link a number of bioactive molecules to novel protein binding partners. However despite its potential importance as a protein target identification method, the Y3H technique has not yet been widely adopted, in part due to the challenges associated with the synthesis of the complex chemical inducers of dimerisation (CIDs). The development of a modular approach using potentially
Biochemical processes within a cell or an organism are usually induced by molecular interaction and recognition events. One major aim of drug discovery is to identify bioactive molecular structures that can be used to sufficiently interfere with such molecular interaction processes and thereby positively influence and eventually cure a disease. Antagonists which prohibit the interactions between naturally occurring ligands and their protein receptors could be represented as good drug candidates. Low molecular weight ligands can interact with macromolecular target through covalent and noncovalent interactions. Noncovalent binding is characterized by equilibrium thermodynamics. Important noncovalent interactions are hydrogen bonds, ionic interactions and hydrophobic contacts. Steric and electronic complementarity between protein receptor and low molecular ligand seem to be the most important prerequisite to allow a tightly and selectively association. In almost any drug discovery project based on ...
Capto Core 700 Resin Binding Efficiency - Dear Expert, I am using Capto Core 700 for sample run (sample temp. max. 10 deg. Celsius). In case of capto core 700 resin what is the minimum and maximum temperature which can effectively used for...
Capto Core 700 Resin Binding Efficiency - Dear Expert, I am using Capto Core 700 for sample run (sample temp. max. 10 deg. Celsius). In case of capto core 700 resin what is the minimum and maximum temperature which can effectively used for...
FLUORESZENZMARKIERUNG (BIOLOGIE); INTRAZELLULÄRE WECHSELWIRKUNGEN (CYTOLOGIE); ERYTHROZYTENMEMBRAN (HISTOLOGIE UND CYTOLOGIE); POLARITÄT, HYDROPHILE UND LIPOPHOBE MOLEKÜLE UND INTERAKTIONEN (BIOPHYSIKALISCHE CHEMIE); FLUORESCENCE LABELLING (BIOLOGY); INTRACELLULAR INTERACTIONS (CYTOLOGY); ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE (HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY); POLARITY, HYDROPHILIC AND LIPOPHOBIC MOLECULES AND INTERACTIONS (BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY ...
131D: The low-temperature crystal structure of the pure-spermine form of Z-DNA reveals binding of a spermine molecule in the minor groove.
MARCKS like protein Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our MARCKS like protein Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
Amino-acids are essential for optimal health, as they form proteins and serve specific functions, such as assisting with food breakdown, aiding muscle growth and promoting tissue repair.
Buy B-100 COMPLEX - 100 caps Online.B group vitamins help to produce energy from the fats and carbohydrates we ingest. They subsequently help to form proteins and lipids as well as participating in cell creation and genetic material.
The Ca2+ binding affinities of the high-affinity RCK1 site at −80 mV. (A) Inward K+ currents recorded from mutant ΔEΔB(D2A2) at −80 mV and filtered at 10
Extracellular domain of FLS2 can mediate interaction with BAK1.Co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed using 35S-FLS2-NoKinase-HA (construct lacking the
This was bound to happen eventually. With all the crockpot cooking Ive been doing lately, and all the night-before preparation for said crockpot cooking, I knew that one day Id inevitably forget to plug the dang thing in before leaving […]
The C type natriuretic peptide receptor (NPRC) also known as NPR3 is a widely expressed single transmembrane-spanning protein. NPRC functions as a homodimer at the cell surface for the metabolic clearance of a broad range of natriuretic peptides from circulation. The intracellular domain of NPRC is coupled to inhibitory G proteins and is involved in mediating signal transduction. In order to further elucidate the role of NPRC in signal transduction a proteomic approach was taken to identify putative protein binding partners for NPRC in different cell-types. An interrogation of the molecular association between NPRC and its identified protein binding partner(s) was carried out in different cell types to identify the specific interacting domains. The physiological role of the association between NPRC and its protein binding partner(s) were investigated in situ. Furthermore NPRC is subject to post translation modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation. Although evidence suggests NPRC is
Protein binding microarrays (PBM) are a high throughput technology used to characterize protein-DNA binding. The arrays measure a proteins affinity toward thousands of double-stranded DNA sequences at once, producing a comprehensive binding specificity catalog. We present a linear model for predicting the binding affinity of a protein toward DNA sequences based on PBM data. Our model represents the measured intensity of an individual probe as a sum of the binding affinity contributions of the probes subsequences. These subsequences characterize a DNA binding motif and can be used to predict the intensity of protein binding against arbitrary DNA sequences. Our method was the best performer in the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods 5 (DREAM5) transcription factor/DNA motif recognition challenge. For the DREAM5 bonus challenge, we also developed an approach for the identification of transcription factors based on their PBM binding profiles. Our approach for TF identification ...
This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one against the CDC20 protein, and the other against the BUB1B protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See Publication Reference below. (DI0076) - Products - Abnova
This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one against the TRAF5 protein, and the other against the TRAF3 protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See Publication Reference below. (DI0413) - Products - Abnova
We report a new method, Interaction-Dependent PRobe Incorporation Mediated by Enzymes, or ID-PRIME, for imaging protein-protein interactions (PPIs) inside living cells. ID-PRIME utilizes a mutant of Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase, LplA[superscript W37V], which can catalyze the covalent ligation of a coumarin fluorophore onto a peptide recognition sequence called LAP1. The affinity between the ligase and LAP1 is tuned such that, when each is fused to a protein partner of interest, LplA[superscript W37V] labels LAP1 with coumarin only when the protein partners to which they are fused bring them together. Coumarin labeling in the absence of such interaction is low or undetectable. Characterization of ID-PRIME in living mammalian cells shows that multiple protein-protein interactions can be imaged (FRB-FKBP, Fos-Jun, and neuroligin-PSD-95), with as little as 10 min of coumarin treatment. The signal intensity and detection sensitivity are similar to those of the widely used fluorescent protein ...
PDZ domains most commonly bind the C-terminus of their protein targets. Typically the C-terminal four residues of the protein target are considered as the binding motif, particularly the C-terminal residue (P0) and third-last residue (P-2) that form the major contacts with the PDZ domains binding groove. We solved crystal structures of seven human PDZ domains, including five of the seven PDLIM family members. The structures of GRASP, PDLIM2, PDLIM5, and PDLIM7 show a binding mode with only the C-terminal P0 residue bound in the binding groove. Importantly, in some cases, the P-2 residue formed interactions outside of the binding groove, providing insight into the influence of residues remote from the binding groove on selectivity. In the GRASP structure, we observed both canonical and noncanonical binding in the two molecules present in the asymmetric unit making a direct comparison of these binding modes possible. In addition, structures of the PDZ domains from PDLIM1 and PDLIM4 also presented here
Our results show that LCRs are preferentially located towards sequence extremities, and that proteins with LCRs in their sequence extremities have more protein binding partners than proteins with LCRs in their central regions. Furthermore, we have shown the length of LCRs to be positively correlated with the number of binding partners, but only in the sequence extremities. While t-LCRs can extend free from the rest of the protein structure, c-LCRs are likely to be surrounded by protein globular domains, thus limiting their flexibility and accessibility, and therefore the number of different proteins to which they can mediate binding. By contrast, if t-LCRs themselves tend to act as promiscuous interfaces for protein binding, this would explain our observation that proteins with longer t-LCR regions have a tendency towards a higher number of protein binding partners. Examining the list of over-represented GO terms in Table 7, we hypothesise that t-LCRs play major roles in low-specificity ...
The binding modes of a DNA or RNA binding protein refer to the different possible stable binding conformations between the protein and the nucleic acids. There are two main factors that can produce multiple modes of binding:. 1. Many proteins can contain multiple DNA and RNA binding domains with different sequence-binding preferences. When different combinations of these domains bind to different binding sites, we refer to each DNA or RNA interacting combination as a binding mode of the protein.. 2a. Many proteins can oligomerize into homo- and heterodimers and tetramers - whereby the protein-complex now has more DNA and/or RNA binding domains to bind to larger binding sites. In addition, many of these oligomerizing proteins can also bind as monomers to smaller sites. Often, differently sized protein-complexes have different binding properties and are referred to as having different binding modes. "Latent specificity" is when the binding specificity of a protein changes significantly when bound ...
Binding Affinity Prediction of Protein-Ligand complex containing Zinc [ BAPPL-Z ] server computes the binding free energy of a zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complex using an all atom energy based empirical scoring function
There are many characteristics of a protein-protein interaction that are important. Obviously, it is important to know which proteins are interacting. In many experiments and computational studies, the focus is on interactions between two different proteins. However, you can have one protein interacting with other copies of itself (oligomerization), or three or more different proteins interacting. The stoichiometry of the interaction is also important - that is, how many of each protein involved are present in a given reaction. Some protein interactions are stronger than others, because they bind together more tightly. The strength of binding is known as affinity. Proteins will only bind each other spontaneously if it is energetically favorable. Energy changes during binding are another important aspect of protein interactions. Many of the computational tools that predict interactions are based on the energy of interactions.. In recent years there has been a strong focus on predicting protein ...
