(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
(13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They are potent pressor substances and have many other physiological activities.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandin A that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGA.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A class of cyclic prostaglandins that contain the 6,9-epoxy bond. Endogenous members of this family are biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES.

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/1693)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (2/1693)

The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins.  (+info)

Effect of intracarotid prostaglandin E1 on regional cerebral blood flow in man. (3/1693)

The effect of prostaglandin E1 on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with the intra-arterial 133Xe method in ten awake patients under local anesthesia. Measurements were taken from 16 areas of a hemisphere in seven patients, from 35 areas of a hemisphere in two patients and from 256 areas of a hemisphere in one patient. The prostaglandin was dissolved from the crystalline state without the aid of alcohol. It was given intracarotidly as a constant infusion at a rate of 5 ng per kilogram per minute for five minutes before the measurement and continued during the measurement. In every patient a mild increase in blood flow during the prostaglandin infusion was seen. The flow increase took place in all parts of the hemisphere. It averaged 11.2% (p less than 0.01). During the infusion, the skin supplied by the internal carotid artery and the conjunctiva on the infused side became red and sometimes swollen. A slight pressure was noted by most patients, but none had pain. No side effects of the infusion were noted.  (+info)

The role of prostaglandins in chemically induced inflammation. (4/1693)

Dye leakage in rats, produced by intracutaneous injections of irritants into the abdominal skin, was quantitated using the Evans blue technique of Harada et al. (1971). In control rats and in rats pretreated with indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis) concentration-response lines were obtained for 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, bradykinin and prostaglandin E1, bradykinin in the presence of prostaglandin E1 (10-6 M), adenosine-5'-triphosphate, compound 48/80, capsaicin and silver nitrate. In rats pretreated with indomethacin the dye leakage responses to histamine, prostaglandin E1, adenosine-5'-triphosphate and silver nitrate were significantly reduced, but no significant changes were observed in the responses to the other irritants. It is suggested that part of the action of histamine, adenosine-5'-triphosphate and prostagland in E1 is produced indirectly by releaseor stimulation of the synthesis of prostaglandins or their precursors. These results might have important implications in the understanding of the inflammatory response.  (+info)

Synergistic effect of cortisol and prostaglandin E2 on the PHA response. Relation to immunosuppression induced by trauma. (5/1693)

Surgical and thermal trauma in man are followed by depressed immunological responses in vivo and reduced lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. The possibility that these are related to trauma-induced rises in tissue levels of cortisol and prostaglandins was examined by studying the effect of a wide range of concentrations of cortisol and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), separately and together on the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. These effects were plotted on two-dimensional dose:effect graphs; the shapes of the curves connecting combinations of equal effect (isoboles) showed that these agents acted with marked synergy in suppressing the response, provided they were present while the response was taking place. Synergy was also shown by using a simple equation relating the concentrations of the agents producing a given effect when used in combination to the concentrations needed to produce the same effect when used separately. Cortisol at concentrations reached in the peripheral blood after trauma in man (1-4 X 10(-6)M) and PGE2 at concentrations to be expected in traumatized tissues (up to 4 X 10(-7)M) each suppressed the response only slightly. The former reduced the response to 0-7 of controls and the latter 0-5 (means of seven subjects). When both were present together at these concentrations, the response was markedly depressed (mean 0-06, range 0-02--0-13 of controls). However, when lymphocytes were incubated at 37 degrees C with cortisol and PGE2 for 20 hr and then washed before exposure to PHA, the response was not inhibited, even by substantially higher concentrations than the above, and was usually moderately enhanced. Therefore, these in vitro experiments do not explain the depressed PHA response observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes after trauma. It is possible, however, that raised cortisol and prostaglandin levels depress the reactivity of lymphocytes while they remain in the traumatized region and its lymph drainage area.  (+info)

Prostanoid receptors involved in the relaxation of human pulmonary vessels. (6/1693)

1. To characterize the prostanoid receptors on human pulmonary smooth muscle involved in vasodilatations, isolated arteries and veins were contracted with norepinephrine (10 microM) and vessels were subsequently challenged with different prostanoid-receptor agonists in the absence or presence of selective antagonists. 2. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and the selective DP-receptor agonist, BW245C, induced relaxations in the contracted human pulmonary venous preparations. The pD2 values were: 6.88+/-0.11 (n=17) and 7.31+/-0.12 (n=5), respectively. The relaxant responses induced by PGD2 were reduced by the selective DP-receptor antagonist, BWA868C, and the estimated pA2 value was 7.84+/-0.16 (n=4). PGD2 and BW245C did not relax contracted human pulmonary arteries. 3. The selective IP-receptor agonists, iloprost and cicaprost, both induced relaxations in the contracted human vascular preparations. The pD2 values for iloprost were: 7.84+/-0.08 (n=6) and 8.25+/-0.06 (n=4) and for cicaprost: 8.06+/-0.12 (n=5) and 8.11+/-0.09 (n=5) in arteries and veins respectively. 4. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the EP2/EP3-receptor agonist, misoprostol, partially relaxed the contracted venous preparations and the pD2 values were: 8.10+/-0.15 (n=15) and 6.24+/-0.33 (n=3), respectively. These relaxations suggest the presence of an EP receptor in the human pulmonary veins. The contracted human pulmonary arteries did not relax when challenged with PGE2. 5. In human pulmonary venous preparations, the PGE2-induced relaxations were neither modified by treatment with TP/EP4-receptor antagonist, AH23848B (10 and 30 microM, n=6), nor by the DP/EP1/EP2-receptor antagonist, AH6809 (3 microM, n=6). 6. These data suggest that the relaxation induced by prostanoids involved DP-, IP-receptors and to a lesser extent an EP-receptor on human pulmonary venous smooth muscle. In contrast, only the IP-receptor is involved in the prostanoid induced relaxations on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.  (+info)

Prostanoid receptors involved in the relaxation of human bronchial preparations. (7/1693)

1. Iloprost and cicaprost (IP-receptor agonists) induced relaxations in the histamine- (50 microM) contracted human bronchial preparations (pD2 values, 6.63+/-0.12 and 6.86+/-0.08; Emax values, 90+/-04 and 65+/-08% of the papaverine response for iloprost (n=6) and cicaprost (n=3), respectively). 2. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and misoprostol (EP-receptor agonist) relaxed the histamine-contracted human bronchial preparations (pD2 values, 7.13+/-0.07 and 6.33+/-0.28; Emax values, 67+/-04 and 57+/-08% of the papaverine response for PGE2 (n=14) and misoprostol (n=4), respectively). In addition, both relaxations were inhibited by AH6809 (DP/EP1/EP2-receptor antagonist; 3 microM; n=5-6). 3. The PGE2-induced relaxations of human bronchial preparations were not modified by treatment with AH23848B (TP/EP4-receptor antagonist; 30 microM; n=4). 4. The contracted human bronchial preparations were significantly relaxed by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) or by BW245C a DP-receptor agonist. However, these responses did not exceed 40% of the relaxation induced by papaverine. In addition, the relaxations induced by PGD2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with a DP-receptor antagonist BWA868C (0.1 microM; n=3). 5. These data suggest that the relaxation of human isolated bronchial preparations induced by prostanoids involved IP-, EP2- and to a lesser extent DP-receptors but not EP4-receptor.  (+info)

Fish macrophages express a cyclo-oxygenase-2 homologue after activation. (8/1693)

