Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The period following a surgical operation.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Breaks in bones.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Glucose in blood.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The period during a surgical operation.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Pain during the period after surgery.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (1/70469)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (2/70469)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Reproductive factors and fatal hip fractures. A Norwegian prospective study of 63,000 women. (3/70469)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of reproductive variables (age at menarche, menopause, first and last birth as well as parity, lactation, and abortions) on hip fracture mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in Norway with more than 60,000 women followed up for 29 years. A total of 465 deaths as a result of hip fracture were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Statistically significant linear relations (p < or = 0.02) were found between both age at menarche and length of reproductive period (defined as age at menopause to age at menarche) and the mortality of hip fractures in women aged less than 80. The death rate for women with a late menarche (> or = 17 years) was twice that of the women with relatively early menarche (< or = 13 years). Compared with women with less than 30 years between menopause and menarche, the mortality rate ratio in women with more than 38 reproductive years was 0.5. We also found an inverse relation with age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports by hypothesis that an early menarche and a long reproductive period protect against hip fracture mortality. High age at first birth may also be protective.  (+info)

Postoperative tetany in Graves disease: important role of vitamin D metabolites. (4/70469)

OBJECTIVE: To test the authors' hypothesis of the causal mechanism(s) of postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies by the authors suggested that postoperative tetany in patients with Graves disease occurs during the period of bone restoration and resulted from continuation of a calcium flux into bone concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism induced by surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate sequential changes in serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and other electrolytes, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and bone metabolic markers in 109 consecutive patients with Graves disease who underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. RESULTS: Preoperative serum iPTH levels negatively correlated with ionized calcium levels and positively correlated with 1,25(OH)2D or 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD. After the operation, there was a significant decline in levels of ionized calcium, magnesium, and iPTH. Serum iPTH was not detected in 15 patients after surgery. Four of these 15 patients, and 1 patient whose iPTH level was below normal, developed tetany. Preoperative serum ionized calcium levels were significantly lower, and iPTH levels were higher, in the 5 patients with tetany than in the 11 patients who did not develop tetany despite undetectable iPTH levels. The tetany group had significantly lower serum 25OHD levels and higher 1,25(OH)2D levels, and had increased 1,25(OH)2D/25OHD as an index of the renal 25OHD-1-hydroxylase activity than those in the nontetany group. These results suggest that patients with a high serum level of iPTH as a result of low serum calcium levels (secondary hyperparathyroidism) are susceptible to tetany under conditions of hypoparathyroid function after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative tetany occurs in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by a relative deficiency in calcium and vitamin D because of their increased demand for bone restoration after preoperative medical therapy concomitant with transient hypoparathyroidism after surgery. Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be recommended before and/or after surgery for patients in whom postoperative tetany is expected to develop.  (+info)

HLA-DR expression and soluble HLA-DR levels in septic patients after trauma. (5/70469)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if cellular and soluble HLA-DR molecules may be relevant in severely injured patients for the development of gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: HLA-DR molecules play a central role in the specific immune response to infection. The reduced HLA-DR expression on monocytes is considered to correlate with infectious complications and the development of sepsis. Data on the role of HLA-DR expression on T cells and soluble HLA-DR molecules are rare. METHODS: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble HLA-DR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HLA-DR expression on circulating T cells, calculated as mean fluorescence intensity in channels, was reduced at day 1 after admission in 20 patients with subsequent severe sepsis compared with 46 patients without sepsis. The septic patients immediately after trauma had significantly lower soluble HLA-DR plasma levels than the nonseptic patients. At day 2 after admission, HLA-DR expression on monocytes was significantly lower in the severe sepsis group than in the patients without sepsis, and lasted until day 14 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: In severely injured patients, decreased levels of cellular and soluble HLA-DR appear as early indicators of an immune deviation associated with the development of severe sepsis. Moreover, immune alterations of different cell types may promote distinct kinds of septicemia.  (+info)

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (6/70469)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. (7/70469)

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (8/70469)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.

The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back

Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Preventative measures for coronary disease include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, either due to a blockage or a rupture of the blood vessels. This can lead to cell death and permanent brain damage.
2. Cerebral vasospasm: Vasospasm is a temporary constriction of the blood vessels in the brain, which can occur after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space surrounding the brain).
3. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches. It can lead to recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIs) or stroke.
4. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: This is a condition where abnormal protein deposits accumulate in the blood vessels of the brain, leading to inflammation and bleeding.
5. Cavernous malformations: These are abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain that can cause seizures, headaches, and other symptoms.
6. Carotid artery disease: Atherosclerosis (hardening) of the carotid arteries can lead to a stroke or TIAs.
7. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This is a condition where the blood flow to the brain is reduced due to narrowing or blockage of the vertebral and basilar arteries.
8. Temporal lobe dementia: This is a type of dementia that affects the temporal lobe of the brain, leading to memory loss and other cognitive symptoms.
9. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels in the brain, leading to recurrent stroke-like events.
10. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches, leading to decreased blood flow to the brain and increased risk of stroke.

It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there may be other causes of stroke and TIAs that are not included here. A proper diagnosis can only be made by a qualified medical professional after conducting a thorough examination and reviewing the individual's medical history.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are different types of fever, including:

1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.

The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:

* Elevated body temperature
* Chills
* Sweating
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite

In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.

Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.

In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:

* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.

Preventive measures for fever include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.

Symptoms of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and ulcers in the stomach and small intestine. Treatment options for the condition include surgery to remove the tumors, medications to reduce acid production in the stomach, and therapies to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that affects approximately 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 people worldwide. It can occur at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in adults between the ages of 30 and 60 years old. The condition is more common in women than in men.

The exact cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations that occur in the tumors. In some cases, the condition may be inherited from a parent. Other risk factors for developing Zollinger-Ellison syndrome include having a family history of the condition, having other endocrine tumors, or taking certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

Overall, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare and complex condition that requires specialized medical care to diagnose and treat. With appropriate treatment, many people with the condition can experience significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life.

Example Sentences:

1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are several types of hip fractures, including:

1. Femoral neck fracture: A break in the thin neck of the femur just above the base of the thigh bone.
2. Subtrochanteric fracture: A break between the lesser trochanter (a bony prominence on the upper end of the femur) and the neck of the femur.
3. Diaphyseal fracture: A break in the shaft of the femur, which is the longest part of the bone.
4. Metaphyseal fracture: A break in the area where the thigh bone meets the pelvis.

Hip fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Osteoporosis: A condition that causes brittle and weak bones, making them more susceptible to fractures.
2. Trauma: A fall or injury that causes a direct blow to the hip.
3. Overuse: Repetitive strain on the bone, such as from sports or repetitive movements.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as osteopenia (low bone density) or Paget's disease (a condition that causes abnormal bone growth), can increase the risk of hip fractures.