Allelic differences in nuclear protein binding at a genome-wide significant risk variant for schizophrenia in ZNF804A [Letter to the editor]. Molecular Psychiatry 16 (8) , pp. 787-789. 10.1038/mp.2011.21 ...
A multiauthored, 17-chapter text based on the workshop held at the Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, California, early in 1971 under the sponsorship of the Endocrine Society. Text includes the discussions that followed each lecture.. This form of the workshop papers provides a systematic, logical, detailed introduction to theoretical concepts and practical execution of radioimmunoassays in the various applications.. The typewriter-typography permitted rapid and relatively inexpensive publication for a book of this size but makes for irritating reading.. Recommended for medical-school, research-institute, and large-hospital libraries. ...
This entry represents a domain found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. It is known as the PLAT (Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin) domain or LH2 (Lipoxygenase homology) domain, is found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. Structurally, this domain forms a beta-sandwich composed of two sheets of four strands each [(PUBMED:10469604), (PUBMED:11985859), (PUBMED:11412104)]. The most highly conserved regions coincide with the beta-strands, with most of the highly conserved residues being buried within the protein. An exception to this is a surface lysine or arginine that occurs on the surface of the fifth beta-strand of the eukaryotic domains. In pancreatic lipase, the lysine in this position forms a salt bridge with the procolipase protein. The conservation of a charged surface residue may indicate the location of a conserved ligand-binding site. It is thought that this domain may mediate membrane attachment via other protein binding partners.. ...
This entry represents a domain found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. It is known as the PLAT (Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin) domain or LH2 (Lipoxygenase homology) domain, is found in a variety of membrane or lipid associated proteins. Structurally, this domain forms a beta-sandwich composed of two sheets of four strands each [(PUBMED:10469604), (PUBMED:11985859), (PUBMED:11412104)]. The most highly conserved regions coincide with the beta-strands, with most of the highly conserved residues being buried within the protein. An exception to this is a surface lysine or arginine that occurs on the surface of the fifth beta-strand of the eukaryotic domains. In pancreatic lipase, the lysine in this position forms a salt bridge with the procolipase protein. The conservation of a charged surface residue may indicate the location of a conserved ligand-binding site. It is thought that this domain may mediate membrane attachment via other protein binding partners.. ...
DNA constructs and protein interaction assays. All constructs were generated by subcloning PCR amplification products into appropriate vectors, and each construct was verified by automated DNA sequencing. cDNA fragments encoding the C terminus of the D1 (residues 365-446), D2 (residues 428-443), D3 (residues 385-400), D4 (residues 370-387), and D5 (residues 360-477) receptors were ligated into the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain expression vector pAS2-1 (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). For the D2 receptor screen, the D2-pAS2-1 bait plasmid and the human brain cDNA library in the GAL4 activation domain vector pACT2 (Clontech) were simultaneously cotransformed into the yeast strain MaV103 as previously described (Lin et al., 2001). Positive clones were identified by growth on Leu−/Trp−/His−/Ura−selection plates. Protein interaction was assayed for by β-galactosidase activity via the nitrocellulose filter lift method (Lin et al., 2001).. To identify the sites of interaction between D2 or D3 ...
The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a protein interaction domain (PID) contained within SRC and other intracellular signal-transducing proteins, many of which drive tumorigenesis, which mediates protein-protein interactions via the docking of SH2 domain-containing proteins to phosphotyrosine (pY) residues on other proteins. Membrane lipids have recently been shown to regulate protein-protein interactions mediated by a different PID and to bind to several SH2 domains. To elucidate the role of lipids in SH2 domain-mediated protein-protein interactions and signal transduction, Park, Sheng, Silkov, Jung, and colleagues performed surface plasmon resonance analysis to systematically characterize the binding affinities of 76 of the 121 known SH2 domains for plasma membrane (PM)-mimetic vesicles which recapitulate the lipid profile of cytofacial PM. Sixty-eight out of the 76 SH2 domains analyzed exhibited moderately high to high levels of affinity for PM-mimetic vesicles. Twelve of 18 SH2 domains ...
The regulation of protein function through oligomerization is a common theme in biological systems. In this work, I have focused on the effects of the oligomeric states of the human Rad52 protein on activities related to DNA binding. HsRad52, a member of the RAD52 epistasis group, is thought to play an important and as yet undefined role in homologous recombination. HsRad52 preferentially binds to ssDNA over dsDNA and stimulates HsRad51-mediated strand exchange (Benson et al., 1998). In either the presence or absence of DNA, HsRad52 has been observed to form both 10 nm ring-like structures as well as higher order oligomers consisting of multiple 10 nm rings (Van Dyck et al., 1998; Van Dyck et al., 1999). Earlier protein-protein interaction studies mapped the domain responsible for HsRad52 self-association in the N-terminus (residues 85-159) (Shen et al., 1996). Data presented here identifies a novel self-association domain in the C-terminus of HsRad52 that is responsible for the formation of higher
Integrins undergo large‐scale conformational changes (Springer & Dustin, 2012). In the bent‐closed (BC) conformation, the integrin ectodomain folds at knees in the α‐ and β‐subunits so that the head and upper legs associate with the lower legs (Fig 1A). In two extended states, the extended‐closed (EC) and extended‐open (EO) conformations, extension of the α‐ and β‐knees raises the headpiece above the lower legs on cell surfaces (Fig 1A). In transition from EC to EO, that is, headpiece opening, the ligand‐binding metal ion‐dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) in the β‐subunit βI domain rearranges. This reshaping of the ligand‐binding site is linked by α‐helix pistoning within the βI domain to swing of the hybrid domain away from the integrin α‐subunit (Fig 1A). Although the affinities of these states have not yet been measured, previous studies have correlated integrin adhesiveness and high affinity for ligand with the EO conformation (Takagi et al, 2002, 2003; ...
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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as post-transcription of gene regulation. ncRNAs mainly function through interaction with RNA binding proteins (RBPs). To understand the function of a ncRNA, a fundamental step is to identify which protein is involved into its interaction. Therefore it is promising to computationally predict RBPs, where the major challenge is that the interaction pattern or motif is difficult to be found.. In this study, researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University propose a computational method IPMiner (Interaction Pattern Miner) to predict ncRNA-protein interactions from sequences, which makes use of deep learning and further improves its performance using stacked ensembling. One of the IPMiners typical merits is that it is able to mine the hidden sequential interaction patterns from sequence composition features of protein and RNA sequences using stacked autoencoder, and then the learned hidden features are fed into random ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins.
Recognition of indirect interactions is instrumental to in silico reconstruction of signaling pathways and sheds light on the exploration of unknown physical paths between two indirectly interacting genes. However, very limited computational methods have explicitly exploited the indirect interactions with ex
Dear netters, I am a PhD student in Japan. I am facing some problems in expressing my fusion proteins (both GST-fusions and His-tag fusions) in soluble fractions; therefore I decided to use the TNT-coupled recticulocyte system to synthesis the desired proteins. I need to use these fusion proteins for the following assay: (i) protein interaction - pull down assay (ii) in-vitro kinase assay My questions are: (i) how to purify the translated product from the TNT- coupled recticulocyte system? (ii) Are there any references for the above assays (pull down assay & in-vitro kinase assay) using both in-vitro translated fusion proteins? Your help are kindly appreciated. Thank you. sincerely, YK ...
Coprecipitation of proteins from whole‐cell extracts is a valuable approach to test for physical interactions between proteins of interest
A new interdisciplinary Northwestern University study reports that the important protein-DNA bond can be broken by unbound proteins floating around in the cell. This discovery sheds light on how molecules self-organize and how gene expression is dynamically controlled. The way proteins interact with DNA determines the biological activity of all living organisms, said John F.…
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an IL12B (IL-12p40) subunit (that is shared with IL12) and the IL23A (IL-23p19) subunit. A functional receptor for IL-23 (the IL-23 receptor) has been identified and is composed of IL-12R β1 and IL-23R. IL-23 was first described by Robert Kastelein and colleagues at the DNAX research institute using a combination of computational, biochemical and cellular immunology approaches. Prior to the discovery of IL-23, IL-12 had been proposed to represent a key mediator of inflammation in mouse models of inflammation. However, many studies aimed at assessing the role of IL-12 had blocked the activity of IL-12p40, and were therefore not as specific as thought. Studies which blocked the function of IL-12p35 did not produce the same results as those targeting IL-12p40 as would have been expected if both subunits formed part of IL-12 only. The discovery of an additional potential binding partner for IL-12p40 led to a reassessment of this role ...
human Rgl3 protein: a potential binding partner for Rap-family small G-proteins and profilin II; amino acid sequence in first source
No single molecule knows how to replicate, but together they do. There are thousands of kinds of molecules in your cells. No molecule knows how to replicate. DNA requires RNA, which requires proteins, which require the translation of RNA to proteins, which requires proteins to do the translation, which are called synthetase, they load the right amino acids on to the right transfer RNAs that bind to the right sites on the messenger RNA. A cell is a collectively autocatalytic system. All free living organisms are collectively autocatalytic systems, in richly coupled cross catalytic network.. As the diversity of molecules increases the number of interactions increases faster. At some point theres a phase transition and you just get popping out at you the emergence of collectively autocatalytic sets. Its not reducible to the underlying physics.. ...
