A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.
Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Clinical management approach wherein immediate therapy is not provided but there is a period of observation during which periodic tests monitor patient and the progression of the illness. (Driffield T, Smith PC Med Decis Making. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):178-88)
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A metallocarboxypeptidase that is predominantly expressed as a membrane-bound enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of an unsubstituted, C-terminal glutamyl residue, typically from PTEROYLPOLYGLUTAMIC ACIDS. It was formerly classified as EC
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC, TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC, and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype with specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 15. It is found in tissues containing LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and APOPTOSIS. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.

Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the human prostate: relation to neoplastic transformation. (1/3797)

Bombesin-like peptides such as gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) have been shown to play a role in cancer as autocrine growth factors that stimulate tumor growth through specific receptors. To search for potential clinical indications for GRP analogues, it is important to identify human tumor types expressing sufficient amounts of the respective receptors. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of GRP receptors in human nonneoplastic and neoplastic prostate tissues using in vitro receptor autoradiography on tissue sections with 125I-Tyr4-bombesin as radio-ligand. GRP receptors were detected, often in high density, in 30 of 30 invasive prostatic carcinomas and also in 26 of 26 cases of prostatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions, corresponding mostly to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Well-differentiated carcinomas had a higher receptor density than poorly differentiated ones. Bone metastases of androgen-independent prostate cancers were GRP receptor-positive in 4 of 7 cases. Conversely, GRP receptors were identified in only a few hyperplastic prostates and were localized in very low density in glandular tissue and, focally, in some stromal tissue. In all of the cases, the receptors corresponded to the GRP receptor subtype of bombesin receptors, having high affinity for GRP and bombesin and lower affinity for neuromedin B. These data demonstrate a massive GRP receptor overexpression in prostate tissues that are neoplastically transformed or, like prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias, are in the process of malignant transformation. GRP receptors may be markers for early molecular events in prostate carcinogenesis and useful in differentiating prostate hyperplasia from prostate neoplasia Such data may not only be of biological significance but may also provide a molecular basis for potential clinical applications such as GRP-receptor scintigraphy for early tumor diagnosis, radiotherapy with radiolabeled bombesin-like peptide analogues, and chemotherapy with cytotoxic bombesin analogues.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of androgen receptor coactivator, ARA55, in human prostate. (2/3797)

Androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-activated transcriptional factor that can bind to androgen response elements and that regulates the transcription of target genes via a mechanism that presumably involves cofactors. We report here the cloning of a novel AR coactivator ARA55 using a yeast two-hybrid system. ARA55 consists of 444 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 55 kDa and its sequence shows very high homology to mouse hic5, a TGF-beta1-inducible gene. Yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems and co-immunoprecipitation assays all prove ARA55 can bind to AR in a ligand-dependent manner. Transient transfection assay in prostate cancer DU145 cells further demonstrates that ARA55 can enhance AR transcriptional activity in the presence of 1 nM dihydrotestosterone or its antagonists such as 100 nM 17beta-estradiol or 1 microM hydroxyflutamide. Our data also suggest the C-terminal half of ARA55, which includes three LIM motifs, is sufficient to interact with AR. Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction quantitation showed ARA55 can be expressed differently in normal prostate and prostate tumor cells. Together, our data suggests that ARA55 may play very important roles in the progression of prostate cancer by the modulation of AR transactivation.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of prostase, an androgen-regulated serine protease with prostate-restricted expression. (3/3797)

The identification of genes with selective expression in specific organs or cell types provides an entry point for understanding biological processes that occur uniquely within a particular tissue. Using a subtraction approach designed to identify genes preferentially expressed in specific tissues, we have identified prostase, a human serine protease with prostate-restricted expression. The prostase cDNA encodes a putative 254-aa polypeptide with a conserved serine protease catalytic triad and an amino-terminal pre-propeptide sequence, indicating a potential secretory function. The genomic sequence comprises five exons and four introns and contains multiple copies of a chromosome 19q-specific minisatellite repeat. Northern analysis indicates that prostase mRNA is expressed in hormonally responsive normal and neoplastic prostate epithelial tissues, but not in prostate stromal constituents. Prostase shares 35% amino acid identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and 78% identity with the porcine enamel matrix serine proteinase 1, an enzyme involved in enamel matrix degradation and with a putative role in the disruption of intercellular junctions. Radiation-hybrid-panel mapping localized prostase to chromosome 19q13, a region containing several other serine proteases, including protease M, pancreatic/renal kallikrein hK1, and the prostate-specific kallikreins hK2 and hK3 (PSA). The sequence homology between prostase and other well-characterized serine proteases suggests several potential functional roles for the prostase protein that include the degradation of extracellular matrix and the activation of PSA and other proteases.  (+info)

Delivery of adenoviral vectors to the prostate for gene therapy. (4/3797)

Prostate cancer has become the most frequently occurring cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. One novel approach to combat prostate cancer is gene therapy. A replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector (AdRSVlacZ) expressing bacterial beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) (lacZ) under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter was used to determine which delivery route was best for the transduction of adenoviral vectors to the prostate. Using a canine model, adenoviral vectors were administered by intravenous, intra-arterial, and intraprostatic (i.p.) injections. After injections, the expression of the lacZ gene was measured in canine prostates as well as in various other organs to determine the distribution of the disseminated adenoviral vector by (a) the percentage of cells expressing lacZ in situ (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside staining), (b) beta-gal enzymatic activity (colorimetric beta-gal assay), and (c) polymerase chain reaction of genomic DNA using primers specific for the adenoviral genome. An i.p. injection of the adenoviral vector resulted in a greater transduction rate and expression level of lacZ in the prostate than either intravenous or intra-arterial (inferior vesical/prostatic artery) injections. Thus, an i.p. (or intratumoral) injection seems to be the best route to treat local regional prostate cancer by viral-based gene therapy.  (+info)

Prolactin receptor expression in the developing human prostate and in hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions. (5/3797)

In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to localize and compare the expression of the long form of the human prolactin receptor in fetal, prepubertal, and adult prostate. Results were then compared with hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions. Both receptor message and protein were predominately localized in epithelial cells of the fetal, neonatal, prepubertal, and normal adult prostate. In hyperplastic lesions the expression of the receptor was unchanged with respect to normal epithelial cells. Irrespective of grade, markedly enhanced expression of the receptor was evident in dysplastic lesions. In lower Gleason grade carcinomas the intensity of receptor signal at the message and protein levels approximated that found in normal prostatic epithelium. However, in foci within higher grade cancers, receptor expression appeared diminished. Results from our study suggest that prolactin action plays a role in the development and maintenance of the human prostate and may also participate in early neoplastic transformation of the gland. Diminution of receptor expression in high grade neoplasms could reflect the emergence of a population of cells that are no longer responsive to the peptide hormone.  (+info)

COUP-TF upregulates NGFI-A gene expression through an Sp1 binding site. (6/3797)

The formation of various tissues requires close communication between two groups of cells, epithelial and mesenchymal cells. COUP-TFs are transcription factors which have been shown to have functions in embryonic development. COUP-TFI is expressed mainly in the nervous system, and its targeted deletion leads to defects in the central and peripheral nervous systems. COUP-TFII is highly expressed in the mesenchymal component of the developing organs. A null mutation of COUP-TFII results in the malformation of the heart and blood vessels. From their expression pattern, we proposed that COUP-TFs regulate paracrine signals important for mesenchymal cell-epithelial cell interactions. In order to identify genes regulated by COUP-TF in this process, a rat urogenital mesenchymal cell line was stably transfected with a COUP-TFI expression vector. We found that NGFI-A, a gene with important functions in brain, organ, and vasculature development, has elevated mRNA and protein levels upon overexpression of COUP-TFI in these cells. A study of the promoter region of this gene identified a COUP-TF-responsive element between positions -64 and -46. Surprisingly, this region includes binding sites for members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors but no COUP-TF binding site. Mutations that abolish the Sp1 binding activity also impair the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter by COUP-TF. Two regions of the COUP-TF molecule are shown to be important for NGFI-A activation: the DNA binding domain and the extreme C terminus of the putative ligand binding domain. The C-terminal region is likely to be important for interaction with coactivators. In fact, the coactivators p300 and steroid receptor activator 1 can enhance the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter induced by COUP-TFI. Finally, we demonstrated that COUP-TF can directly interact with Sp1. Taken together, these results suggest that NGFI-A is a target gene for COUP-TFs and that the Sp1 family of transcription factors mediates its regulation by COUP-TFs.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of human prostate coactivator ARA54, a novel protein that associates with the androgen receptor. (7/3797)

Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily that may require coactivators for proper or maximal transactivation. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening followed by mammalian cell analyses, we identified a novel ligand-dependent AR-associated protein, ARA54, which consists of 474 amino acids with a molecular mass of 54 kDa. We demonstrated that ARA54 might function as a preferential coactivator for AR-mediated transactivation in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Interestingly, our data also showed that ARA54 could significantly enhance the transcriptional activity of LNCaP mutant AR (ARt877a) but not wild type AR or another mutant AR (ARe708k) in the presence of 10 nM 17beta-estradiol or 1 microM hydroxyflutamide. These results imply that both ARA54 and the positions of the AR mutation (877 versus 708) might contribute to the specificity of AR-mediated transactivation. Our findings further demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of ARA54 can serve as a dominant negative inhibitor and exogenous full-length ARA54 can reverse this squelching effect on AR transcriptional activity. Co-expression of ARA54 with other AR coactivators, such as ARA70 or SRC-1, showed additive stimulation of AR-mediated transactivation, which indicates that these cofactors may function individually as AR coactivators to induce AR target gene expression. Through our findings, we have identified and characterized a novel AR coactivator, ARA54, which may play an important role in the AR signaling pathway in human prostate.  (+info)

The relationship between adrogen receptors and the hormonally controlled responses of rat ventral prostate. (8/3797)

1. The administration of dihydrotestosterone to rats orchidectomized 7 days previously stimulated the synthesis of nuclear receptor in prostatic cells several hours in advance of DNA synthesis and mitosis. 2. The synthesis of nuclear receptor is tightly coupled to cell proliferation; consequently, in resting cells, there is no further net synthesis of nuclear receptor above the maximum of approx. 8000 molecules/cell. 3. After orchidectomy a rapid decline in the concentration of free androgen in the nuceus and a slower decline in the concentration of nuclear receptor are observed. 4. Owing to the apparent scarcity of receptor-inactivating factors in the nucleus, and the inverse relationship between amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic receptors, it is concluded that the nuclear receptor is discharged into the cytoplasm after orchidectomy. 5. The formation of the cytoplasmic receptor is an early event preceding the onset of cellular autolysis. 6. Regressing prostate develops the capacity to eliminate cytoplasmic receptor, and this capacity is retained by the regenerating prostate for at least 14 days. 7. The synthesis of nuclear receptor in early G1 phase may control the entry of cells into the cell cycle and the prolonged retention of receptor in the nucleus may prevent the activation of autophagic processes.  (+info)

The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor, and key regulator of prostate development and cancer, which has discrete functions in stromal versus epithelial cells. AR expressed in mesenchyme is necessary and sufficient for prostate development while loss of stromal AR is predictive of prostate cancer progression. Many studies have characterized genome-wide binding of AR in prostate tumour cells but none have used primary mesenchyme or stroma. We applied ChIPseq to identify genomic AR binding sites in primary human fetal prostate fibroblasts and patient derived cancer associated fibroblasts, as well as the WPMY1 cell line overexpressing AR. We identified AR binding sites that were specific to fetal prostate fibroblasts (7534), cancer fibroblasts (629), WPMY1-AR (2561) as well as those common among all (783). Primary fibroblasts had a distinct AR binding profile versus prostate cancer cell lines and tissue, and showed a localisation to gene promoter binding sites 1 kb upstream of the
Diabetic Mouse Prostate Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the prostate of Diabetic (db/db) mice (8 weeks). Diabetic Mouse Prostate Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 1 are detached from the culture flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal Medium is a sterile, phenol red-free, liquid tissue culture medium intended for use as one component in a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions ™ system. This serum-free system is designed to support prostate epithelial cells derived from normal human prostate. Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal Medium contains essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, other organic compounds, trace minerals and inorganic salts. To support the proliferation and plating efficiency of various types of prostate epithelial cells, Prostate Cell Basal Medium must be supplemented with the appropriate cell-specific growth kit. When using this complete media system, the growth of prostate epithelial cells is supported without the use of feeder layers, extracellular matrix proteins or other substrates. A. For prostate epithelial cells derived from prostate tissue (e.g., Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-440-010), supplement Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal
4. Kill mouse by cervical dislocation 5. Spray with 70%ethanol, open skin over abdomen with sterile scissors, open muscle tissue to face abdominal organs (best place to cut is lower abdominal region) 6. Take out the bladder by holding onto it with forceps; pull organs attached to bladder, including urethra, prostate, seminal vesicles (SV) out. Cut urethra and connective tissue below to pull out whole periurethral region. Put into 60 mm dish with HBSS. 7. Using a stereo microscope, dissect prostate lobes. First, remove all non-prostate tissue and connective tissue: remove ductus deferens, ampullary gland (if present), and all fat tissue (resembles Styrofoam in appearance). Keep prostate tissue (transparent glandular tissue). Prostate lobes can be found: the anterior prostate is the biggest lobe and lines the inner curvature of the SV. The dorsal prostate is attached to both the initial segment of the outer curvature of the SV and the urethra. The lateral and ventral prostates are located above ...
A functional model of adult human prostate epithelium is described. This model shows that stromal cells, but not an androgenic stimuli, are required for architectural organisation of prostate epithelium. Within an organised structure, androgenic stimulation is required for the establishment of secretory epithelial cell morphology and associated function. In the absence of stromal cells but in the presence of androgens architectural organisation and secretory function are lost. Epithelial parenchymal units (organoids) from human prostate tissue were isolated, cultured within a three-dimensional collagen matrix, and xenografted subcutaneously into athymic mouse hosts. The grafted gels were rapidly invaded by host fibroblasts. Epithelial organisation initially disappeared but was re-established concurrently with the stromal cell invasion. In intact male hosts, cuboidal and columnar cells that expressed human prostate-specific secretory markers were found. In castrated male and in female hosts ...
Early Effects of Castration Therapy in Non-malignant and Malignant Prostate Tissue. BACKGROUND. Androgen ablation, the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer, results in increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation and subsequent involution of the prostate gland. The mechanisms behind these responses are largely unknown, but effects in the prostatic epithelium are believed to be mediated by primary changes in the stroma. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate short-term cellular effects of castration-induced prostate tissue involution in mice and humans.. METHODS. Prostate tissue factors affected by castration were investigated using cDNA-arrays, micro-dissection, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The effects of local insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) administration were investigated in intact and castrated mice. Non-malignant and malignant epithelial and stromal cells were micro-dissected from human prostate biopsies taken before and within two ...
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the United States (Siegel et al., 2016) and the second most common malignancy in men worldwide (Torre et al., 2015). Although prostate carcinoma arises from the epithelium, numerous studies have revealed the potential influence of reciprocal interactions between prostate stromal cells (fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells or SMCs) and cancer epithelial cells on tumor progression (Barron and Rowley, 2012; Franco and Hayward, 2012). For example, human prostate carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, but not normal prostate fibroblasts, induce substantial growth and neoplasia of nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cell lines in tissue recombinants in mice (Olumi et al., 1999). Furthermore, the proportion of reactive stroma within human PCa samples has prognostic value for PCa-specific death (Ayala et al., 2003, 2011). Unlike normal prostate stroma that is primarily composed of mature SMCs, the reactive stroma of ...
Loss of TP63 expression in the prostate epithelium is a hallmark of invasive prostate cancer. An inability of prostate epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis, a process regulated by both TP63 and TP53, is a feature of their malignant transformation. p53 mutations in prostate cancer are uncommon, being mainly associated with advanced metastatic disease. Therefore it is likely that the inability of wild-type p53 to initiate and execute apoptosis is due to molecular alterations elsewhere in the apoptotic pathway. iASPP is an inhibitory member of the ASPP family of proteins and is known to inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis and regulate p63 function. In this work we have investigated how iASPP can affect normal prostate development and prostate tumourigenesis. By utilising an iASPP-deficient mouse model, we show that iASPP plays a key role in normal prostate development and homeostasis by maintaining the TP63-positive basal cell lineage of the prostate epithelium. The loss of iASPP is associated with ...
Aim: Establish the main differences in the prostate volume, prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), number of biopsy samples in patients with primarily or rebiopsy detected prostate cancer. Materials and methods: In the 2007-2009 period, at the KCUS Urology Clinic, there were 379 TRUS guided prostate biopsies in 323 patients with known prostate volume. The total of 56 patients (17.3%) underwent the first rebiopsy, primarily due to precancerous lesions. The mean prostate volume, ranges of prostate size, PSAT, PSAD and the number of biopsy samples were analysed retrospectively, and the main characteristics in patients with primarily and rebiopsy diagnosed Pca were evaluated as well. Results: The first biopsy cancer detection rate was 29.6% (112/379). The rebiopsy detection rate was 30.3%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prostate volume and the number of biopsy samples among the total number of patients with prostate cancer against the group with benign (suspected) ...
Background: The incidence of infection associated with transrectal prostate biopsy has been increasing largely due to fluoroquinolone resistance (FQR). Purpose: To identify the antibiotic prescribing patterns employed when men seek medical professionals due to infectious complications of prostate biopsy, and employ a quality improvement initiative to improve antibiotic selection. Methods: A retrospective review determined the percentage of patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) after TRUS biopsy, and whether they were given appropriate antibiotic therapy. Prospective quality improvement was initiated by obtaining cultures via rectal swab at the time of transrectal biopsy in order to allow culture results and fluoroquinolone sensitivities to be available in the electronic medical record. The provider to guide antibiotic selection if the patient returned with infection symptoms could utilize the data. Findings: From 10/2009 to 6/2014, 0.5% (9/1724) of patients who underwent TRUS prostate
The paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines RC-77 T/E and RC-77 N/E represent one of only a few cell lines derived from African-American prostate cancer patients [30]. E006AA, RC-165 N, and MDA-PCa 2a/2b are other African-American patient-derived cell lines. E006AA also has a highly tumorigenic derivative, E006AA-hT, and an associated stroma cell line, S006AA [27]. While the E006AA-hT model can be used to examine the differences between less and more highly tumorigenic cancers, it does not have a non-malignant paired epithelial cell line. The RC-165 N cell line is unique because it was derived from benign prostate tissue of an African-American male and was immortalized by telomerase [41]. This cell line is useful for understanding the functions of the androgen receptor in prostate epithelial cells. MDA-PCa 2a/2b cells are tumorigenic but differ in vivo and in vitro. These cell lines are a useful androgen sensitive model, but, unlike RC-77 cells, they do ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of vascular response in the castration-induced regression of benign and malignant human prostate tissue, as recent studies show that castration rapidly decreases blood flow and induces endothelial cell death, which may be important for subsequent epithelial cell death and involution of the glandular tissue of the prostate.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors was analysed using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in benign and tumour areas of core biopsies taken before, and approximately 1 week after castration therapy. The castration-induced VEGF response was related to therapy-induced changes in tumour cell apoptotic index and subsequent response in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In another set of patients, serum VEGF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, and at 3--6 months after castration therapy.. RESULTS: VEGF mRNA was down-regulated ...
Prostate development is a complex process, and knowledge about this process is increasingly required for both basic developmental biology studies and clinical prostate cancer research, as prostate tumorigenesis can be regarded as the restoration of development in the adult prostate. Using rodent animal models, scientists have revealed that the development of the prostate is mainly mediated by androgen receptor (AR) signaling and that some other signaling pathways also play indispensable roles. However, there are still many unknowns in human prostate biology, mainly due to the limited availability of proper fetal materials. Here, we first briefly review prostate development with a focus on the AR, WNT, and BMP signaling pathways is necessary for prostate budding/BMP signaling pathways. Based on the current progress in in vitro prostatic differentiation and organoid techniques, we propose human pluripotent stem cells as an emerging model to study human prostate development.
Clusterin, ubiquitously distributed in mammalians, was cloned and identified as the most potently induced gene during rat prostate involution following androgen deprivation. Also found to be involved in many other patho-physiological processes, its biological significance is still controversial, particularly with regard to apoptosis. We previously showed that transient over-expression of clusterin blocked cell cycle progression of simian-virus-40-immortalized human prostate epithelial cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. We show in the present study that the accumulation of an intracellular 45 kDa clusterin isoform was an early event closely associated with death of PNT1A cells caused by cell detachment followed by apoptosis induction (anoikis). Cell morphological changes, decreased proliferation rate and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-S-phase checkpoint were all strictly associated with the production and early translocation to the nucleus of a 45 kDa clusterin isoform. Later, nuclear clusterin was found ...
Supplementary Material for: Are Transrectal Prostate Biopsies Routinely Indicated in Patients with Incidentally Diagnosed Prostate Cancer following Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for Benign Disease?
