(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
(13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They are potent pressor substances and have many other physiological activities.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Anti-inflammatory analgesic.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandin A that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGA.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.

Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (1/834)

The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins.  (+info)

Pattern of total and regional lung function in subjects with bronchoconstriction induced by 15-me PGF2 alpha. (2/834)

Closing volume (single breath nitrogen test), regional ventilation and perfusion (using intravenous xenon-133), and total lung function (TLC, VC, and FEV) were measured before and after intramuscular administration of 250 mug 15-methyl prostaglandin F2alpha (15-me PGF2alpha) in 10 healthy women. The cardiac output was measured with the Minnesota impedance cardiograph model 304A and the transthoracic impedance was used as an expression of the thoracic fluid volume. The slope of the alveolar plateau on the closing volume tracing showed a 271% increase 20 minutes after the prostaglandin administration, at which time the closing volume per cent (CV%) had decreased (P less than 0-01) and the closing capacity (CC%) had increased (P less than 0-05). Vital capacity (VC) decreased (P less than 0-01), residual volume (RV) increased (P less than 0-01), and the total lung capacity (TLC) remained unchanged. The maximal decrease (9%) in FEV1 was seen after 20 minutes. All these measurements except the slope of the alveolar plateau returned to control levels after 60 minutes. The redistribution of regional ventilation was more pronounced than that of the regional pulmonary blood flow. No change was observed in cardiac output and transthoracic impedance. None of the patients experienced any dyspnoea. Our results are consistent with a more pronounced effect of prostaglandin F2alpha on the small airways (the alveolar plateau) than on the larger airways (FEV1). In cases where an increase in the slope of the alveolar plateau is observed, the closing volume per cent should not be used as a measurement of the lung disease. It is concluded that the single breath nitrogen test (N2 closing volume) is more sensitive than the conventional tests.  (+info)

Degradation of porstaglandin F2alpha in the human pulmonary circulation. (3/834)

Degradation of prostaglandins (PGs) during passage through the human pulmonary circulation was investigated by measuring the transpulmonary plasma PGF2 alpha difference during continuous intravenous infusion of PGF2 alpha (5-10 mug/min). Seven patients with cardiological disorders and two patients with extensive pulmonary abnormalities were investigated during diagnostic cardiac catheterization. PGF2 alpha levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The seven cardiac patients were found to have transpulmonary PGF2 alpha differences of 47-88%, indicating metabolism of the PG in the lungs. A patient with extensive bronchiectasis had an apparently normal transpulmonary PGF2alpha difference despite gross abnormalities in routine lung function tests. A patient with primary pulmonary arterial hypertension showed no metabolism of PGF2alpha in the pulmonary circulation. The results show that PG degradation is an aspect of normal lung function and suggest that it becomes imparied when extensive pulmonary vascular damage exists.  (+info)

Peptide growth factors in amphibian embryogenesis: intersection of modern molecular approaches with traditional inductive interaction paradigms. (4/834)

Recent discoveries of the role peptide growth factors (PGFs) play in regulating embryonic patterning and differentiation have profoundly influenced research on the molecular biology of early amphibian embryogenesis. Several PGFs have been recognized to be present as endogenous components of amphibian eggs and early embryos, while other PGFs -- which are known from heterologous systems (e.g., Drosophila) -- exert remarkable effects when injected as either protein or mRNA into eggs/embryos or when added to cultured embryonic tissue. For a variety of reasons (reviewed herein) optimism abounds that an understanding in molecular terms of the classical Spemann and Nieuwkoop tissue interactions which are generally believed to drive embryonic patterning is within reach. A critical assessment of the interpretations of some of the contemporary data on PGFs (included herein) should, however, temper some of that optimism. Likely, multiple rather than single PGFs act in a combinatorial fashion to contribute to individual patterning events. As well, substantial redundancy in PGF regulatory circuits probably exists, so the heavy reliance on tissue culture assays and overexpression studies which characterize much recent research needs to be circumvented. Potential experimental approaches for "next generation" experiments are discussed.  (+info)

The effect of indomethacin on uterine contractility and luteal regression in pregnant rats at term. (5/834)

Treatment of pregnant rats with 1 mg indomethacin/kg twice daily i.m. beginning on Day 20 delayed the onset of parturition by about 21 hr and prolonged the duration of spontaneous parturition by 4 hr. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were determined in daily samples of peripheral blood, and uterine contractions were recorded before and during parturition by means of small, chronically implanted intrauterine balloons which were connected to pressure transducers via fluid-filled catheters. Indomethacin treatment did not inhibit or suppress spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions, which were of the same intensity in indomethacin-treated as in control rats. Parturition was induced with oxytocin in the same proportion of treated and control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in control rats, but its induction was not successful in treated rats until 1 day later than in controls. The onset of parturition was always related to the plasma progesterone level, which declined at a slower rate in indomethacin-treated than in control rats, reaching baseline values approximately 1 day later in the treated animals. The appearance of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the CL of pregnant rats normally occurs on Day 21 of gestation, but activity was not observed until about 1 (0-3) day later in the indomethacin-treated rats, indicating that luteolysis was retarded. Prostaglandin F-2alpha infusions given on Day 21 reversed the effects of indomethacin treatment on plasma progesterone, luteal 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and the timing and duration of parturition, and reduced the high perinatal mortality associated with indomethacin treatment, suggesting that the effects of indomethacin were related to its inhibitory action on prostaglandin synthetase activity. It is concluded that, in rats, indomethacin exerts its effects on parturition through inhibition of luteal regression which was significantly retarded but not prevented, and that indomethacin does not have a direct effect on myometrial contractility.  (+info)

The recognition of a noncanonical RNA base pair by a zinc finger protein. (6/834)

BACKGROUND: The zinc finger (ZF) is the most abundant nucleic-acid-interacting protein motif. Although the interaction of ZFs with DNA is reasonably well understood, little is known about the RNA-binding mechanism. We investigated RNA binding to ZFs using the Zif268-DNA complex as a model system. Zif268 contains three DNA-binding ZFs; each independently binds a 3 base pair (bp) subsite within a 9 bp recognition sequence. RESULTS: We constructed a library of phage-displayed ZFs by randomizing the alpha helix of the Zif268 central finger. Successful selection of an RNA binder required a noncanonical base pair in the middle of the RNA triplet. Binding of the Zif268 variant to an RNA duplex containing a G.A mismatch (rG.A) is specific for RNA and is dependent on the conformation of the mismatched middle base pair. Modeling and NMR analyses revealed that the rG.A pair adopts a head-to-head configuration that counterbalances the effect of S-puckered riboses in the backbone. We propose that the structure of the rG.A duplex is similar to the DNA in the original Zif268-DNA complex. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to change the specificity of a ZF from DNA to RNA. The ZF motif can use similar mechanisms in binding both types of nucleic acids. Our strategy allowed us to rationalize the interactions that are possible between a ZF and its RNA substrate. This same strategy can be used to assess the binding specificity of ZFs or other protein motifs for noncanconical RNA base pairs, and should permit the design of proteins that bind specific RNA structures.  (+info)

Changes in endothelium-derived vascular regulatory factors during dobutamine-stress-induced silent myocardial ischemia in patients with Kawasaki disease. (7/834)

The changes in endothelium-derived vascular regulatory factors during dobutamine (DOB)-induced myocardial ischemia (MI) were investigated in 21 patients with Kawasaki disease aged from 11 months to 18 years. They were classified into an ischemia group (8 patients) and a non-ischemia group (13 patients) based on the results of 99mTc myocardial scintigraphy and DOB stress 99mTc myocardial scintigraphy. In the ischemia group, MI was relatively mild, because there were ischemic changes on the electrocardiogram and no significant symptoms during DOB stress. Catheters were positioned near the orifice of the coronary artery (Ao) and at the coronary sinus (CS). Hemodynamics and the blood concentrations of lactic acid and endothelin-1, as well as NO3-, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha, and thromboxane B2, (which are inactive metabolites of nitric oxide, prostaglandin I2 and thromboxane A2, respectively), were measured at rest and after DOB stress (maximum dose: 30 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The CS/Ao ratio was determined for all parameters. The rate-pressure product, an index of work load, and the cardiac index were significantly increased by DOB stress in both groups. Coronary angiography showed no vasospasm of the epicardial coronary arteries before or after DOB stress in either group. The plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha were significantly increased after DOB stress in the ischemia group, but the serum concentration of NO did not increase. The lack of an increase in NO production during DOB stress may have contributed to the worsening of MI in patients with Kawasaki disease.  (+info)

Role of IL-6 in the pleurisy and lung injury caused by carrageenan. (8/834)

In the present study we used IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6KO) to evaluate the role of IL-6 in the inflammatory response caused by injection of carrageenan into the pleural space. Compared with carrageenan-treated IL-6 wild-type (IL-6WT) mice, carrageenan-treated IL-6KO mice exhibited a reduced degree of pleural exudation and polymorphonuclear cell migration. Lung myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced in IL-6KO mice compared with those in IL-6WT mice treated with carrageenan. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine and poly(A)DP-ribose polymerase revealed a positive staining in lungs from carrageenan-treated IL-6WT mice. No positive staining for nitrotyrosine or PARS was found in the lungs of the carrageenan-treated IL-6KO mice. Staining of lung tissue sections obtained from carrageenan-treated IL-6WT mice with an anti-cyclo-oxygenase-2 Ab showed a diffuse staining of the inflamed tissue. Furthermore, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was found mainly in the macrophages of the inflamed lungs from carrageenan-treated IL-6WT mice. The intensity and degree of the staining for cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were markedly reduced in tissue sections obtained from carrageenan-treated IL-6KO mice. Most notably, the degree of lung injury caused by carrageenan was also reduced in IL-6KO mice. Treatment of IL-6WT mice with anti-IL-6 (5 microg/day/mouse at 24 and 1 h before carrageenan treatment) also significantly attenuated all the above indicators of lung inflammation. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that IL-6KO mice are more resistant to the acute inflammation of the lung caused by carrageenan injection into the pleural space than the corresponding WT mice.  (+info)