Proteins bind to filamentous actin (F-actin) through distinct actin binding modules. In this video we demonstrate the procedure of...
Ligand binding affinities at G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have historically been determined using a radioligand that competes for receptor binding sites against an unlabeled drug-like compound. But the potential hazards of open-source radioisotope handling, and the environmental impact of radioisotope disposal, make this a less desirable and costly technology. Therefore, new fluorescent based alternatives have been developed to replace radioligands.
We developed models for physically realistic consecutive and independent binding schemes and compared them with the Hill equation (Figure 1). It follows from this comparison that the "half-effect" concentration may significantly differ from the conventional Hill equation depending on the binding mechanism. We used our models to rigorously investigate mechanisms for second messenger activation by multisite proteins. We show that differential and selective activation of different targets by the same protein-ligand complex (Ca2+ and calmodulin, for example) can be achieved by biologically active non-saturated intermediate multisite protein-ligand complexes. ...
Yun, H. Y. , Rohde, S. , Linnane, K. , Wahl, M. and Molis, M. (2010): Seaweed-mediated indirect interactions between two species of meso-herbivores. , Marine Ecology-Progress Series ...
Obese women may have an increased risk of ischemic stroke caused by decreased blood flow to brain, but a decreased risk for the more serious hemorrhagic stroke.
Researchers in Australias Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases at the Monash Institute of Medical Research have identified a new protein, ...
We report theoretical evidence from first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the bonding between Cl and the Au(111) surface is primarily covalent in character, which is in contrast to the generally held view that the bonding
All proteins belonging to the hsp70 family bind ATP. A variety of functions has been postulated for hsp70 proteins. It now appears [7] that some hsp70 proteins play an important role in the transport of proteins across membranes. They also seem to be involved in protein folding and in the assembly/ disassembly of protein complexes [8]. We have derived three signature patterns for the hsp70 family of proteins; the first centered on a conserved pentapeptide found in the N-terminal section of these proteins; the two others on conserved regions located in the central part of the sequence. Expert(s) to contact by email: Genevaux P ...
The long-range electrostatic forces of the targets in round 2 of the Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions (CAPRI) experiment were examined and a simple guided docking method, based on these forces, was applied. The method described consists of calculating an initial rigid body trajectory and an optional final, fully flexible refinement stage. Although only limited success was found in predicting the final complexes, some interesting information was discovered. In particular, the long-range forces seem to give some insight into the unusual binding mode of target 4 while raising some questions about target 7, which warrant further investigation.
Results: More than 50 novel 18-OA derivatives, in modest to excellent yield, were successfully prepared (in single E isomers) from either GA or 17-substituted GA. In comparison to 17-AAG, most derivatives retained similar binding affinities to Hsp90 but showed lower HER2 activity. The introduction of a basic hydrophilic group on both C-17 and C-18 increased the Hsp90-binding affinity and HER2 activity. Conversely, the introduction of hydrophobic and bulky substituents on the C-18 decreased the Hsp90 affinity dramatically. The in vitro cell-cytotoxic assay with 4 cell lines demonstrated that some of the resulting derivatives showed significantly increased cytotoxic activities compared to 17-AAG. Compound-5 (CO-5) showed higher cytotoxic activity than 17-AAG against all 4 cell lines. CO-22 exhibited broad cytotoxic activities in each cell line (IC50 = 13.9, 0.45, 6.3 and 2.9 μM respectively) and higher Hsp90-binding affinity than 17-AAG (EC50 = 60 nM and 280 nM respectively ...
A drug which attenuates the effect of an agonist. It may be competitive (or surmountable), i.e. it binds reversibly to a region of the receptor in common with an agonist, but occupies the site without activating the effector mechanism. The effects of a c ompetitive antagonist may be overcome by increasing the concentration of agonist, thereby shifting the equilibrium and increasing the proportion of receptors which the agonist occupies. This type of antagonist is discussed further in the next section. Alternatively, antagonists may be unsurmountable, where no amount of agonist can completely overcome the inhibition once it has been established. Unsurmountable antagonists may bind covalently to the agonist binding site (competi tive irreversible antagonists), in which case there is a period before the covalent bond forms during which competing ligands can prevent the inhibition. Other types of unsurmountable antagonists act allosterically at a different site on the receptor or an associated ion ...
The amazing variety of protein functions are often covered by protein complexes, so understanding protein-protein interactions means coming deeply into the functional role of proteins in life
Histone H2A H2B H3 H4 H2AX Peptides Biotinylated acetylated methylated phosphorylated for use in enzyme assays, histone binding and pulldown experiments
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Genesee \ 200ul Pipet Tip, Reload Clear, Low Binding \ 24-150RL for more molecular products just contact us
Get this from a library! Steroid-Cell Interactions.. [R J B King; W I P Mainwaring] -- Steroid-Cell Interactions describes the processes involved in the intracellular binding of steroids (and related compounds) in mammalian cells. Serum binding proteins and steroid-immunoglobulin ...
... involves rotation of backbone bondsin double‐stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to expose an out‐of‐stack base, which can then be a substrate for an enzyme‐catalysed chemical reaction or for a specific protein binding interaction
Around the age of 14, your skin begins aging rapidly. The vast majority of premature aging is said to occur during the first two decades of an individuals life. Skin aging occurs in two distinct ways: intrinsic aging and extrinsic aging. Naturally, extrinsic aging of the skin can be attributed to external forces, such
PERFECT SUIT, WITH THE ASSURANCE THAT ONLY OPEN CELL PROVIDES…The suit which most spear-hunters chose and use. Manufactured form high stretch
To view the Protein page, either click on the protein links in the box to the left or the blue bar above the Proteins graphic ...
To view the Protein page, either click on the protein links in the box to the left or the blue bar above the Proteins graphic ...
public static class BindingHelper { /// ,summary, /// Returns a ,c,BindingTarget,/c, which can be used to bind a data source to a control. /// ,/summary, /// ,typeparam name=T,The type of control to bind.,/typeparam, /// ,param name=controlToBind,The control to be bound.,/param, /// ,param name=expression,The expression representing the property of the control to bind to.,/param, /// ,returns,Returns the ,c,BindingTarget,/c, object which can be used to complete the binding process.,/returns, public static BindingTarget Bind,T,(this T controlToBind, Expression,Func,T, object,, expression) where T : Control { // Simply return the binding target. return new BindingTarget(controlToBind, PropertyNameHelper.GetPropertyName,T,(expression)); } } /// ,summary, /// Class that represents a control and property of the control, for data binding purposes. /// ,/summary, public class BindingTarget { /// ,summary, /// Creates a new ,c,BindingTarget,/c, instance. /// ,/summary, /// ,param ...
Co-inmunoprecipitación (CoIP) y ensayos de pull-down son métodos de cerca relacionados para identificar las interacciones proteína-proteína estable. Estos...
The Interactions Viewer displays protein interactors for the currently selected gene product from our database of ~80k predicted and ~100k confirmed protein interactions, and 2.8M protein-DNA interactions ...
In the current GLSL, you have to all glGetUniformLocationARB to get the constant number/location of your uniform.... Why not to do as Direct3D HLSL: void main ( unifrom float4 lightPos : register(C0) ) { } or void main ( uniform sampler2D baseTex : register(S0) ) {
What is the Difference Between Late vs Early binding Does ASP Support both binding? If not , which one , and why ? I know these r basic stuffs, but want to get an explanation directly from experts
Brightt, Brigitte Bordeaux, Brilliant Damage, Bring Em Down, Brittany Koff and The Endorphins, brivido vasco, BriZ, BRIZE, Broach…
Different cell types vary widely in their susceptibility to killing by the pore-forming cytolytic molecule perforin. In particular, the cells responsible for synthesis of perforin, i.e. cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, are very resistant to cytolysis by this molecule. It has previously been suggested that resistance is due, at least in part, to diminished binding of perforin to these cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare binding of perforin to sensitive and resistant cell types. To this end, perforin was biosynthetically labelled prior to purification. The purified labelled protein was then utilized to obtain a direct measure of the amount of perforin bound to cells during attack. Resistant cells (CTL, neutrophils) bound at least as much perforin as did sensitive cells (K562, HL60 etc.), indicating that resistance to perforin involves mechanisms operating after binding of the lytic molecule.. ...
