(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
Prostaglandins F, Synthetic
Receptors, Prostaglandin E
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
(13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype
Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype
Prostaglandins E, Synthetic
Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype
Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic
Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Corpus Luteum Maintenance
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Rats, Inbred Strains
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
Prostaglandins A, Synthetic
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
Chromatography, Thin Layer
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Gene Expression Regulation
Nitric Oxide Synthase
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (1/834)The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins. (+info)
Pattern of total and regional lung function in subjects with bronchoconstriction induced by 15-me PGF2 alpha. (2/834)Closing volume (single breath nitrogen test), regional ventilation and perfusion (using intravenous xenon-133), and total lung function (TLC, VC, and FEV) were measured before and after intramuscular administration of 250 mug 15-methyl prostaglandin F2alpha (15-me PGF2alpha) in 10 healthy women. The cardiac output was measured with the Minnesota impedance cardiograph model 304A and the transthoracic impedance was used as an expression of the thoracic fluid volume. The slope of the alveolar plateau on the closing volume tracing showed a 271% increase 20 minutes after the prostaglandin administration, at which time the closing volume per cent (CV%) had decreased (P less than 0-01) and the closing capacity (CC%) had increased (P less than 0-05). Vital capacity (VC) decreased (P less than 0-01), residual volume (RV) increased (P less than 0-01), and the total lung capacity (TLC) remained unchanged. The maximal decrease (9%) in FEV1 was seen after 20 minutes. All these measurements except the slope of the alveolar plateau returned to control levels after 60 minutes. The redistribution of regional ventilation was more pronounced than that of the regional pulmonary blood flow. No change was observed in cardiac output and transthoracic impedance. None of the patients experienced any dyspnoea. Our results are consistent with a more pronounced effect of prostaglandin F2alpha on the small airways (the alveolar plateau) than on the larger airways (FEV1). In cases where an increase in the slope of the alveolar plateau is observed, the closing volume per cent should not be used as a measurement of the lung disease. It is concluded that the single breath nitrogen test (N2 closing volume) is more sensitive than the conventional tests. (+info)
Degradation of porstaglandin F2alpha in the human pulmonary circulation. (3/834)Degradation of prostaglandins (PGs) during passage through the human pulmonary circulation was investigated by measuring the transpulmonary plasma PGF2 alpha difference during continuous intravenous infusion of PGF2 alpha (5-10 mug/min). Seven patients with cardiological disorders and two patients with extensive pulmonary abnormalities were investigated during diagnostic cardiac catheterization. PGF2 alpha levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The seven cardiac patients were found to have transpulmonary PGF2 alpha differences of 47-88%, indicating metabolism of the PG in the lungs. A patient with extensive bronchiectasis had an apparently normal transpulmonary PGF2alpha difference despite gross abnormalities in routine lung function tests. A patient with primary pulmonary arterial hypertension showed no metabolism of PGF2alpha in the pulmonary circulation. The results show that PG degradation is an aspect of normal lung function and suggest that it becomes imparied when extensive pulmonary vascular damage exists. (+info)
Peptide growth factors in amphibian embryogenesis: intersection of modern molecular approaches with traditional inductive interaction paradigms. (4/834)Recent discoveries of the role peptide growth factors (PGFs) play in regulating embryonic patterning and differentiation have profoundly influenced research on the molecular biology of early amphibian embryogenesis. Several PGFs have been recognized to be present as endogenous components of amphibian eggs and early embryos, while other PGFs -- which are known from heterologous systems (e.g., Drosophila) -- exert remarkable effects when injected as either protein or mRNA into eggs/embryos or when added to cultured embryonic tissue. For a variety of reasons (reviewed herein) optimism abounds that an understanding in molecular terms of the classical Spemann and Nieuwkoop tissue interactions which are generally believed to drive embryonic patterning is within reach. A critical assessment of the interpretations of some of the contemporary data on PGFs (included herein) should, however, temper some of that optimism. Likely, multiple rather than single PGFs act in a combinatorial fashion to contribute to individual patterning events. As well, substantial redundancy in PGF regulatory circuits probably exists, so the heavy reliance on tissue culture assays and overexpression studies which characterize much recent research needs to be circumvented. Potential experimental approaches for "next generation" experiments are discussed. (+info)
The effect of indomethacin on uterine contractility and luteal regression in pregnant rats at term. (5/834)Treatment of pregnant rats with 1 mg indomethacin/kg twice daily i.m. beginning on Day 20 delayed the onset of parturition by about 21 hr and prolonged the duration of spontaneous parturition by 4 hr. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were determined in daily samples of peripheral blood, and uterine contractions were recorded before and during parturition by means of small, chronically implanted intrauterine balloons which were connected to pressure transducers via fluid-filled catheters. Indomethacin treatment did not inhibit or suppress spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions, which were of the same intensity in indomethacin-treated as in control rats. Parturition was induced with oxytocin in the same proportion of treated and control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in controls. The onset of parturition was always related to the plasma progesterone level, which declined at a slower rate in indomethacin-treated than in control rats, reaching baseline values approximately 1 day later in the treated animals. The appearance of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the CL of pregnant rats normally occurs on Day 21 of gestation, but activity was not observed until about 1 (0-3) day later in the indomethacin-treated rats, indicating that luteolysis was retarded. Prostaglandin F-2alpha infusions given on Day 21 reversed the effects of indomethacin treatment on plasma progesterone, luteal 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and the timing and duration of parturition, and reduced the high perinatal mortality associated with indomethacin treatment, suggesting that the effects of indomethacin were related to its inhibitory action on prostaglandin synthetase activity. It is concluded that, in rats, indomethacin exerts its effects on parturition through inhibition of luteal regression which was significantly retarded but not prevented, and that indomethacin does not have a direct effect on myometrial contractility. (+info)