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) was recently found to be stereospecifically converted to the compound (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9 alpha,11 beta,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2) by a human liver cytosolic NADPH-dependent 11-ketoreductase enzyme. Because PGD2 is a potent bronchoconstrictor …
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A study undertaken to characterise the oestrous cycle in Zebu cows following oestrous induction with PGF (Prostaglandin F2alpha) and examines the function of the subsequently formed CL (corpus luteum) by monitoring levels of peripheral plasma progesterone ...
中文: 经气相色谱分析PGF-为葡聚糖,PGF-、PGF- 和PGF-由葡萄糖、甘露糖和半乳糖组成,摩尔比分别为:. :.、:0. :0.和:0.:0. 8。 更详细... ...
8 PROSTAGLANDIN F2a ANALOGUES 10. Ideal implantation is into the connective tissue layer between the mucosa and the rhabdospincter (24).
6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha-d4 from Cayman Chemical,PGF1α-d4 contains 4 deuterium atoms at the 3, 3, 4, and 4 positions. It is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of PGF1α by GC- or LC-mass spectrometry.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Endothelin-1 stimulates prostaglandin F2 alpha release from human endometrium.: Despite a key role in the pathogenesis of menorrhagia, the factors controlling t
Many dairy veterinarians prescribe the use of prostaglandin F2α (PG) in dairy herds to control time to estrus (heat), as part of synchronization programs or for postpartum treatments. There are two primary PG products available in the U.S.,
Find out about the science and chemistry of Prostaglandin (Prostaglandin I2), see colourful images of Prostaglandin and explore interactive 3D molecules of Prostaglandin
A biochemist reports that fish oil significantly diminishes the production and effectiveness of various prostaglandins, naturally occurring hormone-like substances that can accentuate inflammation and thrombosis.
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Prostaglandins have many functions in the body, sometimes having opposite effects to each other. Well discuss function, purpose, and what can go wrong.
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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. A given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that ...
Bürger, Alexandra (2019): Einfluss von Prostaglandin F2α Analoga auf die Biomechanik der Cornea und die Transkription und Expression von Molekülen der extrazellulären Matrix. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Medicine ...
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 256 Grayscale) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Catalysis of the reaction: 15-keto-prostaglandin + NAD(P)H + H+ -> 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin + NAD(P)+. This reaction is the reduction of 15-keto-prostaglandin. [EC:1.3.1.48, GOC:mw, KEGG:R04556, KEGG:R04557, PMID:17449869]
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. tafluprost acid ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
A prostaglandin is one of several hormone-like substances that participate in a wide range of body functions. For example, its involved in contracting and relaxing smooth muscle; dilating and constricting blood vessels; control of blood pressure; and modulation of inflammation. Prostaglandins are derived from a chemical called arachidonic acid.. ...
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BioAssay record AID 744752 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of ovine COX2-mediated prostaglandin alpha production by enzyme immuno assay.
BioAssay record AID 184313 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for the inhibition of biosynthesis of prostaglandins at a concentration of 10e4 M.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Aspirin, gastric potential difference, and cytoprotective prostaglandins. by Patrick Müller et al.
This is a strong inhibitor of biosynthesis of prostaglandins biologically active compounds produced in the organism. The prostaglandins in the body have multiple functions.
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AC Bscale(2.0) Dscale(2.0) enhenced_level(0) isOutdoor(0) result(1) FM0 FC000000001:zzzzzz014 de 00 0 05f040045042c1040 c30 d71e9 55 027113c25d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 025d814b71f5 05d 024c81607209 05e 023b815e71f5 0 c 022a816571f9 075 0219815271db 05e 0208812f71a4 05e 0229810d7176 05e 022f813671b4 05e 0235813f71be 05e 023b814d71d3 05e 0241814a71d9 05e 0247815671ee 05d 024d815f71fc 05d 02538169720e 05d 0259816c7212 05d 025f816b720e 05d 0265816e720c 05e 026b8170720b 05e 0265816b7202 05e 0265815b71f1 05e ...
Sammlung europ ischer Schmetterlinge. IV. Noctuae - Eulen (Dritte Band) Samml. eur. Schmett. [4] : 155-194, : pl. 1-74, f. 1-345 (1800-1803), : pl. 75-86, f. 346-405 (1803-1808), : pl. 87-96, f. 406-455 (1808-1809), : pl. 97-134, f. 456-615 (1809-1813), : pl. 135-139, f. 616-638 (1814-1817), : pl. 140-141, f. 639-647 (1818-1819), : pl. 142-150, f. 648-697 (1819-1822), : pl. 151, f. 698-703 (1823), : pl. 152-156, f. 704-732 (1823-1824), : pl. 157, f. 733-736 (1825-1826), : pl. 158-160, f. 737-752 (1827-1828), : pl. 161-162, f. 753-765 (1828-1830), : pl. 163-169, f. 766-802 (1828-1832), : pl. 170-171, f. 803-812 (1832-1833), : pl. 172-176, f. 813-839 (1834), : pl. 177-179, f. 840-853 (1834-1835), : pl. 180, f. 854-858 (1834-1835), : pl. 181, f. 859-863 (1836), : pl. 182, f. 864-868 (1836-1838), : pl. 183, f. 869-873 (1837-1838), : pl. 184-185, f. 874-882 (1838), : [7], 8-24 (1834 ...
Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge. IV. Noctuae - Eulen (Dritte Band) Samml. eur. Schmett. [4] : 155-194, : pl. 1-74, f. 1-345 (1800-1803), : pl. 75-86, f. 346-405 (1803-1808), : pl. 87-96, f. 406-455 (1808-1809), : pl. 97-134, f. 456-615 (1809-1813), : pl. 135-139, f. 616-638 (1814-1817), : pl. 140-141, f. 639-647 (1818-1819), : pl. 142-150, f. 648-697 (1819-1822), : pl. 151, f. 698-703 (1823), : pl. 152-156, f. 704-732 (1823-1824), : pl. 157, f. 733-736 (1825-1826), : pl. 158-160, f. 737-752 (1827-1828), : pl. 161-162, f. 753-765 (1828-1830), : pl. 163-169, f. 766-802 (1828-1832), : pl. 170-171, f. 803-812 (1832-1833), : pl. 172-176, f. 813-839 (1834), : pl. 177-179, f. 840-853 (1834-1835), : pl. 180, f. 854-858 (1834-1835), : pl. 181, f. 859-863 (1836), : pl. 182, f. 864-868 (1836-1838), : pl. 183, f. 869-873 (1837-1838), : pl. 184-185, f. 874-882 (1838), : [7], 8-24 (1834 ...
001 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 011 011a 011b 011c 011d 011e 011f 011g 011h 011i 013 013a 013b 013c 013d 013e 013f 013g 013h 013i 014 014a 014b 014c 014d 014e 014f 014g 014h 014i 015 015a 015b 015c 015d 015e 015f 015g 015h 015i 016 016.general 016a 016a.general 016b 016b.general 016c 016c.general 016d 016d.general 016e 016e.general 016f 016f.general 016g 016g.general 016h 016h.general 016i 016i.general 017 017.general 017a 017a.general 017b 017b.general 017c 017c.general 017d 017d.general 017e 017e.general 017f 017f.general 017g 017g.general 017h 017h.general 017i 017i.general 019 019a 019b 019c 019d 019e 019f 019g 019h 019i 021 021a 021b 021c 021d 021e 021f 021g 021h 021i 022 022a 022b 022c 022d 022e 022f 022g 022h 022i 023 023a 023b 023c 023d 023e 023f 023g 023h 023i 025 025a 025b 025c 025d 025e 025f 025g 025h 025i 026 026a 026b 026c 026d 026e 026f 026g 026h 026i 027 027a 027b 027c 027d 027e 027f 027g 027h 027i 028 028.general 028a 028a.general 028b 028b.general 028c 028c.general 028d ...
Lin28小鼠单克隆抗体[6D1F9](ab76369)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, sELISA实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
锕系元素是第89号元素锕到103号元素铹共15种放射性元素的统称。錒系元素也属于过渡元素,只是錒系元素的外层和次外层的电子构型基本相同,新增加的电子則大都填入了从外侧数第三个电子层(即5f电子层)中,所以錒系元素又可以称为5f系。为了区别于元素周期表中的d区过渡元素,故又将锕系元素及镧系元素合称为内过渡元素。由于锕系元素都是金属,所以又可以和镧系元素统称为f区金属。锕系元素用符号An表示。 1789年德国馬丁·克拉普羅特从沥青铀矿中发现了铀,它是被人们认识的第一个锕系元素。其后陆续发现了钍、锕和镤。铀以后的元素(即超鈾元素)都是在1940年后用人工核反应合成的,屬於人工合成元素,不過也有部分超鈾元素最初是通過人工合成的方式發現,但是後來在自然界中,也發現有痕跡量的存在,例如錼和鈽等。 ...
রাজশাহী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় এর 2011 সালের F ইউনিট এর সকল প্রশ্ন এখানে। F ইউনিট এর পরীক্ষায় অন্তরভূক্ত সকল বিষয়ে প্রশ্ন এবং উত্তর আপনার পছন্দের মাধ্যমে এখানে পড়তে এবং নিজেকে যাচাই করে নিতে পারবেন।
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상호 : (주)이백과학 대표자 : 이병칠 주소 : 경기도 하남시 조정대로 35 (풍산동) 미사하우스디엘타워 F401호 ...
با سلام و درود بیکران خدمت تمامی عزیزان و سروران گرانمهر!. شورای زنان انجمن افغانها در همکاری با شعبه جوانان انجمن برنامه شب فرهنگی موسیقی و رقص را برگزار مینماید.. امیدواریم که واپسین روزهای دل‌انگیز پاییزی را با خوبی و خوشی و سعادتمندی در کنار فامیل های نازنین تان سپری کنید.. به مناسبت استقبال از فصل زیبای خزان شب موسیقی و رقص که همراه با موسیقی زنده و هنرمندی هنرمند خوش صدا و مستعد کشور عزیزمان افغانستان‌ فردین جان فاخر و غذاهای خوشمزه افغانی میزبان خانم های عزیز و نازنین در رستورانت بامیان باشیم. حضور هر یک از شما دوشیزگان و خانمها و اولادی های ...
அசிட்டோன் பெராக்சைடு (குறிப்பாக, டிரைஅசிட்டோன் டிரைபெராக்சைடு) 1895 ஆம் ஆண்டில் ரிச்சர்டு வொல்ஃபென்ஸ்டைன் கண்டுபிடித்தார்.[2] வொல்ஃபென்ஸ்டீன் அசிட்டோன் மற்றும் ஐதரசன் பெராக்சைடு ஆகியவற்றைக் கலந்தார். பின்னர், அவர் கலவையை அறை வெப்பநிலையில் ஒரு வாரம் இருக்க அனுமதிக்கப்பட்டது. இந்த நேரத்தில் சிறிய அளவு படிகங்கள் வீழ்படிவாக்கப்பட்டன. இதன் உருகுநிலை 97 °C (207 °F).[3] 1899 ஆம் ஆண்டில் ...
با سلام و درود بیکران خدمت تمامی عزیزان و سروران گرانمهر!. شورای زنان انجمن افغانها در همکاری با شعبه جوانان انجمن برنامه شب فرهنگی موسیقی و رقص را برگزار مینماید.. امیدواریم که واپسین روزهای دل‌انگیز پاییزی را با خوبی و خوشی و سعادتمندی در کنار فامیل های نازنین تان سپری کنید.. به مناسبت استقبال از فصل زیبای خزان شب موسیقی و رقص که همراه با موسیقی زنده و هنرمندی هنرمند خوش صدا و مستعد کشور عزیزمان افغانستان‌ فردین جان فاخر و غذاهای خوشمزه افغانی میزبان خانم های عزیز و نازنین در رستورانت بامیان باشیم. حضور هر یک از شما دوشیزگان و خانمها و اولادی های ...
家樂氏全新穀饌系列 ╱NT(129(盒). 低熱量 零負擔3口感清爽不油膩3與生菜沙拉等做搭配是夏日輕食的最佳良伴3是取代醬油的低鹽佐料(萬家鄉 和風沙拉醬. 「魚腥草茶「可使排便順暢》一般草藥店所賣之魚腥草3買回家後得煮過才能飲用3相當不方便3本商品由日本原裝進口3經殺菌處理後包裝3可直接沖泡飲用3相當便利》美靚活力館 魚腥草茶. 現代人忙碌的生活中3常因工作壓力 大吃大喝3導致腸胃不舒服4欣表飛鳴3含醫藥級成分A,B,F活乳酸菌3有效解決消化不良 便秘 脹氣 腹瀉3幫助體內環保3整腸健胃》新表飛鳴. 含烏龍茶 茵藤 菊花 玫瑰花 薄荷 五葉蔘 番洩葉 蓮子心》適用於久坐冷氣房 易手腳冰冷者4缺乏運動 排便困難者4經常食用油膩食物 代謝不佳者4喜歡甜食 經常飲用含糖飲料 》船井 ...
徳田 正孝 , 関岡 清次 , 上野 高廣 , 林 哲也 , F HAVLICEK 日本機械学会論文集 A編 58(551), 1100-1106, 1992 J-STAGE 被引用文献4件 ...
101-0051 東京都千代田区神田神保町3-6 能楽書林ビル5F 公益財団法人 統計情報研究開発センター内 日本計量生物学会 事務 ...