Profacgen, a cutting-edge life science company pioneering protein services that accelerate pharmaceutical development, announces the launch of Protein Binding Site Mapping Service. Scientists in the field of protein interaction study can now have access to this novel service.. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play essential roles in almost all cellular processes, including gene regulation, metabolic control, signal transduction, and cell communication. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy is a rapidly developing technique for the study of binding events involving proteins, which are the major molecular targets for validated drugs and for current drug discovery.. Profacgen employs SPR techniques to identify binding sites involved in protein-protein interactions. Its protein binding site mapping service is highly customizable, which suits their customers specific research goals. According to its official speaker, the customer only need to send the company the target protein sequence ...
Aberrant activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), plays a role in cancer initiation, progression, and acquired drug resistance. Genetic analysis may not always reveal aberrant activity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling; thus, detecting active signaling through these kinases in clinical samples should improve prognostication and personalization of therapies. Diverse cancers, for example, those found in the lung, colon, or head and neck, can have aberrant activation of EGFR signaling, and EGFR-targeted therapies are used to treat these diseases. Smith et al. developed a proximity ligation assay (PLA) to detect the interaction between EGFR and the requisite signaling adaptor GRB2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) in common clinical preparations. EGFR:GRB2 PLA recapitulated traditional readouts of active EGFR signaling in cultured cells, in a panel of tumor xenografts in mice derived from primary patient samples, and in samples from three ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tissue-specific splicing regulator Fox-1 induces exon skipping by interfering E complex formation on the downstream intron of human F1γ gene. AU - Fukumura, Kazuhiro. AU - Kato, Ayako. AU - Jin, Yui. AU - Ideue, Takashi. AU - Hirose, Tetsuro. AU - Kataoka, Naoyuki. AU - Fujiwara, Toshinobu. AU - Sakamoto, Hiroshi. AU - Inoue, Kunio. PY - 2007/8/1. Y1 - 2007/8/1. N2 - Fox-1 is a regulator of tissue-specific splicing, via binding to the element (U)GCAUG in mRNA precursors, in muscles and neuronal cells. Fox-1 can regulate splicing positively or negatively, most likely depending on where it binds relative to the regulated exon. In cases where the (U)GCAUG element lies in an intron upstream of the alternative exon, Fox-1 protein functions as a splicing repressor to induce exon skipping. Here we report the mechanism of exon skipping regulated by Fox-1, using the hF1γ gene as a model system. We found that Fox-1 induces exon 9 skipping by repressing splicing of the downstream intron 9 ...
The precise mechanisms by which coactivators function to regulate transcription remain unclear. Coactivators have a structural role in serving as focal points for multiple protein-protein interactions including association with many transcriptional activation domains (Verrijzer and Tjian, 1996; Shikama et al., 1997; Xu et al., 1999). These interactions might help recruit components of the basal transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase to a particular promoter (Barlev et al., 1995; Nakajima et al., 1997a, b). Coactivators can also function as enzymes that modify both other transcriptional regulators and the chromatin environment within which transcription occurs (Brownell and Allis, 1996; Gregory and Horz, 1998). The exact significance of these diverse roles is a topic of substantial research interest.. Among the best studied systems for the analysis of coactivator function is the GCN5p-ADA2p-ADA3p complex (Berger et al., 1992; Candau and Berger, 1996; Candau et al., 1997; Grant et al., ...
Molecular Partners AG-Product Pipeline Review-2015. Summary. Global Markets Directs, Molecular Partners AG-Product Pipeline Review-2015, provides an overview of the Molecular Partners AGs pharmaceutical research and development focus.. This report provides comprehensive information on the current therapeutic developmental pipeline of Molecular Partners AGs, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. It also reviews latest updates, and featured news and press releases, along with special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.. Global Markets Directs report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Directs proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press ...
DCLK2 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_001035350), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase superfamily and the doublecortin family. The protein encoded by this gene contains two N-terminal doublecortin domains, which bind microtubules and regulate microtubule polymerization, a C-terminal serine/threonine protein kinase domain, which shows substantial homology to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and a serine/proline-rich domain in between the doublecortin and the protein kinase domains, which mediates multiple protein-protein interactions. The microtubule-polymerizing activity of the encoded protein is independent of its protein kinase activity. Mouse studies show that the DCX gene, another family member, and this gene share function in the establishment of
Alterations in peptide ligand that result in better or worse binding to MHC are effectively a change in concentration of pMHC ligand. This becomes especially significant in in vivo settings, where encounter with Ag is usually more rare. When comparing different peptide ligands, careful determination of MHC binding is obviously essential prior to making conclusions as to the effect of various ligands upon TCR-pMHC interactions.. The rate at which TCR and pMHC associate (kon) and dissociate (koff) is shown. The t1/2 of the TCR-pMHC interaction is related to the off-rate koff by the equation t1/2 = ln 2/koff. Thus, shorter TCR-pMHC interactions have shorter t1/2 and faster off-rates relative to longer TCR-pMHC interactions. In equilibrium conditions, the affinity is calculated from koff/kon, which can be derived from surface plasmon resonance measurements. The t1/2 of TCR-pMHC interactions can also be measured by dissociation of fluorescently labeled pMHC tetramers (11), and the off-rates ...
Intracellular compartmentalization through interactions among MAPKs and scaffold proteins plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction pathways (Morrison and Davis, 2003; Kolch, 2005). For example, active MEK-ERK complexes are retained in the cytoplasm and in sites of focal adhesion through interaction with the transmembrane protein Sef (Torii et al., 2004) and paxilin (Ishibe et al., 2004), respectively. Moreover, kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (Muller et al., 2001) and the complex p14-MEK-partner 1 (Teis et al., 2002; Pullikuth et al., 2005) are recruited to the plasma membrane and the endosome, respectively, where they enhance MEK and ERK activity. On the other hand, the association between ERKs and structural nuclear proteins, such as kinetochores, may serve anchoring purposes (Shapiro et al., 1998). To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that A-type lamins function as a nuclear docking platform for EKR1/2, and that NE-bound ERK1/2 contributes to the ...
Multivalency achieves strong, yet reversible binding by the simultaneous formation of multiple weak bonds. It is a key interaction principle in biology and promising for the synthesis of high-affinity inhibitors of pathogens. We present a molecular model for the binding affinity of synthetic multivalent ligands onto multivalent receptors consisting of n receptor units arranged on a regular polygon. Ligands consist of a geometrically matching rigid polygonal core to which monovalent ligand units are attached via flexible linker polymers, closely mimicking existing experimental designs. The calculated binding affinities quantitatively agree with experimental studies for cholera toxin (n = 5) and anthrax receptor (n = 7) and allow to predict optimal core size and optimal linker length. Maximal binding affinity is achieved for a core that matches the receptor size and for linkers that have an equilibrium end-to-end distance that is slightly longer than the geometric separation between ligand core ...
BioAssay record AID 642885 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to chicken riboflavin binding protein by surface plasmon resonance assay.
Many nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) are disease causing due to effects at protein-protein interfaces. We have integrated a database of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of human protein/protein complexes and the humsavar database of nsSNPs. We analyzed the location of nsSNPS in terms of their location in the protein core, at protein-protein interfaces, and on the surface when not at an interface. Disease-causing nsSNPs that do not occur in the protein core are preferentially located at protein-protein interfaces rather than surface noninterface regions when compared to random segregation. The disruption of the protein-protein interaction can be explained by a range of structural effects including the loss of an electrostatic salt bridge, the destabilization due to reduction of the hydrophobic effect, the formation of a steric clash, and the introduction of a proline altering the main-chain conformation. ...
Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to
Mutations of the human valosin-containing protein gene cause autosomal-dominant inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia. We identified strumpellin as a novel valosin-containing protein binding partner. Strumpellin mutations have been shown to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia. We demonstrate that strumpellin is a ubiquitously expressed protein present in cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum cell fractions. Overexpression or ablation of wild-type strumpellin caused significantly reduced wound closure velocities in wound healing assays, whereas overexpression of the disease-causing strumpellin N471D mutant showed no functional effect. Strumpellin knockdown experiments in human neuroblastoma cells resulted in a dramatic reduction of axonal outgrowth. Knockdown studies in zebrafish revealed severe cardiac contractile dysfunction, tail curvature and impaired motility. The latter phenotype is due to a loss of central and peripheral motoneuron ...
GO Terms Descrition:, periodic partitioning by pair rule gene, central nervous system development, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, trunk segmentation, cell fate specification, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription, regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, blastoderm segmentation, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, regulation of transcription, DNA-templated, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, nucleus, sequence-specific DNA binding, gonadal mesoderm development, segmentation, posterior head segmentation, germ cell migration ...