The recognition of a noncanonical RNA base pair by a zinc finger protein. (6/834)BACKGROUND: The zinc finger (ZF) is the most abundant nucleic-acid-interacting protein motif. Although the interaction of ZFs with DNA is reasonably well understood, little is known about the RNA-binding mechanism. We investigated RNA binding to ZFs using the Zif268-DNA complex as a model system. Zif268 contains three DNA-binding ZFs; each independently binds a 3 base pair (bp) subsite within a 9 bp recognition sequence. RESULTS: We constructed a library of phage-displayed ZFs by randomizing the alpha helix of the Zif268 central finger. Successful selection of an RNA binder required a noncanonical base pair in the middle of the RNA triplet. Binding of the Zif268 variant to an RNA duplex containing a G.A mismatch (rG.A) is specific for RNA and is dependent on the conformation of the mismatched middle base pair. Modeling and NMR analyses revealed that the rG.A pair adopts a head-to-head configuration that counterbalances the effect of S-puckered riboses in the backbone. We propose that the structure of the rG.A duplex is similar to the DNA in the original Zif268-DNA complex. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to change the specificity of a ZF from DNA to RNA. The ZF motif can use similar mechanisms in binding both types of nucleic acids. Our strategy allowed us to rationalize the interactions that are possible between a ZF and its RNA substrate. This same strategy can be used to assess the binding specificity of ZFs or other protein motifs for noncanconical RNA base pairs, and should permit the design of proteins that bind specific RNA structures. (+info)
Changes in endothelium-derived vascular regulatory factors during dobutamine-stress-induced silent myocardial ischemia in patients with Kawasaki disease. (7/834)The changes in endothelium-derived vascular regulatory factors during dobutamine (DOB)-induced myocardial ischemia (MI) were investigated in 21 patients with Kawasaki disease aged from 11 months to 18 years. They were classified into an ischemia group (8 patients) and a non-ischemia group (13 patients) based on the results of 99mTc myocardial scintigraphy and DOB stress 99mTc myocardial scintigraphy. In the ischemia group, MI was relatively mild, because there were ischemic changes on the electrocardiogram and no significant symptoms during DOB stress. Catheters were positioned near the orifice of the coronary artery (Ao) and at the coronary sinus (CS). Hemodynamics and the blood concentrations of lactic acid and endothelin-1, as well as NO3-, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha, and thromboxane B2, (which are inactive metabolites of nitric oxide, prostaglandin I2 and thromboxane A2, respectively), were measured at rest and after DOB stress (maximum dose: 30 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The CS/Ao ratio was determined for all parameters. The rate-pressure product, an index of work load, and the cardiac index were significantly increased by DOB stress in both groups. Coronary angiography showed no vasospasm of the epicardial coronary arteries before or after DOB stress in either group. The plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha were significantly increased after DOB stress in the ischemia group, but the serum concentration of NO did not increase. The lack of an increase in NO production during DOB stress may have contributed to the worsening of MI in patients with Kawasaki disease. (+info)
Role of IL-6 in the pleurisy and lung injury caused by carrageenan. (8/834)In the present study we used IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6KO) to evaluate the role of IL-6 in the inflammatory response caused by injection of carrageenan into the pleural space. Compared with carrageenan-treated IL-6 wild-type (IL-6WT) mice, carrageenan-treated IL-6KO mice exhibited a reduced degree of pleural exudation and polymorphonuclear cell migration. Lung myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced in IL-6KO mice compared with those in IL-6WT mice treated with carrageenan. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine and poly(A)DP-ribose polymerase revealed a positive staining in lungs from carrageenan-treated IL-6WT mice. No positive staining for nitrotyrosine or PARS was found in the lungs of the carrageenan-treated IL-6KO mice. Staining of lung tissue sections obtained from carrageenan-treated IL-6WT mice with an anti-cyclo-oxygenase-2 Ab showed a diffuse staining of the inflamed tissue. Furthermore, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was found mainly in the macrophages of the inflamed lungs from carrageenan-treated IL-6WT mice. The intensity and degree of the staining for cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were markedly reduced in tissue sections obtained from carrageenan-treated IL-6KO mice. Most notably, the degree of lung injury caused by carrageenan was also reduced in IL-6KO mice. Treatment of IL-6WT mice with anti-IL-6 (5 microg/day/mouse at 24 and 1 h before carrageenan treatment) also significantly attenuated all the above indicators of lung inflammation. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that IL-6KO mice are more resistant to the acute inflammation of the lung caused by carrageenan injection into the pleural space than the corresponding WT mice. (+info)
5Z,13E)-(15S)-9 alpha,11 beta,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic Acid (9 alpha,11 Beta-Prostaglandin F2): Formation and...
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) was recently found to be stereospecifically converted to the compound (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9 alpha,11 beta,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2) by a human liver cytosolic NADPH-dependent 11-ketoreductase enzyme. Because PGD2 is a potent bronchoconstrictor …
13,14-dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin E2-d4 - Creative Proteomics
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Effect of oestrous synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha in Ethiopian highland Zebu (Bos indicus) cows
A study undertaken to characterise the oestrous cycle in Zebu cows following oestrous induction with PGF (Prostaglandin F2alpha) and examines the function of the subsequently formed CL (corpus luteum) by monitoring levels of peripheral plasma progesterone ...
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6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha-d4 from Cayman Chemical,PGF1α-d4 contains 4 deuterium atoms at the 3, 3, 4, and 4 positions. It is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of PGF1α by GC- or LC-mass spectrometry.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
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Many dairy veterinarians prescribe the use of prostaglandin F2α (PG) in dairy herds to control time to estrus (heat), as part of synchronization programs or for postpartum treatments. There are two primary PG products available in the U.S.,
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A biochemist reports that fish oil significantly diminishes the production and effectiveness of various prostaglandins, naturally occurring hormone-like substances that can accentuate inflammation and thrombosis.
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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. A given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that ...
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Bürger, Alexandra (2019): Einfluss von Prostaglandin F2α Analoga auf die Biomechanik der Cornea und die Transkription und Expression von Molekülen der extrazellulären Matrix. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Medicine ...
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Catalysis of the reaction: 15-keto-prostaglandin + NAD(P)H + H+ -> 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin + NAD(P)+. This reaction is the reduction of 15-keto-prostaglandin. [EC:18.104.22.168, GOC:mw, KEGG:R04556, KEGG:R04557, PMID:17449869]
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A prostaglandin is one of several hormone-like substances that participate in a wide range of body functions. For example, its involved in contracting and relaxing smooth muscle; dilating and constricting blood vessels; control of blood pressure; and modulation of inflammation. Prostaglandins are derived from a chemical called arachidonic acid.. ...
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با سلام و درود بیکران خدمت تمامی عزیزان و سروران گرانمهر!. شورای زنان انجمن افغانها در همکاری با شعبه جوانان انجمن برنامه شب فرهنگی موسیقی و رقص را برگزار مینماید.. امیدواریم که واپسین روزهای دلانگیز پاییزی را با خوبی و خوشی و سعادتمندی در کنار فامیل های نازنین تان سپری کنید.. به مناسبت استقبال از فصل زیبای خزان شب موسیقی و رقص که همراه با موسیقی زنده و هنرمندی هنرمند خوش صدا و مستعد کشور عزیزمان افغانستان فردین جان فاخر و غذاهای خوشمزه افغانی میزبان خانم های عزیز و نازنین در رستورانت بامیان باشیم. حضور هر یک از شما دوشیزگان و خانمها و اولادی های ...