2/14 F=). این تاثیرپذیری در مورد خرده مقیاس های تحمل پریشانی (تحمل، جذب، ارزیابی و تنظیم) و تجربه مجدد ضربه (مزاحمت، اجتناب و برانگیختگی) نیز معنی دار شد. میانگین و انحراف معیار نمرات انعطاف پذیری در گروه آزمایش در پیش آزمون و پس آزمون به ترتیب (4/08 S=، 33/21 M=) و (3/34 S=، 36/21 M=) و در گروه کنترل به ترتیب (5/83 S=، 33/48 M=) و (5/57 S=، 33/17 M=) و در مورد تحمل پریشانی در گروه آزمایش به ترتیب (7/68 S=، 33/62 M=) و (8/05 S=، 39/87 M=) و گروه کنترل به ترتیب (9/66 S=، 34/77 M=) و (10/00 S=، 9/66 M=) می باشد. در تجربه مجدد ضربه در گروه آزمایش به ترتیب (7/47 S=، 62/86 M=) و (10/64 S=، 57/24 M=) و در گروه کنترل به ترتیب (10/64 S=، 24/57 M=) و (12/52 S=، 54/76 M=) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, and thromboxane B2 in normotensive and hypertensive subjects on varying sodium intakes. AU - Campbell, William B.. AU - Bryan Holland, O.. AU - Adams, Beverly V.. AU - Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - A deficiency in renal prostaglandins has been implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, particularly low renin hypertension. Previous studies of urinary prostaglandins as influenced by sodium balance and in essential hypertension have been handicapped by problems with assay methodology, inclusion of male subjects, and/or failure to standardize daily fluid consumption. We compared urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2,), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in black and white normotensive and low-renin and normal-renin hypertensive women during two protocols producing sodium depletion (10 mEq sodium diet) and sodium loading (200 mEq sodium diet plus the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of prostaglandin F2α analogues on the secretory function of bovine luteal cells and ovarian arterial contractility in vitro. AU - Korzekwa, A. J.. AU - Lukasik, K.. AU - Pilawski, W.. AU - Piotrowska-Tomala, K. K.. AU - Jaroszewski, J. J.. AU - Yoshioka, S.. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Skarzynski, D. J.. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Although prostaglandin (PG) F2α analogues are routinely used for oestrus synchronisation in cattle, their effects on the function of the bovine corpus luteum (CL), and on ovarian arterial contractility, may not reflect the physiological effects of endogenous PGF2α. In the first of two related experiments, the effects of different analogues of PGF2α (aPGF2α) on the secretory function and apoptosis of cultured bovine cells of the CL were assessed. Enzymatically-isolated bovine luteal cells (from between days 8 and 12 of the oestrous cycle), were stimulated for 24h with naturally-occurring PGF2α or aPGF2α (dinoprost, cloprostenol or ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate in rabbit corpora lutea (CL), at both the cellular and molecular level, intraluteal cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin (PG) E2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) enzymatic activities as well as in vitro PGE2 and PGF2alpha synthesis following PGF2alpha treatment at either early- (day-4) or mid-luteal (day-9) stage of pseudopregnancy. By immunohistochemistry, positive staining for COX-2 was localized in luteal and endothelial cells of stromal arteries at both the stages. In CL of both stages, basal COX-2 mRNA levels were poorly expressed, but rose (P , 0.01) 4- to 10-fold 1.5-6 h after treatment and then gradually decreased within 24 h. Compared to mid-stage, day-4 CL had lower (P , 0.01) COX-2 and PGE2-9-K basal activities, and PGF2alpha synthesis rate, but higher (P , 0.01) PGE2 production. Independent of luteal stage, PGF2alpha treatment did not affect COX-1 activity. In day-4 CL, PGF2alpha induced an increase (P , 0.01) in both COX-2 ...
Reducing prostaglandin levels, pengertian prostaglandin, anti prostaglandin diet, renal prostaglandin synthesis, effects of prostaglandin, 16 16-dimethyl prostaglandin e2, did prostaglandin gel work for you
Oxidative stress and inflammation are supposed to be the key players of several acute and chronic diseases, and also for progressive aging process. Eicosanoids, especially prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) and F-2-isoprostanes are endogenous compounds that are involved both in physiology and the above mentioned pathologies. These compounds are biosynthesized mainly from esterified arachidonic acid through both enzymatic and non-enzymatic free radical-catalysed reactions in vivo, respectively. They have shown to possess potent biological activities in addition to their application as biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent advancement of methodologies has made it possible to quantify these compounds more reliably and apply them in various in vivo studies successfully. Today, experimental and clinical studies have revealed that both PGF(2 alpha) and F-2-isoprostanes are involved in severe acute or chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatic diseases, asthma, risk factors ...
Synthetic Prostaglandins F: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
We thank Tsikas et al1 for the interest in our findings. An underlying concern of Tsikas et al1 is our use of an immunoassay for the determination of prostaglandins,2 a method that most studies on prostaglandins in the literature have used. Their point is that our prostaglandin values in muscle microdialysate are too high. Our measured levels are very similar to those observed by others in interstitial fluid from skeletal muscle,3 as well as from peritendinous tissue.4 The prostaglandin concentrations in these studies have been measured by radioimmunoassay, different than the immunoassay used by our group, yet resulting in similar values. The observation that our concentrations are higher than those observed by others in plasma is not surprising; we often observe large differences in concentrations of compounds between plasma and interstitial fluid. It may be true that, for methodologic/technical reasons, urine is a better fluid to measure prostaglandins in; however, the origin of prostaglandins ...
1. The aim of this investigation was to study the role of prostaglandins in the impaired Na+ conservation of the ageing kidney.. 2. We measured the urinary excretion of thromboxane B2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and prostaglandin E2 in young (3-4 months) and old (20-21 months) rats after 12, 24 and 36 h of Na+ deprivation. In a separate protocol, we measured prostanoid synthesis by isolated glomeruli, cortical homogenates, medullary slices and papillary slices from young and old rats in basal conditions and after 15 days of dietary Na+ deprivation.. 3. In the acute study, urinary excretion of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α and prostaglandin E2 decreased in young but not in old rats. Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 was lower in old rats, but did not vary significantly with Na+ deprivation.. 4. In old rats, thromboxane B2 synthesis was increased in all the portions of the kidney except the medulla. Production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α was elevated in glomeruli and tended to increase in the ...
Progesterone administered before breeding may increase estrous expression and subsequent fertility in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=302) were assigned randomly at calving to three groups. Cows received no treatment (controls), one injection of prostaglandin F 2-alpha (PGF), or progesterone plus one injection of PGF (PRID + PGF). The average interval to estrus was 5 days shorter in PRID + PGF cows compared to cows given only PGF. In addition, more cows were observed in estrus 2 to 5 days after treatment in the PRID + PGF group compared to the PGF group. Average days from calving to conception were reduced in PRID + PGF cows by 15 to 20 days compared to control and PGF cows. We concluded that prebeeding progesterone in combination with PGF appears to enhance fertility ...
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids[1] having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from the fatty acid arachidonic acid.[2] Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. A given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. ...
Evidence that 13-14 di-hydro, 15-keto prostaglandin D(2)-induced airway eosinophilia in guinea-pigs is independent of interleukin-5. - C J Whelan
Bolt DJ, Rollins R. Development and application of a radioimmunoassay for bovine follicle-stimulating hormone. J Anim Sci. 1983;56(1):146-54. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.561146x. PMid:6402479. Bolt DJ, Scott V, Kiracofe GH. Plasma LH and FSH after estradiol, norgestomet and Gn-RH treatment in ovariectomized beef heifers. Anim Reprod Sci. 1990;23(4):263-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(90)90040-M. Bridges PJ, Fortune JE. Regulation, action and transport of prostaglandins during the periovulatory period in cattle. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;263(1-2):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2006.08.002. PMid:17064845. Castro NA, Neves PMA, Cestaro JP, Melo VTO, Schneider A, Pfeifer LFM. Use of prostaglandin F2α as ovulatory stimulus for synchronizing dairy cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2017;2018(118):151-4. Colazo MG, Mapletoft RJ. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle. Can Vet J. 2014;55(8):772-80. PMid:25082993. Colazo MG, Kastelic JP, Davis H, Rutledge MD, Martinez MF, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prostaglandins and progesterone secretion in the in vitro perfused pseudopregnant rabbit ovary. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Prostaglandin F2α constricted pial arterioles when locally applied to the cerebral surface. Norepinephrine and serotonin each elicited similar contractile effects. The constriction produced by F2α in combination with either biogenic amine was greater than the constriction elicited by F2α or amine acting alone. The effect of one agent on the other was additive rather than potentiating. Since F2α, norepinephrine and serotonin are all naturally occurring agents, it is possible that their combined effect is important under pathological circumstances and this combined effect should not be overlooked in the search for single spasmogens of great potency. Before ascribing a pathologically important effect to F2α, either alone or in combination, evidence is required showing that doses effective in experiments are similar to the concentrations occurring during disease states and/or that vessels may become hypersensitive to F2α during such states.. ...
A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects, such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue.[1] Prostaglandins are not hormones, but autocrine or paracrine, which are locally acting messenger molecules. They differ from hormones in that they are not produced at a discrete site but in many places throughout the human body. Also, their target cells are present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion (of which there are many). The prostaglandins, together with the thromboxanes and prostacyclins, form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives, a subclass of eicosanoids. Source: Wikipedia (wikipedia:Prostaglandin ...
Find out about the science and chemistry of Prostaglandin (Prostaglandin D2), see colourful images of Prostaglandin and explore interactive 3D molecules of Prostaglandin
Definition of prostaglandin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is prostaglandin? Meaning of prostaglandin as a finance term. What does prostaglandin mean in finance?
Measures of farrowing performance did not differ between sows that were induced and those not induced, or between sows that farrowed during the day and those that farrowed at night. This farm, like most commercial farms, did not employ a designated parturition attendant, as was the case in many studies that investigated the use of prostaglandin to induce farrowings in the 1980s, for example, the study of Jainudeen and Brandenburg.9. In these earlier studies, additional labor beyond the regular farrowing-house personnel was used to supervise farrowings. It is commonplace in todays industry to assume that as long as farrowings occur during the work day, farrowing-house personnel will be able to recognize problem farrowings and provide assistance while they perform their regular duties. Because of the additional labor required, this farm did not employ a system of recording the time of birth of each piglet so that intervention could be initiated when time between deliveries exceeded 15 minutes, ...
Learn about the potential side effects of tafluprost ophthalmic. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid mediator substances. It...
Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid mediator substances. It...
Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Inhibit Prostaglandin Biology Essay Published: 23, March 2015 Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs are inhibitors of prostaglandin, they have several key therapeutic effects, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic (reduces fevers) and analgesic. NSAIDs...
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Danske data for næringsstofindhold,ernæring og energi ( kalorier ) for fødevarer / levnedsmidler på det danske marked. Indsamlet af DTU Fødevareinstituttet.
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Malvorlage Toilettenbrille aufklappen. Bilder für Schule und Unterricht: Toilettenbrille aufklappen - Ausmalbild - Bild zum Ausmalen - Zeichnung. Bild 13468.