GO Terms Descrition:, biological_process, molecular_function, DNA binding, cellular component assembly, macromolecular complex assembly, ion binding, chromosome segregation, biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, cellular_component, nucleolus, organelle, nucleoplasm, nucleus, protein binding transcription factor activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity, chromosome, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, chromosome, centromeric region, condensed chromosome, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in negative regulation of transcription, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, transcription corepressor activity, protein binding, transcription, DNA-templated, zinc ion binding, positive regulation of gene expression, chromatin modification, ...
Looking for online definition of growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 in the Medical Dictionary? growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 explanation free. What is growth factor receptor-bound protein 7? Meaning of growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 medical term. What does growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 mean?
protein binding. • lipid binding. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase binding. • phosphatidylethanolamine binding. • serine- ... bovine phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein and rat 23-kDa protein associated with the opioid-binding protein". Brain Res. ... Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PEBP1 gene.[5][6] ... ATP binding. • enzyme binding. • peptidase inhibitor activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... SCAP, in turn, can bind reversibly with another ER-resident membrane protein, INSIG. In the presence of sterols, which bind to ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ...
TNF binding proteins[edit]. A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating ... protein synthesis inhibitors.. Methotrexate[edit]. Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and ... It binds to FKBP1A like tacrolimus, however the complex does not inhibit calcineurin but another protein, mTOR. Therefore, ... It binds to the immunophilin FKBP1A, followed by the binding of the complex to calcineurin and the inhibition of its ...
... , like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ...
Protons bind at various places on the protein, while carbon dioxide binds at the α-amino group.[63] Carbon dioxide binds to ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... in which CO2 is bound to the heme protein. The molecule also carries the important regulatory molecule nitric oxide bound to a ... and heme-bearing protein subunits bound together into a single protein complex with a molecular mass greater than 3.5 million ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
The elimination half-life is around 2 hours.[8][118] It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin.[8] However ... binding to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA).[111] Moclobemide is chemically unrelated to irreversible MAOI antidepressants ... It has been described as a 'slow binding inhibitor', whereby conformational changes to either moclobemide or the enzyme to MAO- ... The reversible binding to MAO-A by moclobemide allows amines such as tyramine to displace moclobemide from MAO-A allowing its ...
Protein binding. 50% (active metabolite). Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP2D6- and 3A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 7-8 hours ( ...
... is primarily (99.9%) bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. Three metabolites of Isotretinoin are detectable in ... Studies in mice and rats have found that retinoids, including isotretinoin, bind to dopaminergic receptors in the central ... Isotretinoin also directly and indirectly increases the translation of the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), leading to ...
The HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases, termed PHDs/EGLNs (prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins/EGL nine homologues), bind to a ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... which lose SVCT proteins during maturation.[105] In both vitamin C synthesizers (example: rat) and non-synthesizers (example: ... protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, and salt. Voluntary nutrients may be shown if present in significant ...
Protein binding. 55%. Metabolism. Liver (mostly UGT1A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 29 hours. ... Lamotrigine binds to melanin-containing tissues such as the iris of the eye. The long-term consequences of this are unknown.[51 ... Lamotrigine binds to the eye and melanin-containing tissues which can accumulate over time and may cause toxicity. Prescribers ... The capacity of available tests to detect potentially adverse consequences of melanin binding is unknown. Clinical trials ...
protein binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • specific granule. • intracellular. • extracellular exosome. • ... a novel antimicrobial lipopolysaccharide-binding protein". Infection and Immunity. 63 (4): 1291-7. PMC 173149 . PMID 7890387.. ... Patients with a high level of this protein were 3.7 times more likely to survive kidney dialysis for a year without a fatal ... Higher plasma levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), which are up-regulated by vitamin D, appear to ...
Protein binding. ~92%[1]. Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP3A4/5) and intestinal (first-pass)[1][4]. ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... "Cancer drug prevents build-up of toxic brain protein". MedicalXpress.com. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.. ... 2010). "Extended kinase profile and properties of the protein kinase inhibitor nilotinib". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Proteins and Proteomics. 1754 (1-2): 3-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2005.07.040. PMID 16172030.. ...
Protein binding. 70-95%[1]. Metabolism. Liver (mostly CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated). ...
Protein binding. 60 %. Metabolism. Liver. Elimination half-life. 30 min. Excretion. Kidney. ...
Protein binding = 99%; volume of distribution = 0.2 L/kg; half-life = 3-5 hours; excretion = faeces (51%), urine (42%).[67][68] ... Protein binding = 40%; extensive first-pass metabolism; half-life = 12-16 hours, 30 hours (repeated dosing).[99][100]. Acute/ ... Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122]. Chronic pain.. CNS toxicity (abnormal gait, ... Protein binding , 99%; volume of distribution = 0.1-0.2 L/kg; hepatic metabolism; half-life = 2-4 hours.[79]. Ankylosing ...
Protein binding. 93%. Metabolism. Liver (CYP450). Elimination half-life. 18 hours. Excretion. Feces; ,1% urine. ... The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... the MDR1 gene mutation affects function of this protein). Crossing may still become significant if ivermectin is given at high ...
Protein binding. 92-94%. Metabolism. Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4-mediated). Biological half-life. 3 hours. ... Romidepsin acts as a prodrug with the disulfide bond undergoing reduction within the cell to release a zinc-binding thiol.[3][ ... 10][11] The thiol reversibly interacts with a zinc atom in the binding pocket of Zn-dependent histone deacetylase to block its ...
In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ...
Protein binding. 87%. Metabolism. hepatic. Elimination half-life. 17 hours. Excretion. biliary/renal. ...
... of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is ... Protein binding. 80-90%[1]. Metabolism. Liver, (CYP2C19 and possibly CYP3A), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut ... Acetylation of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post- ... Aspirin is known to displace a number of drugs from protein-binding sites in the blood, including the antidiabetic drugs ...
Protein binding. 99.9%. Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP3A4, CYP2C9 & CYP2C19-mediated). Biological half-life. 41±20 hours. ... Etravirine is a diarylpyrimidine (DAPY), a type of organic molecule with some conformational isomerism that can bind the enzyme ...
Protein binding. 78%. Metabolism. liver primarily, kidney, tissues; CYP450: 3A4 substrate. Elimination half-life. urine; Half- ... Unbound glucocorticoids cross cell membranes and bind with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic receptors, modifying ... The anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, ... transcription and protein synthesis. By this mechanism, glucocorticoids can inhibit leukocyte infiltration at the site of ...
Protein binding. 99%[1][2][3][4]. Metabolism. Hepatic via CYP1A2 & CYP3A4[1][2][3][4]. ...
... has a high plasma protein binding rate (95%),[25] indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk ...
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Protein binding. Low (30%). Metabolism. CYP3A4, (CYP2D6 is not involved). Biological half-life. 11 h. ...
... plasma protein binding of phenytoin cleared the drug much more rapidly than rats showing relatively low plasma protein binding ... Plasma protein binding and metabolic clearance of phenytoin in the rat. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Plasma protein binding and metabolic clearance of phenytoin in the rat.. W A Colburn and M Gibaldi ... Plasma protein binding and metabolic clearance of phenytoin in the rat.. W A Colburn and M Gibaldi ...
A membrane-associated progesterone-binding protein, 25-Dx, is regulated by progesterone in brain regions involved in female ... the rat homolog of the human membrane-associated P-binding protein Hpr6.6. Neurons in the brain containing the highest levels ... A membrane-associated progesterone-binding protein, 25-Dx, is regulated by progesterone in brain regions involved in female ... Membrane Proteins. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Molecular Sequence Data. Neurons. Neurosecretory Systems. Posture. Progesterone. Rats ...
Our research focus is on steroid hormone binding proteins, specifically the steroid hormone transport proteins in serum and ... which is both a negative acute phase protein synthesised in the liver and the plasma binding protein involved in the transport ... The interplay between these two categories of steroid hormone binding proteins, whether elicited by drugs or physiological ... specifically corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). ...
protein binding. • lipid binding. • receptor binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • lipopeptide binding. Cellular component. ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) ... 1994). "Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein. LPS binding properties and ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.[5][6] ...
GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of ... between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. ... They are active or ON when it is bound to GTP and inactive or OFF when bound to GDP.[1] Activation and deactivation of ...