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徳田 正孝 , 関岡 清次 , 上野 高廣 , 林 哲也 , F HAVLICEK 日本機械学会論文集 A編 58(551), 1100-1106, 1992 J-STAGE 被引用文献4件 ...
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101-0051 東京都千代田区神田神保町3-6 能楽書林ビル5F 公益財団法人 統計情報研究開発センター内 日本計量生物学会 事務 ...
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2/14 F=). این تاثیرپذیری در مورد خرده مقیاس های تحمل پریشانی (تحمل، جذب، ارزیابی و تنظیم) و تجربه مجدد ضربه (مزاحمت، اجتناب و برانگیختگی) نیز معنی دار شد. میانگین و انحراف معیار نمرات انعطاف پذیری در گروه آزمایش در پیش آزمون و پس آزمون به ترتیب (4/08 S=، 33/21 M=) و (3/34 S=، 36/21 M=) و در گروه کنترل به ترتیب (5/83 S=، 33/48 M=) و (5/57 S=، 33/17 M=) و در مورد تحمل پریشانی در گروه آزمایش به ترتیب (7/68 S=، 33/62 M=) و (8/05 S=، 39/87 M=) و گروه کنترل به ترتیب (9/66 S=، 34/77 M=) و (10/00 S=، 9/66 M=) می باشد. در تجربه مجدد ضربه در گروه آزمایش به ترتیب (7/47 S=، 62/86 M=) و (10/64 S=، 57/24 M=) و در گروه کنترل به ترتیب (10/64 S=، 24/57 M=) و (12/52 S=، 54/76 M=) ...
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... are a subset of prostaglandins (PGs) or prostanoids (see eicosanoid#Classic eicosanoids and ... Surh YJ, Na HK, Park JM, Lee HN, Kim W, Yoon IS, Kim DD (2011). "15-Deoxy-Δ¹²,¹⁴-prostaglandin J₂, an electrophilic lipid ... Forman BM, Tontonoz P, Chen J, Brun RP, Spiegelman BM, Evans RM (1995). "15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for ... The cyclopenentone prostaglandins are structurally and functionally related to a subset of isoprostanes viz., two ...
... the most abundant prostaglandin - is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 (prostaglandin ... prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Examples of prostaglandin antagonists are: ... prostaglandin E1 is abbreviated PGE1, and prostaglandin I2 is abbreviated PGI2. Systematic studies of prostaglandins began in ... "Prostaglandin F2alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS): crystal structure of PGFS containing ...
Prostaglandin D2 synthase to create prostaglandin D2 Prostaglandin E synthase to create prostaglandin E2 It rearranges non- ... Prostaglandin H2 is a type of prostaglandin and a precursor for many other biologically significant molecules. It is ... "Showing metabocard for Prostaglandin H2 (HMDB0001381)". Human Metabolome Database, HMDB. 5.0. van der Donk WA, Tsai AL, Kulmacz ... The conversion from Arachidonic acid to Prostaglandin H2 is a two step process. First, COX-1 catalyzes the addition of two free ...
... is a family of naturally occurring prostaglandins that are used as medications. Types include: Prostaglandin E1 ... Prostaglandin E play an important role in thermoregulation of the human brain. Decreased formation of prostaglandin E through ... Prostaglandins+E at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Medicine v t e (Chemicals that ... Prostaglandins, World Health Organization essential medicines, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
... (or PGD2) is a prostaglandin that binds to the receptor PTGDR (DP1), as well as CRTH2 (DP2). It is a major ... inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in cultured human osteoblast-like periosteal cells by inhibiting prostaglandin H synthase ... 21 March 2012). "Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia". ... 21 May 2012). "Prostaglandin D2, a cerebral sleep-inducing substance in monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... s are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor. Wider use of prostaglandin analogues is ... Up until the late 1970s prostaglandins were thought to raise IOP, but a paper published in 1977 showed that prostaglandin F2α ... Prostaglandin+Analogues at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e v t e v t e (Articles with ... Prostaglandin analogues such as misoprostol are used in treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers. Misoprostol and other ...
... s or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as ... IUPHAR GPCR Database - Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin+Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Prostanoid receptor Eicosanoid receptor Prostaglandin Tsuboi K, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A (2002). "Prostanoid receptor subtypes". ... Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 68-69: 535-56. doi:10.1016/S0090-6980(02)00054-0. PMID 12432942. Moreno JJ (2016). " ...
... (PGE1), also known as alprostadil, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin which is used as a medication. In ... Prostaglandin E1 was isolated in 1957 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1981. It is on the World Health ... Misoprostol is another synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used to prevent gastric ulcers when taken on a continuous basis, to ... Prostaglandin E1 is in the vasodilator family of medications. It works by opening blood vessels and relaxing smooth muscle. ...
A prostaglandin antagonist is a hormone antagonist acting upon one or more prostaglandins, a subclass of eicosanoid compounds ... Prostaglandin antagonists may also help with allergies, primarily seasonal allergies or nasal allergies. The prostaglandin D2 ( ... NSAIDs are perhaps the best-known prostaglandin antagonists; they suppress the signaling function of prostaglandins, which are ... prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist, on Prostaglandin D2-Induced Nasal Congestion". Journal of Allergy and Clinical ...
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed carboprost is a naturally occurring prostaglandin ... Kerekes L, Domokos N (July 1979). "The effect of prostaglandin F2∝ on third stage labor". Prostaglandins. 18 (1): 161-166. doi: ... Prostaglandin is also used to treat uterine infections in domestic animals. In domestic mammals, it is produced by the uterus ... Prostaglandins are lipids throughout the entire body that have a hormone-like function. In pregnancy, PGF2 is medically used to ...
Specifically, prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) is modified by the peroxidase moiety of the COX enzyme to produce prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 ... Prostaglandin E2 works as well as prostaglandin E1 in babies. Dinoprostone has important effects in labor by inducing softening ... Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), along with other prostaglandins, are synthesized within the cortex and medulla of the kidney. The role ... Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also known as dinoprostone, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin with oxytocic properties that is ...