Furkan Sendogan, Turgay Turan, Rasim Güzel, Ozgur Eflioglu, Yavuz Onur Danacioglu, Ramazan Gokhan Atis, Turhan Caskurlu, Asıf Yildirim ...
Berti F, Omini C, Longiave D (August 1977). "The mode of action of aescin and the release of prostaglandins". Prostaglandins. ... and also induces release of prostaglandin F2α. Other possible mechanisms include serotonin antagonism and histamine antagonism ...
Orosz M, Csapó I, Varga B (August 1983). "Alteration in the reactivity of hamster cheek pouch arterioles to prostaglandin E2 ... and noradrenaline during pregnancy or sex steroid treatment". Prostaglandins. 26 (2): 165-73. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(83)90085-0 ...
"PROSTAGLANDINS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS". Archived from the original on April 13, 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2007. EN Siguel; KM ... Cyclooxygenase breaks the bisallylic C-H bond of AA to synthesize prostaglandin H2, but breaks a stronger allylic C-H bond when ... Eicosanoid Prostaglandin Siegel, George J.; Albers, R. Wayne (2006). Basic neurochemistry: molecular, cellular, and medical ... Oliw, E.H.; Hornsten, L.; Sprecher, H.; Hamberg, M. (1993). "Oxygenation of 5,8,11-Eicosatrienoic Acid by Prostaglandin ...
As inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis and leukotriene B4 biosynthesis, some depsides have in vitro anti-inflammatory ... doi:10.1016/s0031-9422(98)00517-2. Gerrard JM, Peterson DA (February 1984). "Structure of the active site of prostaglandin ... Merochlorophaeic acid, isolated from lichens of the genus Cladonia, is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. Some depsides ... Prostaglandins. 24 (1): 21-34. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(82)90174-5. PMID 6812170. Kumar KC, Müller K (June 1999). "Lichen ...
Interactions with PAF and benzodiazepine receptors". Prostaglandins. 40 (6): 571-83. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(90)90002-D. PMID ...
Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 1, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 or prostaglandin H2 ... Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase (COX), is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis ... "Entrez Gene: PTGS1 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)". Chandrasekharan NV, ... Wu T, Wu H, Wang J, Wang J (2011). "Expression and cellular localization of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin E synthases in ...
Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 81 (1-2): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2006.05.024. PMID 16997127. Kelavkar, U. P ... doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2008.11.002. PMID 19063986. Yin, Hong; Chu, Alan; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Shelton, Fabiola; Otero, ... doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2012.08.004. PMC 3532570. PMID 22960430. Kuhn, Hartmut; Banthiya, Swathi; Van Leyen, Klaus (2015 ... Obinata, Hideru; Izumi, Takashi (2009). "G2A as a receptor for oxidized free fatty acids". Prostaglandins & Other Lipid ...
Hla T (April 2001). "Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors". Prostaglandins. 64 (1-4): 135-142. doi:10.1016/s0090-6980(01)00109-5. ...
AA is the precursor to some prostaglandins, leukotrienes (LTA, LTB, LTC), and thromboxane (TXA). The metabolism of LA to AA ... Prostaglandins. 27 (2): 217-32. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(84)90075-3. PMID 6326200. Evidence suggests that infants must acquire ... "On the organization and mechanism of prostaglandin synthetase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 248 (16): 5673-8. PMID ...
Prostaglandins, aspirin-like drugs and analgesia. Nature New Biology. vol. 240, p. 200-203. Ferreira, S. H. and Nakamura, M. ... Prostaglandins. vol. 18, p. 191-200. Ferreira, S. H., et al. 1988. Interleukin-1b as a potent hyperalgesic agent antagonized by ... He found that among the cytokines, interleukin 1b mediates the endogenous release of prostaglandins and IL-8 is responsible for ... II-Prostaglandins hyperalgesia: the peripheral analgesic activity of morphine, enkephalins and opioid antagonists. ...
Lee SC, Pong SS, Katzen D, Wu KY, Levine L (1975). "Distribution of prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase and types I and II 15- ... Lee SC, Levine L (1975). "Prostaglandin metabolism. II. Identification of two 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase types". J. ... prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD+). As of late 2007, only one structure has been ... Prostaglandins. 25: 293-300. Braithwaite SS, Jarabak J (1975). "Studies on a 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase from human ...
Prostaglandins. Other. Lipid. Mediat. 68-69: 511-20. doi:10.1016/S0090-6980(02)00052-7. PMID 12432940. Christmas P, Weber BM, ...
Vane JR (June 1971). "Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs". Nature New ... Flower RJ, Vane JR (December 1972). "Inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase in brain explains the anti-pyretic activity of ... Samuelsson B (September 1983). "From studies of biochemical mechanism to novel biological mediators: prostaglandin ... Prostaglandins. 37 (3): 311-5. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(89)90001-4. PMID 2664901. Henry D, Lim LL, Garcia Rodriguez LA, Perez ...
Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin- ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 89 (3-4): 120-5. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2008.12.003. PMID 19130894. Sachs-Olsen, ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 89 (3-4): 120-5. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2008.12.003. PMID 19130894. Jubiz, W; ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 82 (1-4): 135-46. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2006.05.022. PMID 17164141. Ochi, H; ...
Prostaglandin E2 and Prostaglandin D2, but not 12 other lipoxygenase or cycloxygenase metabolites, showed a statistically ... Wong, S. L.; Wong, W. T.; Tian, X. Y.; Lau, C. W.; Huang, Y (2010). Prostaglandins in action indispensable roles of ... The metabolite was for many years thought to be merely a biologically inactive byproduct of prostaglandin synthesis. More ... Tager, A. M.; Luster, A. D. (2003). "BLT1 and BLT2: The leukotriene B(4) receptors". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and ...
Prostaglandin Saturated fat Fatty acid Fatty acid synthesis List of saturated fatty acids List of unsaturated fatty acids Hamon ... Its derivatives are prostaglandins - physiologically active lipid substances. Prostanoic acid is not found in nature, but it ... Prostaglandins. 12 (3): 399-401. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(76)90020-4. PMID 968053. Suemune H, Kawahara T, Sakai K (February 1986 ...
The production of leukotrienes is usually accompanied by the production of histamine and prostaglandins, which also act as ... Salmon, John A; Higgs, Gerald A (1987). "Prostaglandins and leukotrienes as inflammatory mediators". British Medical Bulletin. ... Bailey, J. Martyn (1985) Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and lipoxins: biochemistry, mechanism of action, and clinical ... Prostaglandins. 27 (2): 217-32. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(84)90075-3. PMID 6326200. O'Flaherty, Joseph T.; Taylor, Jennifer S.; ...
Missing or empty ,url= (help) Liel, N.; Mais, D.E.; Halushka, P.V (1987). "Binding of a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 agonist ... U46619 is a stable synthetic analog of the endoperoxide prostaglandin PGH2 first prepared in 1975, and acts as a thromboxane A2 ... It potently stimulates TP receptor-mediated, but not other prostaglandin receptor-mediated responses in various in vitro ... Bundy, G. L. (1975). "Synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxide analogs". Tetrahedron Letters. 24 (24): 1957-1960. doi:10.1016/ ...
The 11-oxa prostaglandin analogue AL-12182 1 has potent topical ocular hypotensive activity. 7-Oxa-13-prostynoic acid promotes ... An oxaprostaglandin is a type of prostaglandin with one carbon atom replaced by an oxygen atom. These are found in nature and ... Prostaglandins. 7 (5): 401-410. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(74)90105-1. Hanessian, Stephen (1983). Total Synthesis of Natural ... "A Convergent Synthesis of the 11-Oxa Prostaglandin Analogue AL-12182". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 70 (4): 1227-1236. doi ...
Yoshimoto, T; Takahashi, Y (2002). "Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases". Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 68-69: 245-62. doi: ... 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid Hamberg, M; Samuelsson, B (1974). "Prostaglandin endoperoxides. ... Prostaglandins. 20 (2): 411-8. doi:10.1016/s0090-6980(80)80058-x. PMID 6251514. O'Flaherty, J. T.; Thomas, M. J.; Lees, C. J.; ... Prostaglandins. 19 (1): 71-85. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(80)90155-0. PMID 6247746. Palmer, R. M.; Stepney, R. J.; Higgs, G. A.; ...
Occurrence of phospholipase A1 and A2 in human decidua". Prostaglandins. 9 (5): 667-73. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(75)90106-9. PMID ...
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6): 323-8. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(99)80007-6. PMID 10471116. Steinberg SJ, ...
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6): 323-8. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(99)80007-6. PMID 10471116. Hirsch D, Stahl ...
Many steps in formation and action of omega-6 prostaglandins from omega-6 arachidonic acid proceed more vigorously than the ... The conversion of cell membrane arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) to omega-6 prostaglandin and omega-6 leukotriene eicosanoids during ... 2007). "Enzymes and Receptors of Prostaglandin Pathways with Arachidonic Acid-derived Versus Eicosapentaenoic Acid-derived ... Ricciotti, Emanuela; FitzGerald, Garret A. (2011). "Prostaglandins and inflammation". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and ...
A number of obituaries were published, both in medical journals such as The Lancet and Horrobin's Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes ... ISBN 0-88831-086-2. Horrobin, David F. (1983). "The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual ... Horrobin, David F. (1987). "Essential fatty acids, prostaglandins, and alcoholism: an overview". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 11 (1): ... Stein J (2004). "David Horrobin (1939-2003): a memoir". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 70 (4): 339-43. doi:10.1016 ...
Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTGFRN gene. PTGFRN has also been ... "Entrez Gene: PTGFRN prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator". Charrin, S; Le Naour F; Oualid M; Billard M; Faure G; Hanash ... Orlicky DJ, Berry R, Sikela JM (Jul 1996). "Human chromosome 1 localization of the gene for a prostaglandin F2alpha receptor ... Orlicky DJ (1997). "Negative regulatory activity of a prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor associated protein (FPRP)". ...
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 99: 19-23. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2015.04.005. PMID 26002802. Andrew Stoll, The Omega- ...
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 96 (1-4): 27-36. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.08.004. PMC 4051344. PMID 21864702. A ... Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 89 (3-4): 120-5. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2008.12.003. PMID 19130894. Forsell PK, ... Brunnström Å, Backman L, Tryselius Y, Claesson HE (2012). "Biosynthesis of eoxin C4 by porcine leukocytes". Prostaglandins ... However, their production is stimulated in human eosinophils by physiological agonists such as prostaglandin D2, leukotriene C4 ...