In mammals, the increased generation of prostaglandins (PG) during the onset of inflammatory responses and activation of immune cell types has been attributed to the induction of a novel cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoform, termed COX-2, which is distinct from the well-characterized constitutive activity (COX-1). Goldfish (Carassius auratus) macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and leucocyte-derived macrophage-activating factor(s) showed a significant increase in the generation of the major COX product, PGE2, within the first 6 h of stimulation. The selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398, inhibited this elevated generation of PGE, whereas the basal level of this product synthesized by unstimulated macrophages was unaffected by such exposure. PGE generation by goldfish macrophages was similarly inhibited by the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, and an inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide, suggesting that this stimulation may be due to an inducible enzyme equivalent to mammalian COX-2. The complete coding sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) COX-2 was obtained by PCR. The gene contains a 61 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1821 bp open reading frame and a 771 bp 3'UTR containing multiple copies of an mRNA instability motif (ATTTA). The predicted translation product had high homology to known mammalian and chicken COX-2 (83-84%) and COX-1 (77%) sequences. Reverse-transcriptase PCR with cDNA from control and bacterially challenged fish revealed that trout COX-2 expression was not constitutive but could be induced. Overall, these studies show for the first time that the inducible isoform of COX has a long evolutionary history, probably dating back to the evolution of fish over 500 million years ago.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Tensile forces enhance prostaglandin E synthesis in osteoblastic cells grown on collagen ribbons. AU - Yeh, Chih Ko. AU - Rodan, Gideon A.. PY - 1984/3/1. Y1 - 1984/3/1. N2 - An experimental system has been developed to examine the prostaglandin (PG) production induced by tensile mechanical forces in bone cells cultured on collagen ribbons. Fetal rat calvaria cells (osteoblast-enriched) were grown on collagen ribbons. The collagen ribbons were stretched under culture conditions in a machine that recorded force and displacement. Repeated stretching of the collagen ribbons (8 times, 5-10%, over 2 hours) increased the rate of prostaglandin synthesis approximately 3.5-fold over that of cells on nonstretched ribbons. This system should provide a suitable method to quantitatively study the effect of mechanical forces on various parameters of PG synthesis.. AB - An experimental system has been developed to examine the prostaglandin (PG) production induced by tensile mechanical forces in ...
Welcome to the Prostaglandin E{1} Liposomal, PGE{1} information hub. Featuring active ingredients, dosages, related medications, and Prostaglandin E{1} Liposomal, PGE{1} forums.
Serono was developing dual agonists of the prostaglandin E2 and E4 (EP2 and EP4) receptors for the treatment of asthma. The compounds are analogues of
[118 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Prostaglandin E2 Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Production, means the output of Prostaglandin E2 Revenue, means...
SR GROUP - Exporter, Importer, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Hydroxy Prostaglandin E1 Chemical based in Delhi, India
Basic Rider Optimization Training for the Segway™ Human Transporter (HT) i Series, e Series and p Series models Instructor Guide and Participant Workbook Instructor Guide and Participant Workbook © Segway LLC 2002 Rev 3.5i - January 2004 P/N 1707100001aa Page 2 of 106 Basic Rider Optimization Training for the Segway HT Important information for e Series users To reduce the risk of injury, all users of e Series models should first complete training provided by a Segway authorized trainer. The Segway HT e Series has all the same components as the Segway HT i Series, and the following additional components and features: , , , , A Front Bag Frame and Front Bag A Lower Cargo Structure Two Side Bags An electronic parking stand, called E-Stand, that enables the e Series to balance itself (park) without a rider Please follow these recommendations: , , , , , , , Charge your Segway HT for a full 12 hours before the first use. Do not let anyone power on your Segway HT e Series Segway HT or try ...
***Partially updated 2/25/10*** TnC has begun an E Series project, the new EDC-Flex Series. We are providing very small runs of aluminum parts to parallel the Ti parts we are offering as well. These Ti parts (head and tubes/tails) have been discussed in our Titanium Aleph & E Series compatible heads/tubes/tails**Announcing TnC Ti EDC-Flex**The first post with details and pricing (for Ti) is listed here, and the general interest list is here on the 12th post. The 20mm EDC-Flex bare and
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion by peripheral blood and tissue-fixed macrophages from patients with colorectal carcinoma was assessed. There was no significant difference between PGE2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells between patients with colorectal carcinoma and normal controls. H …
Autocrine prostaglandin E2 signaling promotes promonocytic leukemia cell survival via COX-2 expression and MAPK pathway;kpubs;kpubs.org
deCODE genetics (a subsidiary of Amgen) was researching the potential for inhibitors of the EP3 receptor for prostaglandins E2 as novel, safer, non-opiate-based
1. The effects of chronic alterations in dietary sodium intake on urinary prostaglandin (PG) E2 and thromboxane (TX) B2 was investigated in the rabbit.. 2. Sodium restriction, over a 15-day period, reduced daily urinary PGE2 and TXB2 in concordance with urinary flow (V) and sodium excretion (UNa+V), but increased plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC).. 3. Sodium repletion, on the other hand, increased urinary PGE2 and TXB2 in proportion to the rise in V, but reduced PRA and PAC.. 4. During both sodium diets PGE2 and TXB2 correlated positively with V and negatively with PRA.. 5. It is concluded that chronic sodium intake produces opposite changes in the renal prostaglandin and the renin-angiotensin systems. ...
The available clinical measures of Crohns disease activity can be overly influenced by functional symptoms. Placebo response rates in clinical trials are high. Several non-invasive biomarkers are currently available for assessing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) disease activity including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin. Although these markers hold some promise, their performance is less than ideal. What is needed is a simple, non-invasive, biologic measure of Crohns disease.. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and is expressed in epithelial inflammatory conditions and some cancers. We have developed an assay to quantify the major urinary metabolite of PGE2, PGE-M. PGE-M has been previously shown to be elevated in the urine of patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia relative to controls. ...
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1. Hamster stomach strips in vitro are useful test preparations for the assay of prostaglandins E and F in the nanogram concentration range. Three-minute cycles can be used for long periods without spontaneous contractions or significant base-line instability.2. The mean percentage error and the precision index of six 4-point assays of prostaglandin E(2) were 7.8 and 0.057, respectively.3. The relative sensitivity to different prostaglandins was E(2)/E(1) approximately 1, E(2)/F(1alpha) approximately 65 and E(2)/A(1) approximately 400.4. These preparations were relatively insensitive to 5-hydroxytryptamine (prostaglandin E(2)/5-HT approximately 20,000) and histamine (prostaglandin E(2)/histamine approximately 200).5. These results suggest that the hamster stomach preparation can be used to differentiate between 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandins. ...
Synovial cells are potential sources of inflammatory mediators in bacterial-induced arthritis but their involvement in the inflammatory response to Candida albicans-induced septic arthritis is largely unknown. Primary cultures of rat synovial fibroblasts were infected with C. albicans (ATCC90028). Immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed to assess cyclo-oxygenase 2 induction. Phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) following infection in the absence or presence of U0126 was assessed by western blotting whilst prostaglandin E2 production was measured by ELISA. Nuclear factor κB (NFκB) translocation was evaluated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Infection of synovial fibroblasts with C. albicans resulted in cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production was dependent upon extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, associated with activation of NFκB and significantly
