GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.OrosomucoidCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Chimerin 1: A GTPase activating protein that is specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is expressed primarily in the brain and may be involved in signal transduction. The alternatively spliced form of CHIMERIN 1 (alpha-2 Chimerin) contains an additional src homology domain and is expressed in both the brain and testes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.RGS Proteins: A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.CapZ Actin Capping Protein: An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Inbred C57BLIntegrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-delta: A member of the C-EBP protein family of transcription factors. It plays a key role in G0 PHASE mammary EPITHELIAL CELL growth arrest, and it is involved in transcriptional regulation of INTERLEUKIN 1; INTERLEUKIN 6; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The mechanism by which the brain cells in Parkinson's are lost may consist of an abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha- ... Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that ... Certain proteins like Rab1 may reverse this defect caused by alpha-synuclein in animal models.[32] ... The alpha-synuclein-ubiquitin complex cannot be directed to the proteasome. This protein accumulation forms proteinaceous ...
HBHR, ATR1: Alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type 1. *HIRIP3: encoding protein HIRA-interacting protein 3 ... UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ... SHCBP1: encoding protein SHC SH2 domain-binding protein 1. *SLZ1: encoding protein SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... renal (25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase or CYP27B1). *degradation (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase or CYP24A1) ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... DHFR has been used as a tool to detect protein-protein interactions in a protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA). ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.[§ 1] ... Four alpha helices connect successive beta strands.[10] Residues 9 - 24 are termed "Met20" or "loop 1" and, along with other ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin D. *liver (Sterol 27-hydroxylase or CYP27A1) ... Gephyrin is a 93kDa multi-functional protein that is a component of the postsynaptic protein network of inhibitory synapses. It ... Gephyrin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPHN gene.[5][6][7][8][9] ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • catalytic activity. • molybdopterin adenylyltransferase activity. • ATP binding. • nitrate ...
Doig AJ (2008). "The alpha-Helix as the Simplest Protein Model: Helix-Coil Theory, Stability, and Design". In Muñoz V. Protein ... The main attraction in investigating alpha helix formation is that one encounters many of the features of protein folding but ... Chakrabartty A, Baldwin RL (1995). "Stability of alpha-helices". Adv Protein Chem. 46: 141-176. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(08)60334 ... The two states are helix state: characterized by a common rotating pattern kept together by hydrogen bonds, (see alpha-helix). ...
... encoding protein Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein. *TTPAL: encoding protein Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein- ... YTHDF1: encoding protein YTH domain family, member 1. *ZFP64 encoding protein Zinc finger protein 64 homolog, isoforms 1 and 2 ... FASTKD5: encoding protein FAST kinase domain-containing protein 5 (FASTKD5). *FITM2: encoding protein Fat storage-inducing ... BPIFB4: encoding protein BPI fold containing family B, member 4. *C20orf132: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C20orf132 ...
Protein Eng. 5 (3): 197-211. doi:10.1093/protein/5.3.197. PMID 1409539. Oesch F, Kaubisch N, Jerina DM, Daly JW (1971). " ... immunological behaviour and purification of microsomal epoxide hydrolase with 16 alpha, 17 alpha-epoxyandrostene-3-one as ... EPHX1 protein can be found predominantly in membrane fraction of the endoplasmic reticulum of eucaryotic cells. Its expression ... Ollis DL, Cheah E, Cygler M, Dijkstra B, Frolow F, Franken SM, Harel M, Remington SJ, Silman I, Schrag J (1992). "The alpha/ ...
"The alpha/beta hydrolase fold". Protein Eng. 5 (3): 197-211. doi:10.1093/protein/5.3.197. PMID 1409539. Cui FC; Pan XL; Liu JY ... Hydroxynitrile lyases of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold are closely related to esterases. All members of the alpha/beta ... Gruber K, Gartler G, Krammer B, Schwab H, Kratky C (2004). "Reaction mechanism of hydroxynitrile lyases of the alpha/beta- ... Not all hydroxynitrile lyases belong to the alpha/beta hydrolase family. PaHNL (Prunus amygdalus), (R)-selective like AtHNL, ...