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 75 (2): 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2006.05.001. PMID 16846730. Ewing RM, Chu P, ...
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 69 (1): 45-50. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(03)00055-3. PMID 12878450. Edwards, AD; Yue, ...
Prostaglandin. References[edit]. *^ Tsuboi K, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A (2002). "Prostanoid receptor subtypes". Prostaglandins ... Prostaglandin DP2 receptor. DP2. PGD2,,PGF2α=PGE2,PGI2=TXA2[7]. ?. Gi alpha subunit. inhibits AC to depress cAMP levels ... Prostaglandin EP1 receptor. EP1. PGE2,PGF2α=PGI2,PGD2=TXA2[8]. contractile. Gq alpha subunit. stimulates PLC, IP3, PKC, ERK, ... Prostaglandin EP4 receptor. EP4. PGE2,PGF2α=PGI2,PGD2=TXA2[11]. relaxant. Gs alpha subunit. stimulates AC, PKA, PI3K, AKT, ERK ...
Further information: Prostaglandin F2α receptor. PGF2α acts by binding to the prostaglandin F2α receptor. It is released in ... Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed carboprost, is a naturally occurring ... 1978). "Prostaglandins and thromboxanes". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 47: 997-1029. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.47.070178.005025. ... Sharma, I.; Dhaliwal, L.; Saha, S.; Sangwan, S.; Dhawan, V. (2010). "Role of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha and 25- ...
Analgesics, asthma, and prostaglandins.. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6111.505-a (Published 25 February ...
Letter: prostaglandins and asthma.. Br Med J 1975; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5971.613 (Published 14 June 1975) Cite ...
Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every ... prostaglandin (prŏs´təglăn´dən), any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as ... prostaglandin One of a group of C20 fatty acids, each containing a five membered ring. Prostaglandins differ from one another ... prostaglandin (pros-tă-gland-in) n. one of a group of hormone-like substances present in a wide variety of tissues and body ...
Prostaglandins (PGs) are bioactive lipids that play numerous roles in important body functions, such as blood vessel ... v4-460px-Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-9.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/f\/f4\/Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-9.jpg\/aid11415648-v4- ... v4-460px-Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-1.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/2\/2e\/Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-1.jpg\/aid11415648-v4- ... v4-460px-Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/5\/5c\/Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-2.jpg\/aid11415648-v4- ...
Prostaglandins are potent lipid molecules that affect key aspects of immunity. The original view of prostaglandins was that ... Prostaglandins as modulators of immunity.. Harris SG1, Padilla J, Koumas L, Ray D, Phipps RP. ... We will highlight how these two seminal prostaglandins regulate immunity and inflammation, and play an emerging role in cancer ... This review focuses on recent findings concerning prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the PGD2 metabolite 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2, ...
T.Y. Shen,Prostaglandin Synthetase Inhibitors, in:Prostaglandin and Thromboxanes (Eds. F. Berti, B. Samuelsson and G.P. Velo; ... Aspirin Prostaglandin Salicylic Acid Salicylate Rapid Action This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... M.J.H. Smith,Aspirin and Prostaglandins, Some Recent Developments, Agents and Actions8, 427-429 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar ... G.A. Higgs, E.A. Harvey, S.H. Ferreira andJ.R. Vane,The Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Production of Prostaglandins ...
prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696) is a prostaglandins D ( ... prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696) is conjugate acid of prostaglandin D1(1−) (CHEBI:79010) ... prostaglandin D1(1−) (CHEBI:79010) is conjugate base of prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696). ... CHEBI:27696 - prostaglandin D1. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555) is a prostaglandins C ( ... prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555) is conjugate acid of prostaglandin C2(1−) (CHEBI:133392) ... prostaglandin C2(1−) (CHEBI:133392) is conjugate base of prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555). ... CHEBI:27555 - prostaglandin C2. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Prostaglandins were discovered in human semen in 1935 by the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler, who named them, thinking that ... Prostaglandin, any of a group of physiologically active substances having diverse hormonelike effects in animals. ... More About Prostaglandin. 19 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *major reference* In prostaglandin: ... Prostaglandins are a complex group of fatty acid derivatives that are produced and secreted by many tissues. Prostaglandins ...
Drugs such as opioids or prostaglandins (PGE2) are known to induce apnoea. PGE2 is an endogenous hormone that plays an ... Central apnoea and endogenous prostaglandins in neonates.. Hoch B1, Bernhard M. ...
Prostaglandins E1 and E2 significantly stimulated the synthesis of aldosterone, corticosterone, and to a lesser degree, ...
The kidney is an active site of prostaglandin synthesis. These autacoids can influence renal haemodynamics, glomerular ... Prostaglandins Thromboxane Diabetes Diabetic nephropathy Hyperfiltration Eicosanoids This is a preview of subscription content ... By contrast, in long-term diabetes the reduced renal synthesis of prostaglandins and increased production of intrarenal ... Craven PA, DeRubertis FR, Role of local prostaglandin and thromboxane production in the regulation of glomerular filtration ...
Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are a subset of prostaglandins (PGs) or prostanoids (see eicosanoid#classic eicosanoids and ... Surh YJ, Na HK, Park JM, Lee HN, Kim W, Yoon IS, Kim DD (2011). "15-Deoxy-Δ¹²,¹⁴-prostaglandin J₂, an electrophilic lipid ... Forman BM, Tontonoz P, Chen J, Brun RP, Spiegelman BM, Evans RM (1995). "15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for ... The cyclopenentone prostaglandins are structurally and functionally related to a subset of isoprostanes viz., two ...
... prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... 2. Roles of Prostaglandins in Neuroinflammation: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences. Due to the variety of prostaglandins presently ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). 15d-PGJ2 is a metabolite of PGD2 and is formed from PGD2 by the elimination of two ... T. Hoshino, T. Nakaya, T. Homan et al., "Involvement of prostaglandin E2 in production of amyloid-β peptides both in vitro and ...
Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid mediator substances. ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators also accepts proposals for special issue topics. The Editors will make every effort to ...
... J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 1995 Oct;12(2-3):379-91. doi: 10.1016/0929-7855(95)00024-k. ...
Kolja V. Szymanski, Mario Toennies, Anne Becher, Diana Fatykhova, Philippe D. NGuessan, Birgitt Gutbier, Frederick Klauschen, Frank Neuschaefer-Rube, Paul Schneider, Jens Rueckert, Jens Neudecker, Torsten T. Bauer, Klaus Dalhoff, Daniel Drömann, Achim D. Gruber, Olivia Kershaw, Bettina Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C. Hocke ...
Degradation of prostaglandins in anhydrous or aqueous pharmaceutically acceptable, water-miscible alcohol solutions is ... 3. A composition according to claim 2 wherein said prostaglandin is a PGE or PGE-type prostaglandin; said alcohol is ethanol, ... 9. A composition according to claim 8 wherein said prostaglandin is a PGE or PGE-type prostaglandin; said alcohol is ethanol, ... The method of claim 16 wherein said prostaglandin is a PGE or PGE-type prostaglandin; said alcohol is ethanol, propylene glycol ...
... prostaglandin A1 has been demonstrated to dilate the blood vessels present in the kidneys and to increase the amount of sodium ... Prostaglandin A1. The prostaglandin designated A1 was originally isolated as a dehydration product of prostaglandin E1, which ... Heavily studied in recent years, prostaglandin A1 has been demonstrated to dilate the blood vessels present in the kidneys and ... Yet, perhaps even more exciting to the scientific world is the evidence that suggests that prostaglandin A1 inhibits the growth ...
Prostaglandins - the fat-derived compounds linked to pain, inflammation, reproduction and cancer - can add another biological ... but the true effects of prostaglandins on the embryo were likely obscured by maternal prostaglandin production. Because they ... Knowing how prostaglandins regulate cell movement in development can help cancer researchers determine how cancer cells spread ... "What is spectacular," said Solnica-Krezel, "is that…if you just put some prostaglandin back in the culture medium, you rescue ...
... including prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; PGI2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ... is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 (prostaglandin H2, PGH2). Several prostaglandin E ... Prostaglandin E synthaseEdit. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - the most abundant prostaglandin[7] - ... The first total syntheses of prostaglandin F2α and prostaglandin E2 were reported by E. J. Corey in 1969,[6] an achievement for ...
... the most abundant prostaglandin - is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 (prostaglandin ... prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Examples of prostaglandin antagonists are: ... "Prostaglandin F2alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS): crystal structure of PGFS containing ... To date, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 emerges as a key enzyme in the formation of PGE2. Terminal prostaglandin ...
Prostaglandins have many functions in the body, sometimes having opposite effects to each other. Well discuss function, ... Prostaglandin receptors are present in the uterus whether youre pregnant or not. Doctors think that prostaglandins may be ... As you can see, prostaglandins play a variety of roles in the body. Doctors are still figuring out all the ways prostaglandins ... Too many or too few prostaglandins in the body can cause health complications. Known problems with too many prostaglandins ...
The prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP2 could be a selective target for prevention and treatment of the Barretts-associated ... Prostaglandin EP2 Receptor Expression is Increased in Barretts Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma. ...
... difference of prostaglandins from the true hormones; role of prostaglanding in inflammation; other important functions of these ... eicosanoids in the body; use of synthetic prostaglandins in humans and dogs. ... Functions of Prostaglandins. The prostaglandins are a series of 2-carbon unsaturated fatty acids containing a cyclopentane ring ... Prostaglandins stimulate nerves that sends pain messages to the brain.. Other Important Functions of Prostaglandins. In ...
Certain prostaglandins have a role in stimulating the uterine contractions of labor and birth, is clearly explained in Medindia ... PROSTAGLANDIN - A group of extremely active substances derived from fatty acids in the body that affect many organs. ... Medical Word - PROSTAGLANDIN. Ans : A group of extremely active substances derived from fatty acids in the body that affect ... PROSTAGLANDIN - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team ...
... What is this medicine?. DINOPROSTONE(dye noe PROST one) is used to help dilate ... an unusual or allergic reaction to dinoprostone, prostaglandins, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