Find out about the science and chemistry of Prostaglandin (Prostaglandin I2), see colourful images of Prostaglandin and explore interactive 3D molecules of Prostaglandin
Find out about the science and chemistry of Prostaglandin (Prostaglandin D2), see colourful images of Prostaglandin and explore interactive 3D molecules of Prostaglandin
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Prirodni prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) je poznat u medicini kao dinoproston. On ima važnu ulogu pri porođaju, a isto tako stimuliše osteoblaste da otpuste faktore koji stimulišu koštanu resorpciju. PGE2 je prostaglandin koji indukuje groznicu.. On je dostupan na tržištu pod imenima Cervidil, Prostin E2, Propes i Glandin, kao vaginalni supozitorijum, kojim se priprema cerviks za porođaj.. Poput drugih prostaglandina, dinoproston se može koristiti kao abortifacijent. On je direktni vazodilatator, koji ralaksira glatke mišiće, i inhibira otpuštanje noradrenalina iz simpatetičkih nervih terminala. On ne inhibira agregaciju trombocita, za razliku od PGI2.. On deluje putem vezivanja i aktivacije prostaglandinskog E2 receptor.. ...
Adaikan, G P., Tai, M.Y., Lau, L.C. (1984). A comparison of some pharmacological actions of prostaglandin E1, 6-oxo-PGE1and PGI2. Prostaglandins 27 (4) : 505-516. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-6980(84)90086- ...
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|p|Ki = 9.1, 4.9, 0.33, 0.79 nM for EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors respectively [1]|/p||p|Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is lipid-derived autacoid which is the main effector prostanoid produced in the zebrafish, and it works by binding and activating the PGE2
Lester, Henry A. and Steer, Michael L. and Levitzki, Alexander (1982) Prostaglandin-Stimulated GTP Hydrolysis Associated with Activation of Adenylate Cyclase in Human Platelet Membranes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 79 (3). pp. 719-723. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC345823. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:LESpnas82 ...
Curcumin induces programmed cell death and inhibits proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
지방세포 및 대식세포를 매개로 하는 비정형 항정신병 약물들의 염증반응 유발 기전: nitric oxide 및 prostaglandin E2 생성 =. ...
A prostaglandin is one of several hormone-like substances that participate in a wide range of body functions. For example, its involved in contracting and relaxing smooth muscle; dilating and constricting blood vessels; control of blood pressure; and modulation of inflammation. Prostaglandins are derived from a chemical called arachidonic acid.. ...
A biochemist reports that fish oil significantly diminishes the production and effectiveness of various prostaglandins, naturally occurring hormone-like substances that can accentuate inflammation and thrombosis.
Dionicio Siegel and co-workers reported in JACS on the synthesis of eupalinilide E, which promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) expansion. JACS paper
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C cells via AMPKα-mediated inhibition of Sp1 and DNMT1 expression both in vitro and in vivo (Zhao et al., 2016). However, due to the potential interactions among the multiple compounds and the complexes of metabolic processes that can result in various responses and outcomes, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential for XJD are not fully understood. In this study, cell growth inhibition and cell arrest by XJD were observed in other NSCLC cells, further demonstrating the inhibitory effects of XJD on NSCLC cells in vitro. We previously showed consistent reproducible results of batch-to-batch XJD solutions, and the tested dose ranges exhibited no toxicities in vitro or in vivo (Zhao et al., 2016). In the current study, the XJD dosages used in vitro and in vivo were determined from a series of cell-based cell growth experiments (Zhao et al., 2016) and the reported formula to calculate the dosage difference between human and mouse based on body surface area (Reagan-Shaw et al., ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Katia Boniface, Kristian S Bak-Jensen, Ying Li, Wendy M Blumenschein, Mandy J McGeachy, Terrill K McClanahan, Brent S McKenzie, Robert A Kastelein, Daniel J Cua, René de Waal Malefyt].
* found in: Biotrak™ Prostaglandin E2 Enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) System, The Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Competitive Biotrak™ Enzymeimmunoassay System..
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
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Prostaglandins have many functions in the body, sometimes having opposite effects to each other. Well discuss function, purpose, and what can go wrong.
PGE2, 1 ml. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an extensively studied prostaglandin owing to its predominance in inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, and sepsis.
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The card is used just to playback my tunes i create via ableton. Madi goes into a Ferrofish A32 AD/DA then into the Burl B32 for summing and thats it. Lately i changed some channels in a song and realized it sounded weird. Then by switching through all the channels i realized that MADI CH 1-8 are mono. I thought it was a faulty Sub-D Cable, exchanged it but the issue was still there. Then i rerouted the madi channels in the Ferrofish Converter but same story. So its most likely the TotalMix i thought, some wrong settings somewhere, however. Changing everything and resetting it to different states all didnt change that the channels kept mono. Of course i changed the Stereo Settings, switched Mono/stereo on one setting changed the width on another setting ,used set all channels to stereo used Set inputs mono/outputs stereo and so on and nothing changed. RESET.... Now im wondering if maybe the card is damaged ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of lithium on prostaglandin E1- stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of human platelets. AU - Yao-Chun, Wang. AU - Pandey, Ghanshyam N.. AU - Mendels, Joe. AU - Frazer, Alan. PY - 1974/2/15. Y1 - 1974/2/15. N2 - The effect of lithium (Li) on the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1(PGE1) was examined. In platelet sonicates, Li, as well as sodium (Na), potassium (K), and rubidium (Rb) significantly reduced the PGE1-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition due to Rb was significantly less than that produced by the other cations; at a high concentration, 64 mM, Li was a more potent inhibitor than the other cations. In intact platelets, only Li reduced the PGE1-enhanced accumulation of [3H]cyclic AMP, K and Rb being ineffective. As little as 1 mM Li significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of PGE1 on [3H]cyclic AMP production in this sytem. The inhibition produced by Li was not blocked by phentolamine, whereas ...
Prostaglandin E synthase (or PGE synthase) is an enzyme involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism, a member of MAPEG family. It generates prostaglandin E (PGE) from prostaglandin H2. The synthase generating PGE2 is a membrane-associated protein. Humans express three prostaglandin-E synthase isozymes, each encoded by a separate gene: Jegerschold, C.; Pawelzik, S. -C.; Purhonen, P.; Bhakat, P.; Gheorghe, K. R.; Gyobu, N.; Mitsuoka, K.; Morgenstern, R.; Jakobsson, P. -J.; Hebert, H. (2008). Structural basis for induced formation of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (32): 11110-11115. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802894105. PMC 2516235 . PMID 18682561. Murakami M, Nakatani Y, Tanioka T, Kudo I (August 2002). Prostaglandin E synthase. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 68-69: 383-99. doi:10.1016/S0090-6980(02)00043-6. PMID 12432931. Park JY, Pillinger MH, Abramson SB (June 2006). Prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion: the role of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, and thromboxane B2 in normotensive and hypertensive subjects on varying sodium intakes. AU - Campbell, William B.. AU - Bryan Holland, O.. AU - Adams, Beverly V.. AU - Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - A deficiency in renal prostaglandins has been implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, particularly low renin hypertension. Previous studies of urinary prostaglandins as influenced by sodium balance and in essential hypertension have been handicapped by problems with assay methodology, inclusion of male subjects, and/or failure to standardize daily fluid consumption. We compared urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2,), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in black and white normotensive and low-renin and normal-renin hypertensive women during two protocols producing sodium depletion (10 mEq sodium diet) and sodium loading (200 mEq sodium diet plus the ...
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. A given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that ...