... are drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin in human body. There are various types of ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. Eicosanoids in Cardiovascular Disease. 98 (3): 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins. ... and they are the drug targets for prostaglandin inhibitors. There are mainly 2 classes of prostaglandin inhibitors, namely non ... As NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, it reduces the blood flow to the stomach and weakens the stomach mucous membrane, ...
... is an organic peroxide belonging to the family of prostaglandins. The compound has been isolated as a solid, ... It quickly converts into prostaglandin H2, a process catalyzed by the enzyme COX. Prostaglandin G2 is produced from the fatty ... "Prostaglandin G2". Santa cruz biotechnology, inc. Retrieved 27 April 2015. v t e (Pages using collapsible list with both ... Prostaglandins, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... (PGE3) is a naturally formed prostaglandin and is formed via the cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolism of ... Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Kulkarni PS, Srinivasan BD (June 1986). "Eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in ... human and rabbit anterior uvea". Prostaglandins. 31 (6): 1159-64. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(86)90217-0. PMID 3020617. (Articles ...
Prostaglandin DP1 receptor
Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin DP2 receptor Eicosanoid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... is primarily a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The receptor is a member of the Prostaglandin receptors belonging to the ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 107: 48-55. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2013.07.001. PMID 23850788. Ferré S (2015). " ... "Amino acid residues conferring ligand binding properties of prostaglandin I and prostaglandin D receptors. Identification by ...
Prostaglandin DP2 receptor
DP2 along with Prostaglandin DP1 receptor are receptors for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Activation of DP2 by PGD2 or other cognate ... Prostaglandin DP1 receptor Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Eicosanoid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 75 (1-4): 153-67. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2004.11.003. PMID 15789622. Hata AN, ... It is a member of the class of prostaglandin receptors which bind with and respond to various prostaglandins. ...
Prostaglandin EP3 receptor
... (53kDa), also known as EP3, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the ... Eicosanoid receptor Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) ... "PTGER3 prostaglandin e receptor 3 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". "Entrez Gene: PTGER1 prostaglandin E receptor 1 ( ... prostaglandin DP, E2, and E4 receptors (see Prostaglandin receptors). When initially bound to PGE2 or other of its agonists, it ...
Prostaglandin E synthase
It generates prostaglandin E (PGE) from prostaglandin H2. The synthase generating PGE2 is a membrane-associated protein. Humans ... Murakami M, Nakatani Y, Tanioka T, Kudo I (August 2002). "Prostaglandin E synthase". Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 68-69: ... prostaglandin-E+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 22.214.171.124 Portal: Biology v t ... Prostaglandin E synthase (EC 126.96.36.199, or PGE synthase) is an enzyme involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism, a ...
Prostaglandin D2 synthase
Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTGDS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGDS gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin ... "Entrez Gene: PTGDS prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)". Garza LA, Liu Y, Yang Z, Alagesan B, Lawson JA, Norberg SM, Loy DE ... Nagata A, Suzuki Y, Igarashi M, Eguchi N, Toh H, Urade Y, Hayaishi O (May 1991). "Human brain prostaglandin D synthase has been ...
Prostaglandin E2 receptor
PTGER2 Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) - PTGER3 Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) - PTGER4 An antagonist of a prostaglandin ... The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by prostaglandin E2. They are ... Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin Peluffo, M.C.; Stanley, J.; Braeuer, N.; Rotgeri, A.; Fritzemeier, K ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) - PTGER1 Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) - ...
Prostaglandin F synthase
... prostaglandin F synthase, prostaglandin F synthetase, synthetase, prostaglandin F2α, prostaglandin-D2 11-reductase, PGF ... "Enzymatic formation of prostaglandin F2 alpha from prostaglandin H2 and D2. Purification and properties of prostaglandin F ... "Prostaglandin F2alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS): crystal structure of PGFS containing ... In general, prostaglandins are molecules that are used for inflammation, muscle contraction and blood clotting. Prostaglandin F ...
Prostaglandin EP1 receptor
Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Prostaglandin ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) is a 42kDa prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER1 gene. EP1 is one of four identified ... "PTGER1 prostaglandin E receptor 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Ricciotti E, FitzGerald GA (May ... Kawano T, Anrather J, Zhou P, Park L, Wang G, Frys KA, Kunz A, Cho S, Orio M, Iadecola C (February 2006). "Prostaglandin E2 EP1 ...
Prostaglandin EP2 receptor
Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin receptors Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Prostaglandin ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2, also known as EP2, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human ... The following standard prostaglandins have the following relative efficacies in binding to and activating EP2: PGE2>PGF2alpha>= ... "PTGER2 prostaglandin e receptor 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Woodward DF, Jones RL, Narumiya S (September 2011). " ...
Prostaglandin F receptor
... (FP) is a receptor belonging to the prostaglandin (PG) group of receptors. FP binds to and mediates ... 1995). "Cloning of the rat and human prostaglandin F2 alpha receptors and the expression of the rat prostaglandin F2 alpha ... Prostaglandin F2 alpha Prostaglandin receptors Eicosanoid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122420 - Ensembl, May ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 104-105: 109-21. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2013.01.001. PMID 23353557. Coleman RA, ...
Other names in common use include prostaglandin-H2 Delta-isomerase, prostaglandin-R-prostaglandin D isomerase, and PGH-PGD ... Prostaglandin D2 synthase Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase Garza, L. A.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Z.; Alagesan, B.; Lawson, J. A.; ... In enzymology, a prostaglandin-D synthase (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha ... Shimizu T, Yamamoto S, Hayaishi O (1979). "Purification and properties of prostaglandin D synthetase from rat brain". J. Biol. ...
Prostaglandin EP4 receptor
Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the PTGER4 gene in humans ... Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) Eicosanoid receptor ... Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), which has one less double bond than PGE2, has the same binding affinity and potency for EP4, both PGs ... Pang L, Cai Y, Tang EH, Irwin MG, Ma H, Xia Z (2016). "Prostaglandin E Receptor Subtype 4 Signaling in the Heart: Role in ...
Prostaglandin D2 receptor
PTGDR1 Prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) - PTGDR2 Eicosanoid receptor Prostaglandin E2 receptor Prostaglandin+D2+Receptors at ... The prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by prostaglandin D2. They ... include the following proteins: Prostaglandin D2 receptor 1 (DP1) - ...
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
... (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (The HUGO official symbol is PTGS2; HGNC ... causing uterine prostaglandin gene expression and immunolocalization of prostaglandin pathway proteins in chorionic trophoblast ... "Prostaglandin pathway gene expression in human placenta, amnion and choriodecidua is differentially affected by preterm and ... Hamberg M, Samuelsson B (November 1967). "On the mechanism of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins E-1 and F-1-alpha". J. Biol. ...
... prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase, prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase, and prostaglandin E2 reductase-9-oxoreductase. This enzyme ... In enzymology, a prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase (EC 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (5Z,13E)-(15S)- ... Other names in common use include PGE2-9-OR, reductase, 15-hydroxy-9-oxoprostaglandin, 9-keto-prostaglandin E2 reductase, 9- ... Schlegel W, Kruger S, Korte K (1984). "Purification of prostaglandin E2 reductase-9-oxoreductase from human decidua vera". FEBS ...
This enzyme is also called prostaglandin A isomerase. Polet H, Levine L (1975). "Metabolism of prostaglandins E, A, and C in ... Prostaglandin A1 or PGA1), and one product, (13E)-(15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-11,13-dienoate (Prostaglandin C1). This enzyme ... In enzymology, a Prostaglandin-A1 Δ-isomerase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (13E)-(15S)-15- ...
Hemorrhagic Cystitis Medication: Astringents, Prostaglandins, Endocrine, Urologics, Other
Prostaglandin E2 bladder instillation for the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. ... Carboprost is a prostaglandin that elicits cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and vasoconstrictive properties and produces no ... Trigg ME, OReilly J, Rumelhart S, Morgan D, Holida M, de Alarcon P. Prostaglandin E1 bladder instillations to control severe ...
Prostaglandin synthesis - 1st Edition
Purchase Prostaglandin synthesis - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780120994601, 9780323146784 ... A Prostaglandins 15. B Prostaglandins. 16. C Prostaglandins. 17. D Prostaglandins 18. Prostaglandin Interconversions 19. ... Prostaglandin Synthesis reviews the developments in the preparation and isolation of prostaglandins by synthesis, with emphasis ... It then discusses the discovery of prostaglandins and the isolation of prostaglandins E and F, format for structural ...
Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Preterm Infant Medication: Prostaglandin inhibitors
Ocular prostaglandin analogues are a class of medicines commonly used to treat glaucoma.1 They bind to prostaglandin F (FP) ... The purpose of prostaglandins. Review of Optometry. URL: www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/the-purpose-of-prostaglandins ( ... Prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy. Prescriber Update 43(3): 35-36. September 2022. Key messages. *Prostaglandin- ... The Pharmacology of Prostaglandin Analogues. URL: entokey.com/the-pharmacology-of-prostaglandin-analogues/ (accessed 4 July ...
Role of Prostaglandins in Fever a... preview & related info | Mendeley
Shock in Pediatrics Medication: Inotropic agents, Phosphodiesterase Enzyme Inhibitor, Prostaglandins, Endocrine, Corticosteroid
Prostaglandins, Endocrine. Class Summary. Neonates who present with shock associated with a large liver, enlarged cardiac ... In patients in whom the ductus arteriosus has closed, initiation of prostaglandin E1 to maintain or reestablish its patency may ... Alprostadil is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 and induces vascular smooth muscle and ductus arteriosus vasodilation. This agent ...
Prostaglandin Antagonists | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action
13 Abstracts with Prostaglandin Antagonists Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Mangosteen inhibits histamine and inflammatory prostaglandin E2 synthesis.Sep 01, 2002. Click here to read the entire abstract ... Boswellias anti-inflammatory activity is due in part to its inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis.Jan 01, 2011. ... Pharmacological Actions : Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Nitric Oxide Inhibitor, Prostaglandin Antagonists ...
Cannabinoids and pain responses: a possible role for prostaglandins | Semantic Scholar
Administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), at doses that were a small fraction of the Δ1‐THC given, resulted in a strong ... in which the metabolite inhibits eicosanoid synthesis whereas the parent drug elevates tissue levels of prostaglandins.- ... Burstein, S. H.; Hull, K.; Hunter, S. A.; Latham, V. Cannabinoids and pain responses: a possible role for prostaglandins. FASEB ... in which the metabolite inhibits eicosanoid synthesis whereas the parent drug elevates tissue levels of prostaglandins. The ...
prostaglandin Archives - Dark Daily
Jul 9, 2021 , International Laboratory News, Laboratory Instruments & Laboratory Equipment, Laboratory Pathology, Laboratory Testing, Precision Medicine. The study shows that measurement using a urine test provides improved accuracy relative to other measurement methods, for example certain kinds of blood tests, a KI news release states Researchers at the Karolinska Institute (KI) in Sweden have developed a non-invasive urine-based test that can identify what type of asthma a patient has and its severity. If developed into a clinical laboratory diagnostic, such a test also could give clinicians a better idea of what treatment is more likely ...
Prostaglandin - wikidoc
Prostaglandin E synthase. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 ... de:Prostaglandin it:Prostaglandine lt:Prostaglandinai nl:Prostaglandinen no:Prostaglandin nn:Prostaglandin sl:Prostaglandin fi: ... See Prostaglandin antagonist. Clinical uses. Synthetic prostaglandins are used: *To induce childbirth, parturition or abortion ... "Prostaglandin F2alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS): crystal structure of PGFS containing ...
JCI - Effects of Prostaglandin Cyclic Endoperoxides on the Lung Circulation of Unanesthetized Sheep
Although prostaglandins E2 and F2α have been suggested as mediators of the pulmonary hypertension seen after endotoxin infusion ... In this study we compared the effects of prostaglandin (PG)H2, a stable 9-methylene ether analogue of PGH2 (PGH2-A), PGE2, and ... Effects of Prostaglandin Cyclic Endoperoxides on the Lung Circulation of Unanesthetized Sheep. ... Effects of Prostaglandin Cyclic Endoperoxides on the Lung Circulation of Unanesthetized Sheep. ...
Prostaglandin A3 (CAS 36614-31-0)
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Prostaglandin F ELISA Kits
WikiGenes - PTGS2 - prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2...
Endogenous prostaglandin endoperoxides and prostacyclin modulate the thrombolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator....
Prostaglandin reductase 2 | DrugBank Online
Cooxidation of benzidine by renal medullary prostaglandin cyclooxygenase. | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...
Cooxidation of benzidine by renal medullary prostaglandin cyclooxygenase.. T V Zenser, M B Mattammal and B B Davis ... Cooxidation of benzidine by renal medullary prostaglandin cyclooxygenase.. T V Zenser, M B Mattammal and B B Davis ... Cooxidation of benzidine by renal medullary prostaglandin cyclooxygenase.. T V Zenser, M B Mattammal and B B Davis ... Cooxidation of benzidine by renal medullary prostaglandin cyclooxygenase. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
High Resolution Accurate Mass (HRAM) Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) Screen for Prostaglandins Found in...