Treatment for hip fractures typically involves surgery to realign and stabilize the bones. This may involve inserting plates, screws, or rods to hold the bones in place while they heal. In some cases, a total hip replacement may be necessary. After surgery, physical therapy is often recommended to help regain strength and mobility in the affected limb.

Preventive measures for hip fractures include:

1. Exercise: Regular exercise, such as weight-bearing activities like walking or running, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
2. Diet: A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D can help support bone health.
3. Fall prevention: Taking steps to prevent falls, such as removing tripping hazards from the home and using handrails, can help reduce the risk of hip fractures.
4. Osteoporosis treatment: If you have osteoporosis, medications or other treatments may be recommended to help strengthen your bones and reduce the risk of hip fractures.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.

Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.

Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.

Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.

Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.

Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.

Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:

1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.

Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.


The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.


Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.


Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.


Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.


Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Surgical wound infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Poor surgical technique: If the surgeon does not follow proper surgical techniques, such as properly cleaning and closing the incision, the risk of infection increases.
2. Contamination of the wound site: If the wound site is contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms during the surgery, this can lead to an infection.
3. Use of contaminated instruments: If the instruments used during the surgery are contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms, this can also lead to an infection.
4. Poor post-operative care: If the patient does not receive proper post-operative care, such as timely changing of dressings and adequate pain management, the risk of infection increases.

There are several types of surgical wound infections, including:

1. Superficial wound infections: These infections occur only in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and can be treated with antibiotics.
2. Deep wound infections: These infections occur in the deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone, and can be more difficult to treat.
3. Wound hernias: These occur when the intestine bulges through the incision site, creating a hernia.
4. Abscesses: These occur when pus collects in the wound site, creating a pocket of infection.

Surgical wound infections can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:

1. Cultures: These are used to identify the type of bacteria or other microorganisms causing the infection.
2. Imaging studies: These can help to determine the extent of the infection and whether it has spread to other areas of the body.
3. Physical examination: The surgeon will typically perform a physical examination of the wound site to look for signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or drainage.

Treatment of surgical wound infections typically involves a combination of antibiotics and wound care. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures.

Prevention is key when it comes to surgical wound infections. To reduce the risk of infection, surgeons and healthcare providers can take several steps, including:

1. Proper sterilization and disinfection of equipment and the surgical site.
2. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis, which is the use of antibiotics to prevent infections in high-risk patients.
3. Closure of the incision site with sutures or staples to reduce the risk of bacterial entry.
4. Monitoring for signs of infection and prompt treatment if an infection develops.
5. Proper wound care, including keeping the wound clean and dry, and changing dressings as needed.
6. Avoiding unnecessary delays in surgical procedure, which can increase the risk of infection.
7. Proper patient education on wound care and signs of infection.
8. Use of biological dressings such as antimicrobial impregnated dressings, which can help reduce the risk of infection.
9. Use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) which can help to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection.
10. Proper handling and disposal of sharps and other medical waste to reduce the risk of infection.

It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for wound care and to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or increased pain. By taking these precautions, the risk of surgical wound infections can be significantly reduced, leading to better outcomes for patients.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Here are some key points to define sepsis:

1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.

Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.

Types of Radius Fractures:

1. Stable fracture: The bone is broken but still in place.
2. Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of place.
3. Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into several pieces.
4. Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone.


1. Pain in the arm or forearm.
2. Swelling and bruising.
3. Limited mobility or deformity of the arm.
4. Difficulty moving the arm or wrist.


1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans.


1. Minor fractures may be treated with immobilization in a cast or brace.
2. Displaced or comminuted fractures may require surgical intervention to realign and stabilize the bone.
3. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and mobility in the arm.


1. Infection.
2. Nerve damage.
3. Delayed healing.
4. Malunion or nonunion of the fracture, which can cause long-term complications.


1. Wear protective gear during sports and physical activities.
2. Use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain on the arm.
3. Maintain good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise.

The exact cause of PMR is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response. The condition often occurs in conjunction with another inflammatory disorder called giant cell arteritis (GCA), which affects the blood vessels.

Symptoms of PMR include:

* Pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Sleep disturbances
* Weight loss

The diagnosis of PMR is based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to check for inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Treatment for PMR typically involves a combination of medications, including:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or narcotics
* Anti-inflammatory medications, such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic response modifiers

In addition to medication, physical therapy and exercise may be helpful in managing the symptoms of PMR. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair joint damage.

The prognosis for PMR is generally good, with most people experiencing significant improvement within a few months of starting treatment. However, the condition can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

The common types of RTIs include:

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.

RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.

In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.

Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:

* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who ... Prospective cohort studies are typically ranked higher in the hierarchy of evidence than retrospective cohort studies and can ... Million Women Study, UK. Rotterdam Study, Netherlands. Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study, Bolivia The UK biobank , UK ... "Definition of prospective cohort study - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". LaMorte, Wayne. "Prospective and Retrospective Cohort ...
The Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), located in Seville, Spain, is one of the seven institutes of the ... WETO-H2 Study[permanent dead link] Official website (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links ...
A study by Khan et al. (2008) examined the influence of cognitive load (low vs. high) on time-based prospective memory. The ... A study further compared the difference between young-old adults and old-old adults in time-based prospective memory, finding ... 2010) conducted a study comparing time-based prospective memory in children and young adults; they found an increase in ... Another study by Kvavilashvili et al. (2009) comparing time-based prospective memory among young adults (18- to 30-year-olds), ...
"Prospective Studies". The University of Texas at Dallas. Retrieved 2010-05-21. "Confetti Cannons and Countdowns: Campus ... Ackerman Center for Holocaust Studies Center for Asian Studies Center for Translation Studies Center for US-Latin America ... "Center for Asian Studies , Center for Asian Studies". asianstudies.utdallas.edu. Retrieved 2022-08-03. "Homepage , Center for ... Center for Crime and Justice Studies Center for Global Collective Action Center for the Study of Texas Politics Institute for ...
A prospective study". European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 34 (3): 361-6. doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2007.03.020. ...
A prospective study". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 176: 440-3. doi:10.1192/bjp.176.5.440. PMID 10912219. Pantic I ( ... Studies such as one in 1998 led by Robert E. Kraut indicated that Internet can have an impact on a person's daily life and that ... A study conducted on a variety of New Zealand Children's television shows showed that a mental illness reference appeared in 59 ... The study concluded that there is a correlation between screen time and a decline in mental health. TikTok has especially ...
A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 88 (6): 1251-7. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.00216. PMID 16757758. Frick SL (April 2006). " ...
A prospective study". Am J Sports Med. 31 (4): 585-589. doi:10.1177/03635465030310041801. PMID 12860549. S2CID 22497516. Thomas ... Imaging studies, such as ultrasound or MRI, may reveal anatomic abnormalities or masses responsible for the impingement. ...
Armson, CJ; Pollard, CW (3 February 1986). "Child cyclist injuries; a prospective study". Medical Journal of Australia. 144. ... Studies of helmet use by injured cyclists were published from the late 1980s, some in Australia, both before and after helmet ... McDermott, F. T.; Lane, J. C.; Brazenor, G. A.; Debney, A. E. (1993). "The effectiveness of bicyclist helmets: a study of 1710 ... The results of a comparative study of the injury profiles of Victorian motorcyclist and bicyclist casualties were used by the ...
A prospective study]". Forsch Komplementärmed Klass Naturheilkd (in German). 12 (3): 148-51. doi:10.1159/000085212. PMID ... "No credible scientific studies have demonstrated the reliability of LBA for detecting any of the above conditions." Ernst ...
A prospective study". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 31 (4): 585-89. doi:10.1177/03635465030310041801. PMID 12860549 ...
A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Br. 69 (5): 840-2. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.69B5.3680356. PMID 3680356. Archived from the ... The study suggested that treatment should not be based on the correction of a non-existent nail deformity. In some cases, ... In studies of diabetics, who need to avoid surgery when possible, nail bracing was found to be effective at providing immediate ... One study compared patients with ingrown toenails to healthy controls and found no difference in the shape of toenails between ...
A prospective study". The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 27 (6): 321-327. PMID 7120209. Malarewicz A, Szymkiewicz J, Rogala ... A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is ... Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the ... A large study found that there is a need to increase the accessibility of support services available for fathers. A pregnant ...
A prospective study". JAMA. 261 (18): 2663-68. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03420180087036. PMID 2709546. Rodríguez-Molinero (2015). " ... Rapp (2014). "Fall incidence in Germany: results of two population-based studies, and comparison of retrospective and ... A Preliminary Study. Rehabil. Nurs.. 2020;45(5):271-278. doi:10.1097/rnj.0000000000000219 Sarofim M (2012). "Predicting falls ... The ProFane taxonomy is currently used as a framework to appraise falls-related research studies in Cochrane Systematic Reviews ...
A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 88 (6): 1251-7. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.00216. PMID 16757758. S2CID 29137759. Kocher MS ... A small study showed that the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen could shorten the disease course (from 4.5 to 2 ... Some studies have demonstrated findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan) that can differentiate between septic ... but further studies did not confirm any link between the two conditions. There are no set standards for the diagnosis of ...
A prospective study of neurologic manifestations of Behçet's disease in 96 Iranian patients". Exp Mol Pathol. 74 (1): 17-22. ... A prospective study". Arch Neurol. 46 (3): 265-269. doi:10.1001/archneur.1989.00520390031011. PMID 2919979. Yazici H, Fresko I ... a prospective study from Iraq". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74 (5): 608-13. doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.5.608. PMC 1738436. PMID ... In one study of 387 Behçet's disease (BD) patients that has been done for 20 years, 13% of men with BD developed to NBD and 5.6 ...
A prospective study". European Heart Journal. 9 (1): 43-53. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a062389. PMID 3345769. "UOTW # ... a prospective study in 121 patients". The American Journal of Medicine. 94 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(93)90059-X. PMID ... the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study". Archives of Internal Medicine. 169 (5): 463-73. doi: ... Among people with staphylococcal bacteremia (SAB), one study found a 29% prevalence of endocarditis in community-acquired SAB ...
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A prospective randomized study". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 24 (1): 61-6. doi:10.1177/036354659602400111. PMID ... Though knee taping has been shown to offer short-term pain relief, its long-term efficacy is confounded by several studies. The ... Wilson, T; Carter, N; Thomas, G (2003). "A multicenter, single-masked study of medial, neutral, and lateral patellar taping in ...
Retrospective and prospective studies". Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. Supplement. 275: 112-121. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1979. ... In the initial studies that discovered FAS, growth deficiency was a requirement for inclusion in the studies; thus, all the ... Within nine years of the Washington discovery, animal studies, including non-human monkey studies carried out at the University ... a prospective study". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 19512. Bibcode:2020NatSR..1019512O. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76406-6. PMC ...
Knoepfli AS, Kinkel K, Berney T, Morel P, Becker CD, Poletti PA (2007). "Prospective study of 310 patients: can early CT ... In one large study, there were no patients with pancreatitis who had an elevated amylase with a normal lipase. Another study ... A prospective clinical study". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 71 (12): 1138-44. doi:10.4065/71.12.1138. PMID 8945483. Smith RC, ... a prospective, comparative study with statistical evaluation". Pancreas. 35 (3): 238-42. doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3180619662. PMID ...
Four prospective American studies". Circulation. 79 (1): 8-15. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.79.1.8. PMID 2642759. Miller NE, Thelle DS, ... A post hoc analysis of the IDEAL and the EPIC prospective studies found an association between high levels of HDL cholesterol ( ... High-density lipoprotein and coronary heart-disease: a prospective case-control study". Lancet. 1 (8019): 965-968. doi:10.1016/ ... Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group (July 2002). "MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with ...