A transperineal biopsy of the prostate, performed under a general anaesthetic, is therefore carried out via the skin overlying this area. Epub 20. The recovery prostate biopsy after effects process after biopsy usually depends on the patients health and age.. &0183;&32;Physical after-effects following prostate biopsy in routine practice are common, and in some men, serious enough to warrant contacting hospital or community services. prostate biopsy after effects Are there any side effects after Prostate Biopsy? &0183;&32;Some people may notice a prostate biopsy after effects rust- or red-colored prostate biopsy after effects tint to their semen for several weeks after their prostate biopsy after effects biopsies, notes Mayo Clinic. Early management prostate biopsy after effects of side effects has been shown to help patients prostate biopsy after effects live longer, better lives. Clots in the bladder are a problem only if they obstruct the flow of urine i.. Patients often times see clots in ...
{ consumer: A prostate biopsy is a test to remove small samples of prostate tissue to be looked at under a microscope. The tissue samples taken are looked at for cancer cells. For a transrectal prostate biopsy, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum. Guided by ultrasound, a spring-loaded needle is used to take samples..., clinical: A prostate biopsy is a test to remove small samples of prostate tissue to be looked at under a microscope. The tissue samples taken are looked at for cancer cells. For a transrectal prostate biopsy, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum. Guided by ultrasound, a spring-loaded needle is used to take samples... } Greater Williamsburg Network of Care, Virginia
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patients tolerance and early complications of transrectal sonographically guided prostate biopsy. T2 - Prospective study of 300 patients. AU - Sheikh, Mehraj. AU - Hussein, Ali Y.T.. AU - Kehinde, Elijah O.. AU - Al-Saeed, Osama. AU - Rad, Am B.. AU - Ali, Yusuf M.. AU - Anim, Jehoram T.. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - Purpose. To determine the degree of pain and discomfort associated with transrectal sonography (TRS)-guided biopsy of the prostate and to analyze the complications associated with this procedure. Methods. Three hundred men referred as part of an investigation to exclude prostate cancer were studied. The reasons for referral were suspected prostate cancer due to increased serum prostate-specific antigen level (,4 ng/ml), the finding of a palpable nodule or greater firmness of one prostatic lobe than the other on digital rectal examination, or the finding of a suspicious area of neoplasm of the prostate on TRS biopsy. All TRS-guided biopsies were performed as ...
Transrectal prostate biopsy and fiducial marker placement in a standard 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner Academic Article Article ...
Topic Index - Prostate Health Prostate Health Home Anatomy of the Prostate Gland Benign Prostate Problems Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Impotence / Erectile Dysfunction Prostatitis Urinary Incontinence Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Overview Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Statistics Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Staging of Prostate Cancer Grading of Prostate Cancer Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures Treatments for Prostate Cancer Expectant Therapy Surgery Radiation Ther...
The prostate is one of the most complex glands in the human body in both an anatomical and pathological sense. Even the slightest modification in the prostate gland can create a disastrous cascade of events that can lead to both emotional and physical harm. Endocrinologists are now working around the clock to find the causes and treatments to prostate diseases. In China, the 3D Prostate Treatment is taking lead in creating an environment that fosters research in both finding causes in the most common and obscure prostate diseases and treating them with their proprietary 3D Prostate Treatment. The purpose of the prostate is to secrete prostate fluid, a milky solution of alkaline pH. The prostate fluid is then used by the body to make semen that can fertilize eggs of a women during sexual intercourse. The muscles of the prostate gland help in this process as they are able to propel seminal fluid from the prostate into the urethra before ejaculation. Problems or diseases of the prostate can ...
Abstract Background Zinc plays important roles in maintaining normal function of the prostate and in development of prostate malignancy. It has been demonstrated that prostate malignant epithelial cells contain much less cellular zinc than the surrounding normal epithelial cells. However, the pathway(s) which leads to lower zinc accumulation in malignant prostate epithelial cells is poorly understood. In this study, the zinc homeostatic features of two human prostate epithelial cell lines (non-tumorigenic, RWPE1, and tumorigenic, RWPE2) were investigated. Effects of over-expression of ZIP1 in RWPE2 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were also studied. Results RWPE2 accumulated less intracellular zinc than RWPE1 due to the decreased zinc uptake activity. The mRNA expression of ZIP1 and ZIP3 in RWPE1 and RWPE2 was comparable. However, the protein expression of ZIP1 in RWPE2 was lower than that in RWPE1. ZIP3 was detected in a lysosomal compartment of RWPE2 while no ZIP3 was detected in the same
The Effectiveness of Caudal Block with Low Doses of Dexmedetomidine and Pethidine in Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: Preliminary Results ...
Adult bladder epithelium (BLE) is induced to differentiate into glandular epithelium after association with urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) and subsequent in vivo growth in syngeneic male hosts. Alteration of epithelial cytodifferentiation is associated with the expression of prostate-specific antigens, histochemical and steroid metabolic activities. These observations suggest that the inductive influence of the UGM has reprogrammed both the morphological and functional characteristics of the urothelium. In this report, differences regarding the mechanisms and effects of androgenic stimulation of prostate and bladder are exploited to determine the extent to which UGM plus BLE recombinants express a prostatelike, androgen-dependent phenotype. Results from cytosolic and autoradiographic binding studies suggest that androgen binding is induced in UGM plus BLE recombinants and that this activity is accounted for by the induced urothelial cells. In UGM plus BLE recombinants, androgen-induced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aberrant expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in prostate epithelial cells allows induction of promatrilysin expression by fibroblast growth factors. AU - Udayakumar, T. S.. AU - Klein, Russell D.. AU - Maliner, M. Suzanne. AU - Nagle, Raymond B.. AU - Bowden, G. T.. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix proteins, and there is evidence that they play a role in tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Matrilysin (MMP-7) is over-expressed in prostate cancer cells and increases prostate cancer cell invasion. Prostate stromal fibroblasts secrete a factor(s), including fibroblast growth factor-I (FGF-I), which induces promatrilysin expression in the prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP but not in normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). Since FGF-I is present in the prostate, an altered sensitivity to FGF-I might explain the up regulation of matrilysin expression in prostate cancer cells compared to normal ...
Cypate-octreote peptide analogue conjugate (Cytate) was investigated as a prostate cancer receptor- targeted contrast agent. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Cytate were ranged in the near- infrared tissue optical window. Time-resolved investigation of polarization-dependent fluorescence emitted from Cytate in solution as well as in cancerous and normal prostate tissues was conducted. Polarization preservation characteristics of Cytate in solution and tissues were studied. Fluorescence intensity emitted from the Cytate-stained cancerous prostate tissue was found to be much stronger than that from the Cytate-stained normal prostate tissue, indicating more Cytate uptake in the former tis sue type. The polarization anisotropy of Cytate contained in cancerous prostate tissue was found to be larger than that in the normal prostate tissue, indicating a larger degree of polarization preservation in Cytate-stained cancerous tissue. The temporal profiles of fluorescence from Cytate solution ...
Did you understand?. Your risk of prostate cancer will increase as you become older. Most males with the illness are over 50. If your brother or father has had prostate cancer, your risk can also be increased. What is prostate cancer?. Prostate cancer occurs when the conventional cells within the prostate gland change and develop to type a mass of cells known as a tumour. These cancer cells can have an effect on how the prostate works.. Prostate cancer cells might not develop in any respect or else develop slowly throughout a persons lifetime. Many males by no means develop issues or signs from their prostate cancer. In some, prostate cancer grows extra rapidly and wants remedy to stop it spreading outdoors of the prostate gland.. In most instances, prostate cancer might be cured or stored beneath management.. Prostate cancer most frequently happens in males of their fifties and onwards. It can happen on uncommon events in males of their late forties. The risk of creating prostate cancer rises ...
Using nuclear medicine, German researchers may have found a way to accurately differentiate cancerous tissue from healthy tissue in prostate cancer patients. The research is highlighted in findings published by Rahbar et al in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.. These new findings demonstrate that the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans correlates with PSMA-expression in primary prostate cancer. By this means, researchers were able to generate an SUVmax cutoff for the differentiation of cancerous and benign prostate tissue.. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to generate a cutoff SUVmax, validated by immunohistochemistry, for separating prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images, explained Vikas Prasad, MD, PhD, of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Germany. Our SUVmax cutoff can be used to confirm or rule out ...
Second to skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men; approximately 300,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year. The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown. According to the American Cancer Society, an average American man has a one in six chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.. Located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum, the prostate is a walnut sized gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The urethra, which is the tube that urine flows through, runs through the center of the prostate gland. The prostate gland produces prostatic fluid which, when mixed with sperm, produces semen.. Prostate cancer occurs when the prostate gland develops malignant cells. Localized prostate cancer is when the cancer remains inside the prostate. However, it is possible for the cancer to grow to surrounding tissue, or spread (metastasize) to the lymph nodes or bone. As with many forms of ...
Results The validity of CHKA-antibody was verified using CHKA-transfected cells and siRNA knockdown. Immunoblotting of tissues showed good resolution of CHKA protein in malignant prostate, verifying use of the antibody for IHC. There was minimal qRT-PCR detectable CHKA mRNA in normal tissue, and conversely high expression in malignant prostate tissues. IHC of normal prostate cores showed mild (intensity) CHKA expression in only 28% (7/25) of samples with no Ki67 expression. In contrast, CHKA was expressed in all malignant prostate cores along with characteristically low proliferation (median 2% Ki67-LI; range 1-17%). Stratification of survival according to CHK intensity showed a trend towards lower progression-free survival with CHK score of 3. ...
Its usually performed after you have abnormal results from a PSA test and DRE. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a common screening test for prostate cancer. A prostate MRI may help determine if a biopsy is needed. NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Biopsies taken to diagnose prostate cancer commonly cause … One big one: a near-zero risk of infection! MRI-guided prostate biopsy can help doctors locate suspicious tissue and lower the chance of a false-negative result, however. Use the gland-reducing/ pampering methods detailed elsewhere on this site. The results are available after one to three days, but it can sometimes take longer. What I find surprising is how long it takes to get the results. Its called the proteomic profile. A biopsy is a procedure in which small samples of the prostate are removed and then looked at with a microscope. Sex after Prostate Biopsy or Not? Alternatives to a Prostate Biopsy: 4 Tests to Identify Your Risk of Prostate Cancer Medically reviewed by Seunggu ...
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There are various tests to detect the presence of prostate cancer, the only sure way to detect the condition is through a prostate biopsy. Every year in theUS, there are approximately over a million men who undergo prostate biopsy. Within the biopsies that are preformed, around 25% indicate the existence of prostate cancer. In the other 75% of prostate biopsies, one third indicates a false negative result. With this information, researchers are concerned that prostate cancer is not being detected in the earlier stages.. A prostate biopsy is when a prostate gun which shoots tiny little needles into the prostate is used to take small samples of the tissue. This procedure is preformed in the physicians office without the use of anesthesia. Since this procedure can be painful, the approximate numbers of tissue samples that are taken are about 6 cores. The specimen is taken to a lab for a pathologist to read to determine if cancer is present. If cancer is present the pathologist will assign a ...
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American men. Prostate cancers usually grow slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 and do not die from the disease.. The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, and is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). As a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow. This is condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and it is not the same as prostate cancer.. All men are at risk. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about two to three men will die from prostate cancer. The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer. Men who are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer are at increased ...
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Presentation Authors: Xiaolong Wang, Yiming Wang, Christian Gratzke, Anna Ciotkowska, Qingfeng Yu, Ruixiao Wang*, Bingsheng Li, Frank Strittmatter, Christian G. Stief, Martin Hennenberg, Munich, Germany. Introduction: Leptin is a metabolic peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, with assumed roles in proflieration of prostate cancer cells and of prostate cells in animal models of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, a role of leptin as a molecular link connecting BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BPH with metabolic syndrom appears possible/feasible, but is still unknown. In fact, a connection between metabolic syndrome and BPH/LUTS is becoming increasingly evident from epidemiologic studies. Key factors of LUTS suggestive of BPH are an increased prostate smooth muscle tone, and prostate enlargement, which may both contribute to bladder outlet obstruction. Here, we examined the effects of leptin on contraction of human prostate smooth muscle and on growth of stromal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer detection rates of systematic and targeted prostate biopsies after biparametric MRI. AU - Gayet, Maudy C.W.. AU - van der Aa, A.A.M.A.. AU - Beerlage, Harrie P.. AU - Schrier, Bart Ph.. AU - Gielens, Maaike. AU - Heesakkers, Roel. AU - Jager, Gerrit J.. AU - Mulders, Peter F.A.. AU - Wijkstra, Hessel. PY - 2020/4/3. Y1 - 2020/4/3. N2 - Objective. To compare prostate cancer detection rates (CDRs) and pathology results with targeted prostate biopsy (TB) and systematic prostate biopsy (SB) in biopsy-naive men. Methods. An in-patient control study of 82 men undergoing SB and subsequent TB in case of positive prostate MRI between 2015 and 2017 in the Jeroen Bosch Hospital, the Netherlands. Results. Prostate cancer (PCA) was detected in 54.9% with 70.7% agreement between TB and SB. Significant PCA (Gleason score ≥7) was detected in 24.4%. The CDR with TB and SB was 35.4% and 48.8%, respectively (p=0.052). The CDR of significant prostate cancer with TB and SB was both 20.7%. ...
For men with an abnormal PSA, there are now additional tests that may be considered before prostate needle biopsy. These include prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and other genomic tests such as the 4k test and the Prostate Health Index (PHI).If prostate cancer is detected, it is stratified into risk categories of low, intermediate and high risk. Additional educational resources on prostate cancer risk stratification and diagnosis are provided through the NCCN Guidelines.Additional work up with imaging (bone scan, CAT scan or MRI) and treatment options are based on a mans prostate cancer risk stratification.Learn more here about having an MRI or CT scan performed at Weill Cornell Medicine.Locally advanced prostate cancers may obstruct urinary flow and/or cause severe irritation in the bladder region when the cancer extends from the prostate into the base of the bladder. Treatment of this locally advanced cancer can be very difficult. Obstruction to urinary flow may be opened by transurethral
Gene fusions involving ETS family transcription factors (mainly TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusions) have been found in ~50% of human prostate cancer cases. Although expression of TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusion alone is insufficient to initiate prostate tumorigenesis, they appear to sensitize prostate epithelial cells for cooperation with additional oncogenic mutations to drive frank prostate adenocarcinoma. To search for such ETS-cooperating oncogenic events, we focused on a well-studied prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1, as loss of NKX3.1 is another common genetic alteration in human prostate cancer. Previous studies have shown that deletions at 8p21 (harboring NKX3.1) and 21q22 (resulting in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion) were both present in a subtype of prostate cancer cases, and that ERG can lead to epigenetic silencing of NKX3.1 in prostate cancer cells, whereas NKX3.1 can in turn negatively regulate TMPRSS2-ERG fusion expression via suppression of the TMPRSS2 promoter activity. We recently ...
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Many men do not realize that they have a choice when a physician recommends a prostate biopsy. Often they sit there in shock when told that they will need a biopsy. This scenario is played out over a million times annually though out the United States each year. The fact that alternative diagnostic procedures are not discussed or even brought to the patients attention is amazing. It is important to note that medical practitioners have relied upon prostate biopsies since the first one performed in 1930. A lot has changed in eighty years however the prostate biopsy is still the most relied upon diagnostic procedure. Today revenue generation from prostate biopsies is estimated at 3 billion dollars annually in the US. If you have ever found yourself facing a biopsy you may be surprised how most health care providers fail to discuss the alternatives to a prostate biopsy. In addition no one ever discusses the fact that men who undergo a prostate biopsy often experience side effects due to the ...
If you are a male over 50, or are over 40 and at increased risk for prostate cancer because you have a family history of prostate cancer or are of African-American descent, your doctor should screen you for prostate cancer during your yearly examination by conducting a prostate physical examination (the digital rectal test), a urine evaluation, and a PSA test.. Because of the prostates location, your physician performs the physical examination of the prostate (also known as the Digital Rectal Examination or DRE) by briefly inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the back wall of the prostate. The examination allows your doctor to check for any areas in the back wall of the prostate for firmness, hard nodules, lumps or irregularities.. Combined with the DRE, the PSA test can serve to detect prostate cancer in its early stages. The PSA test measures the amount of prostate specific antigen (PSA), an enzyme that is produced by the prostate and released into the bloodstream. ...
Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) was first identified in the rodent prostate and is abundantly expressed in human and rodent prostate epithelium, stroma, immune cells, and endothelium of the blood vessels. Genomic deletion of ERβ led to hyperplasia of prostate epithelium as well as upregulation of androgen receptor (AR) regulated genes. ERβ has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells; however, role of ERβ in regulating AR activity in prostate cancer has not been studied in detail. Additionally, the role of ERβ in PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway, which is one of the most altered in prostate cancer, is not known. Chapter 2 of this dissertation describes the role of ERβ in regulating PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway. ERβ upregulated INPP4B in prostate cancer cells, PC3, as well as non-malignant cells BPH-1. Upregulation of INPP4B inhibited Akt activity measured by phosphorylation of Ser473 and its downstream target GSK3β. Further, we show that ERβ inhibited migration of PC3 ...
Prostate cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in men. Approximately 90 percent of men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer have cancer confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized disease). The percentage of men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer might change as a result of the recent recommendations from the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).1,2 Clinically localized prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic or may be associated with symptoms that overlap with benign lower urinary tract symptoms. Presenting symptoms, a physical examination, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and a biopsy may be used to diagnose localized prostate cancer.. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Guideline for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer, published in 2015, defined clinically localized prostate cancer as clinical stages T1-T3a, which includes tumors confined to the prostate (T1-T2) and tumors with extracapsular extension but ...
ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells, when grown in Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Prostate Epithelial Cell Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate prostate epithelial cells in serum-free conditions. The cells are cryopreserved at the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
New York, NY, August 20, 2014 /3BL Media/ - Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy is the gold standard for detecting prostate cancer, but international reports have suggested that the number of risks associated with the procedure is increasing. In a new nationwide population-based study, Swedish researchers found that six percent of men filled a prescription for antibiotics for a urinary tract infection within 30 days after having a prostate biopsy, with a twofold increase in hospital admissions over five years, reports The Journal of Urology®.. Earlier studies reported serious adverse events after prostate biopsy including febrile urinary tract infection and urosepsis in one to four percent of men, despite the use of prophylactic antibiotics. There have also been reports that chronic conditions such as diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a history of urinary tract infection increase the risk of infections.. To estimate the incidence of infection after prostate biopsy and assess ...
The Global Prostate Cancer Market is expected to reach $ 72 billion by the end of 2020 growing at a CAGR of around 9.7% from 2014 to 2020. Prostate cancer is an advancement of cancer in the prostate, a gland present in the male reproductive system which exists directly under the bladder in front of the rectum. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to the other parts of the body, viz. the bones and lymph nodes. In the later stages of cancer it can cause difficulty in urination, blood in the urine, etc. Old age, family history and race are some of the factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is most of the times diagnosed by biopsy.. U.S is considered to be the largest market of prostate cancer because the incidence of prostate cancer is common in African American population. The Global Prostate Cancer Market is segmented on the basis of Diagnostic Techniques (Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen Test (PSA)), Surgery (Radical Prostatectomy, ...
Prostatic development is induced by androgens acting via mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Androgens elicit their morphogenetic effects by acting through androgen receptors (ARs) in urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), which induces prostatic epithelial development. In adulthood reciprocal homeosta …
Cancer of the prostate is the most common type of cancer among American men. It is estimated that one out of every 10 American men will develop prostate cancer before the age of 85. The risk of developing prostate cancer greatly increases with age. It rarely occurs in men younger than 40.. The prostate is a male gland normally the size of a walnut. It secretes a milky fluid that is part of the semen needed for ejaculation. The prostate gland lies at the base of the penis, just below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds the first inch of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder.. The cause of prostate cancer remains unknown. Several factors associated with a higher rate of prostate cancer, however, have been identified. The risk of developing prostate cancer increases as a man ages. A family history of prostate cancer in a brother or a father also doubles ones chances of getting prostate cancer. There may be evidence a high-fat diet is associated with ...
The cDNAs encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase were cloned and characterized. The mRNAs contain 3 noncoding regions of heterogeneous sizes 646, 1887 or 1913 nucleotides. A dimer and a monomer of the conserved Alu-repeats are present in the longer 3 noncoding sequences. The complete sequence of 354 amino acids for the mature enzyme was determined by sequencing both cDNA and protein. Human prostatic and lysosomal acid phosphatases exhibit 50% sequence homology, including five Cys residues and two putative N-linked glycosylation sites. The Acp-3 gene coding for human prostatic acid phosphatase was mapped onto chromosome 3 in this investigation. The Acp-2 gene coding for lysosomal acid phosphatase has previously been located on chromosome 11, while the Acp-1 gene coding for red blood cell acid phosphatase is on chromosome 2.
Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP ELISA Kit (Colorimetric). High sensitivity ELISA kit for detection of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase/ACPP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy is the gold standard for detecting prostate cancer but international reports suggest that increasing risks are associated with the procedure. We estimated incidence and risk factors for infection after prostate biopsy as well as 90-day mortality using a nationwide Swedish sample.. Material and Methods: We performed a population based study of 51,321 men from PCBaSe between 2006 and 2011. Primary outcome measures were dispensed prescriptions of antibiotics for urinary tract infection and hospitalization with a discharge diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for infection in men who underwent prostate biopsy.. Results: During the 6 months before biopsy the background incidence of urinary tract infection was approximately 2%. Within 30 days after biopsy 6% of the men had a dispensed prescription for urinary tract antibiotics and 1% were hospitalized with infection. The strongest risk ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transrectal ultrasound appearance of hematolymphoid malignancies involving the prostate. AU - Terris, Martha K.. AU - Freiha, Fuad S.. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Objectives. Although the clinical presentation and physical examination findings in patients with lymphoma or leukemia involving the prostate have been described previously, the transrectal ultrasound appearance of hematolymphoid malignancies involving the prostate has not been previously described. Methods. Nine patients with prostate cancer diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies were found to have hematolymphoid malignancies involving the prostate at the time of subsequent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. The ultrasound images and prostate needle biopsy results are presented. Results. Prospective analysis of transrectal ultrasound images revealed no abnormality other than hypoechogenicity typical of prostate cancer in 7 of the 9 patients (77.8%). In 2 patients, the ...
In the linked study (doi:10.1136/bmj.d7894), Rosario and colleagues assess the effects of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in primary and secondary healthcare on patient reported outcomes.1. Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is the core means but also the core problem of diagnosing prostate cancer. New and old serum markers, such as prostate specific antigen and its isoforms p2PSA and benign prostatic hyperplasia associated PSA,2 and improved imaging techniques based on fusion of images guided by transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, will certainly optimise patient selection, thus improving specificity (by reducing the number of men undergoing unnecessary biopsy procedures). However, the entire process is handicapped by an ailing biopsy procedure, which has changed little since the introduction of Stameys sextant biopsy technique.. Most of todays research aims to identify new and better serum markers for prostate cancer.3 The main concern is that most ...
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Background: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been used as a screening test for the early detection of prostate cancer (PC) for many years. Although the introduction of PSA test led to a considerable increase in reported prostate cancer cases, there is still some controversy over the sensitivity and specificity of this marker in distinguishing PC patients from those with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), the most common benign prostate condition. Objective: An attempt is made to elucidate if the plasma level of Interleukin 8 (IL-8) could be used effectively as a marker for the detection of prostate cancer. Methods: Plasma levels of IL-8 and PSA were measured in two groups of 40 BPH and PC patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques, respectively. In addition IL-8 levels in PC3 and DU145 cell line supernatants were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The concentration of IL-8 in the plasma of PC patients was not significantly higher than the BPH subjects.
The radiologist will first carry out a DRE with a Preparation for an ultrasound guided prostate biopsy An ultrasound probe, which is about the thickness of 1. Taking antibiotic tablets by mouth, usually a thumb, will then be inserted into your rectum. The for 1 or 2 days before the biopsy, and on the probe is sterilised, covered with two condoms to morning of the procedure, to help prevent contamination, and a lubricant to help it glide easily You may have a small enema inserted into your rectum half an hour or so before the Sometimes an injection of local anaesthetic or procedure to clean out your bowels and clear sedative may be given into the area of your rectum the rectum of faeces (so that the prostate to minimise discomfort during the procedure. Often the procedure is carried out after you have been given a light general anaesthetic, which means you will be asleep or sedated during the procedure. 3. You may have an injection of antibiotics just After having examined your prostate with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Periprostatic local anesthesia before ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. T2 - An update of the Miami experience. AU - Vaidya, Anil. AU - Soloway, Mark S.. PY - 2001/9/6. Y1 - 2001/9/6. N2 - Introduction: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is a very common office procedure for most urologists. Pain or discomfort associated with this procedure has been addressed recently by the use of periprostatic local anesthesia. We re-address this issue with an update of our experience and emphasize the crucial steps that contribute to the success of the technique. We also analyzed the subsequent intraoperative effects of injecting lidocaine into the area of the neurovascular bundles. Materials and Methods: Between June 1999 and December 2000, 200 patients underwent TRUS-guided biopsies of the prostate. Patients were properly consented and subjected to the procedure using periprostatic nerve block with 10 cm3 of 1% plain lidocaine. An ultrasonographic wheal was created between the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Independent origin of multiple foci of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. T2 - Comparison with matched foci of prostate carcinoma. AU - Bostwick, David G.. AU - Shan, Ailin. AU - Qian, Junqi. AU - Darson, Micheal. AU - Maihle, Nita J.. AU - Jenkins, Robert B.. AU - Cheng, Liang. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. Prostate carcinoma usually is heterogeneous and multifocal, with diverse clinical and morphologic manifestations. Understanding of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity is limited, particularly for the putative precursor, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study, the authors attempted to determine the genetic relation between multiple foci of PIN and matched loci of carcinoma, and whether they are independent in origin. METHODS. The distribution and prevalence of allelic imbalance at 6 microsatellite polymorphic markers on chromosomes 7q, 8p, 8q, and 18q were examined in 84 microscopically excised PIN foci (mean, 1.6 ...
Izmirli M, Arikan B, Bayazit Y. Associations of polymorphisms in HPC2/ELAC2 and SRD5A2 genes with benign prostate hyperplasia in Turkish men. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 731-3. Parsons JK, Bergstrom J, Barrett-Connor E. Lipids, lipoproteins and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia in community-dwelling men. BJU Int. 2008; 101: 313-8. Duarsa GWK, Lesmana R, Mahadewa TGB. High serum prostate specific antigen as a risk factor for moderate-severe prostate inflammation in patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Bali Med J. 2016; 4: 148-51. Robert G, Descazeaud A, Allory Y, Vacherot F, de la Taille A. Should we investigate prostatic inflammation for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia? Eur Urol. 2009; (Suppl 8): 879-86. Irani J, Levillain P, Goujon JM, Bon D, Dore B, Aubert J. Inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia: correlation with prostate specific antigen value. J Urol. 1997; 157: 1301-3. Kaplan SA, Walmsley K, Te AE. Tolterodine extended release attenuates lower ...
FRIDAY, June 19 (HealthDay News) -- Cystoscopy and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy performed in the office setting appear to pose...login to view the rest of this post ...
Causes and natural remedies for BPH - Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, including dietary changes, supplements and a comprehensive Wellness Program - BPH, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, BPH Treatment, Cause of PPH, BPH Symptoms, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Prostate Cancer, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms, BPH Prostate
Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 50 years of age. The chance of developing prostate cancer increases as men get older.. Family history of prostate cancer. A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than-average risk of prostate cancer.. Race. Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate cancer.. Hormones. The prostate needs male hormones to work the way it should. The main male sex hormone is testosterone. Testosterone helps the body develop and maintain male sex characteristics.. Testosterone is changed into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by an enzyme in the body.. DHT is important for normal prostate growth but can also cause the prostate to get bigger and may play a part in the development of prostate cancer.. Vitamin E. The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) found that vitamin E taken alone ...
Prostate cancer is classified as an adenocarcinoma, or glandular cancer, that begins when normal semen-secreting prostate gland cells mutate into cancer cells. The region of prostate gland where the adenocarcinoma is most common is the peripheral zone. Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in situ or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Although there is no proof that PIN is a cancer precursor, it is closely associated with cancer. Over time, these cancer cells begin to multiply and spread to the surrounding prostate tissue (the stroma) forming a tumor. Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor cells may develop the ability to travel in the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Prostate cancer is considered a malignant tumor because it is a mass of cells that can invade other area of the body. This invasion of other organs is ...
1ND6: Crystal structures of human prostatic acid phosphatase in complex with a phosphate ion and alpha-benzylaminobenzylphosphonic acid update the mechanistic picture and offer new insights into inhibitor design
Association of prostate volume with incidence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer Shadi Al-Khalil, Christine Ibilibor, James Thomas Cammack, Werner de Riese Department of Urology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between prostate volume and aggressiveness and incidence of prostate cancer (PCa).Patients and methods: A chart review of a cohort of 448 consecutive prostate biopsy-naive men was performed. These men underwent at least a 12-core biopsy at our institution due to increased prostate-specific antigen serum levels (|4 ng/mL) and/or suspicious findings on digital rectal examination during the period between 2008 and 2013. Transrectal ultrasound was used to determine the prostate volume.Results: The positive biopsy rate was 66% for patients with a prostate volume of ≤35 cc and 40% for patients with a prostate volume of ≥65 cc (P
TY - JOUR. T1 - PAC1-R null isoform expression in human prostate cancer tissue. AU - Mammi, Caterina. AU - Frajese, Giovanni V.. AU - Vespasiani, Giuseppe. AU - Mariani, Stefania. AU - Gnessi, Lucio. AU - Farini, Donatella. AU - Fabbri, Andrea. AU - Frajese, Gaetano. AU - Moretti, Costanzo. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. PACAP is a member of the VIP/GHRH family of neuropeptides and has important effects on prostate cell proliferation. Here we analyze the expression and localization of PACAP and its specific receptor variants (PAC1-R) in tissues collected from patients undergoing prostate biopsy and surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. PACAP and PAC1-R were localized by immunohistochemistry in the prostate tissue. While in healthy and BPH tissues PAC1-R positive staining is present in all the epithelial cells lining the lumen ...
Src family kinases (SFK) integrate signal transduction for multiple receptors, regulating cellular proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in human cancer. Although Src is rarely mutated in human prostate cancer, SFK activity is increased in the majority of human prostate cancers. To determine the molecular mechanisms governing prostate cancer bone metastasis, FVB murine prostate epithelium was transduced with oncogenic v-Src. The prostate cancer cell lines metastasized in FVB mice to brain and bone. Gene expression profiling of the tumors identified activation of a CCR5 signaling module when the prostate epithelial cell lines were grown in vivo versus tissue cultures. The whole body, bone, and brain metastatic prostate cancer burden was reduced by oral CCR5 antagonist. Clinical trials of CCR5 inhibitors may warrant consideration in patients with CCR5 activation in their tumors.. ...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy) or swelling of the prostate, is characterized by symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction, progressive urinary urgency and frequency, increased nightly urination, and urination with reduced force and caliber of urine. Patients with BPH typically present with an enlarged, inflamed and swollen prostate smooth muscle, glandular epithelium and stromal tissue in the peri-urethral region of the prostate. Experts estimate that BPS affects 50-60% of men between 40 and 59 years of age in the United States, resulting in a projected annual overall cost of hospital care and surgery of over one billion dollars per year. Neglect of prostate inflammation and swelling can lead to a rise in prostatic specific antigen (PSA). It is important to note that the connection between elevated PSA scores and prostate cancer has now been debunked. Prolonged obstruction can also result in uremia, also known as chronic renal failure.. Analysis of ...
BACKGROUND:The present study aimed to assess the correlation between prostate volume and prostate cancer (PCa) detection by strain elastography (SE)-guided targeted biopsy (TB) compared with conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy (SB). MATERIAL AND METHODS:This retrospective study enrolled 357 patients suspected to have PCa. All patients received TRUS-guided 10-core SB and SE-guided TB. The sensitivity for PCa detected by SE-guided TB was compared with that by TRUS-guided SB, in combination with prostate biopsy pathology. The correlation between the prostate volume and the detection rate of SE-guided TB was investigated. RESULTS:PCa was pathologically confirmed in 151 out of 357 patients. The by-patient detection rate of TRUS-guided SB was 72.8% (110/151). Subsequently, a further increase of 6.6% (10/151) in PCa determination was obtained by the SE-guided TB. The sensitivity of SE-guided TB for patients with prostate volume |30 ml, 30-50 ml, 51-80 ml, and |80 ml was 91.7%
The multifocal origin of prostate cancer suggests a pan-organ defect in a tumor suppressor pathway. Although structural mutations in the p53 gene have been implicated in late-stage prostate cancer, little is known about the p53 response to genotoxic stress in normal human prostatic epithelial cells from which adenocarcinomas originate. We found that the majority (10 of 12) of epithelial cell cultures derived from histologically normal tissues of radical prostatectomy specimens failed to exhibit p53 accumulation in response to ionizing radiation. Epithelial cell cultures derived from benign prostatic hyperplasia and a primary prostatic adenocarcinoma also failed to accumulate p53 in response to ionizing radiation. In contrast, cultures of prostatic stromal cells derived from normal, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or adenocarcinoma tissues exhibited a 3-9-fold induction of p53 within 1-3 h after irradiation. Since p53 regulates a cell cycle checkpoint through the induction of the cyclin-cdk ...
Dutasteride is used in the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (BPH).It inhibits conversion of testosterone (T) into the more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to stop prostate (and possibly prostate cancer) growth. DHT regulates the expression of certain genes in the prostate. The pharmacodynamics of DHT reduction in the prostate were never investigated until now, as every measurement would require prostate tissue retrieval, which is medically and ethically unacceptable. A recently developed test is able to quantitatively measure gene expression in prostate-borne cells, in urine sediments after prostate massage. By measuring this gene expression in patients using dutasteride, it has become possible to assess the pharmacodynamics of gene expression reduction, which is representative for the pharmacodynamics of DHT reduction. Repeated prostate tissue sampling has therefore become unnecessary. This newly gained knowledge will lead to a better understanding of the action of dutasteride and will ...
Press Release issued Feb 14, 2017: Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) test is a type of blood test to determine health of prostate gland by measuring prostatic acid phosphatase levels. PAP is an enzyme found in men and majorly present in the prostate gland and semen. Significant amounts of PAP are also found in platelets, bone, spleen, kidney and liver. PAP measurement is important in the management of prostatic cancer patients especially in monitoring remission or relapse of prostatic malignancy and in assessing the effectiveness of various treatment regimes.
While women suffer from urinary tract infections more often than men, males have a condition to deal with of their very own. This condition is called prostate hyperplasia. The prostate gland located between the urethra, a tube which urine flows through, and the bladder where the urine is collected. Aging causes this gland to slowly enlarge, which is also known as prostate hyperplasia. As the prostate enlarges, urine flow is compromised, leading to a prostate infection or symptoms of urinary tract infection. Prostate hyperplasia can also lead to blood in the urine or bladder stones.. ...
What is the prostate gland?. The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland that produces and secretes the fluid in a mans semen. Its located at the base of your bladder and wraps around your urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from your bladder out through your penis.. What is prostate cancer surgery?. Prostate cancer surgery is a procedure to remove all of your prostate gland. It also includes removal of the seminal vesicles (where seminal fluid is produced), the surrounding tissues, and sometimes the nerve bundles on either side of your prostate that are responsible for erections.. Types of prostate cancer surgery. There are several approaches to prostate cancer surgery and they can be performed using a variety of methods. Your surgery will depend on the stage and grade of your cancer as well as your general health and your surgeons skills.. Why is it done?. Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour of the prostate gland which most commonly affects men over 50. Surgery is aimed at ...
Prostatic inflammation is normally a nearly ubiquitous pathological feature seen in specimens from harmless prostate prostate and hyperplasia cancer individuals. prostatic epithelium by causing the expansion of the chosen epithelial progenitor cell people within an IL-1 receptor-dependent way. These results may possess significant effect on our knowledge of how irritation promotes proliferative illnesses such as harmless prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancers, both which rely on extension of cells that display a progenitor-like character. stress 1677 (2 106 bacterias/ml, 100 l/mouse) was instilled through catheters in to the urinary system of C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and IL-1R1?/? mice (The Jackson Lab, Bar Harbor, Me personally; confirmed by genotyping) at 8 wk old as previously defined (2, 16). Mice had been inoculated with 100 g of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; Roche) 2 h before euthanization, and groupings had been euthanized daily 1C7 times after bacterial induction. PBS-instilled pets were ...
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. The diagnosis or followup of prostate cancer in men older than 50 years is based on digital rectal examination, measurement of the free-to-total prostatic specific antigen ratio and transrectal ultrasound assisted needle biopsy of the prostate. We developed and evaluated a noninvasive method for diagnosing prostate cancer based on the measurement of telomerase activity after prostatic massage in fresh voided urine or after urethral washing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained 36 specimens of cells after prostatic massage in the fresh voided urine of 16 patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy and after urethral washing in 20 who underwent prostate needle biopsies. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was immediately added to the collected urine or washing to a final concentration of 20 mM. After protein extraction by CHAPS buffer each specimen was tested for telomerase activity in a 2-step m
If youre concerned you might have prostate cancer, or just want a routine check-up, dont put off a visit to the doctor. Your doctor will conduct several tests to see if prostate cancer is likely. These might include a PSA test, a digital rectal examination, and an MRI scan. If these tests show worrying signs, your doctor might want to do a prostate biopsy (a small surgery that takes some body tissue samples for further examination) to confirm the diagnosis.. A PSA test measures the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. Prostate specific antigen is a protein made in the prostate gland. Low levels of PSA are normally found in the blood, but as you get older, the prostate often grows and the level of PSA gets higher.. A digital rectal examination (DRE) is where a doctor places a gloved finger into the rectum to feel for size, shape and outline of the prostate. Although the prostate sits below the bladder, it can be felt through the rectum.. A prostate MRI can see if a likely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomarkers That Differentiate Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia from Prostate Cancer: A Literature Review. AU - McNally, Christopher. AU - Ruddock, MW. AU - Moore, Tara C. B.. AU - McKenna, Declan J. PY - 2020/7/1. Y1 - 2020/7/1. N2 - Prediction of prostate cancer in primary care is typically based upon serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and digital rectal examination results. However, these tests lack sensitivity and specificity, leading to over-diagnosis of disease and unnecessary, invasive biopsies. Therefore, there is a clinical need for diagnostic tests that can differentiate between benign conditions and early-stage malignant disease in the prostate. In this review, we evaluate research papers published from 2009 to 2019 reporting biomarkers that identified or differentiated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer. Our review identifies hundreds of potential biomarkers in urine, serum, tissue, and semen proposed as useful targets for differentiating ...
These screenings allow your urology doctor to check for chronic prostate conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition in which the prostate is enlarged.. An enlarged prostate will press on a mans urethra, and make it difficult for him to retain urine. Prostatitis is a condition in which the prostate is inflamed. If the doctor finds prostatitis, he will continue to do further testing in order to determine the cause and develop a treatment plan.. It is the best way to detect if you have prostate cancer. Early detection is crucial in fighting prostate cancer, which is why it is recommended that male patients over the age of 40 have a prostate screening every year.. Prostate cancer is very common in men, and during the early stages there are virtually no symptoms. This is why an annual prostate screening is so important because a man could be battling cancer and not even realize it. When detected early, prostate cancer is very easy to ...
China; 24, February 2017: The prostate gland is found in men, which can have 16-32 ducts. These ducts are often prone to blockages and which can give rise to one or another kind of prostate disease. While the traditional medical system recommends a surgical treatment to unblock these ducts, Dr. Song has invented an acupuncture technique that can cure prostate diseases naturally, without a need of a surgery.. People suffering from any kind of prostate problem can rely on Dr. Songs 3d prostatitis treatment, which is 100% safe and dont offer any side effects. A patient may suffer from several kinds of prostate related complications, such as inflammation of the prostate gland, posterior urethritis, seminal vesiculitis, etc. According to a latest research, the prostate problem is one of the major health problems that men suffer from. This is the reason why Dr. Songs natural prostate therapy has its own significance, allowing men to cure their prostate diseases ...
Difference Between Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostate Cancer Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition that occurs in 50% of men over the age of 45. However, in certain cases, it may be indicative of prostate cancer. How do you make out whether your enlarged prostate is a symptom of prostate cancer? Read on! The […]
It also is a concern for middle aged men thinking of trying testosterone supplementation (Hormone replacement therapy). You may have read about some links between prostate cancer and. steroids/HRT therapy. Is it really fact or is it just based on far reaching assumptions?. Steroids and. prostate growth (BPH). Before we discuss steroids and. its role on prostate cancer, first we must discuss steroids possible actions on prostate growth (BPH). The prostate first grows during puberty. Then around 25, the prostate starts to grow again in a 2nd phase. The 2nd phase eventually may lead to prostate enlargement years down the road. Half the men in their 60s will have significant prostate enlargement.. Steroids(including normal testosterone in the body) stimulate the and. rogen receptors in the prostate. Excessive levels of and. rogenic steroids (such as through steroid use) causes prostate growth/enlargement called BPH (Benign prostate hyperplasia) in a short period of time. Once excessive system ...
Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible
Prostate massage, when performed on a regular basis, can be used to reduce an enlarged prostate and get rid of toxins and increase its suppleness. Prostate massage is also a form of sexual play. Whatever your reason may be, lets say you would like to have a prostate massage from your husband or partner. First of all, make sure you are okay with having a prostate massage. Massage may cause you to ejaculate and become sexually stimulated. If you are suffering from a prostate disorder like prostatitis, BPH, have to frequently use the bathroom or are simply looking to promote a healthy prostate, then prostate massage may be a viable alternative to conventional treatments like antibiotics and surgery. Prostate massage has long been used as a means of maintaining prostate health and to promote increased sexual health. If you want to pursue the matter further, the website below will answer many of your questions about an enlarged prostate ...
Abstract. Endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM1) is a major prognostic marker of several tumor types, but its value as a marker for prostate cancer is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to measure the relationship of ESM1 expression with androgen receptor (AR) expression and with Gleason score in human prostate carcinoma tissue. Expression of ESM1 and AR were determined by immunohistochemical staining of prostate tissues from healthy individuals and patients with prostate cancer. The results showed that ESM1 expression was significantly higher in prostate tumor tissues than in normal prostate tissues (p , 0.01), and that ESM1 expression in prostate tumor tissue correlated with Gleason score (p , 0.016) and Gleason grade (p , 0.013). ESM1 expression was also greater in prostate tissues with higher Gleason score and Gleason grade (p , 0.001 for both comparisons), and also correlated with AR expression (R = 0.727, p , 0.001). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ESM1 should ...
PEREZ GUERRA, Yohani; MOLINA CUEVAS, Vivian; OYARZABAL YERA, Ambar and MAS FERREIRO, Rosa. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia. Rev Cubana Farm [online]. 2011, vol.45, n.1, pp.109-126. ISSN 0034-7515.. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5a-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the a1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitors, the a1-adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at ...
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics (APs) are known to exacerbate symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and may even cause urinary retention. The anticholinergic effects of APs and their dopamine D2- and α-receptor blockade may lead to voiding dysfunction of BPH patients. The objective of our study was to investigate whether the use ... read more of APs is associated with an increased risk of initiating medication for BPH in men with Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Data from the nationwide MEDALZ (MEDication use and ALZheimers disease) cohort, including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD in Finland, were utilized. Register-based data included medication dispensing, comorbidities, and hospital discharge diagnoses. Men who initiated APs (n = 4579) were 1:1 matched with men who did not initiate APs (n = 4579), according to time since AD diagnoses and age. The risk of starting BPH medication was investigated with Cox regression. RESULTS: Among AP users, BPH medication was initiated ...
We show here that peptides selected from phage libraries for homing to the prostate vasculature reveal tissue-specific features in the blood vessels of the prostate. We also show that a peptide capable of homing to the blood vessels in the prostate can target a proapoptotic peptide to the prostate, and that systemic treatment with this targeted compound can cause destruction of prostate tissue and delay the development of prostate cancer in mice. Our results show that, like the vasculature of many other tissues analyzed in previous work (2-4), the vasculature of the prostate is biochemically distinct. The accumulation of the SMSIARL phage and fluorescein-labeled SMSIARL peptide in the prostate blood vessels after an i.v. injection indicates that this peptide binds selectively to the blood vessels in the prostate. The selective destruction of prostate tissue caused by targeting of a proapoptotic peptide to the prostate with the SMSIARL homing peptide supports this conclusion.. The molecular ...
Rationale: Prostate cancer is a frequently observed malignancy in men, especially in elderly men. Besides diagnosis and treatment, also prevention of prostate cancer is an important point of interest to reduce the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Selenium is considered to be a promising chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. Exact mechanisms of chemoprevention by selenium are not fully understood. However, it is expected that selenium (among other effects) directly affects gene expression in the prostate.. Objective: The aim of this study is to get insight into bioavailability of selenium in prostate tissue and changes of gene expression profiles that might be responsible for selenium-induced chemoprevention. To meet this objective, the relationship between dietary selenium intake and changes in gene expression profiles, tissue selenium levels and blood flow in prostate tissue will be examined.. Study design: The present study is designed as a double-blind, randomized and ...
In most cases, prostate cancer grows slowly. In fact, for some men, the prostate cancer grows so slowly that it never becomes a major problem. However, some types of prostate cancer can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads from its point of origin to other locations, it is termed metastasized cancer. Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bones, bone marrow, liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. By far, prostate cancer most frequently metastasizes to the bones. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death among American men, according to the American Cancer Society. However, prostate cancer related deaths are decreasing, probably because of improved detection methods and treatments. The exact cause of prostate cancer is not always known. Researchers have recently discovered that some types of prostate cancer are linked to changes in DNA. Your DNA is the carrier of your genetic information, including directions for how your ...
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
September 3, 2010. In benign prostatic hyperplasia, the prostate gland grows in size and it may compress the urethra which courses through the center of the prostate,www.jordanphoenixsuns8.us. This article emphasizes on some of the important facts about BPH.. The term prostate is a minute organ with an approximate size of a walnut. It is situated under the bladder and surrounds the urethra (tube that carries urine from the bladder). This prostate makes a fluid that helps to foster sperm as part of the semen (ejaculatory fluid). Some may think that when you have the benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms this will lead to a kind of cancer. That can affect the emotional state of the one who is involved,www.jordanphoenixsuns8.us. In fact, a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland. Meaning this is not a precursor to prostate cancer. In BPH, the prostate gland grows in size and it may compress the urethra which courses through the center of the prostate. ...
Your prostate cancer prognosis depends on your age, size and stage of the tumor at diagnosis. However, compared to other cancers, the prognosis of prostate cancer is not alarming. In most cases, the cancer remains localized in the prostate and has little or no effect on general health or longevity.. Another benefit is that the prostate cancer progresses slowly. In most cases, after diagnosis, thecancer grows slowly and remains confined to the prostate gland for 10 years or more. Thus, many prostate cancer victims die with prostate cancer but not of prostate cancer. The survival rates of prostate cancer vary from one race to another. The overall 5-year relative survival rate for 1999-2005 from 17 SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and Ends Results) geographic areas was 99.7%. Five-year relative survival rates by race were:. ...
ဆီးကျိတ်ကြီးခြင်းကို ဆေးပညာမှာ benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) ရယ်လို့ ခေါ်ကြပါတယ်။ ယနေ့ထိ ဆီးကျိတ် ဘာကြောင့်ကြီးရလဲ ဆိုတဲ့ အကြောင်းရင်း ကို သေချာမသိသေးပါ။အမျိုးသားတစ်ယောက် အနေနဲ့ လူပျိုဖော်ဝင်စ အချိန်မှစတင်၍ ဆီးကျိတ် တဖြည်းဖြည်း ကြီးလာပါတယ်။. အသက် ၆၀အရွယ် အမျိုးသား ၃၀% ခန့်နှင့် အသက်၈၀ဝန်းကျင် အမျိုးသား ၅၀% ခန့် သည် ဆီးကျိတ် ကြီးခြင်း ကြောင့် ဖြစ်ပေါ်သော ရောဂါလက္ခဏာ များစတင် ...
Presentation Authors: Shinsuke Mizoguchi*, Pittsburgh, PA, Kenichi Mori, Hiromitsu Mimata, Oita, Japan, Jianshu Ni, Masahiro Kurobe, Tetsuichi Saito, Donaldo B. DeFranco, Zhou Wang, Naoki Yoshimura, Pittsburgh, PA. Introduction: There is increasing evidence that prostatic inflammation contributes to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in male with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is increased in BPH tissues from patients exhibiting significant inflammation. Therefore, to reveal the role of COX-2-dependent prostatic inflammation in bladder overactivity, we investigated bladder function and molecular expressions in the prostate and pelvic afferent pathways after prostatic inflammation as well as the effects of COX-2 inhibition on bladder overactivity using a rat model.. Methods: Male SD rats at 8 weeks old were used. Prostatic inflammation was induced by 5% formalin injection into ventral lobes of the prostate and saline was injected in the control ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomarkers associated with prostate cancer progression. AU - Zhau, H. E.. AU - Pisters, L. L.. AU - Hall, C.. AU - Zhao, L. S.. AU - Troncoso, P.. AU - Pollack, A.. AU - Chung, L. W.K.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - In search of biomarkers that predict of human prostate cancer progression, we hypothesized that these markers must be expressed in prostatic epithelial cells during multi-step prostate carcinogenesis. Since both genetic and epigenetic factors have been implicated in human prostate cancer development, two osseous-metastatic experimental models were developed in our laboratory, one based on gene transfection and the other on stromal-epithelial interaction studies. In the genetic model, PC-3 cells transfected with point-mutated c-erbB-2/neu oncogene subsequently acquired the potential to metastasize from the prostate to soft tissues and the skeleton. In the epigenetic model, sublines derived from the parental androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line metastasized from the primary ...
One can say that prostate cancer survival rates look positive. By the time men are diagnosed with prostate cancer, they are around the age of 70. Many of these men face death due to other complications of health problems over the period of 5 years that is irrelevant to prostate cancer. When survival rate of prostate cancer is calculated excluding these group of men who die of other causes, the figures look very encouraging. About 99% of men with prostate cancer that is common will hold out for 5 years and more upon being diagnosed. And for most of the men whose prostate cancer has not spreaded and remain only in one area nearby, the prognosis is far more promising. Close to all of them will live for a minimum of 5 years. For men with prostate cancer that has spreaded which make up about 30%, 1 in 3 of them will live for at least 5 years after diagnosis. However, this is mere approximate statistic.. It is quite complex to understand the prognosis of your prostate cancer because of the various ...
Prostate cancer[edit]. Further information: Prostate cancer § Oils and fatty acids. Some researchers have indicated that serum ... and calcium intake and prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of Japanese men". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. ... are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. These associations may, however, reflect ... "Fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in a nested case-control study in male smokers". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & ...
Prostate cancer[edit]. 15-LOX 1 is overexpressed in prostate cancerous compared to non-cancerous prostate tissue and the levels ... HODE axis also promotes the growth of prostate cancer in various animal models.[78][79] In one animal model the pro-growth ... an omega-3 fatty acid reduced the growth of human prostate cancer explants.[80] These effects could be due the ability of the ... 2 Metabolites on MAPK Signaling in Prostate". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (43): 40549-56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203522200. ...
Oh WK (September 2002). "The evolving role of estrogen therapy in prostate cancer". Clin Prostate Cancer. 1 (2): 81-9. doi: ... Oh WK (September 2002). "The evolving role of estrogen therapy in prostate cancer". Clin Prostate Cancer. 1 (2): 81-9. doi: ... Mechanism of action in prostate cancer[edit]. The growth of prostate cancer is generally stimulated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT ... PEP is used as an intramuscular injection for estrogen therapy of prostate cancer in men.[1][2] It is also used to treat breast ...
Prostate[edit]. The prostate originally consists of two separate portions, each of which arises as a series of diverticular ... The median lobe of the prostate is formed as an extension of the lateral lobes between the common ejaculatory ducts and the ...
Prostate cancer[edit]. Detection of XMRV was reported in a 2010 article.[17][verification needed] ... A man with two copies of this mutation has twice the risk of prostate cancer; one copy raises the risk by 50%.[16] Klein and ... In 2002, the "hereditary prostate cancer 1" locus (HPC1) was mapped to the RNase L gene, implicating it in the development of ... 2010). "XMRV infection in patients with prostate cancer: novel serologic assay and correlation with PCR and FISH". Urology. 75 ...
Prostatitus or Swollen Prostate a symptom[edit]. Does anyone know if Prostatitus or urinary tract infection is a symptom? ... Look at featured content such as multiple sclerosis, asthma and prostate cancer.. You are free to raise your concerns on WP: ...
Prostate cancer[edit]. See also: Management of prostate cancer § Hormonal therapy, and Androgen deprivation therapy ... In males, antiandrogens are used in the treatment of prostate cancer, enlarged prostate, scalp hair loss, overly high sex drive ... steroidal AR antagonists are able to increase prostate weight and accelerate prostate cancer cell growth in the absence of more ... G. Raspé; W. Brosig (22 October 2013). International Symposium on the Treatment of Carcinoma of the Prostate, Berlin, November ...
... prostate; and stomach. Highland Park Hospital also offers a stroke center. ...
"Expression of androgen receptor coactivators in normal and cancer prostate tissues and cultured cell lines". Prostate. 56 (3): ... A dominant negative mutant of this gene has been demonstrated to inhibit the AR-mediated growth of prostate cancer. This ... Kang HY, Yeh S, Fujimoto N, Chang C (Apr 1999). "Cloning and characterization of human prostate coactivator ARA54, a novel ... "A dominant-negative mutant of androgen receptor coregulator ARA54 inhibits androgen receptor-mediated prostate cancer growth". ...
The prostate is typically small or impalpable. Müllerian remnants are rare, but have been reported. The gonads in individuals ... A few AR mutations that cause PAIS are also associated with prostate and breast cancers. Vaginal hypoplasia, a relatively ... Prostate. 28 (3): 162-71. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(199603)28:3. 3.0.CO;2-H. PMID 8628719. Lobaccaro JM, Lumbroso S, Belon C ... possibly including regular breast and prostate examinations. Some individuals with PAIS have a sufficiently high sperm count to ...
Prostate cancer. Over-expression. 33%. Immunohistochemistry. [21]. Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. ... Methylation of the promoter of miR-34a, resulting in under-expression of miR-34a, is observed in 79% of prostate cancers and 63 ...
Precocious puberty; Prostate cancer. Implant. 1993. 283,000 Lecirelin. Dalmarelin. Veterinary medicine (assisted reproduction) ... Fertility medicine; Prostate cancer; Breast cancer; Menorrhagia; Endometriosis; Uterine fibroids; Hyperandrogenism; Hirsutism; ... Thus they are commonly employed in the medical management of prostate cancer and have been used in patients with breast cancer. ... There is also a report that GnRH agonists used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer may increase the risk of heart ...
... primarily estrogens for breast cancer and androgens for prostate cancer) is known as hormonal therapy, while the inhibition of ...
Prostate: The most common form of carcinoma of the prostate is adenocarcinoma. ...
... in human prostate carcinomas". The Prostate. 66 (4): 421-9. doi:10.1002/pros.20372. PMID 16302265.. ...
It can also reduce DHT levels in the prostate by 97 to 99% in men with prostate cancer.[11][12] Epristeride (brand names ... They have also been explored in the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. While the 5-ARI finasteride reduces the cancer ... In BPH, DHT acts as a potent cellular androgen and promotes prostate growth; therefore, it inhibits and alleviates symptoms of ... 5-ARIs have been studied in combination with the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for the treatment of prostate cancer.[ ...
... prostate cancer working group who specialised in prostate disease research, expressed doubt that Megrahi would die within the ... Doctors reported on 10 August 2009 that he had terminal prostate cancer.[4][5] On his return to Libya, al-Megrahi was initially ... The two diagnoses match: he has prostate cancer that has spread to his bones, the cancer has advanced rapidly, and it is ... stating that Megrahi was in the final stages of terminal prostate cancer and was expected to die within three months.[68] ...
... and is no longer detectable in prostate carcinoma". The Prostate. 31 (2): 103-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(19970501)31:2,103 ... "Transforming growth factor-beta 3 is expressed in nondividing basal epithelial cells in normal human prostate and benign ...
For example, those diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer have a much better outcome than those diagnosed with lung or ...
The Prostate. 14 (4): 389-395. doi:10.1002/pros.2990140410. ISSN 0270-4137.. ...
Prostate cancer[edit]. A 2010 Cochrane review found a 25-26% reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer with 5α- ... Dutasteride has been studied in combination with bicalutamide in the treatment of prostate cancer.[53][54][55][56][57] A study ... Enlarged prostate[edit]. Dutasteride is used for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); colloquially known as an " ... Walsh, PC (Apr 1, 2010). "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (13): 1237-8. doi: ...
pro-" (prostate tumor). Capromab pendetide. "-colo-" (colonic tumor). Edrecolomab. Nacolomab tafenatox. Chimeric ("-tuxi-"). * ...
2005). "Prostate cancer". In Gerbaulet A, Pötter R, Mazeron J, Limbergen EV. The GEC ESTRO handbook of brachytherapy. Belgium: ... Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical,[66] prostate,[67] breast,[68] and skin cancer[69] and ... An example of this problem is seen in radiation of the prostate gland, where the sensitivity of the adjacent rectum limited the ... Biegala M, Hydzik A (2016). "Analysis of dose distribution in organs at risk in patients with prostate cancer treated with the ...
2005). "Prostate cancer". In Gerbaulet A, Pötter R, Mazeron J, Limbergen EV (eds.). The GEC ESTRO handbook of brachytherapy. ... Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical,[81] prostate,[82] breast,[83] and skin cancer[84] and ... An example of this problem is seen in radiation of the prostate gland, where the sensitivity of the adjacent rectum limited the ... and prostate cancer. Metastatic cancers are generally incurable with radiation therapy because it is not possible to treat the ...
2005). "Prostate cancer". In Gerbaulet A, Pötter R, Mazeron J, Limbergen EV (eds.). The GEC ESTRO handbook of brachytherapy. ... Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical,[72] prostate,[73] breast,[74] and skin cancer[75] and ... An example of this problem is seen in radiation of the prostate gland, where the sensitivity of the adjacent rectum limited the ... Parker, Christopher (July 18, 2013). "Alpha Emiiter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer". New England Journal ...
... (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.[1] ... The degree of LUTS does not necessarily correspond to the size of the prostate. An enlarged prostate gland on rectal ... Therapy with a 5α-reductase inhibitor markedly reduces the DHT content of the prostate and, in turn, reduces prostate volume ... Micrograph showing nodular hyperplasia (left off center) of the prostate from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP ...
Prostate Cancer Awareness Month. *Labor Day (federal). *California Admission Day (CA). *Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day ( ...
In prostate cancer screening of asymptomatic men aged 55 to 69[edit]. *In men aged 55-69 who have been counseled on the known ... "Prostate Cancer - Clinical Preventive Service Recommendation". www.aafp.org. Retrieved 2019-02-18.. ... In veterinary medicine rectal examination is useful in dogs for analysis of the prostate (as in men), pelvic urethra, sublumbar ... The DRE has a 50% specificity for benign prostatic hypoplasia.[1] Vigorous examination of the prostate in suspected acute ...
Prostate Cancer Awareness Month. *Labor Day (federal). *California Admission Day (CA). *Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day ( ...
The sperm mix with seminal fluid in the seminal vesicles, prostate fluid from the prostate gland, and lubricants from the ... Medications to treat high blood pressure, benign prostate hyperplasia, mood disorders, surgery on the prostate and nerve injury ... Operation on the prostate. It is a common complication of transurethral resection of the prostate, a procedure in which ... If there are no sperm in the urine, it may be due to damage to the prostate as a result of surgery or prior radiation therapy.[ ...
Learn about prostate cancer and talk to your doctor before you decide to get tested or treated for prostate cancer. ... Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American men. ... Learn what prostate cancer is, who is at risk, and about symptoms, screening, diagnosis, and treatment for prostate cancer. ... Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in the United States. The Data Visualizations Tool provides detailed ...
Learn what prostate cancer is, who is at risk, and about symptoms, screening, diagnosis, and treatment for prostate cancer. ... Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in the United States. The Data Visualizations Tool provides detailed ... Get an overview of prostate cancer screening and questions to ask your doctor before you decide to get tested or treated for ... "Its tough to make a decision to screen for prostate cancer or to wait and watch for symptoms," says CDCs Demetrius Parker in ...
... but who later began to show rapid increases in their prostate-specific antigen or PSA, a protein associated with prostate ... Prostate Cancer Drugs Can Delay the Spread of the Disease, Trials Show. Order Reprints , Todays Paper , Subscribe ... Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2018, there ... About 18 months ago, a tumor that developed at the site of his prostate had to be removed, but his cancer has not metastasized ...
... which could be used to improve the accuracy of PSA-based prostate cancer screening tests. ... A new study identified genetic predictors of normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in healthy men, ... Precision-Medicine Approach Could Revive Prostate Cancer Test. Accounting for Genetic Variation Between Men Could Make PSA ... "In the few years that PSA testing has become less popular, the use of the test has declined and the number of prostate cancer ...
This document explains the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP), PSA testing and evidence against a national ... Medical animations for health professionals show prostate anatomy, tumour growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). ... Prostate Cancer UK (PCUK) has convened an independent panel of clinical experts across a broad range of disciplines to develop ... The NHS Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides GPs and primary care professionals with information to ...
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Minimal enhancer/ ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ...
Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer ... These three agents are probably the most widely used complementary approaches in prostate cancer, and they are the ones that ... and prostate cancer patients are no exception. The review article by Drs. ... Patients withandrogen-independent prostate cancer are being treated with either PC-SPES at 9capsules per day or DES at 3 mg per ...
Primary cultures of human prostate epithelial cells, prostate stromal cells, prostate smooth muscle cells, and lung fibroblasts ... A, Lane 1, LNCaP PCA cells; Lane 2, normal prostate stromal cells; Lane 3, normal prostate epithelial cells; Lane 4, normal ... Induction of B-Cell Immune Responses against Prostate Tumor Antigens.. Although few B-cells appeared to be present at prostate ... 5) ⇓ . The 150-kDa polypeptide was expressed by both normal and neoplastic prostate epithelial cells and by prostate smooth ...
... prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen". Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 10 (2): 137-142. doi:10.1038/sj.pcan. ... as the male prostate.[51] This means Skenes gland functions as a female prostate, a histologic homolog to the male prostate ... "Prostate Cancer Information from the Foundation of the Prostate Gland." Prostate Cancer Treatment Guide. Web. 14 June 2010. ... The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian"[1]) is a ...
... newspapers were declaring prostate cancer the hush-hush man-killer, the silent enemy, and the disease that dare not speak ... Oncologists like to say that you are more likely to die with prostate cancer than of prostate cancer.) The slow growth of most ... Prostate cancer death rates have dropped 16 percent this decade. If cancer has not spread beyond the prostate, surgical removal ... The prostate campaigners have persuaded famous men to go public about the prostate, enlisting Arnold Palmer and Harry Belafonte ...
More precise prostate cancer diagnostics could be right around the corner, thanks to evolving MRI capabilities.... ... Breakthrough Prostate Cancer Diagnostics Dr. David Samadi, leading prostate cancer surgeon, gives update on the future of ... With current diagnostics I dont get a perfect picture of the prostate cancer until I see it first-hand during robotic prostate ... a spike in PSA level is typically the first indicator of the potential presence of prostate cancer. A prostate cancer biopsy is ...
... n Mpx prostate support jobs Prostate gland function in males wikipedia Hellfire weight loss pills review Prostate enlarged side ... Bph prostate blood in urine 4 24.12.2015 A prostate is a walnut sized gland that sits in front of the bladder and surrounds the ... Enlarged prostate with high psa mean. 24.12.2015 As a crucial part of the male reproductive system, prostate health is the key ... Prostate cancer low testosterone levels. 24.12.2015 Prostate cancer is possibly tied to low melatonin levels, according to a ...
Inflammation prostate et testicule Prostate miracle? advanced formula gnc Best diet for weight loss with pcos Prostate doctor ... Prostate biopsy core locations. 30.03.2014 Prostate Biopsy Cancer occurs when abnormal cells form a tumor (a lump of cells that ... Prostate prevention diet. 30.03.2014 Prostate cancer is one of the most widespread cancers caused to the older male population ... What is the volume of a normal prostate gland yourself. 29.03.2014 Visualisation of the Prostate using the TRUS ( Transrectal ...
This review summarizes current approaches to prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. What recent advances have ... PSA is a glycoprotein produced by prostate epithelial cells. In prostate cancer, an increase in PSA levels is caused by ... Table 1. Prostate Screening Recommendations Organization. Age to Start Screening. Test. Frequency. Age to Stop Screening. ... Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is an FDA-approved test to help determine if repeat biopsy is necessary in men aged more than ...
Prostate Cancer Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Radical Prostatectomy Prostate Gland Watchful Waiting This is a preview of ... Prostate-specific antigen: critical issues for the practicing physician. Mayo Clin Proc 1994;69:59-68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Catalona W. Management of cancer of the prostate. N Engl J Med 1994;331:996-1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Partin A, Oesterling J. The clinical usefulness of prostate specific antigen: update 1994. J Urol 1994;152:1358-68.PubMedGoogle ...
WebMD provides a comprehensive glossary of terms you may hear during prostate cancer testing, diagnosis, treatment, and ... which can indicate prostate cancer or other prostate diseases.. Prostate stripping: during a digital rectal examination, the ... Because the prostate is an internal organ, the physician cannot look at it directly. Since the prostate lies in front of the ... Prostate enlargement: See benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): a blood test used to detect ...
Watch the American Cancer Societys latest prostate cancer videos and find out all about risk factors, symptoms, how it is ... We help you understand the different options around prostate cancer screening tests and treatment.. ...
Another display holds the first modern tools used to remove the overgrown prostate tissue that can block urination. Merely ... It was inserted into the penis until the notched portion reached the offending prostate matter. Then another tube, the ...
Prostate cancer staging is based on biopsy results including the Gleason score, PSA levels and other exams that are done to ... of the prostate [cT2a]. OR the prostate has been removed with surgery, and the tumor was still only in the prostate [pT2].The ... Prostate Cancer Stages. After a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, doctors will try to figure out if it has spread, and if ... The prostate has been removed with surgery, and the tumor was still only in the prostate [pT2]. The cancer has not spread to ...
This review summarizes current approaches to prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. What recent advances have ... Table 1. Prostate Screening Recommendations Organization. Age to Start Screening. Test. Frequency. Age to Stop Screening. ... Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among men in the United States, with 3.3 million existing survivors ... Table 2. NCCN Risk Stratification and Management of Localized Prostate Cancer Risk Group and Features. Initial Therapy. ...
17 that he has stage 1 prostate cancer. Buffett said he will begin a two-month treatment consisting of daily radiation ...
Fundraise or donate to PROSTATE CANCER UK with JustGiving, the worlds leading online fundraising platform, helping charities to ... About PROSTATE CANCER UK. Prostate Cancer UK has a simple ambition - to stop men dying from prostate cancer. Through shifting ... PROSTATE CANCER UK. We fund research to stop prostate cancer killing men. ... Silverstone Classic 2018 is a full weekend of historic motor racing on the world famous Grand Prix Circuit supporting Prostate ...
Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics ... Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly ... Genetic Testing Registry: Prostate cancer, hereditary, 9 *Genetic Testing Registry: Prostate cancer/brain cancer susceptibility ... Role of Genetic Testing for Inherited Prostate Cancer Risk: Philadelphia Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2017. J Clin ...
Read about benign prostate enlargement (BPE), also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a common condition ... The risk of prostate cancer is no greater for men with an enlarged prostate than it is for men without an enlarged prostate. ... Read more about treating benign prostate enlargement.. Complications of prostate enlargement. Benign prostate enlargement can ... Symptoms of benign prostate enlargement. The prostate is a small gland, located in the pelvis, between the penis and bladder. ...
... and do so more than a decade before prostate cancer is even diagnosed. ... A blood test widely used to screen for prostate cancer can identify which patients are more likely to die from it -- ... The PSA test measures blood levels of a protein made by the prostate. As prostate cancer cells increase in number, PSA levels ... "Right now, 94% of men with a diagnosis of prostate cancerprostate cancer undergo active treatment, regardless of age," Carter ...
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The scope is passed through the urethra to the prostate where surrounding prostate tissue can then be excised. A monopolar ... Transurethral needle ablation of the prostate Transurethral incision of the prostate Prostatectomy, describes monopolar and ... With laser prostate surgery a fiber optic cable pushed through the urethra is used to transmit lasers such as holmium-Nd:YAG ... It is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As the name indicates, it is performed by visualising the prostate ...
Prostate carcinoma; Prostatic adenocarcinoma Experimental therapy for prostate cancer may be defined as a set of modalities, ... Prostate Cancer Androgen Receptor Photodynamic Therapy Advanced Prostate Cancer Prostatic Acid Phosphatase These keywords were ... Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among men in the United States and is only second ... Experimental therapy for prostate cancer may be defined as a set of modalities, strategies, drug agents, or various ...
Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is the core means but also the core problem of diagnosing prostate cancer. New ... Most of todays research aims to identify new and better serum markers for prostate cancer.3 The main concern is that most of ... Rosario and colleagues assess the effects of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in primary and secondary healthcare ... Optimising prostate biopsy. BMJ 2012; 344 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d8201 (Published 09 January 2012) Cite this as: BMJ ...
Zeoli does not diagnose or treat prostate cancer. But he is an expert prostate "coach" who knows all the tests and issues and ... A tendency toward prostate cancer may be inherited. My father and uncles all had it, so I was forewarned. On the other hand, my ... Prostate cancer is the leading male cancer, but it is not easy to determine if you actually have cancer buried deep inside this ... It would not be a good trade off to get an accurate prostate picture and in the process destroy your kidneys. And do not expect ...
  • The other study of a drug called enzalutamide , currently approved for treating prostate cancer that has already metastasized, has not yet been peer-reviewed for publication, the authors said. (nytimes.com)
  • The patients in both studies were men who had previously received some treatment for prostate cancer, such as surgery or radiation, but who later began to show rapid increases in their prostate-specific antigen or PSA, a protein associated with prostate cancer. (nytimes.com)
  • A new study led by researchers at UC San Francisco and Kaiser Permanente has identified genetic predictors of normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in healthy men, which could be used to improve the accuracy of PSA-based prostate cancer screening tests. (ucsf.edu)
  • The NHS Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme ( PCRMP ) provides GPs and primary care professionals with information to counsel asymptomatic men aged 50 and over who ask about prostate specific antigen ( PSA ) testing for prostate cancer. (www.gov.uk)
  • Medical animations for health professionals show prostate anatomy, tumour growth and prostate-specific antigen ( PSA ). (www.gov.uk)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, we now know that PC-SPES is capable of modulating the expressionof prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in virtually all patients withhormone-sensitive disease and a majority of patients with hormone-refractory orandrogen-independent disease. (cancernetwork.com)
  • No antibodies against prostate-specific antigen were detected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is an FDA-approved test to help determine if repeat biopsy is necessary in men aged more than 50 years who had negative prostate biopsies in the past. (medscape.com)
  • Prostate-specific antigen: critical issues for the practicing physician. (springer.com)
  • Partin A, Oesterling J. The clinical usefulness of prostate specific antigen: update 1994. (springer.com)
  • prior to the availability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, the most common presenting symptoms were urinary retention, back pain, bone pain, and hematuria. (medscape.com)
  • Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical exam called a digital rectal exam (DRE). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tests used to screen for prostate cancer include a blood test for a substance called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the digital rectal exam (DRE) . (webmd.com)
  • New and old serum markers, such as prostate specific antigen and its isoforms p2PSA and benign prostatic hyperplasia associated PSA, 2 and improved imaging techniques based on fusion of images guided by transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, will certainly optimise patient selection, thus improving specificity (by reducing the number of men undergoing unnecessary biopsy procedures). (bmj.com)
  • On the other hand, my two brothers have had low prostate-specific antigen ( PSA) numbers and my own were within the "reference" range for most of my adult life. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Monitoring involves blood tests to check for levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a marker for prostate cancer), digital rectal exams (DREs) to feel for abnormalities of the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum, and regular ultrasound scans which can show whether the cancer is growing. (news-medical.net)
  • Blood tests are carried out to measure prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. (news-medical.net)
  • In the 1970s Norman Yang was one of the scientists who identified prostatespecific antigen (PSA), a substance that the prostate, and only the prostate, releases into the blood. (theatlantic.com)
  • Two other important factors that doctors and specialists use to assess cancer cells are the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and the Gleason score. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Once the prostate is removed, surgeons like myself monitor the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels to ensure that the cancer doesn't come back. (livescience.com)
  • Prostate cancer is diagnosed by digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy. (medicinenet.com)
  • Another test is done on a blood sample to determine the level of a protein (prostate-specific antigen or PSA) produced by prostate cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Here's a PSA (public-service announcement) regarding your PSA (prostate-specific antigen): Using a score of 4.1 or greater as the alarm for prostate cancer could prove fatal. (menshealth.com)
  • PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) is a substance excreted by all prostate cells. (news24.com)
  • A quick primer: Adult prostate glands make prostate specific antigen, or PSA, a protein that helps make semen. (latimes.com)
  • I manufacture about a third of the final product, including an ingredient called prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, that prevents sperm from sticking together. (aarp.org)
  • The urological group has been recommending prostate exams for men to help detect the prostate-specific antigen since high levels of the antigen are thought to be indicative of prostate cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein made in the prostate. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • In its earliest stages, the risk for prostate cancer may be suspected solely on the basis of levels of a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA), which can be measured using a blood test. (cbn.com)
  • Upon diagnosis (via biopsy following a digital rectal exam (DRE) or a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screen) clinicians generally base treatment on Gleason score [ 6 ] and tumor stage. (hindawi.com)
  • When President Obama turned 50 last year, he made an " informed patient request " for a PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) test. (forbes.com)
  • By delivering the signature protein, known as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in the form of a virus the treatment provokes the immune system into eliminating any cells which carry it. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Nearly a decade after it was first recommended that men over the age of 75 should not undergo PSA (prostate-specific antigen) screening, the cancer screening continues to stir controversy. (prweb.com)
  • While proponents of the standard blood test used to detect signs of prostate cancer -- called the prostate-specific antigen, or PSA test -- maintain that it has saved thousands of lives, researchers in the Netherlands suggest that many men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer may have been better off never knowing they had the disease. (go.com)
  • The sharp rise in incidence from 1982-1992 is attributed mainly to earlier detection and diagnosis with the widespread use of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) screening and ultrasound-guided biopsy techniques, as well as increased public awareness. (oncolink.org)
  • Digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood testing should be conducted annually, beginning at age 50 in men who have at least a 10-year life expectancy. (oncolink.org)
  • Prostate cancer screening, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, increases cancer detection but whether it improves outcomes is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is about the male prostate gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the equivalent female prostate gland, see Skene's gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates , literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian" [1] ) is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sub-capsular portion of the posterior aspect of the prostate gland that surrounds the distal urethra . (wikipedia.org)
  • The transition zone surrounds the proximal urethra and is the region of the prostate gland that grows throughout life and causes the disease of benign prostatic enlargement . (wikipedia.org)
  • In PIN, there are changes in how the prostate gland cells look under the microscope, but the abnormal cells don't look like they are growing into other parts of the prostate (like cancer cells would). (cancer.org)
  • It is the most common type of cancer found in the prostate gland. (cancer.org)
  • A prostate is a walnut sized gland that sits in front of the bladder and surrounds the urethra, the tube you pass urine from. (amazonaws.com)
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most widespread cancers caused to the older male population, seriously affecting the prostate gland of the male reproductive system. (amazonaws.com)
  • At an early stage, it is considerably uncertain to detect whether a man have a cancer in his prostate gland or not. (amazonaws.com)
  • The findings on digital examination of the prostate gland are inconsistent and nonspecific. (springer.com)
  • also called infectious prostatitis , a bacterial infection of the prostate gland that causes inflammation and swelling of the prostate. (webmd.com)
  • The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since the prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body, it is easy to see that enlargement of the prostate can lead to blockage of the tube. (webmd.com)
  • Because the prostate gland is in front of the rectum, the doctor can feel if the back of the gland has any abnormalities during this examination. (webmd.com)
  • Finasteride ( Proscar ) was one of the first drugs used to treat BPH by shrinking the prostate gland. (webmd.com)
  • They both work by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to the hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which affects the growth of the prostate gland. (webmd.com)
  • The prostate is a small gland, located in the pelvis, between the penis and bladder. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The balance of hormones in your body changes as you get older and this may cause your prostate gland to grow. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate gland found in the male reproductive system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the leading male cancer, but it is not easy to determine if you actually have cancer buried deep inside this very interior gland. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate gland, an inch-long (2.5 cm-long) walnut-shaped organ in the male reproductive system that lies under the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra, the tube that conveys urine outside the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The prostate gland is a small organ that lies in front of the rectum and below the bladder in a human male. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most cases of a swollen prostate in men are not due to cancer but involve a condition called benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), a non-cancerous condition in which various tissue layers in the prostate gland swell and partially close off the urethra. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Radical prostatectomy may be performed in which the entire prostate gland as well as some of the surrounding tissue and the seminal vesicles are removed. (news-medical.net)
  • External beam radiation may be delivered by a machine that moves around the patient's body directing the beams at the prostate cancer or sources of high-dose radiation may be implanted inside the prostate gland, a treatment known of as brachytherapy. (news-medical.net)
  • These are used when the prostate cancer has spread outside the prostate gland or when a patient is not responsive to hormonal therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • The area is checked for enlargement, irregularity or hardening of the prostate which it may be possible to feel with the finger as the rectum lies behind the prostate gland. (news-medical.net)
  • In BPH, the enlargement feels smooth and firm, while in prostate cancer the gland may feel hard and lumpy. (news-medical.net)
  • PSA is a protein secreted by the prostate gland and small amounts are usually present in a man's blood. (news-medical.net)
  • A transrectal ultrasound examination may be performed which involves a probe being inserted into the rectum so that ultrasound waves can be used to generate images of the prostate gland for evaluation. (news-medical.net)
  • Prostate cancer is a type of malignancy that arises in the prostate gland. (nature.com)
  • Cancer of the prostate gland is astonishingly common. (theatlantic.com)
  • It affects the prostate gland, which produces semen and protects the function of sperm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this case, within the prostate gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • PIN is when there are changes in the cells that line the prostate gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For men with prostate cancer, deciding whether to opt for radiation or surgical removal of the gland can be overwhelming. (livescience.com)
  • This test measures the size of the prostate gland. (ohsu.edu)
  • A prostatectomy is surgery to remove some or all of your prostate gland. (ohsu.edu)
  • The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is a part of the male reproductive system that wraps around the male urethra at it exits the bladder. (medicinenet.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the development of cancer cells in the prostate gland (a gland that produces fluid for semen). (medicinenet.com)
  • In the case of prostatitis, prostate tissue becomes inflamed, causing the prostate gland to swell. (medicinenet.com)
  • Prostate Cancer Ruben Tinoco Carrington College Prostate Cancer Origin/Overview The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra. (bartleby.com)
  • A prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum. (bartleby.com)
  • Prostate cancer is cancer that forms in tissue in that gland, it usually occurs in older men. (bartleby.com)
  • Prostate cancer Introduction Prostate cancer is a cancerous tumor in the prostate gland, a small walnut-sized gland in men that makes seminal fluid, which helps carry sperm out of the body. (bartleby.com)
  • Prostate cancer occurs in a male's prostate gland (a small walnut shaped gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm) (Mayoclinic.org, 2015). (bartleby.com)
  • The prostate is a gland located at the base of a man's bladder, behind the pubic bone and in front of the rectum. (healthcentral.com)
  • They have created a new method to quantify the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer "based on a patient's own prostate gland size and shape," Han says. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The prostate gland may feel entirely normal despite the presence of an early cancer. (news24.com)
  • If one or both of these tests are abnormal a transrectal ultrasound and needle biopsies of the prostate gland are performed. (news24.com)
  • Whenever a transurethral resection of the prostate gland is performed for suspected benign disease the removed tissue is sent for histological analysis. (news24.com)
  • Prostate brachytherapy involves placing radioactive sources in the prostate gland, where the radiation can kill the cancer cells while causing less damage to healthy tissue nearby. (mayoclinic.org)
  • HDR brachytherapy is a temporary type of prostate brachytherapy that involves placing radioactive sources in the prostate gland and delivering a high dose of radiation in a few minutes before the sources are removed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • LDR brachytherapy is permanent prostate brachytherapy that involves placing radioactive seeds in the prostate gland permanently, where they slowly release radiation over several months. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland, which is located just below the bladder in males and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder (urethra). (mayoclinic.org)
  • This illustration shows a normal prostate gland and a prostate with a tumor. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It is often possible to treat the initial tumour in the prostate gland, but once the cancer spreads to other organs it is incurable. (newscientist.com)
  • Oestrogen-like chemicals commonly found in oral contraceptives and plastic packaging could deform the prostate gland of human embryos, suggests a new study in mice. (newscientist.com)
  • Deformities to the prostate gland have been linked to prostate cancer and bladder disease in later life. (newscientist.com)
  • The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). (smartdraw.com)
  • The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up part of the semen. (smartdraw.com)
  • The prostate is a small gland found in men, near their bladders. (wikihow.com)
  • The prostate (or prostate gland) is part of a man's reproductive and urinary systems. (cancer.ca)
  • Hormones, including testosterone and those made by the pituitary gland and adrenal glands, help control the function of the prostate gland. (cancer.ca)
  • Despite effective therapies that can arrest the progress of cancer that has spread, or metastasized, beyond the prostate gland , the cancer inevitably learns how to resist the effects of those treatments. (healthcentral.com)
  • The prostate gland is found only in males. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In a prostate biopsy, prostate gland tissue is taken out with a biopsy needle or during surgery. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The tissue is checked to see if there are cancer or other abnormal cells in the prostate gland. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Ultrasound is usually used to look at the prostate gland and guide the biopsy needle. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A prostate biopsy is done after other tests show that there may be a problem with the prostate gland. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The healthcare provider will use a spring-loaded tool that quickly inserts a needle through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • You may feel discomfort or pressure when the needle enters the prostate gland. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They concluded that as a screen, the test now indicates nothing more than the size of the prostate gland . (mercola.com)
  • Sometimes the background of significantly increased size of the prostate gland may be absent of complaints. (medhelp.org)
  • The men in the study had come to a sexual health clinic because of problems they were having after removal of a cancerous prostate gland. (reuters.com)
  • Men with prostate cancer have several treatment options, which include active surveillance, radiation and removing the gland altogether. (reuters.com)
  • Is President Obama's Prostate Gland More Important Than Yours? (forbes.com)
  • DRE is most sensitive for tumors in the posterior and lateral aspects of the prostate gland. (oncolink.org)
  • The prostate is both an accessory gland of the male reproductive system and a muscle-driven mechanical switch between urination and ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding a given patient's genetic predisposition to high PSA could allow physicians to better evaluate test results to predict the patient's actual risk of prostate cancer, according to Witte, either by normalizing the results of PSA screens based on each individual's natural PSA levels or by adjusting the threshold used to determine if a test result should trigger further testing, such as a prostate biopsy. (ucsf.edu)