Blood-aqueous Barrier Changes After the Use of Timolol and Prostaglandin Analogues Fixed Combination in Pseudophakic Patients...
Blood-aqueous Barrier Changes After the Use of Timolol and Prostaglandin Analogues Fixed Combination in Pseudophakic Patients ... Combinations of B-blockers and prostaglandin analogs (PGA) are frequently used in clinical practice because their additive ... Blood-aqueous Barrier Changes After the Use of Timolol and Prostaglandin Analogues Fixed Combination in Pseudophakic Patients ... Fixed combinations are better tolerated than their respective prostaglandin analogue. However, among the most serious side ...
Evaluation of prostaglandin D2 as a CSF leak marker: implications in s | LRA
The aim of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin D2 could be clinically used as a marker for the detection of CSF ... Prostaglandin D2 was reliably identified in CSF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when diluted with local anesthetic, saline ... and saliva were obtained from normal subjects and analyzed for prostaglandin D2 (PGD). CSF (n=5) samples were diluted with ... Evaluation of prostaglandin D2 as a CSF leak marker: implications in safe epidural anesthesia Sirish Kondabolu, Rishimani ...
A microfluidic-based model of nociceptor sensitization reveals a direct activation of sensory axons by prostaglandin E2 |...
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the major contributors to inflammatory pain hyperalgesia, however, the extent to which it ... A microfluidic-based model of nociceptor sensitization reveals a direct activation of sensory axons by prostaglandin E2. ... One Sentence Summary Prostaglandin E2 can depolarise nociceptive axons in the absence of any noxious stimuli leading to a ... A microfluidic-based model of nociceptor sensitization reveals a direct activation of sensory axons by prostaglandin E2 ...
Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and progression of colorectal cancer<...
Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and progression of colorectal cancer. Cancer Letters. 2008 Aug 28;267(2):197-203. doi: 10.1016/ ... Wang, D., & DuBois, R. N. (2008). Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and progression of colorectal cancer. Cancer Letters, 267(2 ... Wang, D & DuBois, RN 2008, Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and progression of colorectal cancer, Cancer Letters, vol. 267, no ... title = "Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and progression of colorectal cancer",. abstract = "Chronic inflammation is a risk ...
Recent Progress in Prostaglandin F2α Ethanolamide (Prostamide F2α) Research and Therapeutics | Pharmacological Reviews
Functional Heterogeneity of Breast Fibroblasts Is Defined by a Prostaglandin Secretory Phenotype that Promotes Expansion of...
Functional Heterogeneity of Breast Fibroblasts Is Defined by a Prostaglandin Secretory Phenotype that Promotes Expansion of ... "Functional Heterogeneity of Breast Fibroblasts Is Defined by a Prostaglandin Secretory Phenotype That Promotes Expansion of ... we show that fibroblasts secreting abundant levels of prostaglandin (PGE2), when isolated from either reduction mammoplasty or ...
Effect of prostaglandin-E2 on phagocytosis of carbon black and particulate matter by rat alveolar macrophages | European...
Effect of prostaglandin-E2 on phagocytosis of carbon black and particulate matter by rat alveolar macrophages. Andrew Balme, ... Effect of prostaglandin-E2 on phagocytosis of carbon black and particulate matter by rat alveolar macrophages ... Effect of prostaglandin-E2 on phagocytosis of carbon black and particulate matter by rat alveolar macrophages ... Effect of prostaglandin-E2 on phagocytosis of carbon black and particulate matter by rat alveolar macrophages ...
A comparison between natural (PGF2 alpha ) and synthetic (Fenprostalene) prostaglandins for oestrus synchronization in Santa...
... prostaglandins for oestrus synchronization in Santa Gertrudis heifers ... Comparison of the efficacy of prostaglandin F2 alpha and enucleation of the corpus luteum in the synchronization of oestrus in ... A comparison of the effect of prostaglandins E1 and F2 alpha on oestrus synchronization in cows. Molochnoe i Myasnoe ... Synchronization of oestrus in heifers and cyclic cows with progestagens and prostaglandins analogues alone or in combination. ...
Prognostic value of prostaglandin F2 alpha concentrations in breast carcinoma. | Journal of Clinical Pathology
PGE2SynthaseBiosynthesisReceptorsInflammationSynthesis of prostaglandinsLeukotrienesThromboxanesCyclooxygenaseArachidonic acidMediatorsInhibitionNaturally occurring proAbstractSynthasesOxytocinInhibitEndoperoxidesCervicalGlaucomaAnalogsVitroEssential FattyLipidFatty AcidsF2alphaAnaloguesAnaloguePrecursorsProducesRipenLatanoprostHormonesAntagonistsFound in virtuallyPhysiologyInduction of labClinicalEnzymeLabourTissuesRenalProduction2022
- In this study we compared the effects of prostaglandin (PG)H2, a stable 9-methylene ether analogue of PGH2 (PGH2-A), PGE2, and PGF2α on pulmonary hemodynamics in awake sheep. (jci.org)
- Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the major contributors to inflammatory pain hyperalgesia, however, the extent to which it modulates the activity of the nociceptive axons is incompletely understood. (biorxiv.org)
- Rather than significant differences in fibroblast marker expression, we show that fibroblasts secreting abundant levels of prostaglandin (PGE2), when isolated from either reduction mammoplasty or carcinoma tissues, were both capable of enhancing tumor growth in vivo and could increase the number of cancer stem-like cells. (mit.edu)
- In control experiments, only approximately 9% of the 3- to 5-week-old cells exhibited changes of their basic firing rate when the temperature was raised from 37 degrees C to 40 degrees C. This ratio was increased to 27% after the cultures were "primed" by adding prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an endogenous pyrogen, in the extracellular medium. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- The metastasis of tumors to bone is known to be promoted by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by the tumor host stromal tissue. (ox.ac.uk)
- COX-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from linoleic acid (LA) showed that HCA-7 cells can convert LA into arachidonic acid (AA). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- We compared in vitro basal and silica-stimulated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by AM from normal humans and non-human primates (Macaca nemestrina). (cdc.gov)
- To date, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 emerges as a key enzyme in the formation of PGE 2 . (wikidoc.org)
- Prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) catalyzes the formation of 9α,11β-PGF 2α,β from PGD 2 and PGF 2α from PGH 2 in the presence of NADPH. (wikidoc.org)
- prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. (wikigenes.org)
- Expression of a mitogen-responsive gene encoding prostaglandin synthase is regulated by mRNA splicing. (wikigenes.org)
- The ﬁrst step in this pathway is the interaction of arachidonic acid with PGH synthase, a haemoprotein, that catalyses both the addition of oxygen and subsequent reduction (peroxide activity) of the 15th position of hydroperoxide to 15(s) conﬁguration alcohol prostaglandin H 2 (PGH 2 ). (pharmacy180.com)
- Organized into 21 chapters, this book begins with an overview of prostaglandin biosynthesis and the potential clinical utility of prostaglandins. (elsevier.com)
- This book is a valuable resource for biochemists and others working in the field of prostaglandin biosynthesis. (elsevier.com)
