Encyclopedias as Topic
Alternative oxidase inhibitors potentiate the activity of atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum. (1/33)Recent evidence suggests that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a branched respiratory pathway including both a cytochrome chain and an alternative oxidase. This branched respiratory pathway model has been used as a basis for examining the mechanism of action of two antimalarial agents, atovaquone and proguanil. In polarographic assays, atovaquone immediately reduced the parasite oxygen consumption rate in a concentration-dependent manner. This is consistent with its previously described role as an inhibitor of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Atovaquone maximally inhibited the rate of P. falciparum oxygen consumption by 73% +/- 10%. At all atovaquone concentrations tested, the addition of the alternative oxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, resulted in a further decrease in the rate of parasite oxygen consumption. At the highest concentrations of atovaquone tested, the activities of salicylhydroxamic acid and atovaquone appear to overlap, suggesting that at these concentrations, atovaquone partially inhibits the alternative oxidase as well as the cytochrome chain. Drug interaction studies with atovaquone and salicylhydroxamic acid indicate atovaquone's activity against P. falciparum in vitro is potentiated by this alternative oxidase inhibitor, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.6. Propyl gallate, another alternative oxidase inhibitor, also potentiated atovaquone's activity, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.7. Proguanil, which potentiates atovaquone activity in vitro and in vivo, had a small effect on parasite oxygen consumption in polarographic assays when used alone or in the presence of atovaquone or salicylhydroxamic acid. This suggests that proguanil does not potentiate atovaquone by direct inhibition of either branch of the parasite respiratory chain. (+info)
Active-oxygen involvement in canine NK-mediated cytotoxicity. (2/33)We examined the relationship between natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the produced active-oxygen and cytotoxic factor (CF) release in co-culturing canine NK cells with tumor cells (CL-1 target cells). In co-culturing, the adding of n-propyl gallate (active-oxide scavenger) removed the produced active-oxygen, which inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the CF release. Moreover, adding of this agent inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of NK intracellular protein which observed in co-culturing. Therefore, the active-oxygen produced from canine NK cells are thought to relate the signal transduction in NK-mediated cytotoxicity. (+info)
Polyhydroxybenzoates inhibit ascorbic acid activation of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: implications for glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. (3/33)Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain mitochondria was stimulated 2.2-fold by the addition of 50 microm l-ascorbic acid. Enzyme activity, dependent upon the presence of l-ascorbic acid, was inhibited by lauryl gallate, propyl gallate, protocatechuic acid ethyl ester, and salicylhydroxamic acid. Homogeneous pig brain mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was activated by either 150 microm L-ascorbic acid (56%) or 300 microm iron (Fe(2+) or Fe(3+) (62%)) and 2.6-fold by the addition of both L-ascorbic acid and iron. The addition of L-ascorbic acid and iron resulted in a significant increase of k(cat) from 21.1 to 64.1 s(-1), without significantly increasing the K(m) of L-glycerol-3-phosphate (10.0-14.5 mm). The activation of pure glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by either L-ascorbic acid or iron or its combination could be totally inhibited by 200 microm propyl gallate. The metabolism of [5-(3)H]glucose and the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from rat insulinoma cells, INS-1, were effectively inhibited by 500 microm or 1 mm propyl gallate and to a lesser extent by 5 mm aminooxyacetate, a potent malate-aspartate shuttle inhibitor. The combined data support the conclusion that l-ascorbic acid is a physiological activator of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, that the enzyme is potently inhibited by agents that specifically inhibit certain classes of di-iron metalloenzymes, and that the enzyme is chiefly responsible for the proximal signal events in INS-1 cell glucose-stimulated insulin release. (+info)
In vivo interactions between photosynthesis, mitorespiration, and chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (4/33)Interactions between photosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration (mitorespiration), and chlororespiration have been investigated in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using flash illumination and a bare platinum electrode. Depending on the physiological status of algae, flash illumination was found to induce either a fast (t(1/2) approximately 300 ms) or slow (t(1/2) approximately 3 s) transient inhibition of oxygen uptake. Based on the effects of the mitorespiratory inhibitors myxothiazol and salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM), and of propyl gallate, an inhibitor of the chlororespiratory oxidase, we conclude that the fast transient is due to the flash-induced inhibition of chlororespiration and that the slow transient is due to the flash-induced inhibition of mitorespiration. By measuring blue-green fluorescence changes, related to the redox status of the pyridine nucleotide pool, and chlorophyll fluorescence, related to the redox status of plastoquinones (PQs) in C. reinhardtii wild type and in a photosystem I-deficient mutant, we show that interactions between photosynthesis and chlororespiration are favored when PQ and pyridine nucleotide pools are reduced, whereas interactions between photosynthesis and mitorespiration are favored at more oxidized states. We conclude that the plastid oxidase, similar to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase, becomes significantly engaged when the PQ pool becomes highly reduced, and thereby prevents its over-reduction. (+info)