One is related to protein folding and binding, and the other is related to the diffusion of a protein in space. During binding ... The capture radius of fly-casting binding could be affected by many factors, including protein binding affinity and limitations ... The binding of proteins to various substrates in a biological system is a basic but essential process to maintain the function ... The mechanisms underlying protein binding have been the focus of theoretical and experimental research for many years. Many ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (IPR008914) *Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein, eukaryotic (IPR035810). *YbhB/ ... The PEBP (PhosphatidylEthanolamine-Binding Protein) family is a highly conserved group of proteins that have been identified in ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Cholesterol-binding cytolysins (CBCs) are a large family of 50- to 60-kDa single-chain proteins produced by 23 taxonomically ... Membrane cholesterol is thought to be the toxin-binding site at the surface of eukaryotic cells. Toxins molecules bind as ... The deduced primary structure of the proteins shows obvious sequence homology particularly in the C-terminal part and a ...
calcium-binding protein [Brassica rapa] calcium-binding protein [Brassica rapa]. gi,1255540,dbj,BAA09634.1, ... RefSeq protein See the reference protein sequence for PREDICTED: polcalcin Bra r 1 (XP_009126190.1). ... MODBASE, Database of Comparative Protein Structure Models (Sali Lab/UCSF) [MODBASE, Database of Comparat...] MODBASE, Database ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The main reason doctors order the IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) test is to see if a person is producing a normal amount of ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is the main carrier of somatomedin C (also called insulin-like growth ... Blood levels of both these proteins are controlled by human growth hormone (hGH), a hormone thats produced by the pituitary ...
I use DNA binding protein purification kit from Boerhinger with long concatamers of protein-binding oligonucleotide (obtainrd ... DNA binding protein purification. Joel Baguet Joel.Baguet at ens-lyon.fr Mon Dec 14 11:37:15 EST 1998 *Previous message: Thank ... The protein-binding conditions are those for gel retardation assay. The results are very poor (about 1% with 35S in vitro ... I need to purify some proteins which bind to DNA. ... DNA binding protein purification * Messages sorted by: [ date ] ...
n-Sec1 binds to syntaxin 1a, 2, and 3 fusion proteins coupled to agarose beads, but not to syntaxin 4 fusion protein or beads ... n-Sec1: a neural-specific syntaxin-binding protein.. J Pevsner, S C Hsu, and R H Scheller ... These findings indicate that n-Sec1 is a neural-specific, syntaxin-binding protein that may participate in the regulation of ... The rat brain cDNA is predicted to encode a 68-kDa protein with 65% amino acid identity to Drosophila rop, 59% identity to ...
... demonstrated that the majority of LMM biomarkers exist bound to carrier proteins. Moreover, the pattern of LMM biomarkers bound ... Biomarker Amplification by Serum Carrier Protein Binding. Arpita I. Mehta,1,2 Sally Ross,2,3 Mark S. Lowenthal,2 Vincent Fusaro ... This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. Mass spectroscopic ... Examination of the LMM species bound to a specific carrier protein may contain important diagnostic information. These findings ...
Calcium Binding Proteins in Non-Muscle Tissues. * Front Matter Pages 91-91 ... Calmodulin and Calmodulin Binding Proteins During Differentiation of Human Intestinal Brush Borders ... the other sessions were devoted to calmodulin-related calcium binding proteins in muscle and non- muscle tissues and to some ... Calcium Binding to Troponin C and the Regulation of Muscle Contraction: a Comparative Approach ...
C4b-binding protein elevates as an acute phase protein that may lead to enhanced protein S binding and decreased free protein S ... In blood, PS exists in a free and bound state. Sixty percent to 70% of plasma protein S circulates complexed to C4b-binding ... resulting in increased protein S binding and a theoretically relative deficiency of free protein S. Acquired deficiency of free ... protein S due to acute phase elevation of C4b binding protein has been disputed.7 C4bBP is elevated in inflammation, pregnancy ...
... binds with high affinity to single-stranded DNA but does not bind well to double-stranded ... E. coli Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein (SSB) consists of four identical 18.9kDa subunits that cooperatively bind to single ... Cooperatively Binds ssDNA with High Affinity. *Consists of four identical 18.9kDa subunits ... This protein is involved in DNA replication and in recombination in vivo. ...
We explored the function of α1-chimaerin, a neuronal diacylglycerol-binding protein with a Rho GTPase-activating protein domain ... The diacylglycerol-binding protein α1-chimaerin regulates dendritic morphology. Philip Buttery, Asim A. Beg, Ben Chih, Arkady ... The diacylglycerol-binding protein α1-chimaerin regulates dendritic morphology. Philip Buttery, Asim A. Beg, Ben Chih, Arkady ... The diacylglycerol-binding protein α1-chimaerin regulates dendritic morphology. Philip Buttery, Asim A. Beg, Ben Chih, Arkady ...
... is a highly-conserved protein found in the cells of all eukaryotes from yeast to humans. The protein binds activated fatt... ... AcylCoA Binding Protein (thing). See all of AcylCoA Binding Protein, no other writeups in this node. ... AcylCoA binding protein (ACBP) is a highly-conserved protein found in the cells of all eukaryotes from yeast to humans. The ... protein binds activated fatty acids (acylCoAs) with an extremely high affinity and is thought to be the intracellular carrier ...
Na+-dependent proteins Sodium: An alkali metal (Na) with atomic number 11. Sodium ion (Na+) is essential for numerous ... Sodium-binding protein: Any protein or enzyme that requires the binding of a sodium ion to its structural stability or ... Lev B., Roux B., Noskov S.Y. (2013) Sodium-Binding Site Types in Proteins. In: Kretsinger R.H., Uversky V.N., Permyakov E.A. ( ... Several studies regarding the evolution of Na+-binding proteins suggest that its abundance in the water... ...
... Itisam Sarangi via proteins%40net.bio.net (by itisam.sarangi from gmail.com ... Previous message: [Protein-analysis] PREDITOP *Next message: [Protein-analysis] Re: Protocol needed from study the protein ... Previous message: [Protein-analysis] PREDITOP *Next message: [Protein-analysis] Re: Protocol needed from study the protein ... Dear all Presently I am trying to purifying a DNA binding protein from E.coli..and trying to remove the contaminating DNA... I ...
This protein and the RNA molecules that bind to it represent a largely unresearched class of gene activity regulators in the ... Bacteria: Third RNA binding protein identified. 18.10.2016. Small regulatory RNA molecules are vital for salmonella and other ... The structures of the different regulatory RNA molecules are shown left, their preferred protein binding partners on the right ... Experiments showed that the ProQ protein binds to 98 regulatory RNAs of the enterobacterial Salmonella enterica. The bacterium ...
The level of protein binding of a drug indicates... ... binding is an interaction in which a drug binds to proteins in ... Newly developed drugs may be tested for their tendency to bind to proteins using a protein binding assay. This can be performed ... thedoctor-I think I remember this article; they actually used protein binding assays to find metal binding proteins in seafood ... Binding of Drugs. The proteins commonly involved in binding with drugs are albumin, lipoproteins, and a1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cytoskeletal protein binding All GO annotations for Trak2 (39) ...
... For the first time, researchers have designed a protein from scratch that can bind a specific ... which fluoresces green only when bound to a protein. Of these, 20 folded into monomeric proteins when synthesized, and two of ... A designed protein with a β-barrel structure (backbone shown on left, space-filling shown on right) can bind a specific small ... Yet natural protein binding sites often occur within a three-dimensional structure called a β-barrel-a β-sheet twisted to form ...