Manor D, Morley S (2007). "The alpha-tocopherol transfer protein". Vitam. Horm. 76: 45-65. doi:10.1016/S0083-6729(07)76003-X. ... caused by mutations in the gene for the tocopherol transfer protein. These individuals have an extremely poor capacity to ...
"Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a multifunctional protein with catalytic, processing, and routing domains" ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ... Eipper BA, Stoffers DA, Mains RE (1992). "The biosynthesis of neuropeptides: peptide alpha-amidation". Annual Review of ...
Both methods can be used for any subset of atoms in the structure, but are often applied to only the alpha carbon or protein ... Uses of the structural models include protein-protein interaction prediction, protein-protein docking, molecular docking, and ... Protein structure prediction Protein structure prediction software Protein threading Molecular replacement Chothia, C; Lesk, AM ... Evolutionarily related proteins have similar sequences and naturally occurring homologous proteins have similar protein ...
PubMed Protein Database. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: P0C8L1.1. "Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx 12.1". PubMed Protein Database. ... Protein Science. 14 (4): 1025-1038. doi:10.1110/ps.041131205. PMC 2253457 . PMID 15772309. Coronas, FV; de Roodt, Adolfo R.; ... Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 60 (3): 401-411. doi:10.1002/prot.20509. PMID 15971207. "Potassium channel ...
"The structure of alpha-helical coiled coils". Adv Protein Chem. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 70: 37-78. doi:10.1016/S0065- ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ... However, the outer membrane is a barrier for the secretion of proteins, and it requires energy to transport proteins across the ... YadA stands for Yersinia adhesin protein A. This protein domain is an example of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins, and it was ...
... and lysosomal alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20). Human gene encoding proteins containing the trefoil domain include: acid alpha- ... including protein pS2 (TFF1) a protein secreted by the stomach mucosa; spasmolytic polypeptide (SP) (TFF2), a protein of about ... Bork P (1993). "A trefoil domain in the major rabbit zona pellucida protein". Protein Sci. 2 (4): 669-670. doi:10.1002/pro. ... xenopus skin protein xp2 (or APEG); Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein B (ZP-B); intestinal sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48 ...
Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTPAL gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Assembled capsid protein alpha is cleaved into capsid protein beta and gamma. Release of infectious particles. The nodamura ... RNA2 encodes the viral capsid protein, alpha. RNA2 is approximately 1.3 kb in length. RNA1's Protein A is also responsible for ... The subgenomic RNA-3 is then transcribed along with the RNA-2, which encodes capsid protein alpha. Virus assembly in the ... In NoV, RNA3 is responsible for the translation of proteins B2-137, B2-134, and B1. Studies have shown that B2 proteins help to ...
Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAPTM4A gene. This gene encodes a protein ... Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 alpha". Retrieved 2017-07-03. This article incorporates text from the United States National ...
Alpha-7 integrin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGA7 gene. Alpha-7 integrin is critical for modulating cell- ... beta-1D associates with alternate alpha subunits (alpha-5, alpha-6A) prior to alpha-7. In human skeletal muscle, alpha-7 ... ITGA7 encodes the protein alpha-7 integrin. Alpha-7 integrin is 128.9 kDa in molecular weight and 1181 amino acids in length. ... Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. Alpha-7 integrin undergoes ...
A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2-7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope ( ... The general problem of deciding on the folded structure of a protein when given the amino acid sequence (the so-called protein ... Protein. Chem. 70 (4): 79-112. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(05)70004-8. Berwick MR, Lewis DJ, Jones AW, Parslow RA, Dafforn TR, ... Spiricoil uses protein domain annotation to predict coiled coil presence and oligormeric state for all completely sequenced ...
Sanghamitra NJ, Ueno T (May 2013). "Expanding coordination chemistry from protein to protein assembly". Chemical Communications ... C-type lysozymes are closely related to alpha-lactalbumin in sequence and structure, making them part of the same family. In ... The first chemical synthesis of a lysozyme protein was attempted by Prof. George W. Kenner and his group at the University of ... Towards synthesis of proteins". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 197 (1128): 237-53. ...