There was no significant effect of prostaglandins on all-cause mortality (37/298[12.4%] in prostaglandin group versus 47/312[ ... Prostaglandins for liver transplanted patients. Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for patients with ... Prostaglandins might reduce the risk of acute kidney failure requiring dialysis, but the quality of the evidence is considered ... Prostaglandins are substances produced by the human body with several actions including vasodilation. They might prevent ...
  • This review focuses on recent findings concerning prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the PGD2 metabolite 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2, and their divergent roles in immune regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Drugs such as opioids or prostaglandins (PGE2) are known to induce apnoea. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers inhibited the production of a specific type of prostaglandin, PGE2, in zebrafish embryos and examined their development. (innovations-report.com)
  • Doctors have also identified the prostaglandin type PGE2 as causing redness, swelling, and pain. (healthline.com)
  • High levels of proinflammatory PGE2 prostaglandin correlate with depression, irritability and fatigue. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The conserved role for PGE2 in the regulation of vertebrate HSC homeostasis indicates that modulation of the prostaglandin pathway may facilitate expansion of HSC number for therapeutic purposes. (nih.gov)
  • PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This downloadable document (GMI PUB) is filled with medically researched knowledge, relevant information and pertinent data on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation . (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prirodni prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) je poznat u medicini kao dinoproston . (wikipedia.org)
  • PGE2 je prostaglandin koji indukuje groznicu . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotactic action of prostaglandin E2 on mouse mast cells acting via the PGE2 receptor 3. (labome.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an extensively studied prostaglandin owing to its predominance in inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, and sepsis. (abcam.com)
  • The synthesized PGH2 is converted to prostaglandins (PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α), prostacyclin (PGI2), or thromboxane A2 by tissue-specific isomerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The types of prostaglandins are abbreviated PGE2, PGF2α, and so on. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). (abcam.com)
  • Adiponectin also caused elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by these stromal cells and induced release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). (jci.org)
  • A study published in PNAS reports that the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a lipid mediator released during the process of infected cell clearance (efferocytosis) in the intestine, enhanced the ability of mice to combat infectious colitis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-oxo-PGE1, 15-oxo-PGE2 and 15-oxo-PGE2-alpha. (uniprot.org)
  • The fact that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis may account for their usefulness in reducing fever and inflammation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation, being released from affected tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins (PGs) are bioactive lipids that play numerous roles in important body functions, such as blood vessel constriction, muscle contraction, blood clotting, pain sensation, and inflammation. (wikihow.com)
  • We will highlight how these two seminal prostaglandins regulate immunity and inflammation, and play an emerging role in cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • Prostaglandins - the fat-derived compounds linked to pain, inflammation, reproduction and cancer - can add another biological function to their extensive catalog. (innovations-report.com)
  • Through their role in vasodilation, prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors have found there are high concentrations of prostaglandins present in areas of inflammation. (healthline.com)
  • In addition to their roles in mediating inflammation, fever, and allergic response, and ensuring gastric integrity and renal function, prostaglandins are involved in a diverse group of physiologic functions, including ovarian and uterine function, bone metabolism, nerve and brain function, smooth muscle regulation and platelet homeostasis. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • However, while COX-1 and COX-2 are both located in the blood vessels , stomach and the kidneys , prostaglandin levels are increased by COX-2 in scenarios of inflammation . (bionity.com)
  • Yin-yang: balancing act of prostaglandins with opposing functions to regulate inflammation. (harvard.edu)
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, which is expressed in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins have a wide variety of effects, and may be responsible for the production of some types of pain and inflammation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) constitutes a drug target for inflammation, fever and pain. (bmj.com)
  • Parthenolides have been found to inhibit prostaglandins, which are found to be partially responsible for migraines as well as the inflammation process. (vitanetonline.com)
  • This may be due to pollutants and poor diets that lack essential fatty acids and plastics that mimic prostaglandins which regulate the inflammation pathways in the body. (vitanetonline.com)
  • These results suggest that prostaglandins produced by brain injury or inflammation can activate APP transcription in astrocytes and that immunosuppressants may be used to prevent APP overexpression and possibly the pathophysiological processes underlying AD. (jneurosci.org)
  • They work by preventing the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme from producing prostaglandins, whose major physiological role is to induce "pain, inflammation and fever," Lihong Chen told BioWorld Today . (bioworld.com)
  • To date, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 emerges as a key enzyme in the formation of PGE 2 . (bionity.com)
  • Prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) catalyzes the formation of 9α,11β-PGF 2α,β from PGD 2 and PGF 2α from PGH 2 in the presence of NADPH. (bionity.com)
  • Tsikas et al 1 point out that the thromboxane and prostacyclin synthase protein amounts do not match the prostaglandin alterations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as the primary receptors for one or more of the classical, naturally occurring prostanoids viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor family except for the Prostaglandin DP2 receptor which is more closely related in amino acid sequence and functionality to chemotactic factor receptors such as the receptors for C5a and leukotriene B4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The Arachidonic Acid then reacts with two Cyclooxygenase (COX) receptors, COX-1 and COX-2 to form Prostaglandin H 2 , an intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects induced by prostaglandins might be mediated by activation of their known receptors or by nonclassical mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In another set of embryos, the researchers blocked prostaglandin receptors, EP2 and EP4. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prostaglandin receptors are present in the uterus whether you're pregnant or not. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors may also prescribe prostaglandin medications that attach to prostaglandin receptors in the uterus to induce labor. (healthline.com)
  • Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (labome.org)
  • Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. (labome.org)
  • Overexpression of prostaglandin EP3 receptors activates calcineurin and promotes hypertrophy in the murine heart. (labome.org)
  • Our results imply that both prostaglandin production (COX-2) and signaling via EP(1-4) subtype receptors, particularly EP(2), predict disease-specific mortality in colorectal cancer. (labome.org)
  • Sugimoto Y, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E receptors. (labome.org)
  • The present invention relates to 7-oxabicycloheptyl substituted heterocyclic amide prostaglandin analogs which are thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) receptor antagonists or combined thromboxane A 2 receptor antagonist/thromboxane synthetase inhibitor useful, for example, in the treatment of thrombotic and/or vasospastic disease, and may be used as a tool to identify TXA 2 receptors in tissues. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Specifically described are optionally substituted cyclopentanones, such as optionally substituted 2,3-diarylalkyl cyclopentanones, which can have binding or activity at prostaglandin receptors, such as prostaglandin E receptors, including EP4. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • We now report that activation of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) receptors increases cAMP formation and stimulates overexpression of APP mRNA and holoprotein in primary cultures of cortical astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of the prostaglandins act by binding to specific cell surface receptors causing an increase in the level of the intracellular second messenger cyclic AMP (and in some cases cyclic GMP also). (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin and Thromboxanes (Eds. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical Aspects of Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes covers the proceedings of the 1976 Intra-Science Research Foundation Symposium on New Biochemistry of Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes, held in Santa Monica, California. (elsevier.com)
  • This 14-chapter book deals first with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes with bovine vesicular gland and in transformed fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • The remaining chapters examine the role of prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxanes as bioregulators. (elsevier.com)
  • The endoperoxides undergo further modifications to form prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. (britannica.com)
  • EU: Hormones, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes And LEUkotrienes - Market Report. (bharatbook.com)
  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of the EU market for Hormones, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes And Leukotrienes. (bharatbook.com)
  • Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are enzymatically derived from essential fatty acids and constitute a unique class of polyunsaturated, hydroxylated, 20-carbon fatty acids categorized as eicosanoids. (glowm.com)
  • Some of the prominent eicosanoids include (1) eoxins , (2) leukotrienes , (3) lipoxins , (4) prostacyclin , (5) prostaglandins , (6) resolvins , and (7) thromboxanes . (biology-online.org)
  • In particular, prostaglandin is produced from arachidonic acid by the action of cyclooxygenase that produces cyclic endoperoxides (PGG2 and PGH2) that can give rise to prostacyclin or thromboxanes as well as prostaglandins. (biology-online.org)
  • Advances in Prostaglandin and Thromboxane Research , vol. 1 (Eds. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, in long-term diabetes the reduced renal synthesis of prostaglandins and increased production of intrarenal thromboxane, be the latter derived from native glomerular cells or from infiltrating platelets or monocytes, would appear to contribute to the decline in glomerular filtration rate, glomerular basement membrane alterations and proteinuria. (springer.com)