  • A membrane-associated progesterone-binding protein, 25-Dx, is regulated by progesterone in brain regions involved in female reproductive behaviors. (duke.edu)
  • Toxins molecules bind as monomers to the membrane surface with subsequent oligomerization into arc-and ring-shaped structures surrounding large pores generated by this process. (nih.gov)
  • The deduced primary structure of the proteins shows obvious sequence homology particularly in the C-terminal part and a characteristic common consensus sequence containing a unique Cys residue (ECTGLAWEWWR) near the C-terminus of the molecules (except pyolysin and intermedilysin). (nih.gov)
  • In developing neurons such GTPase regulators appear to be ideal candidate molecules for linking neurotransmitter receptor signaling to alterations in Rho protein activity ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The structures of the different regulatory RNA molecules are shown left, their preferred protein binding partners on the right. (innovations-report.com)
  • New findings from Vogel's team have now been published in the journal PNAS: So far, two proteins (Hfg and CsrA) have been known to bind closely to the bacteria's regulatory RNA molecules and influence their activities. (innovations-report.com)
  • Protein binding describes the ability of proteins to form bonds with other substances, and most commonly refers to the bonding of drugs to these molecules in blood plasma , red blood cells, other components of the blood, and to tissue membranes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Proteins are very large, and enormously complex, molecules consisting of chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds, and they can take on a variety of complicated shapes. (wisegeek.com)
  • They can bond with molecules, including other proteins, at particular places known as binding sites, which often consist of indentations into which other molecules, or parts of them, can neatly fit. (wisegeek.com)
  • In other cases, molecules may bind more strongly. (wisegeek.com)
  • After a given time interval the bound and unbound portions are separated - for example, by using a very fine filter that will not allow large protein molecules to pass through - and the extent of binding can then be determined. (wisegeek.com)
  • Being able to design proteins that can bind to specific, chosen targets would open up a world of possibilities, including medicines targeting previously undruggable pathways and chemical sensors that detect specific molecules. (acs.org)
  • Upon exposure, target molecules bind to these receptors and effectively change the surface dipole moment of the semicircle. (nsti.org)
  • Members of the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 family have been shown to influence development by (1) acting as bridging molecules between the basal transcriptional machinery and specific DNA-binding transcription factors, (2) physically interacting with terminal members of signaling cascades, (3) acting as transcriptional coactivators of downstream target genes, and (4) playing a key role in chromatin remodeling. (genetics.org)
  • A binding protein is any protein that acts as an agent to bind two or more molecules together. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nature, building such structures is achieved by evolutionary optimized protein molecules and complex biological machinery. (kth.se)
  • In the lab, Lendel says, the team used the inherent ability of protein molecules to spontaneously form orderly nanometer-sized fibers - or fibrils. (kth.se)
  • Messenger RNA or mRNA, are RNA molecules that encode a chemical 'blueprint' for the synthesis of a protein. (ucsd.edu)
  • Using genome-wide biochemical methods to look at the set of all RNA molecules across the transcriptome, the researchers found that LIN28 recognizes and binds to a known hairpin-like structure found on the let-7 family of miRNA, but surprisingly, this same structure is also found on mRNAs, allowing LIN28 to directly regulate thousands of targets. (ucsd.edu)
  • But how would I use this ratio to determine the probability of a protein binding to 5 or more ligand molecules? (physicsforums.com)
  • Do membrane proteins cluster without binding between molecules? (scirp.org)
  • All of the molecules in our bodies function in water, but until now, we haven't had a lot of experimental techniques to understand what water is doing or where it is binding to the interior surfaces of proteins. (bnl.gov)
  • A team of scientists from Case Western Reserve University used the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a technique that pinpoints the location and motion of water molecules bound to proteins. (bnl.gov)
  • Measuring the exchange rate of water ( 16 O) versus heavy water ( 18 O) shows how fast the mass of the peptide changes due to bound water molecules. (bnl.gov)
  • This study is quite probably the inspiration behind 'The discreet charm', which is a personal, and passionate story of how proteins interact with other chemical moieties, be it organic molecules or other proteins. (ebooks.com)
  • We have previously identified α-chimaerins as proteins whose genes were strongly up-regulated during the period of synaptogenesis ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • type proteasome subunit and a transformer-2-like SR-related protein: early induction of the corresponding genes in tobacco cells treated with cryptogein," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 261-269, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms," Genes and Development , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1484-1493, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Genes bound by SP1 are more likely to be expressed in the HCT116 cell line we used, and SP1-bound CpG islands show a strong preference to be unmethylated. (genetics.org)
  • While they don't encode for proteins, miRNAs are important for regulating protein production in the cell by repressing or "turning off" genes. (ucsd.edu)
  • The discovery of thousands of precise binding sites for LIN28 within human genes offers a novel look at the role this protein plays in development and disease processes. (ucsd.edu)
  • Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is present in mature nerve cells and is involved in turning off several genes. (proteopedia.org)
  • The results identify a loop susceptible to antibody binding, and also a small molecule motif capable of disrupting ShuA from S. dysenteriae . (rsc.org)
  • Nonetheless, mPEBP-2 is seen to be very similar in structure to other PEBP proteins from human, bovine and plant sources. (labome.org)
  • Thus, it is inferred that the self-assembly induced by dimerization is unlikely in situ, and that some interaction between proteins is required for cluster formation. (scirp.org)
  • Although SPR is extensively utilized in interaction studies, recent research of protein or cell adsorption on hydroxyapatite coatings for prostheses applications was not found. (mdpi.com)
  • The MP-SPR was used to measure lysozyme protein and human mesenchymal stem cells interaction to the hydroxyapatite coating. (mdpi.com)
  • Arrestins activated by interaction with phosphorylated receptors can also mediate G-protein-independent signalling by serving as adaptors to link receptors to numerous signalling pathways 4 . (nature.com)
  • They promote the expression of certain proteins through interaction with DNA . (bionity.com)
  • The ficolins share a common organization and function with the collectins: serum mannose-binding and the pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D. All of these proteins are soluble mediators of innate immunity and consist of globular sugar-binding domains attached to collagenous stalks, which can invoke innate immune responses either through complement fixation or interaction with receptors on the surfaces of macrophages. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The insertion of a Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) tag creates a stable fusion product that does not interfere with the bioactivity of the protein or with the biodistribution of the MBP tagged product. (abcam.com)
  • Individual cells within the eye are exposed to many extracellular signals, express multiple surface receptors, and make use of a large complement of cell-subtype-specific DNA-binding transcription factors. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, creating such a precise array of unit eyes reproducibly using multiple diffusible signals is an impressive feat. A key question is: How does an individual cell correctly relay the multiple bits of information received at the cell surface to the appropriate assortment of specific DNA-binding transcription factors and how is this information correctly used during cell fate decisions. (genetics.org)
  • A potential solution to this paradigm is to have a ubiquitously expressed protein act as a conduit for linking signaling pathways to nuclear transcription factors by interacting with (1) terminal members of the many signaling cascades and (2) the specific combination of transcription factors that are expressed in each different cell type. (genetics.org)
  • Logically, if protein synthesis were to occur in distinct cellular compartments, mRNAs must be identified shortly after transcription and held in a translationally dormant state during transport to the appropriate compartment. (jneurosci.org)
  • The selection step would be expected to occur at an early time after transcription, so that these messages would be sequestered from the vast protein synthetic machinery located within the cell body. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ability to chronicle transcription-factor binding events throughout the development of an organism would facilitate mapping of transcriptional networks that control cell-fate decisions. (genetics.org)
  • We endow transcription factors with the ability to deposit a transposon into the genome near to where they bind. (genetics.org)
  • We show that the transcription factor SP1 fused to the piggyBac transposase directs insertion of the piggyBac transposon near SP1 binding sites. (genetics.org)
  • This method has the potential to trace transcription-factor binding throughout cellular and organismal development in a way that has heretofore not been possible. (genetics.org)
  • provide a snapshot of transcription factor (TF) binding, but are unable to record transcription-factor binding events. (genetics.org)
  • The transient nature of both these methods makes it difficult, if not impossible, to correlate transcription-factor binding events in progenitor cells to the final fates of their progeny cells during development. (genetics.org)
  • By harvesting the transposon calling cards along with their flanking genomic DNA, a genome-wide map of transcription factor binding can be obtained. (genetics.org)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (bionity.com)
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c-Fos and Jun. (bionity.com)
  • The control of the latter two pathways involves the PEBP protein RKIP, which interacts with MEK and Raf-1 to inhibit the MAP kinase pathway, and with TAK1, NIK, IKKalpha and IKKbeta to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate PHOSPHOLIPASE C dependent signaling pathways. (labome.org)
  • I use DNA binding protein purification kit from Boerhinger with long concatamers of protein-binding oligonucleotide (obtainrd using self-primed PCR technique) ligated streptavidin magnetic particles. (bio.net)
  • Identifying binding peptides can be useful for protein purification, diagnostics and therapeutics. (aiche.org)
  • The inherently hydrophobic surfaces of MPs complicates protein expression, purification, and characterization. (rsc.org)
  • Baritaki S, Katsman A, Chatterjee D, Yeung K, Spandidos D, Bonavida B. Regulation of tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the metastatic suppressor Raf kinase inhibitor protein via Yin Yang 1 inhibition and death receptor 5 up-regulation. (labome.org)
  • Regulation of protein expression in neurons by controlling not only when, but where, mRNAs are translated is likely to play an important role in neuronal function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dendrite formation in these CIVda neurons additionally requires functional sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) , a crucial regulator of fatty acid production. (sdbonline.org)
  • The fatty-acid-binding protein s ( FABP s) are a family of carrier proteins for fatty acids and other lipophilic substances such as eicosanoids and retinoids . (wikidoc.org)