  • [6] A study stated that prostate volume among patients with negative biopsy is related significantly with weight and height ( body mass index ), so it is necessary to control for weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The information here is meant to help you understand medical language you might find in the pathology report from the prostate biopsy. (cancer.org)
  • A prostate cancer biopsy is then performed through a series of 12, sometimes painful, needle insertions. (prnewswire.com)
  • Second, more precise imaging could reduce the need for biopsy in men where no prostate abnormalities are visualized. (prnewswire.com)
  • Prostate Biopsy Cancer occurs when abnormal cells form a tumor (a lump of cells that grow uncontrolled). (amazonaws.com)
  • Other factors that may increase PSA levels include prostate manipulations (DRE, biopsy), prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and ejaculation. (medscape.com)
  • In the linked study (doi:10.1136/bmj.d7894), Rosario and colleagues assess the effects of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in primary and secondary healthcare on patient reported outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is the core means but also the core problem of diagnosing prostate cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Biopsy is the gold standard for detecting and confirming prostate cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Either a biopsy or surgery can determine the types of cancer cells present in the prostate tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Advanced techniques for diagnosing prostate cancer, such as image-guided biopsy. (ohsu.edu)
  • A lymph node biopsy enables your care team to see if your prostate cancer has spread to your lymph nodes. (ohsu.edu)
  • Prostate cancer is differentiated from the above conditions by identifying cancer cells in a biopsy of the prostate. (medicinenet.com)
  • Noridian GBA has issued the LCD for use of the Decipher Prostate Biopsy genomic classifier in patients with very low and low-risk prostate cancer. (genomeweb.com)
  • A recent study of 6,691 men, published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), showed that this traditional threshold for ordering a follow-up biopsy may be missing 82 percent of prostate-cancer diagnoses in men under 60. (menshealth.com)
  • Prostates aren't that different in size and shape, but every biopsy is done, in effect, as if they were all shaped like Wyoming - with the same basic plan, or template. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This is where Dan Stoianovici, Ph.D., Director of the Urology Robotics Program, comes in: As we reported last year in Discovery, Stoianovici designed a novel robotic device, the TRUS Robot, that works through transrectal ultrasound (the imaging used to perform a prostate biopsy). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We believe the TRUS Robot and the new algorithm will improve our ability to detect clinically significant prostate cancer, while decreasing the discomfort for our patients, allowing us to perform a personalized, systematic prostate biopsy. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The diagnosis of prostate cancer is confirmed by needle biopsy and histological analysis of the biopsy specimens. (news24.com)
  • Clinical studies showed that about a third of men with a PSA over 4.0 had a localized prostate cancer -- cancer still confined to the prostate -- upon biopsy. (cnn.com)
  • What's more, additional research from Schaeffer and his colleagues, published in The Journal of Urology, found that black men tend to have larger tumors located in areas of the prostate that aren't easily accessible for doctors to biopsy. (reuters.com)
  • Men with a PSA of more than 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood or with PSA readings that jump more than 0.35 ng/mL from one year to the next are usually offered a needle biopsy to check the prostate for cancer. (latimes.com)
  • What is a prostate biopsy? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Why might I need a prostate biopsy? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to recommend a prostate biopsy. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What are the risks of a prostate biopsy? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • How do I get ready for a prostate biopsy? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What happens during a prostate biopsy? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A prostate biopsy is usually done on an outpatient basis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The inspection of the prostate is a more elaborate evaluation of the state of the prostate cancer than with the pre-surgical prostate biopsy. (cbn.com)
  • With the prostate fully in hand, the pathologist can better inspect cancer extension than from a core biopsy. (cbn.com)
  • 10-20% of prostate cancers originate in this zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small percentage of prostate cancers are hereditary and occur in families. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • More than 60 percent of prostate cancers are diagnosed after age 65, and the disorder is rare before age 40. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Men with variants in these genes have a high risk of developing prostate cancer and, in some cases, other cancers during their lifetimes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among men in the United States and is only second to lung cancer in mortality from disease. (springer.com)
  • Some prostate cancers, however, are very aggressive and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body fairly rapidly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 50 percent of all prostate cancers occur in men over seventy-five. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other studies have shown that diets containing more than 2,000 mg of calcium a day (from all sources) dramatically increase the number of advanced prostate cancers compared to diets containing fewer than 500 mg. (newsmax.com)
  • In other studies, fruits either had no effect or actually lowered risk, especially with advanced prostate cancers. (newsmax.com)
  • There are different ways of staging cancers, including prostate cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Like all cancers, prostate cancer begins when a mass of cells has grown out of control and begins invading other tissues. (medicinenet.com)
  • The largest and outermost region is the peripheral zone next to the rectum, which is the area containing the largest proportion of glandular tissue and the site where most prostate cancers develop. (healthcentral.com)
  • For larger prostate cancers or those that have a greater chance of spreading beyond the prostate, brachytherapy may be used along with other treatments, such as external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or hormone therapy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There are prostate cancers that do not need to be treated. (cnn.com)
  • Now scientists have pinned down one variant of this piece of the genome on Chromosome 8, one of the strings of DNA in which the genetic code is written, is linked to 8 per cent of prostate cancers in Europeans and 16 per cent in people of African descent. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The study also identified abnormal semen parameters 10 years before cancers were diagnosed, suggesting that early prostate cancer screening is warranted in men with male factor infertility. (prweb.com)
  • As with most cancers, it is easier to treat prostate cancer if it's found early, before it has grown or spread to other parts of your body. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Healthy eating pioneer Dr. Dean Ornish says his studies have confirmed that lifestyle changes similar to those he recommends to reverse heart disease - including a vegan diet and regular exercise - have been found to slow the growth of some prostate cancers. (aarp.org)
  • With over 10 years of experience, Dr. Dhir's expertise includes minimally-invasive treatments for enlarged prostate (UroLift), kidney stone disease, surgical management of urological cancers, and men's health (erectile dysfunction, low testosterone, and infertility). (wikihow.com)
  • Most prostate cancers start in the peripheral zone. (cancer.ca)
  • Very few prostate cancers start in the central zone. (cancer.ca)
  • Most prostate cancers grow very slowly. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Regardless of PSA test results, some prostate cancers can be detected early with a physical examination in which the doctor examines the prostate with a finger inserted into the rectum. (cbn.com)
  • The study suggests there is an important biological difference between early-onset and late-onset prostate cancers. (yahoo.com)
  • Others who test positive will have slow-growing cancers that do not require treatment - i.e., they will die from unrelated conditions before their prostate cancers pose a threat. (forbes.com)
  • Most prostate cancers are slow growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The slow growth of most prostate tumors means that many patients diagnosed with prostate cancer will never be bothered by the disease. (slate.com)
  • Netherlands MRI and Urogenital disease specialist, Dr. Jelle Barentsz, is making significant headway in improving MRI technology to accurately diagnose and stage prostate cancer tumors with a success rate of 90 percent. (prnewswire.com)
  • Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the natural order of things, though, most of those men will never know they have it, because prostate tumors are usually small and symptomless, and because most of the time they grow so slowly that their hosts die for some other reason before the condition causes trouble. (theatlantic.com)
  • Doctors looked for possible tumors by inserting a rubbergloved finger into a man's rectum and palpating for lumps in his prostate, an undignified and ineffective procedure avoided by patients and physicians alike. (theatlantic.com)
  • A number of studies, going back many years, demonstrate that cholesterol accumulates in solid tumors and that cholesterol homeostasis breaks down in the prostate with aging and with the transition to the malignant state. (nih.gov)
  • Prostate tumors can be benign or cancerous. (bartleby.com)
  • With benign tumors, the prostate gets bigger and squeezes the urethra, interrupting the normal flow of urine. (bartleby.com)
  • There are 4 types of prostate cancer such as sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors and transitional cell carcinoma. (bartleby.com)
  • How Are Prostate Cancer Tumors Classified? (go.com)
  • Prostate tumors are typically classified by both stage and grade. (go.com)
  • If you have an African American man with very low-risk prostate cancer, our recommendation at this time is that they strongly consider a MRI of their prostate (to look for these tumors)," Schaeffer said. (reuters.com)
  • Prostate tumors usually grow so slowly they will never threaten a man's life, but some prove fatal and there is no reliable way now to tell which ones will. (newsday.com)
  • Do Walnuts Slow Prostate Tumors? (mercola.com)
  • A study shows that when mice with prostate tumors consume the equivalent of an amount of walnuts that could easily be eaten by a man, tumor growth is controlled. (mercola.com)
  • The mice that ate the human equivalent of 2.4 ounces of whole walnuts for 18 weeks had significantly smaller and slower-growing prostate tumors compared to the control group that consumed the same amount of fat but from other sources. (mercola.com)
  • hence, androgen deprivation therapy (chemical castration) is the standard of treatment, and it generally causes prostate tumors to regress. (hindawi.com)
  • Even scarier: In this early-onset type of prostate cancer, tumors grow more quickly and spread faster than they do in older men. (yahoo.com)
  • Tumors limited to the prostate may be curable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Get an overview of prostate cancer screening and questions to ask your doctor before you decide to get tested or treated for prostate cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Benign prostate tissue, benign prostate glands, and benign prostatic hyperplasia are terms that mean there is no cancer present. (cancer.org)
  • The prostate tissue is very responsive to testosterone, the male hormone made in the testes. (amazonaws.com)
  • With the TRUS image as a guide, your doctor uses a thin needle to remove tiny tissue samples from several sites in the prostate. (amazonaws.com)
  • In prostate cancer, an increase in PSA levels is caused by increased PSA production as well as disruption of tissue between the prostate and capillaries, thereby allowing for more PSA in the serum. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] However, although PSA is specific to prostate tissue, it is not specific to cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The needle is used to collect cells or tissue samples of the prostate. (webmd.com)
  • A nother display holds the first modern tools used to remove the overgrown prostate tissue that can block urination. (slate.com)
  • As the name indicates, it is performed by visualising the prostate through the urethra and removing tissue by electrocautery or sharp dissection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scope is passed through the urethra to the prostate where surrounding prostate tissue can then be excised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation destroys the surrounding healthy tissue causing the prostate to be embedded in scar tissue. (livescience.com)
  • Your doctor uses a needle to take a small tissue sample from your prostate. (ohsu.edu)
  • Detailed imaging called multiparametric MRI helps doctors tell unhealthy prostate tissue from healthy tissue. (ohsu.edu)
  • But before you have unprotected nookie with your partner, be sure she's been tested for cytomegalo-virus, a type of herpes recently found in cancerous prostate tissue. (menshealth.com)
  • This overgrowth of prostate tissue is called benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (healthcentral.com)
  • Occasionally evidence of unsuspected prostate cancer is found in the tissue. (news24.com)
  • The procedure places radioactive sources within the prostate, so the cancer receives most of the radiation and nearby healthy tissue receives a minimal dose of radiation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most of the prostate is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue called the capsule. (cancer.ca)
  • The apex of the prostate is covered by the anterior fibromuscular stroma, which is made up of muscle fibres and connective tissue. (cancer.ca)
  • The anterior fibromuscular stroma is a thickened area of tissue that surrounds the apex of the prostate. (cancer.ca)
  • The prostate tissue samples will be sent to the lab for exam. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The prostatic fluid is expelled in the first part of ejaculate, together with most of the sperm, because of the action of smooth muscle tissue within the prostate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Image showing the external iliac lymph nodes and their positions around the external iliac artery and vein The prostate consists of glandular and connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] The prostate surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Within the prostate, the urethra coming from the bladder is called the prostatic urethra and merges with the two ejaculatory ducts . (wikipedia.org)
  • With the passage of time, as the prostate rise, the bladder must work harder to push the urine through the n. (amazonaws.com)
  • If the prostate becomes enlarged, it can place pressure on the bladder and urethra (the tube through which urine passes). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Medication to reduce the size of the prostate and relax your bladder may be recommended to treat moderate to severe symptoms of BPE. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If medical treatment does not reduce a patient's urinary symptoms, a TURP may be considered following a careful examination of the prostate/bladder through a cystoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bladder neck stenosis Urinary incontinence due to injury of external sphincter system which may be prevented by taking the Verumontanum of the prostate as a distal limiting boundary during TURP Retrograde ejaculation due to injury of preprostatic (internal) sphincter system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frontal section of the prostate and associated anatomy including the bladder, urethra, seminal vesicles and ureters. (smartdraw.com)
  • is the chairman of urology and chief of robotic surgery at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City and is a board-certified urologist and oncologist specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of urologic diseases, kidney cancer, bladder cancer and prostate cancer. (livescience.com)
  • The prostate is located beneath the bladder and surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine out through the penis. (bartleby.com)
  • The researchers found a subsequent increase in the number and size of prostate ducts and a narrowing of the bladder neck in male mouse fetuses exposed to these chemicals. (newscientist.com)
  • As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. (smartdraw.com)
  • People always point to the prostate, but the bladder can also play a role, y'know. (aarp.org)
  • The prostate is deep inside a man's pelvis, below the bladder and in front of the rectum. (cancer.ca)
  • Surgery to remove prostate cancer can affect nerves that supply the bladder and penis, which can affect urinary and sexual function. (cancer.ca)
  • If you have early prostate cancer, you may not have any symptoms, as these only happen when the cancer is large enough to press on the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the penis (urethra). (macmillan.org.uk)
  • These complaints, however, can be symptoms of other diseases of the prostate and bladder from inflammatory or malignant character. (medhelp.org)
  • Anatomically, the prostate is found below the bladder, with the urethra passing through it. (wikipedia.org)
  • These vessels enter the prostate on its outer posterior surface where it meets the bladder, and travel forward to the apex of the prostate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past decade, a number of novel agents have been shown to improve outcomes in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
  • According to the scientists, around 90% of patients suffering from metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have bone metastases, which can lead to disability, decreased quality of life and even death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • At this point, a man is considered to have castration-resistant, or castration-recurrent, prostate cancer (CRPC). (healthcentral.com)
  • Learn what prostate cancer is, who is at risk, and about symptoms, screening, diagnosis, and treatment for prostate cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • It's tough to make a decision to screen for prostate cancer or to wait and watch for symptoms," says CDC's Demetrius Parker in this blog post. (cdc.gov)
  • Even left untreated, it does not kill most of the people who have it: In most cases, the malignancy confines itself to the prostate and causes few if any symptoms. (slate.com)
  • Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, studies indicate that many older men have undiagnosed prostate cancer that is non-aggressive and unlikely to cause symptoms or affect their lifespan. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Learn about the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • However, BPH and prostate cancer have similar symptoms, and a man who has BPH may have undetected cancer at the same time. (webmd.com)
  • Read more about the symptoms of benign prostate enlargement . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Some tests may be needed to rule out other conditions that cause similar symptoms to BPE such as prostate cancer . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Treatment for an enlarged prostate will depend on the severity of your symptoms. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you have mild symptoms, you won't usually need immediate treatment but you'll have regular prostate check-ups. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer that may not cause symptoms for years. (news-medical.net)
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a minimally invasive procedure that may be performed in order to relieve symptoms in those with advanced prostate cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • The symptoms of prostate cancer may take years to appear since this is typically a slow growing cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, the urinary symptoms of prostate cancer are also seen in other prostatic conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis or inflammation of the prostate. (news-medical.net)
  • In the past the lack of symptoms which allowed most men with prostate cancer to live undisturbed made timely detection of the bad cases extremely rare. (theatlantic.com)
  • Two conditions can cause some symptoms that mimic those seen in prostate cancer described previously. (medicinenet.com)
  • In some men, the expanding prostate may constrict the urethra, causing symptoms such as difficulty starting urination or a weak urine stream. (healthcentral.com)
  • Prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms until far advanced. (healthcentral.com)
  • The symptoms could be due to urine getting trapped by a tumor, a hydrocele, a hernia, cancer of testicle, varicoceles or enlarged prostate. (medhelp.org)
  • Prostate cancer can be completely asymptomatic or present with symptoms similar to benign prostatic enlargement (see symptoms). (news24.com)
  • The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer. (smartdraw.com)
  • It is important to talk to your GP or nurse if you are worried about prostate cancer or have symptoms. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • If you are worried about prostate cancer, we have more information about the signs and symptoms . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The symptoms of prostate cancer and a non-cancerous condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are similar. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • This treatment is a pre-chemotherapy option for some men who have advanced prostate cancer that has not spread to the liver and who are experiencing few or no cancer-related symptoms, such as bone pain. (healthcentral.com)
  • Symptoms of prostate cancer are usually negligible or even non-existent, so men should see a urologist regularly for routine checkups and to discuss any questions or concerns they have about their prostate. (prweb.com)
  • A bone scan is indicated in patients with prostate cancer who have symptoms suggesting bony metastases, an elevated alkaline phosphatase level, a Gleason score of 7 or higher, T3 or T4 disease, or a PSA greater than 20 ng/mL. (oncolink.org)
  • Early prostate cancer usually has no clear symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic prostate cancer can cause additional symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • With laser prostate surgery a fiber optic cable pushed through the urethra is used to transmit lasers such as holmium-Nd:YAG high powered "red" or potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) "green" to vaporize the adenoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine and sperm out of the penis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the prostate becomes enlarged, it can put pressure on the urethra and cause problems during urination. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A good way to envision the prostate is as an apple with the core removed, with the urethra passing through the middle. (healthcentral.com)
  • Also, during ejaculation, smooth muscles in the prostate contract to help propel semen through the urethra. (healthcentral.com)
  • But because of its location and relationship to the urethra, the prostate can (and often does) affect urinary function. (healthcentral.com)
  • When a man reaches his mid-40s, the area of the prostate that encircles the urethra begins to grow. (healthcentral.com)
  • For example, an enlarged prostate can press on and block the urethra, which can cause problems urinating. (cancer.ca)
  • The transition zone surrounds the part of the urethra that passes through the prostate (called the prostatic urethra). (cancer.ca)
  • When a man is sexually aroused, the prostate pushes prostatic fluid through the ducts and into the urethra. (cancer.ca)
  • Lobes of prostate Zones of prostate Inside of the prostate, adjacent and parallel to the prostatic urethra, there are two longitudinal muscle systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite these procedures, current prostate cancer staging abilities are somewhat limited and the needle biopsies do not always clearly define the tumor's boundaries. (prnewswire.com)
  • Some critics argue that routine PSA screening leads to unnecessary biopsies as not all elevated PSA levels are caused by prostate cancer. (prnewswire.com)
  • Dr. Barentsz believes prostate cancer biopsies could be reduced by as much as two-thirds with his more accurate imaging. (prnewswire.com)
  • This was allegedly because the test is not specific to cancer-a rising PSA level may reflect prostate injury, inflammation, enlargement, or cancer, and too often leads to unnecessary prostate biopsies which in turn lead to unnecessary treatments which may result in blood clots, heart attacks, impotence, and incontinence. (lewrockwell.com)
  • If every man's prostate - like a fingerprint - is different, then why are all prostate biopsies the same? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A transrectal ultrasound scan is performed via a probe inserted into the rectum, and ultrasound guided needle biopsies of the prostate are taken. (news24.com)
  • He is completing a PhD evaluating the the role of MRI-targeted biopsies in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and is coordinating an international multi-centre randomised controlled trial, PRECISION (NCT02380027), as part of this. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • DRE and ejaculation do not affect PSA levels, while prostate biopsies and TURP can cause elevations in PSA levels that take several weeks to normalize. (oncolink.org)
  • On April 27, Larry King devoted an entire show to Giuliani's prostate-an hour that included Sam Donaldson describing how he examined his groin in the shower and King urging his male viewers to get a prostate exam, the "old-fashioned digital, the finger in the rectum. (slate.com)
  • This involves sticking a variety of needles into the prostate from the rectum and taking a sample from each needle. (lewrockwell.com)
  • This is a test performed by a nurse or doctor to feel for abnormalities of the prostate through the wall of the rectum. (news-medical.net)
  • The digital rectal exam involves your doctor or healthcare provider inserting a glove-covered finger into the rectum to feel the prostate for abnormalities. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Joe's prostate: I'm a prostate, and I live alone, just in front of Joe's rectum. (aarp.org)
  • Radiation therapy for prostate cancer can affect the rectum and cause bowel problems. (cancer.ca)
  • A physical examination used to check for abnormalities of the rectum or prostate. (cancer.ca)
  • During DRE, the doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for unusual lumps or enlargement of the prostate. (cancer.ca)
  • The overwhelming majority of American men who reach 80 suffer from benign prostatic hyperplasia, an expansion of the prostate that causes urinary discomfort. (slate.com)
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is also a term used to describe a common, benign type of prostate enlargement caused by an increase number of normal prostate cells. (cancer.org)
  • BPH (Benign prostatic hyperplasia), which in common language called enlarged prostate begins to affect mostly, men of middle age and elderly. (amazonaws.com)
  • Benign (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate , known as benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH for short), is the most common prostate problem in men. (webmd.com)