Analytical Cohort study Prospective cohort Retrospective cohort Time series study Case-control study Nested case-control study ... "Prospective vs. Retrospective Studies". Stats Direct. Retrieved May 30, 2019. Some aspects of study design Tufts University web ... Cross-sectional study Community survey (a type of cross-sectional study) Ecological study When choosing a study design, many ... The term retrospective study is sometimes used as another term for a case-control study. This use of the term "retrospective ...
2004). "Prospective randomized study of the Charite artificial disc: data from two investigational centers". Spine J. 4 (6 ... It has been reported to be negative in several studies. It has been reported to have no effect in other studies. Many studies ... 2008). "Is smoking a risk factor for low back pain in adolescents? A prospective cohort study". Spine. 33 (5): 527-32. doi: ... July 2005). "A prospective, randomized, multicenter Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemptions study of ...
A prospective randomized study". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 71 (3): 336-340. doi:10.2106/00004623-198971030-00004. PMID 2925704. ... Subsequent studies showed that in the unstable patient, long operations lead to a 'second hit' which actually worsened ... when studies showed early definitive fixation of long bone fractures lead to better outcomes, with a reduction in incidence of ...
A nationwide prospective study". Addictive Behaviors. 36 (3): 256-260. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.10.012. PMID 21146319. ... Some studies show that internet meanness is more common among girls than boys. Many studies in the U.S. and Europe show that at ... Most studies of relational aggression have involved children or adolescents; the study of relational aggression in adults ... For example, a study by Horn found that girls are more likely to say that it is morally wrong to exclude someone based on their ...
... a prospective observational study". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 8 (1): 177. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-177. PMC 3843578. ... with one study reporting 73.3% of test subjects exhibiting abnormalities. The same study also found abnormalities in visual ... Many laboratory studies can be used to further narrow the potential cause of ataxia; imaging of brain and spinal cord and ... A recent study also found significant atrophy of the spinal cord and flattening of the posterior column and found a correlation ...
A prospective randomized study". European Journal of Orthodontics. 28 (6): 610-617. doi:10.1093/ejo/cjl053. ISSN 0141-5387. ... "A prospective study of the treatment effects of a removable appliance with palatal crib combined with high-pull chincup therapy ... Another study stated that there is no positive effect of vertical pull chin cup in controlling the vertical facial height and ... published a study in 1990 which stated that patients who achieved a positive overbite during their tongue crib therapy had a ...
Prospective Studies Collaboration (2009). "Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative ... A similar 2016 study found that, of the BMI ranges studied (which ranged from 18.5 to >30), the "normal" 18.5-22.4 BMI range ... prospective cohort study", BMJ, v355. doi: [1]. Harrington, Mary; Gibson, Sigrid; Cottrell, Richard (2009). "A review and meta- ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies". International Journal of Obesity. 40 (2): 220-8. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.176. PMID ...
The Young Socialist Movement in America from 1905 to 1940: A Study of the Young People's Socialist League. PhD dissertation. ... who encouraged prospective SSS teachers to read John Dewey's School and Society to provide a conceptual basis for their work. ...
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In 2002, a study performed in Sweden on Alzheimer's patients was able to detect the plaque in PET brain scans. Later studies on ... after analyzing 400 prospective compounds and developing 300 variations of the substance that they had discovered might work. ... Bayer and General Electric perform a study to test their method. Avid established a study with a group of 35 hospice patients, ... In a study published in January 2011 in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Avid reported on the results of ...
These students lived, studied, and taught the local black community. The rebels also preached in local black and white churches ... A few young men also joined the Cumminsville group who were prospective Lane students, but never attended the seminary. These ... Resources for Studying the Lane Debates and the Oberlin Commitment to Racial Egalitarianism White, Abby; Brown, Marcia. "From ... This induced the other dear brother to leave his studies and join him. Both are now incessantly occupied. Besides these two day ...
Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Vol. I ... and thus as the second son with no prospective patrimony, Hugh Courtenay was given the estate of Boconnoc by his mother, the ... ISBN 1449966373 Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. ...
Before his time as dean, he directed the Strategic Studies Program at SAIS. Cohen "is one of the few teachers in the American ... Along with a large number of other Republicans, Cohen opposed Barack Obama's prospective nomination of Republican Chuck Hagel ... In 2019, Cohen was named the 9th Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins ... "Vali Nasr to step down as dean of Johns Hopkins' School of Advanced International Studies". 2019-06-14. Archived from the ...
At the same time, the prospective leader of the crusade, William VI of Montferrat, fell ill. In November, the Pope was forced ... Nicol, Donald M. (1988). Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University ... B. Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. OCLC 834784665. Bredenkamp, François (1996). The ... Centre for Byzantine Studies. pp. 37-62. Stiernon, Lucien (1959). "Les origines du despotat d'Épire. À propos d'un livre récent ...
Marian Simms, 'Parliament and party preselection: parties and the secret garden of politics', Legislative Studies, Vol. 7, No. ... Presumptive nominee Primary election Prospective parliamentary candidate United States presidential primary Candidate ... eds), Democracy at the Polls: A Comparative Study of Competitive national Elections, American Enterprise Institute, Washington ... Royal Commission on Electoral Reform and Party Financing Research studies, Volume 13, Dundurn Press, Toronto, 1991, p. 110. ABC ...
Appleton studied law at Bowdoin College in the 1830s, graduating as a Legum Doctor in 1834 and pursuing further studies at ... While in office he was involved in preliminary discussions with Tsarist Russia over the prospective Alaska Purchase. Talks were ... As Assistant Secretary he opened discussions with Russia regarding a prospective Alaska Purchase, leading to the United States ... The book includes Appleton's endorsement of northeastern arts and industry, alongside a studied disapproval of its urban ...
In the late 1970s, Chris Wedge, then an undergraduate at Purchase College studying film, was employed by Mathematical ... Blue Sky spent two days rendering a single frame and submitted it to the prospective client. However, once the client accepted ...
Strang spoke glowingly of a future generation who would "make religion a science," to be "studied by as exact rules as ... Any wife already married to the prospective polygamist was given the right to express her opinion, and even to object, but not ...
The Government Accountability Office and the HHS Office of the Inspector General both released studies that showed that RHC ... replaced cost-based reimbursement with a state-specific prospective payment system (PPS). The BIPA PPS model requires states to ...
Both were expected to study continuously for years without interruption. Without the necessary financial support, studying for ... to use similar methods to select prospective employees. Seeing its initial success within the EIC, the British government ... The process of studying for the examination tended to be time-consuming and costly, requiring time to spare and tutors. Most of ... After completing their studies, candidates also had to pay for travel and lodging expenses, not to mention thank-you gifts for ...
Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University of Belfast, 1992), ISBN 0-85389-446-9(HB) Northern Ireland at Wikipedia's sister ... At the same time, the UK Government recognised for the first time, as part of the prospective, the so-called "Irish dimension ... Contemporary Irish Studies. Manchester University Press, 1983. pp.29-32 Maney, Gregory. "The Paradox of Reform: The Civil ... "NI migrant population triples in decade, says study" Archived 20 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 26 June 2014. " ...
In October 2022, Chinese media showcased the prospective concepts of H-6K carrying LJ-1 unmanned aerial system conducting drone ... Allen, Kenneth W. (2 May 2022). "PLA Air Force Bomber Force Organization" (PDF). China Aerospace Studies Institute. "H-6H ... Allen, Kenneth W. (2 May 2022). "PLA Air Force Bomber Force Organization" (PDF). China Aerospace Studies Institute. Air ... Bibliography International Institute for Strategic Studies (2010). Hacket, James (ed.). The Military Balance 2010. Oxfordshire ...