1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA2 gene. The NDUFA2 protein is a subunit of NADH ... NDUFA2 has many protein interactions, including interactions with other members of the NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha ... "NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). "NDUFA2 ... NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2". UniProt: a hub for protein information. The UniProt Consortium. ...
"NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Balsa E ... NDUFA4 has many protein-protein interactions, including ubiquitin proteins such as ubiquitin C and UBL4A, as well as CUL3 and ... NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA4 gene. The NDUFA3 protein is a ... It has been noted that the N-terminal hydrophobic domain has the potential to be folded into an alpha helix spanning the inner ...
1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA3 gene. The NDUFA3 protein is a subunit of NADH ... "NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). "NDUFA3 ... NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3". UniProt: a hub for protein information. The UniProt Consortium. ... The NDUFA3 gene produces an 11 kDa protein composed of 99 amino acids. NDUFA3 is a subunit of the enzyme NADH dehydrogenase ( ...
Interferon alpha-inducible protein 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFI27 gene. ENSG00000275214 GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: IFI27 interferon, alpha-inducible protein 27". Taulés M, Rius E, Talaya D, López-Girona A, Bachs O, Agell N (Dec ... "The interferon alpha induced protein ISG12 is localized to the nuclear membrane". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 268 ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...
Mumby SM, Heukeroth RO, Gordon JI, Gilman AG (1990). "G-protein alpha-subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
GA binding protein transcription factor subunit alpha), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. Q06546 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ... Human Protein Atlas. ENSG00000154727-GABPA [pathology] [cell] [tissue]. ... formation DNA binding chromatin binding DNA-binding transcription factor activity transcription coactivator activity protein ...
If you dont know how, you can find instructionshere.Once youve done that, refresh this page to start using Wolfram,Alpha. ... Uh oh! Wolfram,Alpha doesnt run without JavaScript.. Please enable JavaScript. ...
T G protein alpha transducin was purified from bovine retinal extracts more than three decades ago. The discovery of transducin ... 2018) G Protein Alpha Transducin. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham. * .RIS Papers ... G protein alpha transducin was purified from bovine retinal extracts more than three decades ago. The discovery of transducin ... of the heterotrimeric G protein transducin were described. In 1981, the full heterotrimeric G protein was purified in Lubert... ...
alpha-7.3 giardin [Giardia intestinalis] alpha-7.3 giardin [Giardia intestinalis]. gi,25140619,gb,AAN73277.1, ... MODBASE, Database of Comparative Protein Structure Models (Sali Lab/UCSF) [MODBASE, Database of Comparat...] MODBASE, Database ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
LSBio HBA2 / Hemoglobin Alpha 2 Proteins [LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc.] LSBio HBA2 / Hemoglobin Alpha 2 Proteins. LifeSpan ... Protein expression data [Model Organism Protein Expres...] Protein expression data. Model Organism Protein Expression Database ... LSBio HBA2 / Hemoglobin Alpha 2 Antibodies [LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc.] LSBio HBA2 / Hemoglobin Alpha 2 Antibodies. LifeSpan ... hemoglobin subunit alpha [Homo sapiens] hemoglobin subunit alpha [Homo sapiens]. gi,4504345,ref,NP_000508.1, ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Protein family membership. *Connexin (IPR000500)*Gap junction alpha-4 protein (Cx37) (IPR002263) ...
MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein ... Term: alpha-1 adrenergic receptor. ID: PIRSF038550 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF ... The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence ... You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Endohydrolysis of 1->4-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more 1->4-alpha-linked D-glucose ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Heterodimer of an alpha and a beta subunit or an alpha and a gamma subunit. UniProt ... Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence * Number of PDB entries for Q9JLE3: no matching PDB entries ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9JLE3 - Mus musculus 0 * Q3B7D4 - Rattus norvegicus no matching PDB entries ...