  • Craven PA, DeRubertis FR, Role of local prostaglandin and thromboxane production in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate in the rat with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Gambardella S, Andreani D, Cancelli A, Di Mario U, Cardamone I, Stirati G, Cinotti GA, Pugliese F, Renal hemodynamics and urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α and thromboxane B 2 in newly diagnosed type I diabetic patients. (springer.com)
  • The cyclooxygenase pathway produces thromboxane , prostacyclin and prostaglandin D, E and F. Alternatively, the lipoxygenase enzyme pathway is active in leukocytes and in macrophages and synthesizes leukotrienes . (wikipedia.org)
  • An intermediate is created by phospholipase-A 2 , then passed into one of either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway to form either prostaglandin and thromboxane or leukotriene . (bionity.com)
  • Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. (harvard.edu)
  • Synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane B2 by cerebral arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cyclooxygenase pathway of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7-Oxabicycloheptyl substituted heterocyclic amide prostaglandin analogs are provided which are thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) receptor antagonists and have the structural formula ##STR1## wherein m is 1, 2 or 3, n is 1, 2, 3 or 4 and p is 2 to 18. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Finally, we want to emphasize the important point, also brought up by Tsikas et al, 1 that our finding that exercise training shifts the thromboxane/prostaglandin ratio toward dilation in the skeletal muscle interstitium of individuals with essential hypertension agrees well with the results of a previous study in which prostaglandins were measured after exercise in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (ahajournals.org)
  • Salicylic acid inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis in vivo as the salicylate ion itself and there is no formation of a subsequent 'active' metabolite. (springer.com)
  • An earlier proposed endoperoxide intermediate in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins was detected in short-time incubations of arachidonic acid with the microsomal fraction of homogenates of sheep vesicular glands. (pnas.org)
  • mPGES-1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E 2 from cyclooxygenase (Cox) -derived PGH 2 , which in turn is derived from arachidonic acid. (bmj.com)
  • Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are a subset of prostaglandins (PGs) or prostanoids (see eicosanoid#classic eicosanoids and eicosanoid#nonclassic eicosanoids) that has 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2), Δ12-PGJ2, and PGJ2 as its most prominent members but also including PGA2, PGA1, and, while not classified as such, other PGs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostaglandins ( PG ) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids [1] having diverse hormone -like effects in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many articles that deal specifically with the biochemistry of the prostaglandins. (glowm.com)
  • Synthetic prostaglandins analogues such as misoprostol impart protection to the lining of the stomach (gastric mucosa) in a manner similar to natural prostaglandins. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • In late pregnancy, a woman starts to have a larger number of certain types of prostaglandins in her uterine tissue. (healthline.com)
  • Other prominent types of prostaglandins naturally produced are prostaglandin D 2 and F 2α . (biology-online.org)
  • Mice lacking an enzyme that synthesizes prostaglandin had numerous developmental defects, but the true effects of prostaglandins on the embryo were likely obscured by maternal prostaglandin production. (innovations-report.com)
  • Several small randomised trials have evaluated the effects of prostaglandins in patients undergoing liver transplantation. (cochrane.org)
  • Results of these trials are inconsistent, and none has enough power to reliably exclude effects of prostaglandins. (cochrane.org)
  • Effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on the growth and differentia. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Effects of prostaglandins possessing an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl on tumor growth and differentiation. (harvard.edu)
  • prostaglandin Any of a group of organic compounds derived from essential fatty acids and causing a range of physiological effects in animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • J.R. Vane , Inhibition of Prostaglandin Synthesis as a Mechanism of Action for Aspirin-like Drugs , Nature (New Biol. (springer.com)
  • Proof-of-concept Study to Demonstrate Inhibition of Prostaglandin E (PGE) Production and Associated Biological Effects in the Lower Respiratory Tract by Ibuprofen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Boswellia's anti-inflammatory activity is due in part to its inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Furthermore, curcumin decreased the expression levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein without causing significant changes in the COX-1 levels, which was correlated with the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • These topics are followed by discussions on the pharmacologic properties and the role of prostaglandins as mediators of the inflammatory response. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the different inflammatory mediators involved, prostaglandins play an important role. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the variety of prostaglandins presently known, it is reasonable to speculate that these lipid mediators might play different roles in the CNS. (hindawi.com)
  • This prostaglandin modulates the expression of inflammatory mediators by microglial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators also accepts proposals for special issue topics. (elsevier.com)
  • Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators and Elsevier facilitate the author's response to the NIH Public Access Policy. (elsevier.com)
  • Prostaglandins are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes. (biology-online.org)
  • 2 There is now a better understanding of the physiological role of prostaglandins and of significance was the discovery that aspirin, indomethacin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their therapeutic action by blocking the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) , responsible for converting arachidonic acid (fatty acid released from cell membranes following injury), into prostaglandin. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Prostaglandin is an eicosanoid that is derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, through the cyclooxygenase pathway. (biology-online.org)
  • Scientists have known that people who take aspirin, a drug that inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, have about a 50 percent reduction in their risk of getting colon cancer, DuBois explained. (innovations-report.com)
  • Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E(2) production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Craven PA, Patterson MC, DeRubertis FR, Role of enhanced arachidonate availability through the phospholipase A 2 pathway in the mediation of increased prostaglandin synthesis by glomeruli from diabetic rats. (springer.com)
  • A new study by Vanderbilt researchers reveals that prostaglandins help choreograph the intricate cell movements during early embryonic development in zebrafish, highlighting how perturbations in this pathway might influence human development and the spread of cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prostaglandin A2-mediated stabilization of p21 mRNA through an ERK-dependent pathway requiring the RNA-binding protein HuR. (harvard.edu)
  • Though a significant amount of research focusing on prostaglandins is ongoing, much of the current understanding of the potent biochemicals was developed in the 1960s and 1970s by scientists Sune K. Bergstr m, Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson, and John Robert Vane, who were rewarded for their efforts with the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1982. (fsu.edu)
  • 4. The results suggest that prostaglandins may be involved in the haemodynamic and hormonal actions of captopril. (portlandpress.com)
  • The prostaglandin designated A1 was originally isolated as a dehydration product of prostaglandin E1, which occurs in human semen. (fsu.edu)
  • Prostaglandin A3 is a non-enzymatic dehydration product of prostaglandin E3, which has been found to be produced by metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA ) in the seminal vesicles of sheep and in the ocular tissues of primates. (fsu.edu)
  • Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins are potent lipid molecules that affect key aspects of immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Different prostaglandins have been found to raise or lower blood pressure and regulate smooth muscle activity and glandular secretion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins also control the substances involved in the transmission of nerve impulses, participate in the body's defenses against infection, and regulate the rate of metabolism in various tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Knowing how prostaglandins regulate cell movement in development can help cancer researchers determine how cancer cells spread throughout the body, or metastasize - and how to stop the process. (innovations-report.com)
  • First, Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) facilitates the conversion of phospholipids to Arachidonic Acid , the framework from which all prostaglandins are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of aspirin, salicylic acid and gentisic acid on the paw swellings in the arachidonic acid-potentiated and in the conventional carrageenan-induced oedema tests as well as on the content of prostaglandin-like activity and leucocyte migration in the exudate of inert implanted sponges in the rat have been studied. (springer.com)
  • The prostaglandins are made up of unsaturated fatty acids that contain a cyclopentane (5-carbon) ring and are derived from the 20-carbon, straight-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor arachidonic acid . (britannica.com)
  • Prostaglandins are produced following the sequential oxygenation of arachidonic acid, DGLA or EPA by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and terminal prostaglandin synthases. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in two steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, prostaglandins of the 1 series have one double bond and are derived from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, those of the 2 series have two double bonds and are derived from arachidonic acid, and those of the 3 series have three double bonds and are derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (Fig. 2). (glowm.com)
  • Naturally-synthesized prostaglandins have two double bonds and are synthesized from arachidonic acid (5, 8, 11, 14 eicosatetraenoic acid). (biology-online.org)
  • prostaglandin (prŏs´təglăn´dən) , any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The prostaglandins are a series of 2-carbon unsaturated fatty acids containing a cyclopentane ring, hence their alternative name ecosanoids . (gopetsamerica.com)
  • A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. (bionity.com)
  • The EP4 receptor antagonist, L-161,982, blocks prostaglandin E2-induced signal transduction and cell proliferation in HCA-7 colon cancer cells. (labome.org)
  • Our use of the EP4 prostaglandin receptor antagonist enhanced the resolution of infectious colitis," said Naiara Naiana Dejani , first author of the article. (eurekalert.org)