We thank Tsikas et al1 for the interest in our findings. An underlying concern of Tsikas et al1 is our use of an immunoassay for the determination of prostaglandins,2 a method that most studies on prostaglandins in the literature have used. Their point is that our prostaglandin values in muscle microdialysate are too high. Our measured levels are very similar to those observed by others in interstitial fluid from skeletal muscle,3 as well as from peritendinous tissue.4 The prostaglandin concentrations in these studies have been measured by radioimmunoassay, different than the immunoassay used by our group, yet resulting in similar values. The observation that our concentrations are higher than those observed by others in plasma is not surprising; we often observe large differences in concentrations of compounds between plasma and interstitial fluid. It may be true that, for methodologic/technical reasons, urine is a better fluid to measure prostaglandins in; however, the origin of prostaglandins ...
Prostaglandin E1 has earlier been shown to decrease pulmonary platelet trapping (PPT) following shock. This experiment was performed to evaluate a new method to study PPT in vivo, and to study the effect of prostaglandin E1 and a new antiplatelet drug (ticlopidine) on PPT in rabbits after i.v. administration of endotoxin. Following platelet labeling with In-111, the rabbits were placed under a scintillation camera for continuous measuring of the activity distribution for 40 minutes. The first five minutes represented reference values, whereafter endotoxin E. coli was injected i.v. The following 2-4 minutes showed a sudden increase of radioactivity over the lungs and a simultaneous decrease over the heart, indicating PPT in the nontreated animals, followed by a slow decrease to almost preshock values during the following 30 minutes. Animals receiving prostaglandin E1 showed a significantly lower activity peak in the lungs after the administration of endotoxin, while the corresponding peak in ...
A method of lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) employs an upregulating agent that induces increased prostaglandin synthesis in the eye. The method of treatment entails administering to the eye of a mammal in need thereof a prostaglandin upregulating agent to increase endogenous prostaglandin synthesis and thereby effect a reduction in intraocular pressure. In a preferred embodiment the upregulating agent is IL-1.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effects of catecholamines and prostaglandins on blood flow through the isolated rat kidney following volume expansion. by H E de Wardenier et al.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Treatment of vasospastic disease with prostaglandin E1.: Prostaglandin E1, a vasodilator and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, was administered to 26 pa
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prostaglandins and host defense in cancer. AU - Goodwin, J. S.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The whole relationship between prostaglandins and cancer has not received the attention it should from experimental oncologists. This may be because the whole area of prostaglandins is immensely confusing, with different cyclo-oxygenase metabolites having completely opposite results. Thus when one adds a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor to a system, any result is possible. It is not even settled whether PGE has a physiologic role or is merely a metabolite of an unstable intermediate compound that is the real PG, or whether the effects of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors are because of inhibition of production of the classic prostaglandins (PGE and PGF) or by inhibition of production of thromboxanes, prostacyclin, etc. This lack of precise definition of the system tends to discourage precision in experimentation, which in turn tends to keep careful investigators out of the area. The ...
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Measures of farrowing performance did not differ between sows that were induced and those not induced, or between sows that farrowed during the day and those that farrowed at night. This farm, like most commercial farms, did not employ a designated parturition attendant, as was the case in many studies that investigated the use of prostaglandin to induce farrowings in the 1980s, for example, the study of Jainudeen and Brandenburg.9. In these earlier studies, additional labor beyond the regular farrowing-house personnel was used to supervise farrowings. It is commonplace in todays industry to assume that as long as farrowings occur during the work day, farrowing-house personnel will be able to recognize problem farrowings and provide assistance while they perform their regular duties. Because of the additional labor required, this farm did not employ a system of recording the time of birth of each piglet so that intervention could be initiated when time between deliveries exceeded 15 minutes, ...
Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory disease. Mice with reduced PGE2 synthesis develop systemic inflammation, associated with translocation of gut bacteria, which can be prevented by treatment with EP4 agonists. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGE2-EP4 signaling acts directly on type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promoting their homeostasis and driving them to produce interleukin-22 (IL-22). Disruption of the ILC-IL-22 axis impairs PGE2-mediated inhibition of systemic inflammation. Hence, the ILC-IL-22 axis is essential in protecting against gut barrier dysfunction, enabling PGE2-EP4 signaling to impede systemic inflammation. ...
The immune-to-brain signaling is a critical survival factor when the body is confronted by pathogens, and in particular by microorganisms. During infections, the ability of the immune system to engage the central nervous system (CNS) in the management of the inflammatory response is just as important as its ability to mount a specific immune response against the pathogen, since the CNS can provide a systemic negative feed-back to the immune activation by release of stress hormones and also can prioritize the usage of the energy resources by the vital organs. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and proinflammatory cytokines were among the first mediators to be identified to participate in the immuneto-brain signaling, a process that is clinically recognized by the development of manifestations of common illness such as fever, anorexia, decreased social interactions, lethargy, sleepiness, and hyperalgesia.. In this thesis the contribution of PGE2 to the immune-to-brain signaling was further characterized at ...
Buy Prostaglandin E2-biotinamide (CAS 363-24-6 (unconjugated CAS)), A biotinylated PGE2 derivative designed to detect PGE2 bound in complexes, from Santa Cruz.
Comparative study between transcervical extra-amniotic Foleys bulb and prostaglandin E2 gel for pre-induction cervical ripening
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Aluminum enhances the stimulatory effect of NaF on prostaglandin E2 synthesis in a clonal osteoblast-like cell line, MOB 3-4, in vitro. (1989 ...
Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid mediator substances. It...
Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid mediator substances. It...
Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Inhibit Prostaglandin Biology Essay Published: 23, March 2015 Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs are inhibitors of prostaglandin, they have several key therapeutic effects, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic (reduces fevers) and analgesic. NSAIDs...
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Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and E2 (PGE2) are ligands for the prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP) family, which consists of four subtype receptors, designated as EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. Interestingly, PGE2 mediates inflammation ...
Dietary components and environmental exposures can impact gamete function and fertility, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Prostaglandins are...
S. Todo, F. Nakajima, T. Amano, S. Imashuku, T. Kusunoki, S. Yamasaki and S. Muneta, Jap. J. Pediat. Surg.14, 77 (1978).Google Scholar ...
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Aspirin, gastric potential difference, and cytoprotective prostaglandins. by Patrick Müller et al.
BioAssay record AID 744752 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of ovine COX2-mediated prostaglandin alpha production by enzyme immuno assay.
BioAssay record AID 184313 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for the inhibition of biosynthesis of prostaglandins at a concentration of 10e4 M.
This is a strong inhibitor of biosynthesis of prostaglandins biologically active compounds produced in the organism. The prostaglandins in the body have multiple functions.
Wendeburg, L., de Oliveira, A.C., Bhatia, H.S., Candelario-Jalil, E. and Fiebich, B.L. (2009) Resveratrol inhibits prostaglandin formation in IL-1beta-stimulated SK-NSH neuronal cells. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 14, 26.