  • These proteins are thought to facilitate the transfer of fatty acids between extra- and intracellular membranes . (wikidoc.org)
  • Based on these data and other biochemical information, researchers speculate that the mutations in the LDL receptor affect the receptor1s ability to bind calcium and therefore its ability to fold into its proper shape. (eurekalert.org)
  • How Rb acts to bring about this suppression is not clear 5 but one clue is that the Rb protein forms complexes with the transforming oncoproteins of several DNA tumour viruses 6-8 , and that two regions of Rb essential for such binding frequently contain mutations in tumour cells 9,10 . (nature.com)
  • A new tool called DeepBind uses deep learning to analyze how proteins bind to DNA and RNA, allowing it to detect mutations that could disrupt cellular processes and cause disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • DeepBind's first analyses of human genetic data, described in Nature Biotechnology , has already provided new information about disruptions to protein binding in mutations tied to cancers, haemophilia and familial hypercholesterolemia -- a hereditary condition associated with very high levels of cholesterol. (eurekalert.org)
  • Detection of mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human melanoma," Clin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is activated in prostate tumors but not mediated by B-RAF mutations," Eur Urol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Functional protein S synthesis is diminished in vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, with some chemotherapy agents, warfarin therapy, and L-asparaginase therapy. (labcorp.com)
  • GTP exchange factors (GEFs) and the GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are key signaling intermediates that convert cell surface signals into functional changes of Rho GTPase activity. (pnas.org)
  • Any protein or enzyme that requires the binding of a sodium ion to its structural stability or functional activity. (springer.com)
  • Of the potential functional significance for local protein synthesis, Steward and Levy (1982) wrote, "It is difficult to conceive of a situation which is intuitively more appealing as a mechanism for protein synthesis-dependent maintenance or modification of a synapse as a function of the activity over that synapse. (jneurosci.org)
  • 2001). RNA-binding protein Musashi2: developmentally regulated expression in neural precursor cells and subpopulations of neurons in mammalian CNS. (rutgers.edu)
  • A designed protein with a β-barrel structure (backbone shown on left, space-filling shown on right) can bind a specific small molecule (green, right). (acs.org)
  • We present the fabrication and characterization of a nano-scale sensor made of amorphous silicon (a-Si) for electronic detection of small molecule -protein binding. (nsti.org)
  • Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14 , TLR2 , TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ltbp4 encodes a latent TGF-β-binding protein that sequesters TGF-β and regulates its availability for binding to the TGF-β receptor. (jci.org)
  • Since lactose also blocks elastic fiber formation by cultured chondroblasts, the galactoside-binding property of the elastin receptor is implicated in this process. (sciencemag.org)
  • The functions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are primarily mediated and modulated by three families of proteins: the heterotrimeric G proteins, the G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and the arrestins 1 . (nature.com)
  • In this study, by using IFPTarget and ligand similarity ensemble approach (SEA), we show that the glycine receptor alpha 3 (GlyRα3), which play a key role in the processing of inflammatory pain, is a potential target of Col. Moreover, Col binds directly to the GlyRα3 as determined by the immunoprecipitation and bio-layer interferometry assays using the synthesized Col-biotin conjugate (linked Col and biotin with polyethylene glycol). (frontiersin.org)
  • For a complete list of CFG data and resources relating to this paradigm, see the CFG database search results for ficolin and mannose-binding receptor . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The advantages of using bound proteins are their reusability, the ease with which they can be separated from the substrate or from its solution, their frequently greater stability compared to the soluble form, the avoidance of contamination of the reaction products, and the capability of carrying out continuous reactions in columns or similar reactors. (google.com)
  • MBL belongs to a family of soluble immune proteins known as the collectins that consist of N-terminal collagen tail regions and C-terminal C-type lectin domains. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Clustering is a basic event for the initiation of immune cell responses, and simulation analyses of clustering of membrane proteins have been performed. (scirp.org)
  • Membrane proteins (MPs) constitute a third of all proteomes, and contribute to a myriad of cellular functions including intercellular communication, nutrient transport and energy generation. (rsc.org)
  • The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevent exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • ZBP1 binds to a 54 nucleotide "zipcode" in the 3′-UTR of β-actin mRNA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many drugs, however, bind to different proteins or to different sites on the same one, or are not present in a high enough relative concentration to cause saturation, and so do not compete with the other medications that are in use. (wisegeek.com)
  • The major components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex are proteins recruited at different stages of the vesicular transport pathway. (cellsignal.com)
  • This study reports that dietary nutrients, particularly proteins and carbohydrates, modulate the developmental timing through the CDK8/CycC/EcR pathway. (sdbonline.org)
  • Ficolins share with mannan-binding lectin the ability to associate with mannan-binding lectin- associated serine protease-2, thus triggering activation of the lectin complement pathway upon binding to suitable targets and enhancing their phagocytosis. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • These observations suggest that endogenous cellular proteins might exist that bind to the same regions of Rb and thereby mediate its function. (nature.com)
  • This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings shift the focus of biomarker detection to the carrier protein and its biomarker content. (hindawi.com)
  • A macroporous crosslinked styrene resin, used as a carrier for covalently binding proteins, which resin contains isocyanate, thioisocyanate or aldehyde groups as protein-binding groups and may or may not contain sulfonic acid groups--which may also be in the form of the sodium salt or of sulfonic acid. (google.com)
  • 2. A process for fixing proteins wherein a carrier as set forth in claim 1 is stirred with the protein to be bound, in an aqueous solution, at from 0 to 50 C. for from 1/2 to 24 hours. (google.com)
  • RBP is also bound to a carrier protein, transthyretin. (prospecbio.com)
  • We explored the function of α1-chimaerin, a neuronal diacylglycerol-binding protein with a Rho GTPase-activating protein domain that inactivates Rac1. (pnas.org)
  • That protein synthesis may occur outside the neuronal cell body was first suggested in the early 1980s by the finding that polyribosomes are localized to subsynaptic regions ( Steward and Levy, 1982 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Although degeneration of the axon terminal is dependent on neural activity, activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is both necessary and sufficient to cause synaptic vesicle loss. (sdbonline.org)
  • 6 The remaining protein S, called free PS, in molar excess to C4bBP, is the functionally active form of PS. (labcorp.com)
  • Each ShuA variant was analyzed for its ability to display on the bacteriophage surface, and functionally bind to hemoglobin. (rsc.org)
  • The rate of GTP hydrolysis for small GTPases is generally too slow to create physiologically relevant transient signals, and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Activation and deactivation of small GTPases can be regarded as occurring in a cycle, between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins to respond to lipid messengers by localizing to membranes and transmitting signals to downstream targets. (cellsignal.com)
  • domain inhibit lipid binding and result in defects in the sorting of ubiquitinated cargo. (cellsignal.com)
  • These two regions form part of the ligand-binding site, which can accommodate various anionic groups. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • An external ligand binding site able to accommodate neutral carbohydrates such as galactose and D-fucose has been identified for H-ficolin. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Corbit KC, Trakul N, Eves EM, Diaz B, Marshall M, Rosner MR. Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Al Mulla F, Bitar M, Taqi Z, Rath O, Kolch W. RAF kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) modulates cell cycle kinetics and motility. (labome.org)
  • Translation is primarily regulated during steps one and two by complexes of proteins that interact with the mRNA. (jneurosci.org)
  • He produced crystals of concanavalin A complexes with methyl-glucoside and with methyl-mannoside and participated in solving the structure of this protein binding-site for saccharides. (ebooks.com)
  • Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. (jci.org)
  • The presence of the proteins may contribute to the ability of lactic acid bacteria to interact with the host. (ei-resource.org)
  • The idea of Professors Bolis and Gilles to gather together for a 3 days' meeting in the splendid environment of Crans-Montana in Switzerland a limited number of people around the subject of calcium and calcium bind- ing proteins seemed at first particularly attractive, and when they asked me to take charge of the scientific organization of the symposium, I accepted with enthusiasm. (springer.com)
  • Apart from one whole day focused on the fascinating roles played by calmodulin in cellular activities, the other sessions were devoted to calmodulin-related calcium binding proteins in muscle and non- muscle tissues and to some selected biological systems such as mitochondria, secretory cells or sarcoplasmic reticulum in which calcium also plays a crucial role. (springer.com)
  • CalPred is a "tool for EF-hand calcium binding protein prediction and calcium binding region identification" using machine learning techniques. (bioinformatics.org)
  • Many researchers believed the protein contractions were controlled by calcium, similar to muscle cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Protein S consumption occurs in acute thrombosis, polycythemia vera, sickle cell disease, essential thrombocythemia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. (labcorp.com)
  • Using a new self-designed method, the Würzburg team has now discovered a long-suspected third protein (ProQ) whose function inside the cell has been unknown until recently. (innovations-report.com)
  • The field of cell movement was abuzz with the revelation that non-muscle cells contained actin and myosin, but no one understood the mechanism regulating those cytoskeleton proteins. (the-scientist.com)
  • Though initially a controversial discovery, filamin A proved to be the first of hundreds of binding proteins that influence cell movement. (the-scientist.com)
  • Once in the cytoplasm, these mRNA-binding proteins and their target mRNAs are packaged into granules for transport out of the cell body ( Hirokawa, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • A study led by researchers at the UC San Diego Stem Cell Research program and funded by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) looks at an important RNA binding protein called LIN28, which is implicated in pluripotency and reprogramming as well as in cancer and other diseases. (ucsd.edu)
  • But we now see that LIN28 can, in essence, bypass let-7 and find many, many other binding sites - perhaps with the same adverse effect of uncontrolled cell overgrowth," said Yeo. (ucsd.edu)
  • Loss of S100PBP causes an increase in pancreatic cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins which was mediated by cysteine protease Cathepsin Z ( CTSZ ) and the integrin ανβ5 (Lines et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Guilemany, J.M. Real-Time Protein and Cell Binding Measurements on Hydroxyapatite Coatings. (mdpi.com)