  • Switzerland-based ObsEva has completed a Phase one single and multiple ascending dose study of OBE022, a potential first-in-class, once daily, oral and selective prostaglandin F2alpha , or PGF2alpha, receptor antagonist, it was reported yesterday. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline Insight, 2018" report by DelveInsight offers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across "DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist development. (reportlinker.com)
  • Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for "DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (reportlinker.com)
  • The report assesses the active DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (reportlinker.com)
  • Offers detailed therapeutic product profiles of DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist with key coverage of developmental activities including licensing & collaboration deals, patent details. (reportlinker.com)
  • Terminal prostaglandin synthases have been identified that are responsible for the formation of other prostaglandins. (bionity.com)
  • The pathways important for regulating development are also dysregulated in cancer," said DuBois, who studies prostaglandin signaling in colon cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. (britannica.com)
  • Doctors may prescribe prostaglandin medications to stimulate uterine contractions. (healthline.com)
  • Prostaglandins stimulate inflammatory response in most organs. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Prostaglandins stimulate nerves that sends pain messages to the brain. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Central apnoea and endogenous prostaglandins in neonates. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic prostaglandins are used to induce childbirth, to close patent ductus arteriosus in newborns, to reduce gastric acid secretion and treat peptic ulcers, dilate blood vessels in a limb with a severe lack of blood supply and pulmonary hypertension. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H 2 (PGH 2 ). (bionity.com)
  • Many naturally occurring prostaglandins as well as many artificial forms have been synthesized in the laboratory. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity. (curehunter.com)
  • The release of prostaglandin has now also been shown to be mediated by a specific transporter, namely the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Menstrual cramps, when due to functional problems and the release of prostaglandin F2alpha in the menstrual fluid, are a common monthly problem in menstruating women. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This invention relates to prostaglandin derivatives and is concerned with novel compounds related in structure to prostanoic acid which has the structural formula: ##STR2## and which, in accordance with common usage, can also be written as follows: ##STR3## The present invention is also concerned with a process for preparing the said novel compounds. (google.com)
  • Today's highlight relates to prostaglandin agonists to treat glaucoma, hair loss and more. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • There are nine classes of prostaglandins denoted PGA-I, within which individual prostaglandins are denoted by numeral subscripts. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Currently, three classes of prostaglandins are recognized, and these are categorized on the basis of the number of double bonds present within the prostaglandin molecule and on the fatty acid from which they are derived. (glowm.com)
  • Khayrullina T, Yen J, Jing H, Ganea D. In vitro differentiation of dendritic cells in the presence of prostaglandin E2 alters the IL-12/IL-23 balance and promotes differentiation of Th17 cells. (labome.org)
  • In 1971, it was determined that aspirin -like drugs could inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-week Daily Treatment Period 1: 4 weeks of 1 x daily intravenous infusion of 3 ampoules (20 μg) of Prostaglandin E1 (total 60 μg) in 50 - 250 ml physiological saline solution over 2 hours and in addition 2 x daily (including weekends) Placebo tablets. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) modulates many physiological functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Future studies should compare the use of Foley catheters with other prostaglandin preparations such as prostaglandin El (misoprostol) which is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and should evaluate the use of Foley catheters in women with a prior cesarean section, they suggested. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Comment: Peppermint contains the important active constituent, menthol, which exerts its effect on the myometrium (muscle wall of the uterus) contractions by inhibiting prostaglandin F2alpha , an oxytocin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conversely, alterations in biomarkers such as platelet aggregation, plasma levels of nitric oxide surrogates, endothelin-1, C-reactive protein, and prostaglandin F2alpha , did not reach statistical significance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of administration of prostaglandin F2alpha or presence of an estrous bitch on characteristics of the canine ejaculate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of corticosteroid (dexamethasone), progesterone, oestrogen and prostaglandin F2alpha on gestation length in normal and ovariectomized mares. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dependence on prolactin of the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin F2alpha in rat luteal cell cultures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These compounds are particularly useful as intermediate compounds for preparing prostaglandin derivatives and especially the prostaglandin derivatives of formula I above. (google.com)
  • Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. (curehunter.com)
  • Pharmaceutical compositions useful as vasodilators whose activity may be restricted to the site of application by control of the dose applied which comprises a prostaglandin selected from the group consisting of the natural and synthetic analogs of the PGE, PGA and PGE.sub.β types in a pharmaceutical. (google.es)
  • Prostaglandin analogs, firstly used in obstetrics and gynecology, are now widespread in both sexes, especially in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, glaucoma, etc. (curehunter.com)
  • Therefore, we tried to highlight the effects of repeated administration of Cloprostenol and CIPG isopropyl ester (both prostaglandin F2α analogs) for the male gonad. (curehunter.com)
  • To date, three prostaglandin (PG) E synthases (PGESs) have been characterized: the microsomal PGESs (mPGES-1 and mPGES-2) and the cytosolic PGES (cPGES) [ 11 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several prostaglandin E synthases have been identified. (bionity.com)
  • For example, hematopoietic and lipocalin prostaglandin D synthases (hPGDS and lPGDS) are responsible for the formation of PGD 2 from PGH 2 . (bionity.com)
  • Prostaglandins are compounds in the body made of fats that have hormone-like effects. (healthline.com)
  • Prostaglandins are unique compounds because they have hormone-like effects. (healthline.com)
  • With the burgeoning of literature on the prostaglandins, it is timely that two books have appeared to summarize the wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological actions of these compounds. (annals.org)
  • Prostaglandins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets . (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH derived from within residues 100 - 200 of Human Prostaglandin E Receptor EP2. (abcam.com)
  • COX-2 produces prostaglandins through stimulation. (bionity.com)
  • natural and synthetic prostaglandins are used to induce abortion or labour in humans and domestic animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandin F 2α ( PGF 2α u prostanoidnoj nomenklaturi), farmaceutski naziv dinoprost ( INN ), prirodni prostaglandin koji se koristi u medicini za indukciju porođaja, i kao abortifacijent . (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that they are not produced at a specific site but in many places throughout the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins, because of their hormone-like activity, are sometimes referred to as tissue hormones . (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin F 2α ( PGF 2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed carboprost , is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have even created artificial prostaglandins for use in medication to induce labor. (healthline.com)
  • Conditions that can result from too few prostaglandins include glaucoma and stomach ulcers. (healthline.com)
  • Prostaglandins influence the contraction of the muscles lining many internal organs and can lower or raise blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • prostaglandin F 2α stimulates contraction of the myometrium and luteolysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For instance, PGE 2 that binds with prostaglandin E 2 receptor 1 (EP 1 ) leads to gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle contraction whereas with prostaglandin E 2 receptor 2 (EP 2 ), it is involved in gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle relaxation. (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) is involved in uterus contraction and bronchoconstriction. (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 has been used to determine its effects on collagen gel contraction mediated by alveolar cell carcinoma cell line A549. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Curcumin induces programmed cell death and inhibits proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It is concluded that aspirin exerts two separate inhibitory effects on prostaglandin formation in vivo, a rapid action of the intact molecule on easily accessible tissues and a later action due to its metabolic conversion to salicylic acid. (springer.com)
  • Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a fundamental role in modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroendocrine system and in shaping the hypothalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is the result of a prostaglandin abortion at 4 months into the pregnancy. (pregnantpause.org)
  • prostaglandin injections into the amniotic sac, an in-hospital procedure, have been used as an abortion technique in pregnancies after the 16th week. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • About 30 minutes after an injection of prostaglandin F 2α , contractions begin, and abortion takes place within 19 to 20 hours. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. (britannica.com)
  • Prostaglandin A3 is one of the many prostaglandins that scientists are currently investigating for its possible utility to humans. (fsu.edu)
  • These results suggest that prostaglandin E 2 acts through EP1 to control impulsive behavior under stress, a finding potentially exploitable for development of drugs that attenuate impulsive behavior in humans. (pnas.org)
  • Increased cyclic AMP increases prostaglandin synthesis leading to further increases in cyclic AMP. (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) acts on adenylate cyclase to enhance the production of cyclic AMP. (biology-online.org)
  • Of the various mechanisms proposed to explain the cytoprotective properties of prostaglandins, mucus discharge seems the most probable. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prostaglandin D 2 is a prostaglandin which binds to the receptor PTGDR . (wikidoc.org)
  • Prostaglandins are found in most tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors think that prostaglandins may be responsible for uterine cramping that can cause painful periods. (healthline.com)
  • Certain prostaglandins have a role in stimulating the uterine contractions of labor and birth. (medindia.net)