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Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), also known as alprostadil, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin which is used as a medication.[1] In ... Prostaglandin E1 was isolated in 1957 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1981.[1][4] It is on the World ... Prostaglandin E1 is biosynthesized on an as-needed basis from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) in healthy humans ... Misoprostol is another synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used to prevent gastric ulcers when taken on a continuous basis, to ...
Letter: prostaglandins and asthma.. Br Med J 1975; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5971.613 (Published 14 June 1975) Cite ...
Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every ... prostaglandin (prŏs´təglăn´dən), any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as ... prostaglandin One of a group of C20 fatty acids, each containing a five membered ring. Prostaglandins differ from one another ... prostaglandin (pros-tă-gland-in) n. one of a group of hormone-like substances present in a wide variety of tissues and body ...
Prostaglandins (PGs) are bioactive lipids that play numerous roles in important body functions, such as blood vessel ... v4-460px-Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-9.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/f\/f4\/Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-9.jpg\/aid11415648-v4- ... v4-460px-Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-1.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/2\/2e\/Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-1.jpg\/aid11415648-v4- ... v4-460px-Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/5\/5c\/Reduce-Prostaglandins-Step-2.jpg\/aid11415648-v4- ...
Prostaglandins are potent lipid molecules that affect key aspects of immunity. The original view of prostaglandins was that ... Prostaglandins as modulators of immunity.. Harris SG1, Padilla J, Koumas L, Ray D, Phipps RP. ... We will highlight how these two seminal prostaglandins regulate immunity and inflammation, and play an emerging role in cancer ... This review focuses on recent findings concerning prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the PGD2 metabolite 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2, ...
T.Y. Shen,Prostaglandin Synthetase Inhibitors, in:Prostaglandin and Thromboxanes (Eds. F. Berti, B. Samuelsson and G.P. Velo; ... Aspirin Prostaglandin Salicylic Acid Salicylate Rapid Action This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... M.J.H. Smith,Aspirin and Prostaglandins, Some Recent Developments, Agents and Actions8, 427-429 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar ... G.A. Higgs, E.A. Harvey, S.H. Ferreira andJ.R. Vane,The Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Production of Prostaglandins ...
Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are a subset of prostaglandins (PGs) or prostanoids (see eicosanoid#classic eicosanoids and ... Surh YJ, Na HK, Park JM, Lee HN, Kim W, Yoon IS, Kim DD (2011). "15-Deoxy-Δ¹²,¹⁴-prostaglandin J₂, an electrophilic lipid ... Forman BM, Tontonoz P, Chen J, Brun RP, Spiegelman BM, Evans RM (1995). "15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for ... The cyclopenentone prostaglandins are structurally and functionally related to a subset of isoprostanes viz., two ...
prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696) is a prostaglandins D ( ... prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696) is conjugate acid of prostaglandin D1(1−) (CHEBI:79010) ... prostaglandin D1(1−) (CHEBI:79010) is conjugate base of prostaglandin D1 (CHEBI:27696). ... CHEBI:27696 - prostaglandin D1. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555) is a prostaglandins C ( ... prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555) is conjugate acid of prostaglandin C2(1−) (CHEBI:133392) ... prostaglandin C2(1−) (CHEBI:133392) is conjugate base of prostaglandin C2 (CHEBI:27555). ... CHEBI:27555 - prostaglandin C2. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Prostaglandins were discovered in human semen in 1935 by the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler, who named them, thinking that ... Prostaglandin, any of a group of physiologically active substances having diverse hormonelike effects in animals. ... More About Prostaglandin. 19 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *major reference* In prostaglandin: ... Prostaglandins are a complex group of fatty acid derivatives that are produced and secreted by many tissues. Prostaglandins ...
Drugs such as opioids or prostaglandins (PGE2) are known to induce apnoea. PGE2 is an endogenous hormone that plays an ... Central apnoea and endogenous prostaglandins in neonates.. Hoch B1, Bernhard M. ...
Prostaglandins E1 and E2 significantly stimulated the synthesis of aldosterone, corticosterone, and to a lesser degree, ...
The kidney is an active site of prostaglandin synthesis. These autacoids can influence renal haemodynamics, glomerular ... Prostaglandins Thromboxane Diabetes Diabetic nephropathy Hyperfiltration Eicosanoids This is a preview of subscription content ... By contrast, in long-term diabetes the reduced renal synthesis of prostaglandins and increased production of intrarenal ... Craven PA, DeRubertis FR, Role of local prostaglandin and thromboxane production in the regulation of glomerular filtration ...
... the most abundant prostaglandin - is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 (prostaglandin ... prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Examples of prostaglandin antagonists are: ... "Prostaglandin F2alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS): crystal structure of PGFS containing ... To date, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 emerges as a key enzyme in the formation of PGE2. Terminal prostaglandin ...
... prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... 2. Roles of Prostaglandins in Neuroinflammation: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences. Due to the variety of prostaglandins presently ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). 15d-PGJ2 is a metabolite of PGD2 and is formed from PGD2 by the elimination of two ... T. Hoshino, T. Nakaya, T. Homan et al., "Involvement of prostaglandin E2 in production of amyloid-β peptides both in vitro and ...
Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid mediator substances. ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators is the original and foremost journal dealing with prostaglandins and related lipid ... Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators also accepts proposals for special issue topics. The Editors will make every effort to ...
... J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 1995 Oct;12(2-3):379-91. doi: 10.1016/0929-7855(95)00024-k. ...
Degradation of prostaglandins in anhydrous or aqueous pharmaceutically acceptable, water-miscible alcohol solutions is ... 3. A composition according to claim 2 wherein said prostaglandin is a PGE or PGE-type prostaglandin; said alcohol is ethanol, ... 9. A composition according to claim 8 wherein said prostaglandin is a PGE or PGE-type prostaglandin; said alcohol is ethanol, ... The method of claim 16 wherein said prostaglandin is a PGE or PGE-type prostaglandin; said alcohol is ethanol, propylene glycol ...
Prostaglandins - the fat-derived compounds linked to pain, inflammation, reproduction and cancer - can add another biological ... but the true effects of prostaglandins on the embryo were likely obscured by maternal prostaglandin production. Because they ... Knowing how prostaglandins regulate cell movement in development can help cancer researchers determine how cancer cells spread ... "What is spectacular," said Solnica-Krezel, "is that…if you just put some prostaglandin back in the culture medium, you rescue ...
... including prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; PGI2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ... is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 (prostaglandin H2, PGH2). Several prostaglandin E ... Prostaglandin E synthaseEdit. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - the most abundant prostaglandin[7] - ... The first total syntheses of prostaglandin F2α and prostaglandin E2 were reported by E. J. Corey in 1969,[6] an achievement for ...
Prostaglandins have many functions in the body, sometimes having opposite effects to each other. Well discuss function, ... Prostaglandin receptors are present in the uterus whether youre pregnant or not. Doctors think that prostaglandins may be ... As you can see, prostaglandins play a variety of roles in the body. Doctors are still figuring out all the ways prostaglandins ... Too many or too few prostaglandins in the body can cause health complications. Known problems with too many prostaglandins ...
The prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP2 could be a selective target for prevention and treatment of the Barretts-associated ... Prostaglandin EP2 Receptor Expression is Increased in Barretts Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma. ...
... difference of prostaglandins from the true hormones; role of prostaglanding in inflammation; other important functions of these ... eicosanoids in the body; use of synthetic prostaglandins in humans and dogs. ... Functions of Prostaglandins. The prostaglandins are a series of 2-carbon unsaturated fatty acids containing a cyclopentane ring ... Prostaglandins stimulate nerves that sends pain messages to the brain.. Other Important Functions of Prostaglandins. In ...
Certain prostaglandins have a role in stimulating the uterine contractions of labor and birth, is clearly explained in Medindia ... PROSTAGLANDIN - A group of extremely active substances derived from fatty acids in the body that affect many organs. ... Medical Word - PROSTAGLANDIN. Ans : A group of extremely active substances derived from fatty acids in the body that affect ... PROSTAGLANDIN - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team ...
... What is this medicine?. DINOPROSTONE(dye noe PROST one) is used to help dilate ... an unusual or allergic reaction to dinoprostone, prostaglandins, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (The HUGO official symbol is PTGS2; HGNC ... causing uterine prostaglandin gene expression and immunolocalization of prostaglandin pathway proteins in chorionic trophoblast ... "Prostaglandin pathway gene expression in human placenta, amnion and choriodecidua is differentially affected by preterm and ... Hamberg M, Samuelsson B (November 1967). "On the mechanism of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins E-1 and F-1-alpha". J. Biol. ...
There was no significant effect of prostaglandins on all-cause mortality (37/298[12.4%] in prostaglandin group versus 47/312[ ... Prostaglandins for liver transplanted patients. Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for patients with ... Prostaglandins might reduce the risk of acute kidney failure requiring dialysis, but the quality of the evidence is considered ... Prostaglandins are substances produced by the human body with several actions including vasodilation. They might prevent ...
... kotrienes - Market Report. Analysis And Forecast To 2025. Published On: Aug, ... Table 22: Trade Of Hormones, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes And Leukotrienes, By Country, 2007-2013. LIST OF FIGURES. Figure 1: ... The report provides an in-depth analysis of the EU market for Hormones, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes And Leukotrienes. It ... Hormones, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, natural or reproduced by synthesis; derivatives and structural ...