Proteins that play a role in this pathway are protein G and three protein kinases, namely, MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAPK ... This mini review focuses on human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN. -2b) as therapeutic protein for cancer treatment. The review ... 2b is a protein that has anticancer activity. It has been approved by the FDA as a therapeutic protein that can be used to ... Human Interferon Alpha-2b: A Therapeutic Protein for Cancer Treatment. Ratih Asmana Ningrum ...
Elevated Alpha Feta Protein Levels - 15.7ng/L Phoxbat Ive recently been suffering from eratic blood pressure and flushing. My ... Elevated Alpha Feta Protein Levels - 15.7ng/L. Ive recently been suffering from eratic blood pressure and flushing. My doctor ... Create an account to receive updates on: Elevated Alpha Feta Protein Levels - 15.7ng/L ... Problems with liver can cause elevated alpha fetoprotein levels. If you like your drinks, your alpha fetoprotein may be high. ...
... Ratih Asmana Ningrum ... Ratih Asmana Ningrum, "Human Interferon Alpha-2b: A Therapeutic Protein for Cancer Treatment," Scientifica, vol. 2014, Article ...
... protein alpha-1,2-demannosylation. GO ID. GO:0036508 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. The removal of one or more alpha ... 1,2-linked mannose residues from a mannosylated protein.. Synonyms. glycoprotein mannose trimming, mannose trimming View GO ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00686 CBM_20, 1 hit. PF17137 DUF5110, 1 hit. PF01055 ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR013784 ... Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database. More...SMARTi. View protein in SMART. SM01065 CBM_2, 1 ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ... p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different ... for any given protein.,p>,a href=/help/annotation_score target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>-Experimental evidence at protein leveli ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human AP2 alpha protein (ab114726). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
Ab158101 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Recombinant Human hCG alpha protein. See all hCG alpha proteins and peptides. ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
Protein Coding), Tumor Necrosis Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Human TNF-alpha ELISpot Development Module, 5 Plate (SEL210) * Human TNF-alpha HS Magnetic Luminex Performance Assay (LHSCM210) ... Protein Symbol:. P01375-TNFA_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Tumor necrosis factor. Protein Accession:. P01375. Secondary Accessions: ... Protein Expression for TNF Gene. See protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, PaxDb, and MaxQB ...
... alpha 6 Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more. ... Gap Junction Protein, alpha 6 (GJA6) (AA 1-283) protein (His tag) ... PageRuler Unstained Protein Ladder (14.4 bis 116 kDa) Each sample contains 250 µL of marker proteins at 0.02 to 0.05 mg/mL of ... Your search returned 5 gap junction protein, alpha 6 Biomolecules across 3 suppliers. ...
Milk has two types of protein: 80% of its total proteins comes from casein, and 20% of its total protein... ... Protein sources that have the most essential amino acids (EAAs) are derived from cows milk. ... What is alpha-lactalbumin?. Alpha-lactalbumin is the protein found in the second-highest amount in whey protein isolate at ... However, alpha-lactalbumin provides 48 mg of tryptophan per gram of protein, its highest content in all food protein sources.1 ...
... alpha 4, 37kDa Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more. ... Your search returned 3 gap junction protein, alpha 4, 37kDa Biomolecules across 2 suppliers. ...
Two alpha subunit donor splice site mutations cause human trifunctional protein deficiency.. J C Brackett, H F Sims, P Rinaldo ... resulting in undetectable levels of alpha subunit protein, and complete loss of trifunctional protein. This is the initial ... Human trifunctional protein catalyzes three steps in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, including the long chain 3- ... Deficiency of this heterocomplex, which contains 4 alpha and 4 beta subunits, causes sudden unexplained infant death, a Reye- ...
... resulting in undetectable levels of alpha subunit protein, and complete loss of trifunctional protein. This is the initial ... Two alpha subunit donor splice site mutations cause human trifunctional protein deficiency.. ... Two alpha subunit donor splice site mutations cause human trifunctional protein deficiency.. ... Human trifunctional protein catalyzes three steps in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, including the long chain 3- ...
Re: Alpha-Protein Levels?. Alph-feto Protein levels fluctuate and elevations and false positives can be the result of "floating ... high levels of alpha-protein. I was diagnosed with testicular cancer year 2000 at age 24. I took 5 days of chemo every 3rd week ... Today my Alpha-Protein is 3462. I feel great and work every day.. My DR. is sending me to the Indiana research center this ... I had yearly check ups and every thing was ok;until Jan 09 my alpha-protein was high (6). I started going to the Dr.. every ...
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize common and unique receptors on human monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha induce the migration and activation of normal human eosinophil granulocytes. (rupress.org)
  • We therefore examined four members of the intercrine/chemokine superfamily of cytokines (monocyte chemotactic peptide 1 [MCP- RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1 alpha], and MIP-1 beta), which do not activate neutrophils, for their ability to affect different eosinophil effector functions. (rupress.org)
  • Human eosinophils can express the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Protooncogenes are protein-coding genes that promote cell division, including growth factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor), growth factor receptors (e.g. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor suppressor genes are protein-coding genes that suppress cell division, such as RB1 and p53. (hindawi.com)
  • Within this group, sarcoglycanopathies are a subgroup caused by mutations in genes encoding the transmembrane protein sarcoglycan (SG) complex, located in the sarcolemma of striated muscles 2 . (nature.com)
  • Coussens defined a new family of PKC-related genes and termed alpha , beta, and gamma (1). (genetex.com)
  • Kitano T, Liu YH, Ueda S, Saitou N: Human-specific amino acid changes found in 103 protein-coding genes. (hmdb.ca)
  • Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-mediated proliferation of breast cancer cells is facilitated through expression of multiple primary target genes, products of which induce a secondary response to stimulation. (mcponline.org)
  • Measurement of the global proteomic effects of estradiol by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) resulted in identification of 103 estrogen-regulated proteins, with only 40 of the corresponding genes having estrogen response elements. (mcponline.org)
  • Dynamics of protein expression unambiguously revealed early and delayed response proteins and well correlated with presence or absence of estrogen response elements in the corresponding genes. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), the brown fat specific thermogenic genes, were up-regulated in brown adipocytes by CA treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The L protein specifically inhibits the transcription of the IFN-α4 and IFN-β genes, which are known to be activated early in response to viral infection. (asm.org)
  • Data suggest that heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) may have value as a prognostic tumor marker and its overexpression might be a novel strategy for colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ), also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cell surface TNF-alpha can induce the lysis of neighboring tumor cells and virus infected cells, and it can generate its own downstream cell signaling following ligation by soluble TNFR I (2, 5). (rndsystems.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) is an anti-inflammatory protein implicated in multiple autoimmune and rheumatologic conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Membrane-cytoskeleton-associated protein that promotes the assembly of the spectrin-actin network. (rcsb.org)
  • Each kinase phosphorylates a specific set of the vesicle proteins syntaxin 1A, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), synaptosome-associated 25-kDa protein (SNAP-25), n-sec1, alpha soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha SNAP), and synaptotagmin. (pnas.org)
  • Positioned at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane, this trimer associates with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) harboring seven transmembrane spans. (springer.com)
  • More recent studies on correctors of the misfolded ∆F508 mutant protein in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have described their positive impact on α-SG missense mutant protein localization in the plasma membrane in primary muscle cells from patients 16 . (nature.com)
  • The EspB protein of EHEC is translocated both to the host cell cytoplasm and to the membrane, and is essential for the signalling events leading to A/E lesion. (nih.gov)
  • Cysteine-string proteins are membrane-bound proteins associated primarily with nerve endings and synaptic vesicles in the brain. (genetex.com)
  • Shedding of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases the bioactive cytokine, a 55 kDa soluble trimer of the TNF-alpha extracellular domain (6-8). (rndsystems.com)