For example, a 2016 study found that applicants for teaching jobs thought that the group interview was fair. A 2006 study found ... While preparing for an interview, prospective employees usually look at what the job posting or job description says in order ... One study found that over 80% of participants lied about job-related skills in the interview, presumably to compensate for a ... For example, studies of the United States of America (USA) to Canada have found conflicting results in average levels of ...
Chapter 23 is titled "Innovation in Financial Services, Case Study 8: Shared Appreciation Mortgage - Bank of Scotland". This is ... Barclays used a checklist titled "Barclays Mortgage Service" when they were discussing a mortgage with prospective borrowers. " ... Case study 8: Shared Appreciation Mortgage - Bank of Scotland" "Home loan for the Dome" by Michelle Carabine, published in the ...
Prospective Surveillance Study". Mycology. American Society for Microbiology. 53 (11): 3639-3645. doi:10.1128/JCM.01985-15. PMC ... it was said to warrant further study. Different strains, it was suggested, should also be studied "to increase knowledge of ... An Indian study of seven bee species and 9 plant species found 45 yeast species from 16 genera colonise the nectaries of ... dead link] Lodder, J.; Kreger-van Rij, N. J. W., Editor (October 22, 2013) [1967]. The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study (Hardcover) ( ...
Sanders' mother and his five-year-old niece, who also attended the study, survived the shooting by pretending to be dead on the ... At least eighteen candidates and prospective candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential election expressed reactions through ... Cynthia Graham Hurd (54) - a Bible study member and a branch manager for the Charleston County Public Library system; sister of ... Susie Jackson (87) - the oldest victim who was a Bible study and church choir member. Ethel Lee Lance (70) - the church's ...
The Idea of the Holy also set out a paradigm for the study of religion that focuses on the need to realize the religious as a ... camps resulted in evidence supporting the correspondence hypothesis through analysis of personal narratives and a prospective ... These studies are motivated by the idea that people are invested in maintaining beliefs in order and structure to prevent ... In this study, researchers suggest that when a person's personal control is lessened, their motivation to believe in order is ...
This can be supported through the results of a questionnaire study that was conducted on technology industries in GTSM and TSE ... and sales and relations development for current and prospective customers. For this reason, it has been difficult to discern ... An exploratory study. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(1), 145-161. Kind, S., & Knyphausen-Aufseß, Z. (2007). What is ' ... Urban Studies. 55 (14): 3252-3273. doi:10.1177/0042098017735011. ISSN 0042-0980. PMC 6187060. PMID 30369645. Poruthiyil, ...
If the prospective adoptive family is childless, they can adopt two children. The adoptee must be at least 15 years old, and ... Women's Studies, 33.4, 541-549 White, Merry Isaacs. 1963 Perfectly Japanese : Making Families in an Era of Upheaval. University ... Tongyangxi Moore, Ray A. (May 1970). "Adoption and Samurai Mobility in Tokugawa Japan". The Journal of Asian Studies. 29 (3): ... Tsang, Carol Richmond (2005). "Marriage, Adoption, and Honganji". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 32 (1): 53-83. JSTOR ...
Page 3, "First, we know from the California study, as confirmed by more recent, better publicized studies, that the real ... Expert witnesses must be qualified by the Court, based on the prospective experts qualifications and the standards set from ... The study found that the laws had no effect on whether doctors ordered resource-intensive care (e.g., CT or MRI scans and ... Various studies have shown that the Texas tort-reform law has had no effect on healthcare costs or the number of physicians ...
A 1995 study showed that while attitudes of people are changing about dowry, dowry continues to prevail. In a 1980 study ... It began in 2003 when Nisha Sharma accused her prospective groom, Munish Dalal, of demanding dowry. The case got much coverage ... "Little Dowry, No Sati: The Lot of Women in the Vedic Period." Journal of South Asia Women Studies 2, no. 4 (1996). James G. ... Spatz, Melissa (1991). "A "Lesser" Crime: A Comparative Study of Legal Defenses for Men Who Kill Their Wives". Colum. J. L. & ...
A variety of empirical studies have demonstrated CBT's effectiveness in cases of traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, ... Raskin, Sarah A.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore (2009-05-01). "Prospective Memory Intervention: A Review and Evaluation of a Pilot ... A randomised outcome study". Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 13 (4): 461-488. doi:10.1080/09602010343000039. ISSN 0960-2011 ...
For example, it was making no studies of trench warfare, poison gas or tanks, and was unfamiliar with the rapid evolution of ... Roosevelt, Root and Wood were prospective Republican presidential candidates. More subtly, the Democrats were rooted in ... Frank Trommler, "The Lusitania Effect: America's Mobilization against Germany in World War I" German Studies Review 32#2 (2009 ... highly influential study Nash, George H. The Life of Herbert Hoover: Master of Emergencies, 1917-1918 (1996) excerpt and text ...
... a prospective, multicenter study". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 111 (3): 1060-1068. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000046249.33122. ...
He studied at St. Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was ordained priest in 1870, was professor in the seminary, and later ... In 1893 he addressed the World's Parliament of Religions at Chicago on "The Primitive and Prospective Religious Unity of ...
... prospective study and review of the literature". J Child Neurol. 15 (12): 808-10. doi:10.1177/088307380001501208. PMID 11198496 ...
He studied economics at the University of Buckingham, switching to King's College London for his master's degree. He then began ... In 2006, Lewis was selected as Conservative prospective parliamentary candidate in the Great Yarmouth constituency; he was ...
... J Trauma. 2010 Mar;68(3):576-82. doi: 10.1097/ ... Methods: : This was a prospective study of consecutive blunt trauma patients (18 years or older) admitted to a single ... To be eligible for study inclusion, patients must have undergone both a CT scan and dynamic plain radiographs of their C-spine ...
8 9 Prospective studies investigating these associations have generally been small in scale, with only two studies reporting ... Prospective study of phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation1994;89:1992-7. ... Sickness absence as a global measure of health: evidence from mortality in the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. BMJ2003; ... Psychological distress and premature mortality in the general population: a prospective study. Ann Epidemiol2004;14:467-72. ...
International Studies Program. 153 Howe Russell. Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Telephone: (225) 578-7293 ...
Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored ... This study is based on data from MoBa, a prospective population-based pregnancy cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian ... Strengths of this study include the large sample size, prospective design, extensive collection of data, and the possibility of ... Maternal Iodine Intake and Offspring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Large Prospective Cohort Study by ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... A Prospective, One-arm and Open Clinical Study of Zanubrutinib in the Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia. ... Study Protocol. Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP). Informed Consent Form (ICF). Time Frame:. 12 months to 36 months after study ... Top of Page Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations ...
Surpass Flow Diverter in the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Prospective Multicenter Study. A.K. Wakhloo, P. Lylyk, J. ... Early experience in the treatment of intra-cranial aneurysms by endovascular flow diversion: a multicentre prospective study. ... Flow-diverter stent for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a prospective study in 29 patients with 34 ... New generation of flow diverter (Surpass) for unruptured intracranial aneurysms: a prospective single-center study in 37 ...
This was a prospective multicenter clinical study. Following each resuscitation attempt in 6 hospitals over a 4-year period, we ... Barriers and facilitators for in-hospital resuscitation: A prospective clinical study. *. Kasper G. Lauridsen. Kasper G. ... Chest compression rates during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are suboptimal: a prospective study during in-hospital cardiac ... Clinical experience and skills of physicians in hospital cardiac arrest teams in Denmark: a nationwide study. ...
... ... 2022)‎. Prospective cohort study of referred Malawian children and their survival by hypoxaemia and hypoglycaemia status. ...
METHODS: A prospective, comparative and observational study was carried out from January 2000 to October 2008. The patients ... A Prospective Comparative Study. Rey G Romero, MD, Jeffrey L Glass, MD, Karla C Russek, MD, Morris E Franklin Jr, MD. Texas ... RESULTS: A total of 294 patients, Group 1 (173) and Group 2 (121), were included in the study, with a mean age of 28 (1SD ± 6.8 ... The objective of the study was to compare pre, trans, and postoperative variables in two groups, patients with and without ...
Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and donts for todays cohort studies and provides a guide on how ... Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame ... Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined ... More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with ...
Clinical risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury: a prospective study with correlation of injury by magnetic resonance ... Clinical risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury: a prospective study with correlation of injury by magnetic resonance ... Review papers agree that well devised prospective studies of the risk factors for hamstring muscle (posterior thigh) injuries ... This result is also similar to those from other studies.17,18 In contrast with the previous studies, our work has also shown ...
Our requirements are stated in our rapid response terms and conditions and must be read. These include ensuring that: i) you do not include any illustrative content including tables and graphs, ii) you do not include any information that includes specifics about any patients,iii) you do not include any original data, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you have included a reference, iv) your response is lawful, not defamatory, original and accurate, v) you declare any competing interests, vi) you understand that your name and other personal details set out in our rapid response terms and conditions will be published with any responses we publish and vii) you understand that once a response is published, we may continue to publish your response and/or edit or remove it in the future ...
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from 971 individuals from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We studied ... Serum levels of apolipoproteins and incident type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study. Publication. Publication. Diabetes ... A prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care, 40(3), 346-351. doi:10.2337/dc16-1295 ... We also studied the apolipoproteins jointly by calculating the apolipoproteinic score from the first step and then performing ...
A prospective observational study was carried out from 1 October 1998 to 30 June 1999 in the PICU of Great Ormond Street ... 1996) Comparative assessment of paediatric intensive care in Moscow, the Russian Federation: a prospective multicentre study. ... Identifying futility in a paediatric critical care setting: a prospective observational study ... Identifying futility in a paediatric critical care setting: a prospective observational study ...
2255 A Prospective Study and Identification of Genomewide Association Markers of Familial Predisposition to Plasma Cell ... To identify familial PCDs we initiated a prospective study with active recruitment of a large cohort of patients with PCDs and ... Study of these high-risk families have identified genomewide association markers which in future may help us define familial ... Results: Of 1,084 patients screened for participation in the study; 752 had multiple myeloma (MM), 77 had smoldering MM, 81 a ...
The prospective risk of loss of paid employment before the official state pension age was estimated from expected reasons for ... leaving the labour market among 10,320 currently employed older workers (50-63 years) from the SeniorWorkingLife study. In ... The aim was to investigate the prospective association between self-reported expected reasons for leaving the labour market and ... From: Expected reasons for leaving the labour market and loss of paid employment among older workers: prospective cohort study ...
Strengths and limitations of this study. *. This study is a prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. ... Prospective study of Centurion® versus Infiniti® phacoemulsification systems: surgical and visual outcomes. Int J Ophthalmol ... The longitudinal study of cataract Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:831-6.doi:10.1001/archopht.1993.01090060119035pmid: ... The active-fluidics versus gravity-fluidics system in phacoemulsification for age-related cataract study is a prospective, ...
This prospective vaccine monitoring study primarily aimed to assess humoral responses to SARS-CoV2 vaccine in thoracic cancer ... Efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in thoracic cancer patients: a prospective study supporting a third dose in patients with ... Efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in thoracic cancer patients: a prospective study supporting a third dose in patients with ... Efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in thoracic cancer patients: a prospective study supporting a third dose in patients with ...
... a simulation study embedded in a prospective cohort. View ORCID ProfileInger van Heijl, Valentijn A. Schweitzer, C.H. Edwin ... and different populations were studied. A critique of the aforementioned studies is that all used de-escalation as a fixed ... a simulation study embedded in a prospective cohort ... a simulation study embedded in a prospective cohort ... a simulation study embedded in a prospective cohort ... In the first study by Joung et al. patients with intensive care ...
Study design. This prospective descriptive study was conducted at Rafik Hariri University Hospital (RHUH), Beirut, Lebanon. We ... In this prospective descriptive study, we present our experience in treating these patients, specifically the diagnostic ... The present study shows that men were more affected than women, which is consistent with previous studies showing that men are ... During the study period, as the country was not in the community spread phase of the disease, patients with a travel history to ...
... a prospective cohort study - The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2022 January;62(1):90-7 - Minerva Medica - ... Epidemiology of injuries in elite Korean handball athletes: a prospective cohort study. Hyo Lyun ROH 1, Chan W. KIM 1, Ki J. ... Epidemiology of injuries in elite Korean handball athletes: a prospective cohort study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2022;62:90-7 ... BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to report injury patterns associated with training activities of South Korean elite ...
To explore the role of perioperative hyperglycemia in ischemia reperfusion injury, we conducted a prospective study of 40 ... To explore the role of perioperative hyperglycemia in ischemia reperfusion injury, we conducted a prospective study of 40 ...
D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: This study ... D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: This study ... D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: This study ... D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: This study ...
This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology. ... Tobacco exposure and asthma control in pregnancy: A prospective observational study of 500 pregnancies. P. Grarup, J. Janner, C ... A prospective observational study of 500 pregnancies. Eur Respir J 2013; 42: Suppl. 57, 2020 You must login to share this ... Patterns, predictors and outcomes of asthma control and exacerbations during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. Source: ERJ ...
A prospective study of demographic features and quality of life in HIV-positive women with cervical cancer treated at Tygerberg ... A prospective study of demographic features and quality of life in HIV-positive women with cervical cancer treated at Tygerberg ... Results: The study included a total of 221 women of whom 22% were HIV-positive; the latter were younger and of higher ... HIV-positive women showed statistically significantly higher loss to follow-up during the study. HIV-positive women experienced ...
Participants in the current study were recruited from a larger study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and ... Studies with larger comparison groups, and where HIV disease characteristics are needed to establish whether the trends we ... To date, there have been no cohort studies of the impact of highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) in South Africa ... From: Neuropsychological outcomes in adults commencing highly active anti-retroviral treatment in South Africa: a prospective ...
METHODS: The study included data from 283,827 women of the multinational European Prospective Investigation into C7ancer and ... CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, we did not find any evidence of an association between physical activity and in ... Comparing moderately inactive, moderately active, and active participants with inactive study participants resulted in adjusted ... whereas comparable studies on in situ carcinoma are rare. ... Study with us * Study with us * DPhil Population Health * DPhil ...
Prospective Study Needed Commenting on the study for Medscape, Jonathan H. Whiteson, MD, vice chair of clinical operations and ... "a prospective study including all patients admitted with heart failure, but measurements done when the patient is stabilized as ... The study endpoint was all-cause death or readmission due to heart failure, and the median follow-up period was 1.24 years. ... The study was partially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI. Kamiya, Uchida, and Whiteson ...
In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and ... In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and ... Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The prospective Million Women Study ... Artificial intelligence and big data for early lung cancer diagnosis prospective study (phase 2) ...
  • Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. (nature.com)
  • Design Individual participant meta-analysis of 10 large prospective cohort studies from the Health Survey for England. (bmj.com)
  • Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. (plos.org)
  • Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don'ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. (plos.org)
  • Diverse observational studies, including cross-sectional studies and cohort studies of HIV seroconvertors, have indicated at least a twofold to fivefold increased risk for HIV infection among persons who have other STDs, including genital ulcer diseases and nonulcerative, inflammatory STDs (3-12). (cdc.gov)
  • Prospective epidemiological studies gather information from the past. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective To quantify the link between lower, subclinically symptomatic, levels of psychological distress and cause-specific mortality in a large scale, population based study. (bmj.com)
  • Another meta-analysis of observational studies found that higher levels of circulating LC n-3 PUFA levels were significantly associated with a lower risk for CHD death 4 . (nature.com)
  • Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. (plos.org)
  • Background Observational studies have demonstrated that de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy is independently associated with lower mortality. (biorxiv.org)
  • A series of studies have shown an association between symptoms of depression and anxiety (commonly referred to as psychological distress) and an elevated risk of premature mortality, 1 2 cardiovascular disease, 3 4 5 6 and potentially all cancers, 7 although these are not universal observations. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, extant studies have been unable to adequately examine whether a dose-response association exists between distress and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Non-participation and mortality in a prospective study of cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • Although it seems a safe strategy, most studies evaluating de-escalation and reporting mortality were observational with a high risk of bias and with high clinical heterogeneity. (biorxiv.org)
  • This was a cross-sectional analytical study of baseline data on a population -based cohort of 1 976 SA men and women aged 35 - 70 years who were part of the Cape Town arm of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study.Results. (bvsalud.org)
  • Epidemiology is the study of causative factors associated with the occurrence and number of cases of disease and illness in a specific population. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: A prospective, comparative and observational study was carried out from January 2000 to October 2008. (sages.org)
  • More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. (plos.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from 971 individuals from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. (eur.nl)
  • METHODS Prospective evaluation of consecutive admissions to a 20 bedded multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit of a North London teaching hospital over a nine month period. (bmj.com)
  • Our study underlines the variable presentation of COVID-19, the difference in severity, and the diverse methods of diagnosis. (who.int)
  • Methods: This study examined a random sample of 2651 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who had 25(OH)D concentrations measured from dried blood spots collected in 1990-1994. (monash.edu)
  • METHODS: Newly employed workers (n = 1,107) underwent repeated nerve conduction studies (NCS), and periodic surveys on hand symptoms and physical work exposures including average daily duration of wrist bending, forearm rotation, finger pinching, using vibrating tools, finger/thumb pressing, forceful gripping, and lifting >2 pounds. (cdc.gov)
  • SAkuraBONSAI is a prospective, open-label, multicenter, international, Phase 4 study that will enroll approximately 100 adults (18-74 years) with AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD. (jefferson.edu)
  • One of the most challenging objective for clinical cytometry in prospective multicenter immunomonitoring trials is to compare frequencies, absolute numbers of leukocyte populations and further the mean fuorescence intensities of cell markers, especially when the data are generated from diferent instruments. (ugr.es)
  • The (COVID-19) can evolve and continue to cause pro- remaining participants (14.3%) were mostly health- longed symptoms, characterizing the post-COVID-19 care workers from the study facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Participants 68 222 people from general population samples of adults aged 35 years and over, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and living in private households in England at study baseline. (bmj.com)
  • The authors of this 1984-2004 US study examined the association among 3,897 occupationally exposed participants in the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) for chemoprevention of lung cancer, followed prospectively for 10-18 years. (cdc.gov)
  • We wanted to evaluate the common causes of hoarseness of voice.METHODSThis was a longitudinal study conducted among 100 patients with benign laryngeal lesions attending the Department of ENT-HNS of Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, from 1st December 2015 to 31st November 2016. (who.int)
  • This was a prospective study of consecutive blunt trauma patients (18 years or older) admitted to a single institution between December 2004 and April 2008. (nih.gov)
  • To be eligible for study inclusion, patients must have undergone both a CT scan and dynamic plain radiographs of their C-spine as a part of their clearance process. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to in- quences among patients who survived COVID-19 and clude all patients who attended the clinic during the received follow-up care at a post-COVID-19 outpa- study period and agreed to participate. (cdc.gov)
  • During the study period, 297 patients had a fol- domains evaluated by the WHO Quality of Life ques- low-up medical consultation scheduled at the out- tionnaire (psychological, social relationships, and en- patient clinic. (cdc.gov)
  • We included 175 patients in this study vironmental). (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the study was to compare pre, trans, and postoperative variables in two groups, patients with and without incidental appendectomy. (sages.org)
  • The patients included in the study were women who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (sages.org)
  • RESULTS: A total of 294 patients, Group 1 (173) and Group 2 (121), were included in the study, with a mean age of 28 (1SD ± 6.8). (sages.org)
  • To identify familial PCDs we initiated a prospective study with active recruitment of a large cohort of patients with PCDs and active screening of their relatives combined with tissue banking and subsequent genetic analysis. (confex.com)
  • All patients in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics diagnosed with PCDs between January 2017 and January 2019, were offered enrollment in the study. (confex.com)
  • 176 (16.2%) patients refused to participate in the study, while 44 (4.1%) patients were ineligible for further screening due to the absence of a living first- or second-degree relative. (confex.com)
  • Aims: To study the clinical, radiological and virological features of the first 150 patients with COVID-19 in Lebanon. (who.int)
  • In this study, we investigated the different characteristics of the first 150 COVID-19 patients in Lebanon, including the diagnostic criteria, outcome, demographics, and clinical, radiological and biological characteristics. (who.int)
  • In a single-center, retrospective study that included more than 800 patients, high MUAC (hazard ratio [HR], for combined events, 0.590) and high AMC (HR for combined events, 0.529) were associated with significantly better prognoses than low MUAC and low AMC. (medscape.com)
  • As this group of patients is at significant risk for rapid decompensation, diagnostic studies should be pursued only after resuscitation as indicated, establishment of a secure airway, and a focused physical assessment. (medscape.com)
  • Phase 3 of the study is a prospective cohort study of approximately 2,400 adult patients 18 years and older who have been offered treatment for LTBI in the United States and Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • As one of the TB Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) research studies, this project aims to understand the scope of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States and Canada and to elucidate factors associated with acceptance and completion of treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported exposures showed consistent risks across different exposure models in this prospective study. (cdc.gov)
  • Circulating isoflavone and lignan concentrations and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from seven prospective studies including 2,828 cases and 5,593 controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Individual participant data were available from seven prospective studies (two studies from Japan with 241 cases and 503 controls and five studies from Europe with 2,828 cases and 5,593 controls). (bvsalud.org)
  • 10 The reason for this difference between the adult and paediatric ICU population has not been fully studied. (bmj.com)
  • Recognising the importance of knowing the limits of critical care, we set out to determine the extent of futile care provided in a tertiary PICU in the London area of the UK, using previously defined criteria for futility, and investigate the causes for this discrepancy, if any, from adult studies. (bmj.com)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RESULTS A total of 662 children accounting for 3409 patient bed days were studied. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS: We included 188 (96 male and 92 female) athletes who sustained 767 injuries (annual average, 4.08 injuries/athlete) during the study. (minervamedica.it)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Prospective studies. (who.int)
  • The results of this study will contribute to understanding the impact of genetic factors, toxic environmental exposures, occupational factors and preexisting conditions on the course and long-term effects of COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • This prospective case-control study was conducted autoimmune disease in which the -cells of the from July 2018 to January 2019 at the ophthalmology pancreas do not produce sufficient insulin resulting in department of Al-Zahraa University Hospital. (who.int)
  • Aim: This prospective cohort study was to evaluate the independent and mutual effects of socioeconomic, oral health behaviors and individual clinical factors, including enamel hypomineralization, as possible risk factors for increase in caries experience in second primary molar (SPM) over a period of 2-years. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two-dimensional Doppler studies are a noninvasive alternative to angiography to evaluate vascular injury in critical areas (principally in zone II). (medscape.com)
  • PE is Principal Investigator and MBT co-Principal Investigator of the UK COSMOS study which is funded as described above. (plos.org)
  • Review papers agree that well devised prospective studies of the risk factors for hamstring muscle (posterior thigh) injuries are lacking. (bmj.com)
  • Muscle risk factors that have been studied include muscle weakness, 2, 6- , 8 lack of flexibility, 9, 10 increased muscle stiffness, 11 poor lumbar posture, 12 poor warm up, 9, 13 and muscle fatigue. (bmj.com)
  • 9, 14 Most of these muscle risk factors are difficult to assess and quantify for the purpose of a prospective human clinical study. (bmj.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: A Prospective Study to Determine Clinico-Etiological Factors in Hoarseness of Voice. (who.int)
  • Taking an ecological approach, this study addresses a wide range of factors, including knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, as well as toxicity, tolerability, social and economic factors, and issues associated with clinic structures and the health care delivery system. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary objectives of the study are to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with acceptance or nonacceptance of LTBI treatment, and to identify potentially modifiable factors related to completion or noncompletion of treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • University was obtained and the study adhered to the together with environmental factors. (who.int)
  • The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (plos.org)
  • Here, we describe an innovative standardization workfow to compare all data to carry out any large-scale, prospective multicentric fow cytometry analysis whatever the duration, the number or type of instruments required for the realization of such projects. (ugr.es)
  • 10 11 Smaller studies lead to unreliable estimates of risk, do not permit detailed investigation of the effect of reverse causality, and hamper insights into the association across the full range of psychological distress severity. (bmj.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the principal clinical risk factor is that many injuries are recurrences of a previous injury. (bmj.com)
  • We studied the association of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE as well as the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with the risk of T2D. (eur.nl)
  • This study aimed to examine the association between prediagnostic circulating concentrations of isoflavones ( genistein , daidzein, equol ) and lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) and the risk of prostate cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Prostate cancer risk by study-specific fourths of circulating concentrations of each phytoestrogen was estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression . (bvsalud.org)
  • Level of education was the only SES variable that had no significant association with any CVD risk factor in either study group. (bvsalud.org)
  • SAkuraBONSAI: Protocol Design of a Novel, Prospective Study to Explore" by Jeffrey L Bennett, Kazuo Fujihara et al. (jefferson.edu)
  • The study was published online August 11 in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology . (medscape.com)
  • Background: To examine the association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. (monash.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of type II diabetes on the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). (who.int)
  • Preexisting medical illnesses, clinical manifestations secondary to biliary diseases, preoperative studies, length of surgery, trans and postoperative complications were analyzed and no statistically significant difference were found between both groups. (sages.org)
  • This study typically incorporates a static B mode image of the interrogated vessel in combination with real-time ultrasound and Doppler velocity determination coupled with spectral analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan Case Study. (cdc.gov)
  • 8 9 Prospective studies investigating these associations have generally been small in scale, with only two studies reporting more than 1000 disease events. (bmj.com)
  • Based on a life-transition view of first grade, this study explored associations between achievement and behavior, measured in kindergarten and first grade, and children's perceptions of first grade daily hassles in four domains: achievement, family-school relation, relationships with peers, and nonacademic demands. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study endpoint was all-cause death or readmission due to heart failure, and the median follow-up period was 1.24 years. (medscape.com)
  • This report is independent research commissioned and funded by the Department of Health Policy Research Programme, UK COSMOS - Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health, PR-ST-0713-00003. (plos.org)
  • The UK COSMOS study is funded by the UK Department of Health Policy Research Programme (PRP) ( http://www.prp-ccf.org.uk/ )(project reference number PR-ST-0713-00003) and was formerly jointly funded by industry and government, via the independent Mobile Telecommunications & Health Research Programme (MTHR) ( http://www.mthr.org.uk/ )(project reference number RUM 27). (plos.org)
  • However, as the numbers in this study are small, further research is needed before definitive statements can be made. (bmj.com)
  • This study was exploratory, and sample size was of long-term physical, psychological, and social conse- established through convenience. (cdc.gov)
  • This prospective cohort study (RECOVIDA) was view and a brief physical examination. (cdc.gov)