Schipper, L., Oosting, A., Scheurink, A. J. W., van Dijk, G. & van der Beek, E. M., Jul-2016, In : Prostaglandins Leukotrienes ... Le, H. D., Meisel, J. A., de Meijer, V. E., Gura, K. M. & Puder, M., Aug-2009, In : Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential ... Urinary excretion of prostaglandins during infancy and childhood: Influence of age, sodium restriction and posture. Knoers, N. ... Stoutjesdijk, E., Schaafsma, A., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J. & Muskiet, F. A. J., Jan-2018, In : Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and ...
Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress. Yoko Matsuoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Kiyofumi Yamada, ... Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress. Yoko Matsuoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Kiyofumi Yamada, ... Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 controls impulsive behavior under stress. Yoko Matsuoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Kiyofumi Yamada, ...
  • This review focuses on recent findings concerning prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the PGD2 metabolite 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2, and their divergent roles in immune regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Drugs such as opioids or prostaglandins (PGE2) are known to induce apnoea. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers inhibited the production of a specific type of prostaglandin, PGE2, in zebrafish embryos and examined their development. (innovations-report.com)
  • Doctors have also identified the prostaglandin type PGE2 as causing redness, swelling, and pain. (healthline.com)
  • High levels of proinflammatory PGE2 prostaglandin correlate with depression, irritability and fatigue. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The conserved role for PGE2 in the regulation of vertebrate HSC homeostasis indicates that modulation of the prostaglandin pathway may facilitate expansion of HSC number for therapeutic purposes. (nih.gov)
  • The synthesized PGH2 is converted to prostaglandins (PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α), prostacyclin (PGI2), or thromboxane A2 by tissue-specific isomerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This downloadable document (GMI PUB) is filled with medically researched knowledge, relevant information and pertinent data on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation . (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prirodni prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) je poznat u medicini kao dinoproston . (wikipedia.org)
  • PGE2 je prostaglandin koji indukuje groznicu . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotactic action of prostaglandin E2 on mouse mast cells acting via the PGE2 receptor 3. (labome.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an extensively studied prostaglandin owing to its predominance in inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, and sepsis. (abcam.com)
  • The types of prostaglandins are abbreviated PGE2, PGF2α, and so on. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). (abcam.com)
  • Adiponectin also caused elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by these stromal cells and induced release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). (jci.org)
  • A study published in PNAS reports that the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a lipid mediator released during the process of infected cell clearance (efferocytosis) in the intestine, enhanced the ability of mice to combat infectious colitis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-oxo-PGE1, 15-oxo-PGE2 and 15-oxo-PGE2-alpha. (uniprot.org)
  • The fact that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis may account for their usefulness in reducing fever and inflammation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation, being released from affected tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins (PGs) are bioactive lipids that play numerous roles in important body functions, such as blood vessel constriction, muscle contraction, blood clotting, pain sensation, and inflammation. (wikihow.com)
  • We will highlight how these two seminal prostaglandins regulate immunity and inflammation, and play an emerging role in cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • Through their role in vasodilation, prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins - the fat-derived compounds linked to pain, inflammation, reproduction and cancer - can add another biological function to their extensive catalog. (innovations-report.com)
  • Doctors have found there are high concentrations of prostaglandins present in areas of inflammation. (healthline.com)
  • In addition to their roles in mediating inflammation, fever, and allergic response, and ensuring gastric integrity and renal function, prostaglandins are involved in a diverse group of physiologic functions, including ovarian and uterine function, bone metabolism, nerve and brain function, smooth muscle regulation and platelet homeostasis. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • However, while COX-1 and COX-2 are both located in the blood vessels , stomach and the kidneys , prostaglandin levels are increased by COX-2 in scenarios of inflammation . (bionity.com)
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, which is expressed in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yin-yang: balancing act of prostaglandins with opposing functions to regulate inflammation. (harvard.edu)
  • Prostaglandins have a wide variety of effects, and may be responsible for the production of some types of pain and inflammation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) constitutes a drug target for inflammation, fever and pain. (bmj.com)
  • Parthenolides have been found to inhibit prostaglandins, which are found to be partially responsible for migraines as well as the inflammation process. (vitanetonline.com)
  • This may be due to pollutants and poor diets that lack essential fatty acids and plastics that mimic prostaglandins which regulate the inflammation pathways in the body. (vitanetonline.com)
  • These results suggest that prostaglandins produced by brain injury or inflammation can activate APP transcription in astrocytes and that immunosuppressants may be used to prevent APP overexpression and possibly the pathophysiological processes underlying AD. (jneurosci.org)
  • They work by preventing the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme from producing prostaglandins, whose major physiological role is to induce "pain, inflammation and fever," Lihong Chen told BioWorld Today . (bioworld.com)
  • To date, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 emerges as a key enzyme in the formation of PGE 2 . (bionity.com)
  • Prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) catalyzes the formation of 9α,11β-PGF 2α,β from PGD 2 and PGF 2α from PGH 2 in the presence of NADPH. (bionity.com)
  • Tsikas et al 1 point out that the thromboxane and prostacyclin synthase protein amounts do not match the prostaglandin alterations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as the primary receptors for one or more of the classical, naturally occurring prostanoids viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor family except for the Prostaglandin DP2 receptor which is more closely related in amino acid sequence and functionality to chemotactic factor receptors such as the receptors for C5a and leukotriene B4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The Arachidonic Acid then reacts with two Cyclooxygenase (COX) receptors, COX-1 and COX-2 to form Prostaglandin H 2 , an intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects induced by prostaglandins might be mediated by activation of their known receptors or by nonclassical mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In another set of embryos, the researchers blocked prostaglandin receptors, EP2 and EP4. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prostaglandin receptors are present in the uterus whether you're pregnant or not. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors may also prescribe prostaglandin medications that attach to prostaglandin receptors in the uterus to induce labor. (healthline.com)
  • Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (labome.org)
  • Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. (labome.org)
  • Overexpression of prostaglandin EP3 receptors activates calcineurin and promotes hypertrophy in the murine heart. (labome.org)
  • Our results imply that both prostaglandin production (COX-2) and signaling via EP(1-4) subtype receptors, particularly EP(2), predict disease-specific mortality in colorectal cancer. (labome.org)
  • Sugimoto Y, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E receptors. (labome.org)
  • The present invention relates to 7-oxabicycloheptyl substituted heterocyclic amide prostaglandin analogs which are thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) receptor antagonists or combined thromboxane A 2 receptor antagonist/thromboxane synthetase inhibitor useful, for example, in the treatment of thrombotic and/or vasospastic disease, and may be used as a tool to identify TXA 2 receptors in tissues. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Specifically described are optionally substituted cyclopentanones, such as optionally substituted 2,3-diarylalkyl cyclopentanones, which can have binding or activity at prostaglandin receptors, such as prostaglandin E receptors, including EP4. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • We now report that activation of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) receptors increases cAMP formation and stimulates overexpression of APP mRNA and holoprotein in primary cultures of cortical astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of the prostaglandins act by binding to specific cell surface receptors causing an increase in the level of the intracellular second messenger cyclic AMP (and in some cases cyclic GMP also). (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin and Thromboxanes (Eds. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical Aspects of Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes covers the proceedings of the 1976 Intra-Science Research Foundation Symposium on New Biochemistry of Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes, held in Santa Monica, California. (elsevier.com)
  • This 14-chapter book deals first with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes with bovine vesicular gland and in transformed fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • The remaining chapters examine the role of prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxanes as bioregulators. (elsevier.com)
  • The endoperoxides undergo further modifications to form prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. (britannica.com)
  • EU: Hormones, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes And LEUkotrienes - Market Report. (bharatbook.com)
  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of the EU market for Hormones, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes And Leukotrienes. (bharatbook.com)
  • Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are enzymatically derived from essential fatty acids and constitute a unique class of polyunsaturated, hydroxylated, 20-carbon fatty acids categorized as eicosanoids. (glowm.com)
  • Some of the prominent eicosanoids include (1) eoxins , (2) leukotrienes , (3) lipoxins , (4) prostacyclin , (5) prostaglandins , (6) resolvins , and (7) thromboxanes . (biology-online.org)
  • In particular, prostaglandin is produced from arachidonic acid by the action of cyclooxygenase that produces cyclic endoperoxides (PGG2 and PGH2) that can give rise to prostacyclin or thromboxanes as well as prostaglandins. (biology-online.org)
  • Advances in Prostaglandin and Thromboxane Research , vol. 1 (Eds. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, in long-term diabetes the reduced renal synthesis of prostaglandins and increased production of intrarenal thromboxane, be the latter derived from native glomerular cells or from infiltrating platelets or monocytes, would appear to contribute to the decline in glomerular filtration rate, glomerular basement membrane alterations and proteinuria. (springer.com)