  • Confocal imaging revealed distinct spatial relocalizations of alpha-DB between the cell membrane, cytosol and nucleus after induction of apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results suggest that apoptosis-induction in HL-60 cells involves not only classical markers of apoptosis but also a network alpha-DB-associated proteins at the cell membrane, the cytoplasm and nucleus, affecting key cellular transport processes and cellular structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • The active site of FAP is localized in the extracellular part of the protein and contains a catalytic triad composed of Ser 624 Asp 702 His 734 in humans and mice. (wikidoc.org)
  • Since then, many Reg-related proteins have been identified in humans and other animals. (biovendor.com)
  • We measured the concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, eosinophil cationic protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin in faeces as indicators of intestinal inflammation induced by double-blind placebo-controlled oral cow's milk challenge in infants and young children with atopic eczema. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The concentration of eosinophil cationic protein in faeces increased after cow's milk challenge in patients positive to challenge (P = 0.02) but not in those negative to challenge (P = 0.79). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The concentration of eosinophil cationic protein was enhanced particularly in patients manifesting immediate-type reactions to the cow's milk challenge. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We further suggest that faecal eosinophil cationic protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and alpha-1 antitrypsin distinctly indicate various reaction types of food allergy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Parallel testing with eosinophil cationic protein and tumour necrosis factor-alpha may significantly enhance the accuracy in diagnosis of food allergy in patients with atopic eczema. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • RANTES and MIP-1 alpha induced eosinophil cationic protein release in cytochalasin B-treated eosinophils, but did not promote leukotriene C4 formation by eosinophils, even after preincubation with interleukin 3 (IL-3), in contrast to other chemotactic agonists such as C5a and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). (rupress.org)
  • The mouse IFN-alpha 4 reduces the local replication of murine cytomegalovirus in the tibia muscle (6). (rndsystems.com)
  • Del Pozo V, De Andres B, Martin E, Maruri N, Zubeldia JM, Palomino P, Lahoz C. Murine eosinophils and IL-1: alpha IL-1 mRNA detection by in situ hybridization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alpha-synuclein (ASN) is a presynaptic protein that can easily change its conformation under different types of stress. (springer.com)
  • Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein, which is most commonly an unfolded monomer in its physiological state. (diva-portal.org)
  • MCP-1, a potent monocyte chemoattractant and basophil agonist, as well as MIP-1 beta, a peptide with pronounced homology to MIP-1 alpha, did not activate the eosinophil functions tested. (rupress.org)
  • 69 nmol phosphate incorporated into CREBtide per minute per mg protein at 30°C for 15 minutes using a final concentration of 50 uM ATP (0.83 uCi/assay). (genetex.com)
  • To determine the actual role of EspB in this process, we tried to identify the EspB binding partner of the host cell protein, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, and obtained a cytoskeletal-associated protein, alpha-catenin. (nih.gov)
  • The alpha-catenin bound directly to the N-terminal region of EspB, both in solid (overlay assay) and solution (pull-down assay) phases, and it was recruited to the EHEC adherence site, dependent on EspB. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to visualize the co-localization between aSyn and the SNARE proteins (VAMP-2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin-1) for the first time using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). (diva-portal.org)
  • We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for alpha- and beta-secretase cleaved sAPP (alpha-sAPP and beta-sAPP) in 81 sporadic AD patients, 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 42 healthy controls by using newly developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. (lu.se)
  • PKC-alpha has been reported to play roles in many different cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, cell transformation, cell cycle checkpoint, and cell volume control. (genetex.com)
  • These data confirm that the interactions between E1 and DNA polymerase alpha-primase do not exhibit cell-type specificity, as had already been suggested by data from in vivo and in vitro replication assays, but they imply that other cellular proteins may affect the level of E1-dependent replication. (asm.org)
  • Apoptosis was induced with etoposide in the absence or presence of Z-VAD to block caspase activity, and we then followed the cellular distribution of alpha-DB and its association with other proteins, using confocal imaging and cell fractions analyses after immune-precipitation with anti-alpha-DB and mass spectrometry. (diva-portal.org)