Redox state regulates HIF-1alpha and its DNA binding and phosphorylation in salmonid cells. (5/33)Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor structurally similar to mammalian HIF-1. It consists of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, of which the HIF-1alpha subunit confers the hypoxia sensitivity. HIF-1alpha is rapidly degraded by a proteasome under normal oxygen (21% O2) conditions, mainly as a result of prolyl hydroxylation needed for protein destabilization. Although prolyl hydroxylation at conserved proline residues is a major factor controlling HIF-1alpha stability, the redox state of the cells may, in addition, influence the function of HIF-1alpha like proteins by influencing their stability, DNA binding and phosphorylation. Sensitivity of the protein to oxidation/reduction may be due to cysteine residues at critical positions. The predicted amino acid sequence of rainbow trout HIF-1alpha contains several unique cysteine residues, notably in the DNA-binding area at position 28 and in the transactivation domain of the molecule in the vicinity of the conserved proline residue at position 564 of mammalian HIF-1alpha. In the present studies we have investigated if the redox state influences HIF-1alpha stability, DNA binding and phosphorylation in two established salmonid cell lines RTG-2 and CHSE-214. The results indicate that reducing conditions, achieved using N-propylgallate (nPG) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), stabilize HIF-1alpha, facilitate its DNA binding, and increase its phosphorylation even under normal oxygen conditions. On the other hand, oxidizing conditions, achieved using L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) dampen the hypoxia response. Furthermore, the hypoxia-like effect of cobalt is increased in the presence of the reducing agent. On the basis of these results, we suggest that redox state influences the accessibility of the conserved prolyl residues to oxygen-dependent hydroxylation and the accessibility of the residues involved in the phosphorylation of HIF-1alpha. (+info)
Determination and confirmation of five phenolic antioxidants in foods by LC/MS and GC/MS. (6/33)Identification and determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) by means of LC/MS and GC/MS were examined. These five phenolic antioxidants were detected as their pseudo-molecular ions [M-H]- by LC/MS using a Shim-pack FC-ODS column with drying gas. Moreover, BHA, BHT and TBHQ were detected based on their mass fragment ions by GC/MS. Decomposition of TBHQ, NDGA and PG during analysis could be prevented by the addition of L-ascorbic acid (AsA) to the extraction solvent. All five antioxidants were extracted from nikuman, olive oils, peanut butter, pasta sauce and chewing gum with a mixture of acetonitrile-2-propanol-ethanol (2:1:1) containing 0.1% AsA (AsA mixture), which had been cooled in a freezer and filtered. One part filtrate and 5 parts water were mixed and placed on a Mega-Bond Elut C18 cartridge, except in the case of chewing gum. Lipids in foods were removed on a C18 cartridge by washing with 5 mL of 5% acetic acid, and antioxidants were eluted with 5 mL of AsA mixture. The antioxidants spiked into nikuman, olive oil, peanut butter, pasta sauce and chewing gum were successfully identified and their concentrations determined by LC/MS, and GC/MS with good recoveries. (+info)
Effects of propyl gallate on interaction between TNF-alpha and sTNFR-I using an affinity biosensor. (7/33)AIM: To study the effects of propyl gallate on the interaction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with its soluble receptor, sTNFR-I. METHODS: Interactions between TNF-alpha and sTNFR-I were analyzed using an IAsys biosensor. sTNFR-I was immobilized on the carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surface of the IAsys biosensor cuvettes, and TNF-alpha preincubated with different concentrations of propyl gallate was added to the cuvettes. The resonant angle shift caused by the binding between TNF-alpha and sTNFR-I was then recorded. RESULTS: sTNFR-I was immobilized on the CMD surface at a density of 2.76 ng/mm(2). TNF-alpha then bound the immobilized sTNFR-I specifically, and propyl gallate was able to enhance the binding between TNF-alpha and sTNFR-I in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The binding between TNF-alpha and sTNFR-I is one of the targets that propyl gallate can act on in vivo. The IAsys biosensor offers a new clue as to the study on the mechanisms of action of propyl gallate. (+info)
A dip in the chlorophyll fluorescence induction at 0.2-2 s in Trebouxia-possessing lichens reflects a fast reoxidation of photosystem I. A comparison with higher plants. (8/33)An unusual dip (compared to higher plant behaviour under comparable light conditions) in chlorophyll fluorescence induction (FI) at about 0.2-2 s was observed for thalli of several lichen species having Trebouxia species (the most common symbiotic green algae) as their native photobionts and for Trebouxia species cultured separately in nutrient solution. This dip appears after the usual O(J)IP transient at a wide range of excitation light intensities (100-1800 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Simultaneous measurements of FI and 820-nm transmission kinetics (I(820)) with lichen thalli showed that the decreasing part of the fluorescence dip (0.2-0.4 s) is accompanied by a decrease of I(820), i.e., by a reoxidation of electron carriers at photosystem I (PSI), while the subsequent increasing part (0.4-2 s) of the dip is not paralleled by the change in I(820). These results were compared with that measured with pea leaves-representatives of higher plants. In pea, PSI started to reoxidize after 2-s excitation. The simultaneous measurements performed with thalli treated with methylviologen (MV), an efficient electron acceptor from PSI, revealed that the narrow P peak in FI of Trebouxia-possessing lichens (i.e., the I-P-dip phase) gradually disappeared with prolonged MV treatment. