Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Guanine Nucleotides1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESReceptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Dideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.OhioEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Aristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).TennesseeHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. J Biol ... G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase. Cell. 1984 Mar;36(3):577-9. PMID 6321035. ... Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for the alpha subunit of the G protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase. Science. 1985 ... The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties of the turkey erythrocyte protein. J Biol Chem. 1981 ...
One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. The ... Binding of this protein to the consensus sequence represents gene expression by reducing transcription. It is not known what ... Gray MC, Donato GM, Jones FR, Kim T, Hewlett EL (2004). "Newly secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is responsible for intoxication ... Hewlett EL, Donato GM, Gray MC (2006). "Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: ...
Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". Cell. 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... "Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". The ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for the alpha subunit of the G protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase". Science. 229 ... "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties of the turkey erythrocyte protein". The Journal of ...
Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". 》Cell》 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... "Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". 》The ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for the alpha subunit of the G protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase". 》Science》 229 ... "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties of the turkey erythrocyte protein". 》The Journal of ...
In doing so, the downstream effects of the G protein signal transduction pathway is disrupted by activating adenylate cyclase. ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... Carbonetti, N. H. (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: Key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ...
... a membrane fusion protein), and CyaE (an outer membrane protein). The CyaA protein contains an adenylate cyclase domain (AC ... The cyaA operon encodes the five proteins CyaA (RTX toxin), CyaC (CyaA activation protein), and the three T1SS proteins: CyaB ( ... "Membrane restructuring by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, a member of the RTX toxin family". Journal of ... Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA), is a primary virulence factor in Bordetella pertussis. CyaA is a multifunctional RTX ...
Subunit B binds while subunit A activates the G protein which activates adenylate cyclase. The three-dimensional structure of ... The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans attached to proteins instead of lipids. Once bound, the entire toxin ... The pertussis toxin (also an AB5 protein) produced by Bordetella pertussis acts in a similar manner with the exception that it ... where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex. As the A1 protein moves ...
The toxin, known as pertussis toxin (or PTx), inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated ... The bacterium contains a surface protein, filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin, which binds to the sulfatides found on cilia of ... Its virulence factors include pertussis toxin, filamentous hæmagglutinin, pertactin, fimbria, and tracheal cytotoxin. The ...
... adenylate cyclase MeSH D08.811.520.650.200.040 --- adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH D08.811.520.650.600 --- guanylate cyclase MeSH ... proto-oncogene proteins c-mdm2 MeSH D08.811.464.938.750.750 --- skp cullin f-box protein ligases MeSH D08.811.464.938.750.750. ... adp-ribosyl cyclase MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.680 --- pertussis toxin MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.690 --- poly(adp-ribose) ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunit, gi2 MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.300 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 ...
It is an example of protein priming in DNA replication. MAK genes are not known. The toxin consists of three subunits, which ... The mechanism of action appears to be the inhibition of adenylate cyclase in sensitive cells. Affected cells are arrested in G1 ... In S. cerevisiae are toxins encoded by a double-stranded RNA virus, translated to a precursor protein, cleaved and secreted ... Bussey, H. (1991). "K1 killer toxin, a pore-forming protein from yeast". Molecular Microbiology. 5 (10): 2339-43. doi:10.1111/j ...
The organism also produces three plasmid-coded exotoxins: edema factor, a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, causes ... These proteins can separate heme from hemoglobin, allowing surface proteins of B. anthracis to transport it into the cell. The ... The lethal toxin is a combination of PA with LF and the edema toxin is a combination of PA with EF. The PAI also contains genes ... it forms a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as anthrax edema factor, along with anthrax lethal factor. It ...
For example, Cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates, thereby activating tissue adenylate cyclase to increase the concentration of cAMP, ... Some exotoxins act directly at the ribosome to inhibit protein synthesis. An example is Shiga toxin. Other toxins act at ... Toxins of this type include cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, Shiga toxin and heat-liable enterotoxin from E. coli. Once in the ... AB5 toxin) By domain architecture of the toxin (for example, polymorphic toxins) By the ability of the toxin to endure in ...
These G proteins are used in the signal transduction of taste and smell. They always use the activation of adenylate cyclase as ... Gg protein occurs in the taste recognition for bitter. Most Gi protein family members can be inhibited by the pertussis toxin ... Among the target molecules of the active GTPase are adenylate cyclase and ion channels. The heterotrimeric G proteins can be ... The i stands for inhibition of the adenylate cyclase; another effector molecule for this protein family is phospholipase C. ...
... through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein leading to the constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase. ... In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The heat-labile enterotoxin is ... Mudrak B and Kuehn MJ (2010). "Heat-labile enterotoxin: Beyond GM1 binding". Toxins. 2 (6): 1445-1470. doi:10.3390/ ...
EF acts as a Ca2+ and calmodulin dependent adenylate cyclase that greatly increases the level of cAMP in the cell. This ... the tripartite protein toxin, called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective ... The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective ... The mechanism of anthrax toxin action is the result of the molecular structures of the three toxin proteins in combination with ...
Bagley K, Abdelwahab S, Tuskan R, Fouts T, Lewis G (2002). "Pertussis toxin and the adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella ... Pertussis toxin (PT) is a protein-based AB5-type exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping ... Carbonetti NH (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell ... Kost C, Herzer W, Li P, Jackson E (1999). "Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins and regulation of blood pressure in the ...
The alpha subunit of the G-protein deactivates adenylate cyclase while the beta-gamma subunit activates the K-channels and ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be blocked by curare, hexamethonium and toxins present in the venoms of snakes and ... In contrast, the mAChRs are not ion channels, but belong instead to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors that ... An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a ...
Carbonetti NH, Artamonova GV, Andreasen C, Bushar N (May 2005). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin provide a one-two ... This protein in turn is cleaved into a calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (cyaA-ACD) and hemolysin. Both are virulence ... Bifunctional hemolysin/adenylate cyclase is a protein that in B. pertussis (the bacteria that causes whooping cough) is encoded ... Ladant D, Ullmann A (April 1999). "Bordatella pertussis adenylate cyclase: a toxin with multiple talents". Trends Microbiol. 7 ...
... of adenylate cyclases after his laboratory successfully cloned and sequenced the genes of adenylyl cyclase toxins from the ... 3:102-104 Gascuel O, Danchin A. (1986) Protein export in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: indications of a difference in the ... 27:109-162 Glaser P, Ladant D, Sezer O, Pichot F, Ullmann A, Danchin A. (1988) The calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase of ... from the structure and function of adenylate cyclase, to modelisation of learning in the nervous system and the early ...
... antibodies directed at receptor proteins on cancer cells fused to a genetically modified form of a powerful bacterial toxin, ... showed that antibodies from the serum of patients with hyperthyroidism specifically activated thyroid gland adenylate cyclase, ... showing that cyclic AMP and its receptor protein CRP (cyclic AMP receptor protein) positively regulated the activity of many ... Gene splicing techniques are used to make chimeric proteins in which the Fv of an antibody, preferentially binding to a cancer ...
... and the tripartite protein toxin, called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: protective ... Edema factor is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP ( ... The Ames strain contains two virulence plasmids, which separately encode for a three-protein toxin, called anthrax toxin, and a ... Protective antigen combines with these other two factors to form lethal toxin and edema toxin, respectively. These toxins are ...
Alternatively, in some rare cases CB1 receptor activation may be coupled to Gs proteins, which stimulate adenylate cyclase. ... stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The CB1 receptor is activated by cannabinoids, generated naturally inside ... adenylate cyclase, and increases mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) concentration. ... which are activated by cAMP-dependent interaction with such molecules as protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), Raf-1 ...
... tetanus toxin MeSH D23.946.123.946 --- virulence factors, bordetella MeSH D23.946.123.946.040 --- adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 --- hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 --- hiv envelope protein ... adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH D23.946.896.980.690 --- pertussis toxin. ... shiga toxins MeSH D23.946.123.794.100 --- shiga-like toxin i MeSH D23.946.123.794.124 --- shiga-like toxin ii MeSH D23.946. ...
... pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-3 (IL-3), ... The NT-3 protein is found within the thymus, spleen, intestinal epithelium but its role in the function of each organ is still ... Specifically, studies have shown GDNF plays a protective role against MPTP toxins for DA neurons. It has also been detected in ... Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support ...
... pro-inflammatory products derived from host anti-microbial proteins); and j) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide ... "The formylpeptide chemoattractant receptor copurifies with a GTP-binding protein containing a distinct 40-kDa pertussis toxin ... which has the structure of G protein receptors but apparently does not couple to G proteins and is of uncertain function. The ... The human receptor protein is encoded by the FPR2 gene and is activated to regulate cell function by binding any one of a wide ...
Glucagon activates adenylate cyclase through a seven transmembrane receptor coupled to Gs which, in turn, activates adenylate ... cyclase to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP. cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). ... I. Isolation and characterization of the protein-glycogen complex". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 245 (24): 6642-6648. PMID ... First, the catalytic sites are relatively buried, 15Å from the surface of the protein and from the subunit interface.[6] This ...
The presence of receptors for the novel neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been ... that activation of PACAP receptors causes stimulation of a phospholipase C through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. In ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C activity in rat ... The presence of receptors for the novel neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been ...
... pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate cyclase. / Ui, M.; Katada, T.; Murayama, T.; ... Selective blockage by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate ... Selective blockage by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate ... pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate cyclase. Advances in experimental medicine and ...
They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic ... Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial ... A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of ...
They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic ... A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of ...
Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. J Biol ... G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase. Cell. 1984 Mar;36(3):577-9. PMID 6321035. ... Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for the alpha subunit of the G protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase. Science. 1985 ... The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties of the turkey erythrocyte protein. J Biol Chem. 1981 ...
The initial event appears to be the binding of the B subunit of the toxin to ganglioside GM1on the cell surface,... ... Choleragen exerts its effects on cells through the activation of adenylate cyclase. ... This protein appears to be the GTP-binding component (or G/F factor) of the adenylate cyclase system and is cruical to the ... Calmodulin, a calcium-binding protein, is necessary for expression of catalytic activity of the toxin-activated adenylate ...
Gi component of adenylate cyclase inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTx; 200 ng/mL); and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) ... pertussis toxin) and protein kinase A (KT5720), two signaling elements involved in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathways. ... along with the activation of transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and ... G-protein-coupled receptors and signaling networks: emerging paradigms. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2001; 22: 368-76. ...
Purchase The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001882, ... His other research interests include the other class II bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins, such as Edema Factor (EF) from ... Section I: Basic Genomic and Physiological Aspects of Bacterial Protein Toxins 1. Evolutionary aspects of toxin-producing ... Section IV: Clinical Aspects, Applications of Bacterial Protein Toxins in Cell Biology and Therapy, and Toxin Inhibitors ...
Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from B. pertussis, Recombinant, Frozen Liquid5. £473.00 SKU:. 188L-LL. Size:. 50ug. Suppl:. List ... Toxins. We have a wide selection of products in this field of study, if you do not see something that suits your requirements ... Proteins, Peptides, Small Molecules & Other Biomolecules. *View all. * Antibiotics * Carbohydrates * Enzymes * Fluorophores ...
When cells were treated with the protein toxin of Bordetella pertussis (islet-activating protein; IAP) which inactivates the ... Effects of pertussis toxin on adenylate cyclase responses to prostaglandin E2 and calcitonin in human breast cancer cells. V P ... of adenylate cyclase, there was no change in basal or calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase in intact cells. However, the ... Effects of pertussis toxin on adenylate cyclase responses to prostaglandin E2 and calcitonin in human breast cancer cells ...
Hewlett, E. L.,, L. Gray,, M. Allietta,, I. Ehrmann,, V. M. Gordon, and, M. C. Gray. 1991. Adenylate cyclase toxin from ... Thom, R. E., and, J. E. Casnellie. 1989. Pertussis toxin activates protein kinase C and a tyrosine protein kinase in the human ... Hewlett, E. L.,, V. M. Gordon,, J. D. McCaffery,, W. M. Sutherland, and, M. C. Gray. 1989. Adenylate cyclase toxin from ... Gray, M. C.,, W. Ross,, K. Kim, and, E. L. Hewlett. 1999. Characterization of binding of adenylate cyclase toxin to target ...
Reconstitution of cholera toxin-activated adenylate cyclase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Jul; 75(7):3113-7. View in: PubMed ... Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. J Cell Biol. 1981 Nov; 91(2 Pt 1):410-3. View in: PubMed ... Adenylate cyclase assembled in vitro: cholera toxin substrates determine different patterns of regulation by isoproterenol and ... An Mr = 52,000 peptide can mediate effects on cholera toxin on adenylate cyclase in intact cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1981 May; 19(3 ...
Edema toxin is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Previous studies demonstrated that the anthrax toxins are important ... These three proteins form two toxins, edema toxin (EdTx; PA plus EF) and lethal toxin (LeTx; PA plus LF). PA is the receptor- ... Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations of eukaryotic cells. Proc. ... Human capillary morphogenesis protein 2 functions as an anthrax toxin receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:5170-5174. ...
ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins catalyzed by cholera toxin: basis of the activation of adenylate cyclase.Proc. Natl. Acad ... Mechanism of action of cholera toxin on intact cells. Generation of A1 peptide and activation of adenylate cyclase.J. Biol. ... Fusion proteins containing the A2 domain of cholera toxin assemble with B polypeptides of cholera toxin to form immunoreactive ... Cholera toxin and related enterotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria Handbook of natural toxins: bacterial toxins and virulence ...
... changes that may occur when proteins bind to ligands ... is a powerful technique for studying the structures of proteins ... Interaction of calcium with Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. J. Biol. Chem. 270:26370‐26376. ... Spectral methods of characterizing protein conformation and conformational changes in protein structure. In Protein Structure: ... Circular dichroism analysis for proteinprotein interactions. Methods Mol. Biol. 261:55‐78. ...
The ARH family of ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases is composed of three 39-kDa proteins (ARH1, 2, and 3), which hydrolyze ... ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins catalyzed by cholera toxin: basis of the activation of adenylate cyclase. Proc Natl Acad ... a protein cofactor required for ADP-ribosylation of the stimulatory regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by cholera toxin ... covalent modification of the guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75(6): ...
Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain. David González- ... The O-GlcNAc modification has been found to dynamically cycle on and off the modified proteins. How O-GlcNAc affects protein ... Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain ... Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) delivers its catalytic domain directly across the cell membrane by an ...
In doing so, the downstream effects of the G protein signal transduction pathway is disrupted by activating adenylate cyclase. ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... Carbonetti, N. H. (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: Key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ...
New ingredients might include adenylate cyclase toxin, a protein that helps B. pertussis establish an infection. Novartis, of ... The acellular vaccines generate high levels of antibodies to these proteins-but not all of those antibodies seem to be crucial ... The two vaccines now used in the United States also contain the pertussis surface proteins filamentous hemagglutinin antigen ( ... have developed a live pertussis vaccine in which three of the pertussis toxins have been genetically deactivated or removed. ...
B. bronchiseptica also produces many toxins such as bifunctional adenylate cyclase and dermonecrotic toxins. All of the ... Protein expression of strain TN27 and TN28 was done through Western plot analysis. The prn gene was present in KM22 and TN27 ... B. bronchiseptica also produces many toxins such as bifunctional adenylate cyclase and dermonecrotic toxins. All of the ... "B. bronchiseptica" also produces many toxins such as bifunctional adenylate cyclase and dermonecrotic toxins. All of the ...
"B. bronchiseptica" also produces many toxins such as bifunctional adenylate cyclase and dermonecrotic toxins. All of the ... Protein expression of strain TN27 and TN28 was done through Western plot analysis. The prn gene was present in KM22 and TN27 ... BvgS auto-phosphorylates before it phosphorylates the BvgA protein. Transciption is then followed by this process and specific ... "B. bronchiseptica" expresses many protein factors, such as filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin and fimbriae. ...
Protein kinase A translocation and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells: studies with adenylate cyclase toxin from ... Quantitative analysis shows protein expression level normalized to the respective control proteins and then expressed relative ... Validation of selected genes changes from microarray functional clusters at the mRNA, protein, and protein phosphorylation ... 3E, right, and F and G) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) (B-raf, Max, and ...
Adenylate cyclase is activated by cholera toxin. The cholera toxin A1 fragment catalyzes the attachment of ADP-Ribose (ADPR) to ... Petrussis Toxin. The petrussis toxin modifies heterotrimeric G proteins. The pertussis toxin, PTx, is a protein that mediates ... Normal regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in mammalian cells (Adenylate cyclase (AC)) is activated normally by a ... binding protein that regulates adenylate cyclase activity. The ADP-ribosylation of GTP binding protein inhibits the GTP turnoff ...
Inhibition of monocyte oxidative responses by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. J. Immunol. 139:2749-2754. ... The proteins delivered include SopE, which induces Rho GTPase activation, and SipA, an actin-binding protein (22, 57), neither ... Which proteins are transglutaminated and how these proteins induce tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-γ2 remain to be studied. E. ... A) A 145-kDa protein was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in THP-1 cells upon binding of E. chaffeensis (EC). This protein was ...
  • It has been observed that pituitary-adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescued DAergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improved motor alterations induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. (biologists.org)
  • Lethal toxin is a metalloprotease that cleaves upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. (asm.org)
  • Treatment with lethal toxin blocked multiple kinase signaling pathways important for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of T cells. (asm.org)
  • In addition, phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and of glycogen synthase kinase 3 was inhibited in T cells from lethal toxin-injected mice. (asm.org)
  • Unexpectedly, MIP-HSD1 tg/+ mice exhibited a reversal of high fat-induced β-cell failure through augmentation of the number and intrinsic function of small islets in association with induction of heat shock, protein kinase A, and extracellular signal-related kinase and p21 signaling pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The M 1 mAChR (together with the M 3 and M 5 receptor subtypes) preferentially couples to G q/11 proteins and stimulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/Ca 2+ /diacylglycerol/protein kinase C signal transduction cascade ( Caulfield and Birdsall, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 10(-8) M Sp-cAMPS, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A agonist, was similarly effective. (jci.org)
  • In a search for possible signalling intermediates we found forskolin and cell-permeable cAMP analogues recapitulated the glucose effects, suggesting a role for cAMP and PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A) downstream of glucose. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here it is shown that LF is a protease that cleaves the amino terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MAPKK1 and MAPKK2) and that this cleavage inactivates MAPKK1 and inhibits the MAPK signal transduction pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • A screen of this database aimed at identifying novel inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls cell proliferation and differentiation, revealed that anthrax LF had an activity profile similar to that of PD09859, a compound that selectively inhibits the MAPK pathway ( 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Because a decrease in adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A activity is also required for oocyte maturation ( 12 ), there was concern that low levels of EF may have been present as a contaminant. (sciencemag.org)
  • BvgS is a plasma membrane-bound sensor kinase which responds to stimulation by phosphorylating a cytoplasmic helix-turn-helix-containing protein, BvgA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although GLP-1 is established to be a cAMP-elevating agent, these studies demonstrate that protein kinase A (PKA) is not the only cAMP-binding protein by which GLP-1 acts. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These pathways include protein kinase A (PKA), Ca 2+ /calmodulin-regulated protein kinase (CaMK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, Akt ), and atypical protein kinase C-ζ (PKC-ζ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, markedly decreased the cell surface and total content of [125I]alpha BGT-binding sites and reduced the rate of appearance of AChR at the surface of the myotubes without reducing the level of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Our previous GeneChip data showed that EdTx downregulated MPhi genes involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, including protein kinase A (PKA). (genes2cognition.org)
  • Many extracellular signals modulate cellula r activities by inducing intracellular signal transduction pathways that converge at a protein kinase. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The typical RTX toxin is encoded by a four-gene operon comprising, in order, the modifying enzyme, the toxin structural gene, and the two components of the secretion system. (asmscience.org)
  • Injection of lethal toxin also potently inhibited cytokine secretion by stimulated T cells. (asm.org)
  • The effects of edema toxin on cytokine secretion were more complex and were dependent on the length of time between the injection of edema toxin and the isolation of lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • We are especially interested in 1) how and why bacteria differentially regulate the expression of virulence factor-encoding genes in response to the various environments they encounter throughout the infectious process, and 2) the secretion and function of proteins secreted by the Two Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway. (unc.edu)
  • FHA is secreted by the Two Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway and is, in fact, the prototypical member of this large protein family. (unc.edu)
  • Type III secretion systems (TTSS) are important virulence factors that Gram-negative bacteria use to translocate proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells. (pnas.org)
  • Virulence-associated type III secretion systems (TTSS) are complex macromolecular structures by which Gram-negative pathogens translocate effector proteins directly from the bacterial cytosol into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike proteins exported by the general secretory pathway, TTSS effector proteins are not proteolytically cleaved and have not previously been identified by conserved amino acid sequence motifs within their secretion/translocation signals ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Data largely accumulated from the study of the TTSS-translocated Yop proteins of Yersinia indicate that the TTSS machinery recognizes effector proteins by two signals in their amino termini: a secretion signal and a translocation signal ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Secretion signals have been mapped in several Yop proteins to sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thereafter, the bacteria proliferate and spread further into the respiratory tract, where the secretion of toxins causes ciliostasis and facilitates the entry of bacteria to tracheal/bronchial ciliated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription of a type III secretion system (TTSS) locus is also Bvg activated in both species, although the synthesis of TTSS proteins appears to be posttranscriptionally blocked specifically in B. pertussis ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • The RTX family is defined by two common features: characteristic repeats in the toxin protein sequences, and extracellular secretion by the type I secretion systems (T1SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • These consensus regions function as sites for Ca2+ binding, which facilitate folding of the RTX protein following export via an ATP-mediated type 1 secretion system (T1SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • MARTX toxins are much larger than RTX toxins and are exported by modified type 1 secretion systems containing an additional ABC-transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ptl type IV secretion system mediates secretion of assembled toxin past the outer membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although with low molecular weight guanidino derivatives the substrate specificity of the enzyme is similar to that of choleragen, with protein substrates it clearly differs. (springer.com)
  • ACT of B. pertussis is a ~200 kDa protein consisting of two functional domains: an N- terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (AC domain) and a pore-forming or hemolysin domain (Hly domain), which belongs to the RTX (Repeats in Toxin) family ( Carbonetti, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Hence, by mobilizing calcium ions into phagocytes, the 'translocation intermediate' promotes toxin piggybacking on integrin into lipid rafts and enables AC enzyme delivery into host cytosol. (prolekare.cz)
  • This multifuctional protein binds the α M β 2 integrin (CD11b/CD18, CR3 or Mac-1) of myeloid phagocytic cells and delivers into their cytosol a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase enzyme that ablates bactericidal capacities of phagocytes by uncontrolled conversion of cytosolic ATP to the key signaling molecule cAMP - . (prolekare.cz)
  • The toxin is a 1706 residues-long protein, in which a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme domain of ∼400 N-terminal residues is fused to a ∼1300 residue-long RTX (Repeats in ToXin) cytolysin moiety . (prolekare.cz)
  • The behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7/DJ-1 protein contents were measured before and after PACAP-treatment in both models. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. (biologists.org)
  • The anthrax toxin is composed of three independent polypeptide chains. (rupress.org)
  • 2) We have further deciphered the mode of action of the lethal factor, component of the anthrax toxin, on the endothelium by determining its major role in hijacking host transcription to induce actin cable formation strikingly in absence of direct activation of RhoA. (unice.fr)
  • An enzymatically inactive adenylate cyclase toxoid (CyaA-AC-) has then been abundantly used as an efficient antigen delivery tool over the past 20 years. (cuni.cz)
  • This work focused mainly on the mechanism of action of CyaA toxin and of its toxoid on dendritic cells. (cuni.cz)
  • Furthermore, CyaA mutants unable to mobilize calcium into cells failed to relocate into lipid rafts, and failed to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane, unless rescued by Ca 2+ influx promoted in trans by ionomycin or another CyaA protein. (prolekare.cz)
  • The secreted adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT, or AC-Hly) plays a key role in virulence of Bordetellae . (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we report crystal structures of the adenylyl cyclase domain (ACD) of CyaA with the C-terminal domain of calmodulin. (rcsb.org)
  • CyaA is synthetized as a pro-toxin, pro-CyaA, and converted into its cytotoxic form upon acylation of two lysines. (pasteur.fr)
  • To gain further insights into the effect of acylation, we compared the functional and structural properties of pro-CyaA and CyaA proteins. (pasteur.fr)
  • Therefore, CyaA acylation is not only critical for cell intoxication, but also for protein refolding into its active conformation. (pasteur.fr)
  • The accessory genes are highly conserved among the RTX toxins, whereas there is substantial diversity among the toxin structural genes. (asmscience.org)
  • The fundamental mechanisms of bacterial evolution operate on toxin genes as they do on all genetic loci. (asmscience.org)
  • Charging of tRNAs with the wrong amino acid can result in mistranslation of protein-encoding genes. (pnas.org)
  • Our goals now ( Fig. 1 ) are to determine how the PlrS and PlrR proteins function mechanistically, including identifying the signals to which they respond, to identify the PlrSR-dependent genes that are required for bacterial survival in the LRT, and to determine the link between PlrSR and BvgAS activities in the LRT. (unc.edu)
  • The regulation of Bvg repressed genes is mediated by the product of a 624-bp open reading frame downstream of bvgA, the so-called Bvg-activated repressor protein, BvgR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin is inactive until post-translational modification by the cis-encoded RTX toxin activator, which typically occurs within the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unprimed cells, the major GPCR-triggered activator of Ras is the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 (RasGRP4). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • When a fusion activator plasmid, reporter plasmid and uncharacterized gene are cotransfected into mammalian cells, either direct or indirect phosphorylation of the fusion activator protein by the uncharacterized gene product will activate transcription of the luciferase gene from the reporter plasmid. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If expression of the gene results in direct or indirect phosphorylation of the activator fusion protein, the luciferase gene will be expressed, which is a strong indication that the gene of interest is involved in the pathway being evaluated. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If expression of the gene of interest neither directly nor indirectly results in the phosphorylation of the activator fusion protein, luciferase expression will not significantly exceed the background level. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Instead, an alternative cAMP signaling mechanism has been described, one in which GLP-1 activates cAMP-binding proteins designated as cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMPGEFs, also known as Epac ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Alfred Goodman Gilman ( North Haven , 1 juli 1941 - Dallas , 23 december 2015 ) was een Amerikaans farmacoloog en biochemicus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gilman werd geboren als zoon van Alfred Gilman, sr., een professor aan de Yale-universiteit en een van de auteurs van het farmacologieboek The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepler, J. R. and Gilman, A. G. (1992) G proteins. (springer.com)
  • Tang, W.-J. and Gilman, A. G. (1992) Adenylyl cyclases. (springer.com)
  • It was Gilman who actually discovered the proteins that interacted with the GTP to initiate signalling cascades within the cell, and thus, giving the name G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It produces a complex array of adhesins, aggressins and toxins that are presumed to be important in the colonisation of its human host and in ensuring its survival and propagation. (proteinlounge.com)
  • To maintain the synergism between the kind of immunity conferred by the vaccines and the cellular location of the included antigens, new findings are gathered about the virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, invasins (mostly enzymes), anti-apoptotic factors, anti-phagocytic factors, and many more molecules that aid in pathogenesis and invasiveness. (jyi.org)
  • Bacteria initially adhere to ciliated epithelial cells in the nasopharynx, and this interaction with epithelial cells is mediated by a series of protein adhesins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the toxins and adhesins under BvgAS control are expressed under Bvg+ conditions (high BvgA-Pi concentration). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lethal toxin is the dominant virulence factor produced by B. anthracis and is the major cause of death of infected animals ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A major virulence factor of H. pylori is VacA, a toxin that causes massive vacuolization of epithelial cell lines in vitro and gastric epithelial erosion in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The name RTX (repeats in toxin) refers to the glycine and aspartate-rich repeats located at the C-terminus of the toxin proteins, which facilitate export by a dedicated T1SS encoded within the rtx operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A 1 peptide catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to an amino acid, probably arginine, in a 42 000 dalton membrane protein. (springer.com)
  • Like choleragen, LT uses guanidino compounds as model ADP-ribose acceptors and catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of a 42 000 dalton protein in cell membrane prepatations. (springer.com)
  • This gene product is an integral membrane protein that is a G-protein coupled, 7-transmembrane receptor. (genecards.org)
  • Proteins were transferred to a PVDF membrane and blocked at 4°C overnight. (genetex.com)
  • Our lab has been instrumental in determining that although the N-terminus of FhaB is required for initiating interactions with the outer membrane channel protein FhaC, the C-terminus of FHA is located distally from the cell surface after maturation to FHA. (unc.edu)
  • Translocon proteins are required for translocation of effectors across the eukaryotic plasma membrane and may also function as effectors themselves. (pnas.org)
  • On contact with cultured cells, SPI1 TTSS translocates at least eight effector proteins that mediate several effects, including membrane ruffling, bacterial invasion, cell death, and transepithelial migration of neutrophils ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The effect of activation of the alpha-subunit(s) of the stimulatory guanine-nucleotide-binding protein, Gs, on levels of this polypeptide(s) associated with the plasma membrane of L6 skeletal myoblasts was ascertained. (portlandpress.com)
  • Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which catalyses ADP-ribosylation of Gi but not of Gs, did not down-regulate either Gi or Gs, demonstrating that covalent modification by ADP-ribosylation is alone not a signal for removal of G-proteins from the plasma membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • As a result, both vesicle transport of cargo proteins and directed apical membrane delivery are severely disrupted. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, insufficient apical transport of proteins and other membrane components causes incomplete luminal diameter expansion and deficiencies in extracellular matrix assembly. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to the delivery of proteins to distinct membrane compartments, sorting machineries at the membrane are required that define, for example, adhesive domains to mediate cell-cell contact between lumen-forming cells and luminal membrane regions established at the luminal surface. (biologists.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase is intimately linked to the receptor-G protein machinery on the cytoplasmic face of cell membrane, which generates the second messenger, cAMP, when stimulated by an extracellular message in the form of receptor binding of a hormone or other ligand, light, or odours. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The T1SS proteins form a continuous channel spanning both the inner membrane (IM) and outer membrane (OM) of the bacterial cell, preventing RTX toxin exposure to the periplasmic space (between the IM and OM). (wikipedia.org)
  • It starts by membrane insertion of a toxin 'translocation intermediate', which can be 'locked' in the membrane by the 3D1 antibody blocking AC domain translocation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Since no structural information on the RTX cytolysin moiety is available, the mechanistic details of toxin translocation across the lipid bilayer of cell membrane remain poorly understood. (prolekare.cz)
  • In their GTP-bound form, Arf proteins recruit a specific set of protein effectors to the membrane surface. (biologists.org)
  • Beyond fundamental membrane trafficking roles, Arf proteins also regulate mitosis, plasma membrane signaling, cilary trafficking and lipid droplet function. (biologists.org)
  • These secretory and endosomal membrane systems intersect at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and are maintained by recycling pathways ( Saraste and Goud, 2007 ), in which Arf proteins play a major role. (biologists.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that the anthrax toxins are important immunomodulators that promote immune evasion of the bacterium by suppressing activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax toxins are involved in mediating immune evasion of the bacterium by interfering with innate and adaptive immune responses. (asm.org)
  • A combination treatment that targets both bacterial growth and toxin production would be ideal and probably necessary for effectively combatting this armed bacterium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three transmembrane domains are believed to be involved in pore formation which in the E. coli HlyA protein (TC# 1.C.11.1.3) are at residues 299-319, 361-381 and 383-403. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologies between signal transducing G proteins and ras gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTNR1B (Melatonin Receptor 1B) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • ARF1) refers specifically to the human gene or protein, whereas when only the first letter is capitalized (e.g. (rupress.org)
  • Binding of this protein to the consensus sequence represents gene expression by reducing transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In each case, the tolC gene is located outside the rtx operon and encodes a conserved multifunctional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general rtx gene cluster encodes three protein types: the RTX toxin, an RTX activating acyltransferase, and T1SS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins encoded by this gene and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) (CNR1) gene have the characteristics of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor for cannabinoids. (abnova.com)
  • SQ22,536 [9-(tetrahydrofuryl)-adenine] and 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine (ddAd) are effective and potent AC inhibitors in HEK293 cells expressing a cAMP response element (CRE) reporter gene, and MDL-12,330A [cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine hydrochloride] is not. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Multiple transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. (jax.org)
  • The cloned CD73 gene promoter bears a cAMP response element (CRE) 3 ( 12 ), which is one of the consensus DNA motifs that regulate transcription through the cAMP-dependent coactivator CRE binding protein (CREB) ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Novel recombinant toxins are already proposed in the treatment of some diseases, as well as new vaccines. (elsevier.com)
  • We report here the three-dimensional structure of unmyristoylated GCAP-2 with three bound Ca2+ ions as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of recombinant, isotopically labeled protein. (stanford.edu)
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (elsevier.com)
  • Patching and capping of the toxin on the cell surface, perhaps involved in the internalization of the enzymatically active subunit, may be occuring during this time. (springer.com)
  • These variants may be useful as tools for additional studies on the cell biology of toxin action and/or as attenuated toxins for adjuvant or vaccine use. (asm.org)
  • Vyas S, Chesarone-Cataldo M, Todorova T, Huang YH, Chang P (2013) A systematic analysis of the PARP protein family identifies new functions critical for cell physiology. (springer.com)
  • Some symptoms caused by this toxin are a decrease in platelet count in the blood or thrombocytopenia, an increase in white blood cell count or leukocytosis, and renal cell damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of cultured photoreceptors suggest that activated mislocalized rhodopsin can cause cell death via inappropriate G-protein-coupled signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • The TTSS apparatus spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes and exports proteins past the cell wall. (pnas.org)