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (commonly known as a TURP, plural TURPs, and rarely as a transurethral prostatic resection, TUPR) is a urological operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is no evidence that "too much sex," masturbation, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or a vasectomy increases the risk or causes prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • At least some variants associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia appeared to contribute to PSA levels in the blood, independent of prostate cancer. (genomeweb.com)
  • [4] X Research source Barber NJ, Barber J Nature Prostate and Prostatic Diseases , 2002, Vol 5 no 1 p 6-12. (wikihow.com)
  • The main function of the prostate is to make prostatic fluid. (cancer.ca)
  • The prostate is covered in a surface called the prostatic capsule or prostatic fascia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The veins of the prostate form a network - the prostatic venous plexus, primarily around its front and outer surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the seminal vesicle vessels, prostatic vessels, and vessels from the anterior prostate drain into internal iliac lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operation, called a radical prostatectomy, removes the prostate and thus the source of the problem. (theatlantic.com)
  • The seminal vesicles are sometimes removed during surgery to remove the prostate (called a radical prostatectomy). (cancer.ca)
  • Dr. Krongrad is a pioneering urologist and co-developer of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, a minimally invasive prostate surgery. (cbn.com)
  • Relying on modern technology, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive prostate cancer treatment and a departure from what historically required the application of relatively primitive surgical techniques. (cbn.com)
  • Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is not a new prostate cancer treatment. (cbn.com)
  • Rather, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a modern means of performing prostate cancer surgery, the oldest treatment for prostate cancer. (cbn.com)
  • While both procedures require the entire removal of the prostate, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy differ in how they gain physical access to the deep pelvis. (cbn.com)
  • Once removed by laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, prostates are examined by a pathologist. (cbn.com)
  • As reported in BJU International, Mulhall and colleagues surveyed 336 men with sexual dysfunction roughly three months after a prostate removal operation known as a radical prostatectomy. (reuters.com)
  • after diagnosis of prostate cancer, PSA doubling time is used for assessment of indication of treatment for patients on active surveillance as well as that for indication of salvage treatment for patients with biochemical recurrence after initial treatment. (slideshare.net)
  • In 2019, the American Cancer Society (ACS) expect that around 174,650 people will have a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, and around 31,620 people will die from the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estimates suggest that around 174,650 people will receive a new diagnosis of prostate cancer in 2019. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The diagnosis of prostate cancer can be made on clinical suspicion of the disease, following screening, or as an incidental finding during transurethral resection for suspected benign disease (TURP). (news24.com)
  • By 1996, the diagnosis of prostate cancer grew to epidemic proportions in the United States. (cnn.com)
  • Many now agree that routine PSA blood tests often lead to over-diagnosis of prostate cancer, resulting in unnecessary treatments . (mercola.com)
  • Hearing a diagnosis of prostate cancer is life-altering for men. (reference.com)
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal, multiply without control or order, and form a tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Simons JW, Mikhak B, Chang JF et al (1999) Induction of immunity to prostate cancer antigens: results of a clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated autologous prostate tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor using ex vivo gene transfer. (springer.com)
  • We propose that increases in cholesterol in prostate tumor cell membranes, resulting from increases in circulating levels or from dysregulation of endogenous synthesis, results in the coalescence of raft domains. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. David Jarrard answers the question: 'Prostate Cancer Tumor Classifications? (go.com)
  • It's a difficult decision prostate cancer patients and doctors must make based on how aggressive they think a tumor might be. (newsday.com)
  • Other useful foods include pomegranate juice, which may slow the rise of PSA levels (the tumor marker measured in blood tests) in men after prostate cancer surgery or radiation therapy , and flaxseed, which may slow the rate at which prostate cancer cells multiply in men with early prostate cancer. (aarp.org)
  • Demark-Wahnefried led a phase II research study on the effects of ground flaxseed on prostate cancer growth rates that showed promise and resulted in significantly lower tumor proliferation rates. (aarp.org)
  • Walnut consumption slows the growth of prostate cancer in mice, and has beneficial effects on multiple genes related to the control of tumor growth and metabolism, researchers have found. (mercola.com)
  • One study suggests that there may be more bone lysis during prostate tumor metastasis than originally thought and that it might be more prevalent in PCa than other diseases [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While much work has been done in the area of prostate tumor-bone crosstalk [ 13 - 15 ], there is still much to learn in this area. (hindawi.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in American men and, with a median age at diagnosis in the early 60's is mainly a disease of the elderly. (oncolink.org)
  • The function of the prostate is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that in humans usually constitutes roughly 30% of the volume of semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostate also contains some smooth muscles that help expel semen during ejaculation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The rumor that abstinence can cause a "backup" of semen in the prostate, somehow leading to cancer, is as old as it is wrong. (esquire.com)
  • The prostate helps make semen. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The prostate glands produce and contain fluid that forms part of semen, the substance that is emitted during ejaculation as part of the male sexual response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with germline variants, changes in other genes, together with environmental and lifestyle factors, also influence whether a person will develop prostate cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About one man in every six will develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. (encyclopedia.com)
  • they also develop prostate cancer earlier than men of other races. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This deficiency correlates with lack of sun exposure later in life, when most men develop prostate cancer. (newsmax.com)
  • The study of 2,338 men showed that the guys who masturbated five or more times a week were 34 percent less likely to develop prostate cancer by age 70 than those who handled matters less often. (menshealth.com)
  • Africans are 1.6 times more likely to develop prostate cancer than Europeans, and 2.4 times more likely to die from the disease. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Also, having no risk factors does not mean you will not develop prostate cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Using mice that are genetically programmed to develop prostate cancer, he was able to show that walnuts had a significant impact on disease outcome. (mercola.com)
  • Men with high blood pressure are more likely to develop prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 50-year old African-American man whose father and brother both died of prostate cancer might legitimately prefer PSA screening, whereas a 50-year old Caucasian man without risk factors might legitimately choose to skip it. (forbes.com)
  • About 70 percent of men who die after age ninety are found to have cancerous cells in the prostate at autopsy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Until recently, PSA tests for prostate cancer were considered an exemplar of successful early cancer detection leading to improved treatment outcomes. (ucsf.edu)
  • The discussion of any novel agent used in the treatment of prostate cancershould be placed in the appropriate clinical context with regard to the hormonalstatus of the patient. (cancernetwork.com)
  • It is important to understand whether an agent has beenused for the treatment of hormone-naive prostate cancer, androgen-independentprostate cancer, or overtly hormone-refractory prostate cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
  • When cancer has spread beyond the prostate, treatment is more drastic. (slate.com)
  • T his poses a dilemma, because prostate cancer treatment has terrible side effects. (slate.com)
  • Indeed the robotic surgery prostate cancer side effects are a matter of worry but the treatment is worth knowi. (amazonaws.com)
  • There are two basic methods of surgery involved as part of the treatment for prostate c. (amazonaws.com)
  • a treatment approach for prostate cancer that involves close monitoring with exams and tests. (webmd.com)
  • Acute bacterial prostatitis requires prompt treatment as the condition can lead to cystitis, abscesses in the prostate, or blocked urine flow in extreme cases. (webmd.com)
  • We help you understand the different options around prostate cancer screening tests and treatment. (cancer.org)
  • [ 3 , 4 ] Due to the indolent course of the disease and the morbidity associated with over-treatment, prostate cancer screening remains a controversial topic. (medscape.com)
  • This review summarizes the principal approaches to prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, call 800-641-PCRI or 310-743-2110 to speak with a Prostate Cancer Research Institute specialist who can you understand your diagnosis and treatment options. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Treatment for prostate cancer often begins a few weeks to months after diagnosis. (healthfinder.gov)
  • These monthly newsletters highlight the latest in treatment strategies as well as emerging treatments for prostate cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Researchers have developed a new treatment for advanced prostate cancer that has spread to the bones, which delivers a "high-energy" burst of radiation to cancer cells, according to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the researchers, radium-223 is an important treatment for men suffering from prostate cancer as it can be used alongside other treatments, as well as on its own for patients who are unable to use other treatments for the cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Krupski TL, Kwan L, Afifi AA et al (2005) Geographic and socioeconomic variation in the treatment of prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Since prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer, treatment is often delayed if the cancer is caught in the early stages and the patient is instead regularly monitored for progression of the cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Translating these new insights into clinical use will increase precision and personalization of prostate cancer treatment. (nature.com)
  • I RECENTLY asked a man named Norman Yang if he was chiefly responsible for inventing the test that has transformed the treatment of prostate cancer. (theatlantic.com)
  • Following a prostate cancer diagnosis, men are flooded with tons of informationand must try to make sense of the different treatment options - it can make even the most educated patient uncertain. (livescience.com)
  • Her work includes finding novel ways to treat patients with advanced prostate cancer and prostate cancer that resists treatment. (ohsu.edu)
  • TREATMENT of localized prostate cancer usually includes prostatectomy and radiation therapy, occasionally augmented with hormonal therapies. (bartleby.com)
  • The author's account of what he learned, and what it felt like, to go through the process of finding out that he had prostate cancer, learning about the disease, figuring out the various treatment options, and going through surgery. (smashwords.com)
  • The good news is that today, reliable diagnostic tests and numerous treatment options are available, and death rates from prostate cancer are now on the decline. (healthcentral.com)
  • About Prostate Cancer Canada Prostate Cancer Canada raises funds for the development of programs related to awareness and public education, advocacy, support of those affected, and research into the prevention, detection, treatment and cure of prostate cancer. (newswire.ca)
  • If you have early-stage prostate cancer that's less likely to spread beyond the prostate, brachytherapy may be the only treatment used. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Together you can decide whether prostate brachytherapy is the best treatment for you. (mayoclinic.org)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - African American men with very low-risk prostate cancer may not do as well with a wait-and-see treatment approach as white men, suggests a new study. (reuters.com)
  • Theresa W. Gillespie, who was not involved with the new research but has studied prostate cancer in black men, said the new study alone won't change existing treatment guidelines. (reuters.com)
  • But Owen Sharp, chief executive of the Prostate Cancer Charity, said: "Cabazitaxel is an important treatment, only recently licensed for use here in the UK, which can help to extend the lives of men in the final stages of prostate cancer for whom existing treatments have stopped working. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Prostate cancer detected early enough has a good prognosis and in some cases, may not require treatment. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • If prostate cancer is detected, your doctor will work with you and, in some cases, an oncologist to develop a treatment plan. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Sometimes, doctors recommend active monitoring of prostate cancer which means that treatment is delayed and the cancer is closely watched. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • If you're young and in good health, your doctor may recommend more aggressive treatment to provide better outcomes for your prostate cancer. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • You can shop for a toaster" better than for prostate treatment, he said. (newsday.com)
  • The prostate cancer-management pathway is moving towards image-guided diagnosis and treatment. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Leading an internationally recognised research group which looks at better diagnosis and treatment for men with prostate cancer, he is a major grant holder, a frequent speaker at international meetings and has published over 250 peer-reviewed scientific papers. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The challenge of combating advanced prostate cancer can be summed up in two words: treatment resistance. (healthcentral.com)
  • The mainstay of initial treatment for advanced prostate cancer is hormonal therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). (healthcentral.com)
  • Indeed, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has revised its most recent prostate cancer treatment guidelines to include concurrent chemotherapy-hormone therapy as an option for some men with high-volume disease who have not been treated with ADT. (healthcentral.com)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, "There can be different reasons for an elevated PSA level, including prostate cancer, benign prostate enlargement, inflammation, infection, age, and race," all factors that make PSA test results confusing, leading to potential for unnecessary treatment and suffering when tests are elevated. (mercola.com)
  • The fact that there seems to be almost no real safe and effective conventional option for diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer can be depressing. (mercola.com)
  • The article above discusses the potential benefits of walnuts, and as you will learn in a moment, there are also other nutritional therapies that may be more or less ESSENTIAL for successful avoidance and/or treatment of prostate cancer. (mercola.com)
  • The American Cancer Society provides detailed information on prostate cancer and its treatment. (reference.com)
  • There is increasingly good evidence that early detection, combined with treatment for appropriately selected patients, is associated with lower risk of death from prostate cancer. (cbn.com)
  • But after losing one of their own "wurkin stiffs" to the disease, the issue got personal, inspiring them to donate 5 percent of all profits from the month of June to ZERO, an organization dedicated to prostate cancer research and treatment. (menshealth.com)
  • Their research found a 20% improvement in survival in patients with prostate cancer five years after treatment. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The study, led by researchers from Houston Methodist Hospital in Texas, appears to show that this 'suicide gene therapy', when combined with radiotherapy, could be a promising treatment for prostate cancer in the future. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In two groups of 62 patients, one group received the gene therapy twice and the other group - who all had more aggressive prostate cancer - received the treatment three times. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Although there was no control group in this study, the researchers said the results showed a five to 20% improvement on previous studies of prostate cancer treatment. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Thousands of American men have benefited from early detection and treatment of prostate cancer made possible by PSA testing. (forbes.com)
  • The treatment, developed by Bavarian-Nordic Immunotherapeutics, is aimed at men with advanced prostate cancer which cannot be cured by castration and for whom treatment options are very limited. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The treatment, which uses viruses carrying human DNA to direct the body's natural defences against cancer cells, is the first prostate cancer vaccine ever to reach late stage "phase three" trials in Europe. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • He said: "It is now being tested in patients who already have prostate cancer, as a treatment rather than a prevention, but one of the attractions with a therapy like this is we can move it to earlier stages, and maybe eventually use it preventively. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Dr Kate Holmes, Head of Research at The Prostate Cancer Charity said: "This vaccine will not prevent prostate cancer, however results to date show it may be an exciting breakthrough for the treatment of men in the final stages of the disease. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Men with advanced prostate cancer currently have very few treatment options available to them and if proven successful in the third trial phase this new vaccine would offer these men an urgently needed additional life extending treatment once other available options have stopped working. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • To learn more about diagnostic screening and treatment options, visit http://Comprehensive-Urology.com/Prostate-Cancer/ . (prweb.com)
  • Information should be provided to all men explaining what is known (and what is uncertain) about the benefits and limitations of early detection and treatment of prostate cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Dr. David Samadi , leading U.S. prostate cancer surgeon , details how Dr. Barentsz's MRI advancements could significantly improve the ability to accurately define the degree of a man's prostate cancer. (prnewswire.com)
  • In most cases of prostate cancer, these genetic changes are acquired during a man's lifetime and are present only in certain cells in the prostate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Having BPH does not increase a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is known to run in families, and certain genes are known to increase a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Having BPE neither increases nor decreases a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. (healthcentral.com)
  • Too much calcium in a man's diet - more than 1,200 milligrams per day - can increase the risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer, Demark-Wahnefried noted. (aarp.org)
  • There are on average 235,000 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in the United States each year. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In more advanced cases of prostate cancer, the whole body is examined using imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) to assess the spread of cancer to other organs. (news-medical.net)
  • The simple blood test, men are told, can help uncover hidden cases of prostate cancer and potentially save their lives. (latimes.com)
  • Most cases of prostate cancer do not occur until after men turn 50, but in recent years there has been a steady rise in the percentage of men in their 30s and 40s with both prostate problems and prostate cancer, primarily as a result of poor diet and increasing environmental pollution. (mercola.com)
  • Just three years ago, newspapers were declaring prostate cancer the "hush-hush man-killer," "the silent enemy," and "the disease that dare not speak its name. (slate.com)
  • Screening recommendations aim to balance the benefit of prostate cancer detection to prevent mortality versus the harm of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this often slow-growing disease. (medscape.com)
  • Tenderness is present in some patients, but this finding is seen in a similar proportion of patients without prostate disease. (springer.com)
  • Cullen P.T. (1998) Prostate Disease. (springer.com)
  • Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States, African Americans have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than do men of other ethnic backgrounds, and they also have a higher risk of dying from the disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known, so at this time it is not possible to prevent most cases of the disease. (healthfinder.gov)
  • According to the American Cancer Society , prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in American men, with 1 in 6 men likely to be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Men who have a father or brother who has had prostate cancer have twice the risk of developing prostate cancer than a man without a family history of the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has expanded approval of Johnson & Johnson's prostate cancer pill Zytiga for men with an earlier stage of the disease. (usatoday.com)
  • By developing new experimental animal models coupled with classical epidemiological studies, genetic epidemiological studies and molecular pathological approaches, we should be able to determine whether prostate cancer is driven by inflammation, and if so, to develop new strategies to prevent the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Unfortunately, doctors diagnose more than 240,000 men in the United States with the disease every year, which translates into 1 in every 6 men being affected by prostate cancer. (livescience.com)
  • This review summarizes the established links between cholesterol and prostate cancer (PCa), with a focus on how accumulation of cholesterol within the lipid raft component of the plasma membrane may stimulate signaling pathways that promote progression to hormone refractory disease. (nih.gov)
  • This approach toward examining the function of lipid rafts in prostate cancer cells may provide insight into the role of circulating cholesterol in malignant growth and on the potential relationship between diet and aggressive disease. (nih.gov)
  • The companies are developing a risk model to predict the likelihood that a prostate cancer patient will develop advanced or metastatic disease. (genomeweb.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the one of the most lethal disease in the United Sates. (bartleby.com)
  • In spite of recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of prostate cancer, the survival rate of men with this disease has remained relatively unchanged in over the decades. (bartleby.com)
  • This guide includes a program for overcoming prostate cancer, a disease that is widespread in this day and age. (smashwords.com)
  • The blood level of PSA is elevated in prostate cancer and the level of elevation correlates with the extent of disease. (news24.com)
  • Somebody with a PSA of 4 - 10 ng/ml has a 25% chance of having prostate cancer, while a PSA of greater than 10 carries a 50% risk of the disease. (news24.com)
  • In the UK, around 26,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year, about half of whom will die from the disease. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • While prostate cancer is normally thought of as a disease of the elderly, doctors are increasingly identifying the cancer in men as young as their 40s and 50s. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates about one in six U.S. men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, and one in 36 will die of the disease. (reuters.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the most common form of the disease among British men, with 37,000 cases diagnosed every year. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • But losing weight is important - not only for prostate cancer, but for protection against heart disease and improving overall health. (aarp.org)
  • The CHAARTED (ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer) study was launched in July 2006 to answer these important questions. (healthcentral.com)
  • The most commonly used screening tool for detecting prostate cancer - the PSA test - is virtually worthless for predicting men's risk of contracting the disease, medical school researchers have determined. (mercola.com)
  • Check out our Prostate Cancer Center for everything you need to know about preventing, detecting, and treating the disease. (menshealth.com)
  • The use of immunodeficient and genetically engineered mouse models that mimic the human disease has been crucial in validating the importance of these genetic pathways in prostate cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • PCa is a heterogeneous disease in which malignant cells arise from the epithelial layers of the prostate. (hindawi.com)
  • Early trials of this vaccine have been promising, so we look forward to seeing the results of this larger trial in men with advanced prostate cancer, a disease that urgently needs more effective therapies. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Although routinely performed in the United States, and despite the subsequent earlier detection of disease, prostate cancer screening has never been demonstrated to save lives in studies of large populations. (oncolink.org)
  • class of drugs used to treat benign (noncancerous) prostate enlargement. (webmd.com)
  • Almost all men will develop some enlargement of the prostate as they age. (webmd.com)
  • When Does Prostate Enlargement Happen? (webmd.com)
  • Benign prostate enlargement (BPE) is the medical term to describe an enlarged prostate, a condition that can affect how you pass urine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The cause of prostate enlargement is unknown, but it is believed to be linked to hormonal changes as a man gets older. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Read more about diagnosing benign prostate enlargement . (www.nhs.uk)
  • But the physician's finger cannot reach all of the prostate or, in the case of enlargement, even most of it. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The NHS also has information about benign prostate enlargement . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Prostate with seminal vesicles and seminal ducts , viewed from in front and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cover prostate and seminal vesicles. (ohsu.edu)
  • The seminal vesicles are glands found on each side of the prostate. (cancer.ca)