  • Craven PA, DeRubertis FR, Role of local prostaglandin and thromboxane production in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate in the rat with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Gambardella S, Andreani D, Cancelli A, Di Mario U, Cardamone I, Stirati G, Cinotti GA, Pugliese F, Renal hemodynamics and urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α and thromboxane B 2 in newly diagnosed type I diabetic patients. (springer.com)
  • The cyclooxygenase pathway produces thromboxane, prostacyclin and prostaglandin D, E and F. Alternatively, the lipoxygenase enzyme pathway is active in leukocytes and in macrophages and synthesizes leukotrienes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intermediate is created by phospholipase-A 2 , then passed into one of either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway to form either prostaglandin and thromboxane or leukotriene . (bionity.com)
  • Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. (harvard.edu)
  • Synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane B2 by cerebral arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cyclooxygenase pathway of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7-Oxabicycloheptyl substituted heterocyclic amide prostaglandin analogs are provided which are thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) receptor antagonists and have the structural formula ##STR1## wherein m is 1, 2 or 3, n is 1, 2, 3 or 4 and p is 2 to 18. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Finally, we want to emphasize the important point, also brought up by Tsikas et al, 1 that our finding that exercise training shifts the thromboxane/prostaglandin ratio toward dilation in the skeletal muscle interstitium of individuals with essential hypertension agrees well with the results of a previous study in which prostaglandins were measured after exercise in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (ahajournals.org)
  • Synthetic prostaglandins analogues such as misoprostol impart protection to the lining of the stomach (gastric mucosa) in a manner similar to natural prostaglandins. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • In late pregnancy, a woman starts to have a larger number of certain types of prostaglandins in her uterine tissue. (healthline.com)
  • Other prominent types of prostaglandins naturally produced are prostaglandin D 2 and F 2α . (biology-online.org)
  • Mice lacking an enzyme that synthesizes prostaglandin had numerous developmental defects, but the true effects of prostaglandins on the embryo were likely obscured by maternal prostaglandin production. (innovations-report.com)
  • Several small randomised trials have evaluated the effects of prostaglandins in patients undergoing liver transplantation. (cochrane.org)
  • Results of these trials are inconsistent, and none has enough power to reliably exclude effects of prostaglandins. (cochrane.org)
  • Effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on the growth and differentia. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Effects of prostaglandins possessing an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl on tumor growth and differentiation. (harvard.edu)
  • prostaglandin Any of a group of organic compounds derived from essential fatty acids and causing a range of physiological effects in animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Salicylic acid inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis in vivo as the salicylate ion itself and there is no formation of a subsequent 'active' metabolite. (springer.com)
  • An earlier proposed endoperoxide intermediate in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins was detected in short-time incubations of arachidonic acid with the microsomal fraction of homogenates of sheep vesicular glands. (pnas.org)
  • mPGES-1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E 2 from cyclooxygenase (Cox) -derived PGH 2 , which in turn is derived from arachidonic acid. (bmj.com)
  • J.R. Vane , Inhibition of Prostaglandin Synthesis as a Mechanism of Action for Aspirin-like Drugs , Nature (New Biol. (springer.com)
  • Proof-of-concept Study to Demonstrate Inhibition of Prostaglandin E (PGE) Production and Associated Biological Effects in the Lower Respiratory Tract by Ibuprofen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Boswellia's anti-inflammatory activity is due in part to its inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Furthermore, curcumin decreased the expression levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein without causing significant changes in the COX-1 levels, which was correlated with the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • These topics are followed by discussions on the pharmacologic properties and the role of prostaglandins as mediators of the inflammatory response. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the different inflammatory mediators involved, prostaglandins play an important role. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the variety of prostaglandins presently known, it is reasonable to speculate that these lipid mediators might play different roles in the CNS. (hindawi.com)
  • This prostaglandin modulates the expression of inflammatory mediators by microglial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators also accepts proposals for special issue topics. (elsevier.com)
  • Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators and Elsevier facilitate the author's response to the NIH Public Access Policy. (elsevier.com)
  • Prostaglandins are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes. (biology-online.org)
  • 2 There is now a better understanding of the physiological role of prostaglandins and of significance was the discovery that aspirin, indomethacin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their therapeutic action by blocking the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) , responsible for converting arachidonic acid (fatty acid released from cell membranes following injury), into prostaglandin. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Prostaglandin is an eicosanoid that is derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, through the cyclooxygenase pathway. (biology-online.org)
  • Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are a subset of prostaglandins (PGs) or prostanoids (see eicosanoid#classic eicosanoids and eicosanoid#nonclassic eicosanoids) that has 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2), Δ12-PGJ2, and PGJ2 as its most prominent members but also including PGA2, PGA1, and, while not classified as such, other PGs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have known that people who take aspirin, a drug that inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, have about a 50 percent reduction in their risk of getting colon cancer, DuBois explained. (innovations-report.com)
  • Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E(2) production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Craven PA, Patterson MC, DeRubertis FR, Role of enhanced arachidonate availability through the phospholipase A 2 pathway in the mediation of increased prostaglandin synthesis by glomeruli from diabetic rats. (springer.com)
  • A new study by Vanderbilt researchers reveals that prostaglandins help choreograph the intricate cell movements during early embryonic development in zebrafish, highlighting how perturbations in this pathway might influence human development and the spread of cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prostaglandin A2-mediated stabilization of p21 mRNA through an ERK-dependent pathway requiring the RNA-binding protein HuR. (harvard.edu)
  • There are many articles that deal specifically with the biochemistry of the prostaglandins. (glowm.com)
  • First, Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) facilitates the conversion of phospholipids to Arachidonic Acid , the framework from which all prostaglandins are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of aspirin, salicylic acid and gentisic acid on the paw swellings in the arachidonic acid-potentiated and in the conventional carrageenan-induced oedema tests as well as on the content of prostaglandin-like activity and leucocyte migration in the exudate of inert implanted sponges in the rat have been studied. (springer.com)
  • The prostaglandins are made up of unsaturated fatty acids that contain a cyclopentane (5-carbon) ring and are derived from the 20-carbon, straight-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor arachidonic acid . (britannica.com)
  • Prostaglandins are produced following the sequential oxygenation of arachidonic acid, DGLA or EPA by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and terminal prostaglandin synthases. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in two steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, prostaglandins of the 1 series have one double bond and are derived from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, those of the 2 series have two double bonds and are derived from arachidonic acid, and those of the 3 series have three double bonds and are derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (Fig. 2). (glowm.com)
  • Naturally-synthesized prostaglandins have two double bonds and are synthesized from arachidonic acid (5, 8, 11, 14 eicosatetraenoic acid). (biology-online.org)
  • 4. The results suggest that prostaglandins may be involved in the haemodynamic and hormonal actions of captopril. (portlandpress.com)
  • The prostaglandin designated A1 was originally isolated as a dehydration product of prostaglandin E1, which occurs in human semen. (fsu.edu)
  • Prostaglandin A3 is a non-enzymatic dehydration product of prostaglandin E3, which has been found to be produced by metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA ) in the seminal vesicles of sheep and in the ocular tissues of primates. (fsu.edu)
  • Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins are potent lipid molecules that affect key aspects of immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Though a significant amount of research focusing on prostaglandins is ongoing, much of the current understanding of the potent biochemicals was developed in the 1960s and 1970s by scientists Sune K. Bergstr m, Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson, and John Robert Vane, who were rewarded for their efforts with the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1982. (fsu.edu)
  • Different prostaglandins have been found to raise or lower blood pressure and regulate smooth muscle activity and glandular secretion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandins also control the substances involved in the transmission of nerve impulses, participate in the body's defenses against infection, and regulate the rate of metabolism in various tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Knowing how prostaglandins regulate cell movement in development can help cancer researchers determine how cancer cells spread throughout the body, or metastasize - and how to stop the process. (innovations-report.com)
  • prostaglandin (prŏs´təglăn´dən) , any of a group of about a dozen compounds synthesized from fatty acids in mammals as well as in lower animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The prostaglandins are a series of 2-carbon unsaturated fatty acids containing a cyclopentane ring, hence their alternative name ecosanoids . (gopetsamerica.com)
  • A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. (bionity.com)
  • The EP4 receptor antagonist, L-161,982, blocks prostaglandin E2-induced signal transduction and cell proliferation in HCA-7 colon cancer cells. (labome.org)
  • Our use of the EP4 prostaglandin receptor antagonist enhanced the resolution of infectious colitis," said Naiara Naiana Dejani , first author of the article. (eurekalert.org)