  • Effector proteins function to alter host cell physiology and promote bacterial survival in host tissues ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, the potential interaction of Epac with β-cell signaling pathways that subserve stimulatory influences of glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, or pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide is only now becoming apparent. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They modify host target proteins in order to promote infection and/or killing of the host cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Controls the adenylate energy charge of a cell, particularly muscle cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We evaluated the efficacy, potency, and selectivity of the three most commonly used adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitors in a battery of cell lines constructed to study signaling via three discrete cAMP sensors identified in neuroendocrine cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cytoskeletal changes, such as decreased cell spreading and lowered F-actin content, were also observed for toxin-treated MPhis. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Department of Structural Biology and Chemistry Department: Paolo de Los Rios, Non-equilibrium protein folding (and unfolding) in the cell. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cytoprotection following endoplasmic reticulum stress protein induction in continuous cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GPR40, which has recently been identified as a G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptor for long-chain fatty acids, was assessed in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin, a heterotrimeric toxin complex, imposes a G1 cell cycle block on Saccharomyces cerevisiae that requires the toxin-target (TOT) function of holo-Elongator, a six-subunit histone acetylase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we discuss the unique features of Arf small G proteins, their functions in vesicular and lipid trafficking in cells, and how these functions are modulated by their regulators, the GEFs and GAPs. (biologists.org)
  • Members of the Arf family of small GTP-binding (G) proteins are key regulators of eukaryotic cell organization. (biologists.org)
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance and accompanying poster, we will describe the distinctive features of Arf small G proteins and important themes in their regulation. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to their fundamental roles in vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking, we will highlight more specialized roles of Arf proteins, including functions in lipid droplet metabolism, the cytoskeleton, cell division and trafficking to cilia ( Box 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Akt signalling is central to cell survival, metabolism, protein and lipid homeostasis, and is impaired in Parkinson's disease(PD). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Protein toxins, such as neurotoxins and those targeting Rho GTPases have also proven being extremely useful tools to study cell biology processes and cell signaling pathways of broad importance and implicated in a large number of human diseases, such as mental disorders and cancer. (unice.fr)
  • Noteworthy, our studies are focused on a group of toxins targeting host MAPK kinases, Rho GTPases and cAMP flux, which are master regulators of host cell homeostasis notably actin cytoskeleton and consequently endothelium barrier function. (unice.fr)
  • Previously, no consensus signal sequence for translocation has been identified among TTSS effector proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In this work, seven proteins, termed Salmonella -translocated effectors (STE), are described that contain conserved amino acid sequences that direct translocation by TTSS in Salmonella typhimurium . (pnas.org)
  • In the absence of cellular components, choleragen catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of small guanidino compounds such as arginine as well as peptides and proteins that contain arginine. (springer.com)
  • Spleen proteins were denatured using urea, reduced using dithiothreitol, alkylated using iodoacetamide, and digested into peptides using trypsin, and the resulting phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide solid-phase extraction and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography-Linear Trap Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS(/MS). The fragment ion spectra were processed using DeconMSn and searched using both Mascot and SEQUEST resulting in 252,626 confident identifications of 6248 phosphopeptides (corresponding to 5782 phosphorylation sites). (mcponline.org)
  • In the present study, we have taken advantage of the possibility of obtaining a culture preparation that is greatly enriched in immature cerebellar granule cells to investigate the effect of PACAP on the adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C transduction pathways. (nih.gov)
  • A family of structurally homologous guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLP-1 is shown to stimulate cAMP production, and the action of cAMP is demonstrated to be mediated not only by PKA, but also by a newly recognized family of cAMP-binding proteins designated as cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMPGEFs, also known as Epac ) ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tight spatial and temporal regulation of the relatively small number of Arf proteins is achieved by their guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which catalyze GTP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • The inhibitory effects of carbachol on adenylate cyclase were blocked by atropine, AF-DX 116, and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide but were unaffected by the more M3-selective agent pirenzepine (1 microM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adenylyl cyclase amino acid sequence: possible channel- or transporter-like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed, therefore, that the site of ADP-ribosylation in the natural acceptor protein is an arginine or similar amino acid. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical and genetic analyses of these ADP-ribosylating toxins, and CT and LT in particular, identified several positions where amino acid changes caused inactivation of toxicity (for a review see reference 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Calculation of protein extinction coefficients from amino acid sequence data. (currentprotocols.com)
  • A fusion protein containing the first 32 amino acid residues from rat Cannabinoid receptor 2. (genetex.com)
  • LF is a 776-amino acid protein that contains a putative zinc-binding site [HEFGF ( 7 )] at residues 686 through 690, which is characteristic of metalloproteases. (sciencemag.org)
  • The catalytic domain mediates cleavage of an ADP-ribose moiety from NAD + and its subsequent transfer onto an amino acid of the target protein (often Cys, Arg, Asn, or Diphthamide - a modified form of His). (frontiersin.org)
  • RTX proteins range from 40 to over 600 kDa in size and all contain C-terminally located glycine and aspartate-rich repeat sequences of nine amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeats contain the common sequence structure [GGXGXDX[L/I/V/W/Y/F]X], (where X represents any amino acid), but the number of repeats varies within RTX protein family members. (wikipedia.org)