- Prostaglandin biosynthesis begins with the liberation of arachidonic acid from these membrane phospholipids. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 They bind to prostaglandin F (FP) receptors in the eye, leading to increased aqueous outflow through the uveoscleral pathway. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Stimulation of the FP receptors by prostaglandin analogues may inhibit adipogenesis, leading to orbital fat atrophy. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- There are currently nine known prostaglandin receptors on various cell types. (wikidoc.org)
- Most of these metabolites bind to ubiquitous thromboxane-prostaglandin (TP) receptors, causing vasoconstriction and inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- These lipid metabolites specifically bind the thromboxane and prostaglandin (TP) receptors [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, while COX-1 and COX-2 are both located in the blood vessels , stomach and the kidneys , prostaglandin levels are increased by COX-2 in scenarios of inflammation . (wikidoc.org)
- Emerging evidence demonstrates that prostaglandins play an important role in inflammation and cancer. (elsevier.com)
- Prostaglandins are derivatives of membrane phospholipids that regulate diverse physiological processes such as pregnancy, ovulation, luteolysis, inflammation, gastric secretion, and blood flow. (biomedcentral.com)
- These chemicals are called prostaglandins and along with other substances, are responsible for pain and swelling of inflammation as a way to contain the threat and start the healing process. (northwestpharmacy.com)
- CME is often associated with intraocular inflammation and may be mediated through the release of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. (aao.org)
- The result of NSAID-induced COX inhibition is decreased production of prostaglandins, which leads to decreased pain and inflammation. (medscape.com)
- Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced during the inflammatory response and produces prostaglandins that mediate pain and inflammation. (medscape.com)
- Prostaglandins help regulate tissue inflammation and repair. (freezingblue.com)
- These 'good' prostaglandins help to prevent inflammation and pain (including period pains), regulate the immune system and reduce abnormal blood clotting. (naturalhealthpractice.com)
- But the body can also produce ﾑbadﾒ prostaglandins which increase inflammation, pain and abnormal blood clotting. (naturalhealthpractice.com)
- Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. (centerwatch.com)
- Mixed messages: modulation of inflammation and immune responses by prostaglandins and thromboxanes. (bvsalud.org)
Synthesis of prostaglandins3
- In 1971, it was determined that aspirin -like drugs could inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. (wikidoc.org)
- The major effect of all NSAIDs is to decrease the synthesis of prostaglandins by reversibly inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from the precursor, arachidonic acid. (medscape.com)
- Cross-linking of IgE bound to mast cells by FcεRI triggers the release of preformed vasoactive mediators, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the transcription of cytokines. (jci.org)
- The cyclooxygenase pathway produces thromboxane , prostacyclin and prostaglandin D, E and F. The lipoxygenase pathway is active in leukocytes and in macrophages and synthesizes leukotrienes. (wikidoc.org)
- Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are what type of group? (freezingblue.com)
- Cyclooxygenase enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs). (elsevier.com)
- Among its actions, indomethacin inhibits the formation of prostaglandins by decreasing the activity of cyclooxygenase. (medscape.com)
- An intermediate is created by phospholipase-A 2 , then passed into one of either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway to form either prostaglandin and thromboxane or leukotriene . (wikidoc.org)
- Cooxidation of benzidine by renal medullary prostaglandin cyclooxygenase. (aspetjournals.org)
- Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) stimulates tumor cell growth and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) has been proposed to generate prostaglandins that maintain organ function, protect the integrity of the gastric mucosa, and generate platelet-derived thromboxane responsible for platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. (medscape.com)
- Inside it, arachidonic acid is converted into prostaglandins by cyclooxygenase by adding two oxygen molecules. (alexanderandturner.com)
- Arachidonic acid is metabolized through enzymatic (eicosanoid family: thromboxane A2 and prostaglandins) or non-enzymatic (F2-isoprostanes, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid) pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although prostaglandins E2 and F2α have been suggested as mediators of the pulmonary hypertension seen after endotoxin infusion or during alveolar hypoxia, their precursors, the endoperoxides (prostaglandins G2 and H2) are much more potent vasoconstrictors in vitro. (jci.org)
- Prostaglandin inhibitors are postulated to perform prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. (medscape.com)
- Boswellia's anti-inflammatory activity is due in part to its inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Prostaglandin E2-increased thermosensitivity of anterior hypothalamic neurons is associated with depressed inhibition. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Identical to the naturally occurring prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) and possesses various pharmacologic effects, including vasodilation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. (medscape.com)
Naturally occurring pro1
- A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. (bvsalud.org)
- abstract = "We examined the behavioural and biological functions of prostaglandins (PG) of F-type as a chemosensory signal during spawning in Arctic charr. (rais.is)
- Prostaglandins are produced following the sequential oxidation of AA, DGLA or EPA by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and terminal prostaglandin synthases. (wikidoc.org)
- Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H 2 (PGH 2 ). (wikidoc.org)
- Several prostaglandin E synthases have been identified. (wikidoc.org)
- Terminal prostaglandin synthases have been identified that are responsible for the formation of other prostaglandins. (wikidoc.org)
- For example, hematopoietic and lipocalin prostaglandin D synthases (hPGDS and lPGDS) are responsible for the formation of PGD 2 from PGH 2 . (wikidoc.org)
- Although cyclooxygenases (COX) and prostaglandin E synthases (PGES) have been implicated in ischemic stroke injury, little is known about their role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage. (biomedcentral.com)
- Contractility of uterine smooth muscle can be controlled by hormonal and neural factors examples progesterone, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (hormonal) and acetylcholine (neural). (medsci.org)
- Although progesterone is the major luteal hormone, the CL also produces a number of other substances including prostaglandins (PGs) and oxytocin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is synthesized in adipose tissue and acts locally to inhibit lipolysis. (illinois.edu)
- Endogenous prostaglandin endoperoxides and prostacyclin modulate the thrombolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator. (nih.gov)
- Patients were prostaglandins for cervical ripening admin- eligible for inclusion if they had a singleton istered by any route has been reported to pregnancy at term, vertex presentation, in- improve the rate of vaginal delivery and de- tact membranes, reassuring fetal heart crease the rate of caesarean section and in- tracings and Bishop score 5. (who.int)