  • Switzerland-based ObsEva has completed a Phase one single and multiple ascending dose study of OBE022, a potential first-in-class, once daily, oral and selective prostaglandin F2alpha , or PGF2alpha, receptor antagonist, it was reported yesterday. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline Insight, 2018" report by DelveInsight offers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across "DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist development. (reportlinker.com)
  • Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for "DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (reportlinker.com)
  • The report assesses the active DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (reportlinker.com)
  • Offers detailed therapeutic product profiles of DP1 Receptor (Prostaglandin D2 receptor) Antagonist with key coverage of developmental activities including licensing & collaboration deals, patent details. (reportlinker.com)
  • The pathways important for regulating development are also dysregulated in cancer," said DuBois, who studies prostaglandin signaling in colon cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. (britannica.com)
  • Doctors may prescribe prostaglandin medications to stimulate uterine contractions. (healthline.com)
  • Prostaglandins stimulate inflammatory response in most organs. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Prostaglandins stimulate nerves that sends pain messages to the brain. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The biochemists Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane jointly received the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their research on prostaglandins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central apnoea and endogenous prostaglandins in neonates. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic prostaglandins are used to induce childbirth, to close patent ductus arteriosus in newborns, to reduce gastric acid secretion and treat peptic ulcers, dilate blood vessels in a limb with a severe lack of blood supply and pulmonary hypertension. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H 2 (PGH 2 ). (bionity.com)
  • Many naturally occurring prostaglandins as well as many artificial forms have been synthesized in the laboratory. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity. (curehunter.com)
  • The release of prostaglandin has now also been shown to be mediated by a specific transporter, namely the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Menstrual cramps, when due to functional problems and the release of prostaglandin F2alpha in the menstrual fluid, are a common monthly problem in menstruating women. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This invention relates to prostaglandin derivatives and is concerned with novel compounds related in structure to prostanoic acid which has the structural formula: ##STR2## and which, in accordance with common usage, can also be written as follows: ##STR3## The present invention is also concerned with a process for preparing the said novel compounds. (google.com)
  • Today's highlight relates to prostaglandin agonists to treat glaucoma, hair loss and more. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • There are nine classes of prostaglandins denoted PGA-I, within which individual prostaglandins are denoted by numeral subscripts. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Currently, three classes of prostaglandins are recognized, and these are categorized on the basis of the number of double bonds present within the prostaglandin molecule and on the fatty acid from which they are derived. (glowm.com)
  • Khayrullina T, Yen J, Jing H, Ganea D. In vitro differentiation of dendritic cells in the presence of prostaglandin E2 alters the IL-12/IL-23 balance and promotes differentiation of Th17 cells. (labome.org)
  • In 1971, it was determined that aspirin-like drugs could inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandin , any of a group of physiologically active substances having diverse hormonelike effects in animals . (britannica.com)
  • Prostaglandins influence the contraction of the muscles lining many internal organs and can lower or raise blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • prostaglandin F 2α stimulates contraction of the myometrium and luteolysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For instance, PGE 2 that binds with prostaglandin E 2 receptor 1 (EP 1 ) leads to gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle contraction whereas with prostaglandin E 2 receptor 2 (EP 2 ), it is involved in gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle relaxation. (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) is involved in uterus contraction and bronchoconstriction. (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 has been used to determine its effects on collagen gel contraction mediated by alveolar cell carcinoma cell line A549. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 4-week Daily Treatment Period 1: 4 weeks of 1 x daily intravenous infusion of 3 ampoules (20 μg) of Prostaglandin E1 (total 60 μg) in 50 - 250 ml physiological saline solution over 2 hours and in addition 2 x daily (including weekends) Placebo tablets. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) modulates many physiological functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Future studies should compare the use of Foley catheters with other prostaglandin preparations such as prostaglandin El (misoprostol) which is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and should evaluate the use of Foley catheters in women with a prior cesarean section, they suggested. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Comment: Peppermint contains the important active constituent, menthol, which exerts its effect on the myometrium (muscle wall of the uterus) contractions by inhibiting prostaglandin F2alpha , an oxytocin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conversely, alterations in biomarkers such as platelet aggregation, plasma levels of nitric oxide surrogates, endothelin-1, C-reactive protein, and prostaglandin F2alpha , did not reach statistical significance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of administration of prostaglandin F2alpha or presence of an estrous bitch on characteristics of the canine ejaculate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of corticosteroid (dexamethasone), progesterone, oestrogen and prostaglandin F2alpha on gestation length in normal and ovariectomized mares. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dependence on prolactin of the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin F2alpha in rat luteal cell cultures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These compounds are particularly useful as intermediate compounds for preparing prostaglandin derivatives and especially the prostaglandin derivatives of formula I above. (google.com)
  • Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. (curehunter.com)
  • Pharmaceutical compositions useful as vasodilators whose activity may be restricted to the site of application by control of the dose applied which comprises a prostaglandin selected from the group consisting of the natural and synthetic analogs of the PGE, PGA and PGE.sub.β types in a pharmaceutical. (google.es)
  • Prostaglandin analogs, firstly used in obstetrics and gynecology, are now widespread in both sexes, especially in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, glaucoma, etc. (curehunter.com)
  • Therefore, we tried to highlight the effects of repeated administration of Cloprostenol and CIPG isopropyl ester (both prostaglandin F2α analogs) for the male gonad. (curehunter.com)
  • Prostaglandins are compounds in the body made of fats that have hormone-like effects. (healthline.com)
  • Prostaglandins are unique compounds because they have hormone-like effects. (healthline.com)
  • With the burgeoning of literature on the prostaglandins, it is timely that two books have appeared to summarize the wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological actions of these compounds. (annals.org)
  • Prostaglandins are powerful, locally-acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • COX-2 produces prostaglandins through stimulation. (bionity.com)
  • natural and synthetic prostaglandins are used to induce abortion or labour in humans and domestic animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prostaglandin F 2α ( PGF 2α u prostanoidnoj nomenklaturi), farmaceutski naziv dinoprost ( INN ), prirodni prostaglandin koji se koristi u medicini za indukciju porođaja, i kao abortifacijent . (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins differ from endocrine hormones in that they are not produced at a specific site but in many places throughout the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins, because of their hormone-like activity, are sometimes referred to as tissue hormones . (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin F 2α ( PGF 2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed carboprost , is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have even created artificial prostaglandins for use in medication to induce labor. (healthline.com)
  • Conditions that can result from too few prostaglandins include glaucoma and stomach ulcers. (healthline.com)
  • Certain prostaglandins have a role in stimulating the uterine contractions of labor and birth. (medindia.net)
  • About 30 minutes after an injection of prostaglandin F 2α , contractions begin, and abortion takes place within 19 to 20 hours. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Curcumin induces programmed cell death and inhibits proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It is concluded that aspirin exerts two separate inhibitory effects on prostaglandin formation in vivo, a rapid action of the intact molecule on easily accessible tissues and a later action due to its metabolic conversion to salicylic acid. (springer.com)
  • Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a fundamental role in modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroendocrine system and in shaping the hypothalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, three prostaglandin (PG) E synthases (PGESs) have been characterized: the microsomal PGESs (mPGES-1 and mPGES-2) and the cytosolic PGES (cPGES) [ 11 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the result of a prostaglandin abortion at 4 months into the pregnancy. (pregnantpause.org)
  • prostaglandin injections into the amniotic sac, an in-hospital procedure, have been used as an abortion technique in pregnancies after the 16th week. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. (britannica.com)
  • Prostaglandin A3 is one of the many prostaglandins that scientists are currently investigating for its possible utility to humans. (fsu.edu)
  • These results suggest that prostaglandin E 2 acts through EP1 to control impulsive behavior under stress, a finding potentially exploitable for development of drugs that attenuate impulsive behavior in humans. (pnas.org)
  • Increased cyclic AMP increases prostaglandin synthesis leading to further increases in cyclic AMP. (biology-online.org)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) acts on adenylate cyclase to enhance the production of cyclic AMP. (biology-online.org)
  • Of the various mechanisms proposed to explain the cytoprotective properties of prostaglandins, mucus discharge seems the most probable. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prostaglandin D 2 is a prostaglandin which binds to the receptor PTGDR . (wikidoc.org)
  • Prostaglandins are found in most tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors think that prostaglandins may be responsible for uterine cramping that can cause painful periods. (healthline.com)

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