  • The word prostate comes from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostátēs, meaning "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian", with the term originally used to describe the seminal vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vessels surrounding the vas deferens, some of the vessels in the seminal vesicle, and a vessel from the posterior surface of the prostate drain into the external iliac lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • It proposes that exposure to environmental factors such as infectious agents and dietary carcinogens, and hormonal imbalances lead to injury of the prostate and to the development of chronic inflammation and regenerative 'risk factor' lesions, referred to as proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). (nih.gov)
  • Viruses, fungi, mycobacteria and parasites can also infect the prostate and incite inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • One in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and many more will be diagnosed with prostatitis, a chronic infection that makes for painful inflammation of the prostate. (cbn.com)
  • A physician uses ultrasound to guide a small needle into areas of the prostate where abnormalities are detected. (webmd.com)
  • During a digital rectal exam, a doctor checks for prostate abnormalities using a gloved, lubricated finger (digit). (medicinenet.com)
  • High Dose Rate Brachytherapy MethodHigh Dose Rate Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is a newer technology which combines the advantages of intensity modulated external beam radiation and permanent seed implantation. (amazonaws.com)
  • Proton-beam therapy for prostate cancer provides no long-term benefit over traditional radiation despite far higher costs, according to a Yale analysis of 30,000 Medicare patients. (wsj.com)
  • Radiation for prostate cancer has shown once again that it leads to more complications than surgery. (livescience.com)
  • There are two kinds of radiation, external beam and brachytherapy, which involves radioactive material inside the prostate. (livescience.com)
  • Prostate brachytherapy (brak-e-THER-uh-pee) is a form of radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • SBRT uses five treatments of radiation as compared to conventional radiation that may require up to 45 treatments or seed implant, which is limited to men with medium-to-small prostate glands. (prnewswire.com)
  • With continued, leading-edge research, Dr. Potters' discoveries may alter how clinicians use stereotactic radiation and treat prostate cancer,' said Kevin J. Tracey , MD , president and CEO of the Feinstein Institute. (prnewswire.com)
  • This enables the doctor to estimate the size of the prostate and to detect any hard areas that could be cancer . (webmd.com)
  • This document offers general information about prostate cancer, risk factors, and what you can do to help prevent prostate cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • As if masturbation didn't already provide enough of a payoff, a recent Australian study found that DIY sex may also help prevent prostate cancer. (menshealth.com)
  • 5 ways to help prevent prostate cancer. (aarp.org)
  • Additional ACS studies are under way to test whether compounds in tomatoes (called lycopenes ) and in soybeans (called isoflavones) may help prevent prostate cancer. (aarp.org)
  • Prostate screening has an initial testing phase involving a digital rectal exam and in some cases, blood tests to screen for PSA (prostate specific antigens), which are substances in your blood that can be a sign of prostate cancer. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • an irregular, firm mass may be palpated on digital rectal exam (DRE) of the prostate. (oncolink.org)
  • The team that manages patients with prostate cancer may be made up of multiple specialists including a urologist or specialist in urology, an oncologist or cancer specialist and a radiotherapist who specializes in radiotherapy techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • If radiotherapy is performed prior to the surgery, the PSA will fluctuate due to radiotherapy and pieces of the prostate that are left behind, confusing that monitoring process. (livescience.com)
  • Men who have just had surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer might benefit most, suggests one member of the research team, Harmesh Naik of Wayne State University. (newscientist.com)
  • The company aims to commercialize ProstaGene's PCaTest, which uses a 16-gene panel to determine the overall outcome of a patient's prostate cancer. (genomeweb.com)
  • The earlier the detection of prostate cancer, the better the patient's chance of survival is. (reference.com)
  • A new gene therapy technique is able to modify prostate cancer cells so that a patient's body attacks and kills them, US scientists have discovered. (bbc.co.uk)
  • This area of the prostate doesn't contain any glands. (cancer.ca)
  • These medications tend to relax the prostate muscles and improve urine flow. (webmd.com)
  • And there are other, often newly developed, tests that look for particular enzymes in urine or blood that are related to prostate cancer. (lewrockwell.com)
  • As men age, the prostate may enlarge and expand, and in the enlarged state, it begins to block the flow of urine. (bartleby.com)
  • However, this test is not specific for prostate cancer and is raised in other conditions such as prostatitis and BPH and even after physical activity or sex. (news-medical.net)
  • Current research is investigating if STDs, prostatitis, or alcohol use increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • In the few years that PSA testing has become less popular, the use of the test has declined and the number of prostate cancer diagnoses has dropped," said John Witte , PhD, a UCSF professor of epidemiology and biostatistics and of urology, and co-senior author of the new study. (ucsf.edu)
  • Prostate cancer diagnoses doubled in the United States from the mid-'70s to the mid-'90s. (slate.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among men in the United States, with 3.3 million existing survivors and an estimated 161,000 new diagnoses in 2017. (medscape.com)
  • The medical group said in a statement Monday a younger age for initial prostate exams in men nationwide could result in earlier diagnoses of cancer in some patients and more efficient testing overall, the Chicago Sun-Times said. (redorbit.com)
  • The research, which was published in the journal Nature Reviews Urology , found that over the past 20 years, the number of prostate cancer diagnoses in younger men has increased six-fold and 10 percent of new cases are diagnosed in those under the age of 55. (yahoo.com)
  • On one hand, there was and still is a lot of evidence showing that PSA screening results in over-diagnoses of prostate cancer. (prweb.com)
  • In fact, the American Cancer Society published a report from a 2011-12 study showing a decline in early-stage prostate cancer diagnoses in men over 50. (prweb.com)
  • If you do not have signs of prostate cancer, your doctor may recommend some lifestyle changes to lower your risk, including a healthy, low-fat diet, exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Many men experience prostate problems, and as they get older it is important to watch for signs of prostate cancer. (wikihow.com)
  • What Are the Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer? (reference.com)
  • If submitted, he can also examine the pelvic lymph nodes for signs of prostate cancer spread. (cbn.com)
  • The most important hormone for the growth of prostate cancer is testosterone, which is mainly produced in the testicles. (news-medical.net)
  • red grapes are flush with resveratrol, an antioxidant found in some plants that may help inhibit the growth of prostate cancer, according to a report from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas. (menshealth.com)
  • Testosterone, the predominant male hormone (or androgen), stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells. (healthcentral.com)
  • A fact sheet that defines the PSA and screening tests for prostate cancer, and describes the benefits and limitations of the test. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Because there are no standard tests for prostate cancer, it's difficult to assess the risks. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • This booklet is for anyone who may be having tests for prostate cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • They used very similar drugs - both androgen receptor inhibitors, which block testosterone from binding to prostate cancer cells and entering them. (nytimes.com)
  • Even so, physicians reasoned, quick detection of prostate cancer would save thousands of people from awful deaths every year. (theatlantic.com)
  • From September 17-23, Prostate Cancer Canada (PCC) will hold events across the country to raise awareness about the importance of prevention, education and early detection of prostate cancer. (newswire.ca)
  • A prostate screening is a series of tests that may provide early detection of prostate cancer. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • And because treatments for prostate cancer can cause complications such as impotence and incontinence, there's a growing fear that PSA testing ends up harming far more men than it helps. (latimes.com)
  • LabCorp will be able to develop and commercialize the test for patients with an elevated PSA to determine their risk of having clinically significant prostate cancer. (genomeweb.com)
  • Infertile men are at nearly three times greater risk for the developing clinically significant prostate cancer than the average man according to a new study published in the journal, Cancer. (prweb.com)
  • A high-powered MRI aimed at the prostate and taking the right sequence of images can now detect cancer with up to 90% accuracy. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Prostate cancer was not recognized as a type of cancer until 1853 and was considered very rare, most likely because life expectancies were lower in the nineteenth century and there were no effective ways to detect it early until the 1980s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Simple to perform, not hugely expensive, free of embarrassment and discomfort, it seemed to provide doctors with a way to detect prostate trouble early and accurately. (theatlantic.com)
  • only last June did an FDA advisory panel formally recommend that it be used to detect early prostate cancer as well. (theatlantic.com)
  • He's recognized for his pioneering efforts to detect and treat prostate cancer. (cbn.com)
  • They are among the most challenging prostate cancer patients to treat: about 150,000 men worldwide each year whose cancer is aggressive enough to defy standard hormonal therapy, but has not yet spread to the point where it can be seen on scans. (nytimes.com)
  • The use of complementary and alternative medicine is a well-known phenomenon among cancer patients, and prostate cancer patients are no exception. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The review article by Drs. Das and Kaplan nicely summarizes most of the data available on the use of PC-SPES, selenium, and vitamin E by prostate cancer patients. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Perhaps the article's first lesson is that the use of complementary andalternative medicine among prostate cancer patients is increasing. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In any case, this article points out that it behooves us to take a carefulmedical history from our patients because published series suggest thatone-third or more of prostate cancer patients use some form of complementarymedicine. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In androgen-independent prostate cancer, several series have clearly shownmodulation of PSA expression and clinical improvement in androgen-independentprostate cancer patients treated with PC-SPES. (cancernetwork.com)
  • I truly believe that his efforts will have a great impact on the ability to diagnose and eliminate prostate cancer for patients globally. (prnewswire.com)
  • From his practice in New York City , Dr. Samadi often travels overseas to 'treat and teach' his SMART surgery procedure and routinely welcomes international patients for surgery in the U.S. To date, over 4,000 men have benefited from the life-saving results of his skilled prostate removal surgery. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Us Too Prostate Cancer Support Community connects patients, families, friends and caregivers to enhance the quality of life for all those affected by prostate cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • The agency says Zytiga is now approved for late-stage prostate cancer patients who have not yet received chemotherapy, based on study results showing it can extend life by up to five months when taken by men in that group. (usatoday.com)
  • The country is embarking on a huge screening program for prostate cancer which is likely to cost billions and may lead to many unnecessary operations, especially for elderly patients. (theatlantic.com)
  • But with, say, cancer of the prostate, survival has become the rule, with nine out of ten patients making it at least five years from initial diagnosis. (esquire.com)
  • 2012) have noted that recurrence of prostate cancer occurs in about 15% of patients within 5 years after prostatectomy and in about 40% patients within 10 years. (bartleby.com)
  • It said that although the drug did extend survival for patients with advanced prostate cancer, it was "concerned" about the side-effects experienced in clinical trials and that at an average cost of £22,000 per patient it was too expensive. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • By the end of the study, 50 patients in the annual testing group had died of prostate cancer, compared with 44 patients in the usual care group. (latimes.com)
  • Learn everything you need to know about prostate MRI for the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer on this two-day course for urologists (trainees and consultants). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • It will equip urologists to be able to use MRI in the management of patients with prostate cancer and run an image-guided service. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • These models provide a platform for finding novel therapies to treat human patients afflicted with prostate cancer as well as those who have debilitating bone metastases. (hindawi.com)
  • This document explains the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP), PSA testing and evidence against a national screening programme. (www.gov.uk)
  • 29 March 2016 This detailed guide has been updated due to the publication of the revised edition of the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme in March 2016. (www.gov.uk)
  • [ 3 ] Risk factors for prostate cancer include sub-Saharan African ancestry, family history, certain genetic mutations ( BRCA 1 or 2 ), and older age. (medscape.com)
  • Less commonly, genetic changes present in essentially all of the body's cells increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, men with BRCA2 or HOXB13 gene variants may have a higher risk of developing life-threatening forms of prostate cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does BPH Increase Your Risk of Developing Prostate Cancer? (webmd.com)
  • They also say that for men who are at high risk, such as African-American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer, screening should be considered at age 45. (webmd.com)
  • Men at an even higher risk, such as having more than one relative with a history of prostate cancer at an early age, should consider earlier testing. (webmd.com)
  • The American Urological Association recommends against routine screening for men age 40 - 54 who have an average risk of prostate cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Those with a higher risk are encouraged to discuss prostate cancer screening tests with their doctor. (webmd.com)
  • The risk of prostate cancer is no greater for men with an enlarged prostate than it is for men without an enlarged prostate. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Additionally, transurethral resection of the prostate is associated with a low risk of mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although less understood, a combination of lifestyle and geographic location appears to confer a degree of risk, with the lowest incidence of prostate cancer in China and the highest risk in Scandinavia and North America. (springer.com)
  • Native American men and Asian American men have the lowest risk of prostate cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Men living in New England or the Pacific Northwest are at increased risk of prostate cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A high-fat diet is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vegetarian men have a very low risk of prostate cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One study showed that men who consumed the most legumes (peas, beans, and nuts) reduced their risk of prostate cancer by 38 percent, and those who ate the most yellow-orange and cruciferous vegetables reduced their prostate cancer risk by 41 percent. (newsmax.com)
  • In this study, men with the highest gamma-form vitamin E had a five-fold reduction in prostate cancer risk. (newsmax.com)
  • If you combined all of the factors that we know can reduce prostate cancer (eating healthy fats, high intake of vegetables, low intake of sugar and bad fats) you can see that your risk of developing prostate cancer would be extremely low. (newsmax.com)
  • Prostate cancer is common in men over 50 years of age, with the risk of developing prostate cancer increases with aging. (medicinenet.com)
  • Who Is at Risk of Prostate Cancer? (medicinenet.com)
  • Aging in men (beginning at age 50) is the greatest risk factor for both BPH and prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • however, African American males have the highest risk for prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • Researchers suggest a diet low in fruits and vegetables but high in meats and high-fat dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • In a National Cancer Institute (NCI) study of 18,882 men, researchers found that the men who took 5 milligrams (mg) of Propecia, a.k.a. finasteride, daily for 7 years had a 25 percent lower risk of prostate cancer than those taking a placebo. (menshealth.com)
  • For starters, a recent study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute shows that men who eat more than 10 grams (g) of garlic or scallions (about three cloves of garlic or 2 tablespoons of scallions) daily have a 50 percent lower risk of prostate cancer than those who eat less than 2 g. (menshealth.com)
  • A major genetic risk factor for prostate cancer has been discovered by scientists. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The only firmly established risk factors for prostate cancer are age, family history, and ethnicity. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Known risk factors for prostate cancer include age, family history and race. (prweb.com)
  • The risk of prostate cancer was compared to the incidence in the general population, matched by age and geography. (prweb.com)
  • Researchers found that black men who had their prostates removed soon after being diagnosed with low-risk cancer were more likely to have the severity of their cancer upgraded based on a doctor's second look, compared to their white counterparts. (reuters.com)
  • For the new study, Schaeffer and his colleagues analyzed data on 256 black men, 1,473 white men and 72 men of other races who were diagnosed with very low-risk prostate cancer after 1992. (reuters.com)
  • While there is no agreement about standards for prostate screening and no government recommendations, the American Cancer Society recommends regular screening tests for those with high risk due to genetic or lifestyle factors. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Occasionally, men with a very high risk of prostate cancer may be advised to take preventive medicine. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • According to the study by Harvard School of Public Health , drinking more than six cups of coffee daily can reduce the risk of getting prostate cancer significantly. (ibtimes.com)
  • An estimated one in in six American men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime - a risk that increases with age - making it the second-most common cancer in men after skin cancer . (aarp.org)
  • An ACS report on prostate cancer risk factors contains similar findings. (aarp.org)
  • [2] X Trustworthy Source American Cancer Society Nonprofit devoted to promoting cancer research, education, and support Go to source However, there are a number of preventive measures that a man can take to reduce his risk of developing prostate cancer, including important dietary and lifestyle changes and becoming aware of his family history. (wikihow.com)
  • Some controlled studies have found a link between increased ingestion of cruciferous vegetables and reduced risk of prostate cancer, although the evidence is merely associative at this point. (wikihow.com)
  • In a study of nearly 1,000 men, those who ate the most leafy greens, such as spinach and collards, had a 34 percent lower risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. (aarp.org)
  • Men in the top fifth of fruit consumers, especially citrus fruits, had a small reduction in risk of prostate cancer, according to research from the University of Oxford and elsewhere. (aarp.org)
  • Jonathan Aning, a consultant urologist, talks you through what prostate cancer is, the main types, risk factors, stages and common treatments available to you. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Having one or more risk factors does not mean you will get prostate cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • We have more information about the risk factors of prostate cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • A leaflet discussing how your genes and family history can affect your risk of developing prostate cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Walnuts are good sources of omega-3 fats, natural phytosterols and antioxidants that can help reduce not only the risk of prostate cancer, but breast cancer as well. (mercola.com)
  • Reuters Health - Men with sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer surgery are often surprised to learn that the surgery had put them at risk for those problems, a new study finds. (reuters.com)
  • Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include older age, family history and race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men who have a first-degree relative (father or brother) with prostate cancer have twice the risk of developing prostate cancer, and those with two first-degree relatives affected have a five-fold greater risk compared with men with no family history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technically the prostate is not part of the urinary system. (healthcentral.com)
  • The prostate is close to parts of the digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. (cancer.ca)
  • Complications of ill advised prostate cancer treatments include urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. (mercola.com)
  • Prostate cancer in the spine can compress the spinal cord, causing tingling, leg weakness, and urinary and fecal incontinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visualisation of the Prostate using the TRUS ( Transrectal Ultrasound) technique has improved the diagnostic ability of the sonologist. (amazonaws.com)
  • Sera from three of eight vaccinated men contained new antibodies recognizing polypeptides of 26, 31, and 150 kDa in protein extracts from prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • That use of the PSA test, which measures elevated levels of a protein produced in the prostate, is under fire, however. (chicagotribune.com)
  • PSA is a protein that appears in higher levels in the bloodstream when there is a problem with the prostate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Healthy prostates tend to release only a trickle of the protein into the bloodstream, but cancer generally turns up the flow. (latimes.com)
  • If cancer has not spread beyond the prostate, surgical removal of the prostate is nearly 100 percent successful. (slate.com)
  • In many cases prostate cancer develops slowly, although in some cases it can be aggressive and metastasize to other parts of the body. (nature.com)
  • The data show clearly that overweight men whose body mass index is 30 or above are 34 percent more likely to get aggressive prostate cancer' than men whose BMI is below that range, she says. (aarp.org)
  • Consuming large amounts of saturated fats was linked to a 51 percent increase in the likelihood of having an aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis. (aarp.org)
  • Yahoo Health could not reach Kathleen A. Cooney, M.D., professor of internal medicine and urology for comment, however she said in a press release , "Early onset prostate cancer tends to be aggressive, striking down men in the prime of their life. (yahoo.com)
  • And while it's unclear how men can take measures to protect themselves against early onset prostate cancer, Cooney said, "This subtype is more aggressive and require more specialty expertise, including genetic sequencing. (yahoo.com)
  • A drug to prevent prostate cancer metastasis, is at least five years away, however. (newscientist.com)
  • Albertsen P, Fryback D, Storer B, Kolon T, Fine J. Long-term survival among men with conservatively treated localized prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • This time, there was a survival difference: Men who received annual PSA tests were 20% less likely to die of prostate cancer than those who weren't tested. (latimes.com)
  • After all, according the American Cancer Society the 5-year relative survival rate of all men with prostate cancer is, remarkably, 100 percent, and the relative survival rate at 10 years is 91 percent. (mercola.com)
  • No vaccines have yet been approved in Britain to treat any type of cancer, and scientists believe it could not only double the survival rate of prostate cancer sufferers but give way to a new range of similar treatments for other tumour types. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • We're going from rags to riches," said Dr. Judd Moul, a professor of surgery and director of the Duke Prostate Center, who was not involved in either study. (nytimes.com)
  • With current diagnostics I don't get a perfect picture of the prostate cancer until I see it first-hand during robotic prostate surgery . (prnewswire.com)
  • The microscopic clarity of Dr. Barentsz's new MRI technology may soon afford the opportunity to truly see the prostate, the cancer, and its borders before surgery is performed,' Dr. Samadi explained. (prnewswire.com)
  • In our most common prostate-removal surgery, your surgeon sits at a panel and controls robotic arms through small incisions. (ohsu.edu)
  • Is lack of sex drive normal after prostate surgery? (healingwell.com)
  • If you are a trans woman and have had genital gender affirming surgery as part of your transition, you still have a prostate. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • By 1999, Dr. Krongrad established The Krongrad Institute , a private program devoted exclusively to laparoscopic prostate surgery. (cbn.com)
  • In fact, the Cleveland Clinic has started a half-day class for men undergoing prostate removal to educate them about the surgery and rehabilitation. (reuters.com)
  • Permanent prostate brachytherapy involves placing many radioactive seeds within the prostate to treat prostate cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Prostate brachytherapy is used to treat prostate cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The trial enrolled 790 men with metastatic prostate cancer who had not yet started androgen deprivation (or androgen ablation) therapy. (healthcentral.com)
  • in some men, identifying it early may prevent or delay metastasis and death from prostate cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • The research could ultimately lead to a pill that would prevent metastasis in prostate cancer - the migration of cancer cells from the primary tumour to other sites around the body. (newscientist.com)
  • The FDA previously approved the drug in April 2011 for men with prostate cancer who have already taken the chemotherapy drug docetaxel. (usatoday.com)
  • A drug that can give advanced prostate cancer sufferers an extra two months to live has been rejected by the NHS's rationing body, just days after experts said it was "futile" to keep giving chemotherapy to the terminally ill. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Traditionally, chemotherapy has been the next step for men whose prostate cancer is no longer controlled by ADT and has spread outside the prostate. (healthcentral.com)