- We did an individual participant data meta-analysis comparing balloon catheters and vaginal prostaglandins for cervical ripening before labour induction. (bvsalud.org)
- Ocular prostaglandin analogues are commonly used to treat glaucoma. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Factors related to prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy in glaucoma patients. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Introduction: This study evaluates long-term outcomes of two trabecular micro-bypass stents, one suprachoroidal stent, and postoperative prostaglandin in eyes with refractory open angle glaucoma (OAG). (ucm.es)
- It includes a nomenclature of prostaglandins and considers prostaglandin analogs as well as their structure-activity relationships, prostaglandin interconversions, isomeric prostaglandins, and deoxyprostaglandins. (elsevier.com)
- Combinations of B-blockers and prostaglandin analogs (PGA) are frequently used in clinical practice because their additive effect in lowering IOP levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Meloxicam is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. (centerwatch.com)
- Well, your body makes beneficial prostaglandins (which are hormone-like substances) from these essential fatty acids. (naturalhealthpractice.com)
- A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. (wikidoc.org)
- These 'bad' prostaglandins are produced from Omega 6 fatty acids whereas the 'good' anti-inflammatory prostaglandins are produced from Omega 3 oils. (naturalhealthpractice.com)
- In addition, urinary excretion of 8-OHdG and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-epi-PGF) was also measured. (cdc.gov)
- Prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy (PAP) has been associated with the use of ocular prostaglandin analogues. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Bimatoprost, travoprost and latanoprost are the ocular prostaglandin analogues currently available in New Zealand. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- The term 'prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy' describes clinical and cosmetic changes in the eye associated with prostaglandin analogues. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- entokey.com/the-pharmacology-of-prostaglandin-analogues/ (accessed 4 July 2022). (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Prostaglandin analogues have been associated with reversible CME in eyes that have undergone recent intraocular surgery, although a causal relationship has not been established. (aao.org)
- Following unilateral treatment with a prostaglandin analogue, the patient developed PAP in the treated eye (arrow). (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Fixed combinations are better tolerated than their respective prostaglandin analogue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- It then discusses the discovery of prostaglandins and the isolation of prostaglandins E and F, format for structural presentation of prostaglandins, closure of the cyclopentane ring from acyclic precursors, and conjugate addition of organometallic derivatives to alpha-substituted cyclopentenones. (elsevier.com)
- It explains the cyclohexane and bicyclohexane precursors, Corey's synthesis of bicyclohexane precursors, bicyclooctane and bicyclononane precursors, and approaches to synthesis of A, B, C, and D prostaglandins. (elsevier.com)
- Carboprost is a prostaglandin that elicits cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and vasoconstrictive properties and produces no coagulum. (medscape.com)
- COX-2 produces prostaglandins through stimulation. (wikidoc.org)
- But if your cervix has not begun to ripen or thin, your provider can use a medicine called prostaglandins. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prostaglandins will often ripen, or soften the cervix, and contractions may even begin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Balloon catheters and vaginal prostaglandins are widely used to ripen the cervix in labour induction. (bvsalud.org)
- Four agents have been approved for clinical use in the United States: two prostaglandin analoques (latanoprost: 1996, travoprost:2001), prostamide (bimatooprost: 2001) and docosanoid (unoprostone: 2000). (who.int)
- Above it, released prostaglandin hormones soar into the cell. (alexanderandturner.com)
- Morphine, enkephalins, opiate antagonists and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate have a peripheral analgesic effect in the prostaglandin hyperalgesia test. (semanticscholar.org)
Found in virtually1
- Prostaglandins are found in virtually all tissues and organs. (wikidoc.org)
- The biochemists Sune K. Bergström , Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane jointly received the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their researches on prostaglandins. (wikidoc.org)
Induction of lab1
- In induction of labour, balloon catheters and vaginal prostaglandins have comparable caesarean delivery rates and maternal safety profiles, but balloon catheters lead to fewer adverse perinatal events. (bvsalud.org)
- 2021. Prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy syndrome (PAPS): addressing an unmet clinical need. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- Prostaglandin D2 was reliably identified in CSF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when diluted with local anesthetic, saline, and serum, and can be used as a marker to identify the presence of CSF in epidural aspirates. (dovepress.com)
- A prospective study examined the safety, efficacy and labour outcome in 436 women undergoing labour induction using intravaginal prostaglandin E2. (who.int)
- Balloon catheters versus vaginal prostaglandins for labour induction (CPI Collaborative): an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (bvsalud.org)
- it was later shown that many other tissues secrete prostaglandins for various functions. (wikidoc.org)
- Because meloxicam is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues. (centerwatch.com)
- Prostaglandins are involved in maintaining GI mucosal integrity as well as regulating renal blood flow and both acute and chronic toxicity often involves the GI and renal systems. (medscape.com)
- TBN also mitigated basilar artery vasoconstriction, neurological deficits (on day 2), body weight loss (on day 5) and cerebral production of vasoconstrictors such as Thromboxane B2 and Prostaglandin F2α. (biomedcentral.com)
- There is clear evidence for intraluteal production of prostaglandins (PGs) in numerous species and under a variety of experimental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
- The binding of these prostaglandins causes Nurr1 to be activated, resulting in a marked increase in dopamine production, while preventing dopamine-producing brain cells from dying. (bioquicknews.com)
- Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of Th1 lymphokines but not of Th2 lymphokines. (aai.org)
- CNS, hemodynamic, pulmonary, and hepatic dysfunction may occur with certain agents, but the relationship to prostaglandin production remains uncertain. (medscape.com)
- Carafate also inhibits pepsin in the presence of stomach acid, binds bile salts from the liver via the bile thus protecting the stomach lining from injury caused by the bile acids, and it may increase prostaglandin production which can also protect the lining of the stomach. (medicinenet.com)
- The Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee (MARC) reviewed the risk of prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy (PAP) at the 190th meeting in June 2022. (medsafe.govt.nz)
- www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/the-purpose-of-prostaglandins (accessed 4 July 2022). (medsafe.govt.nz)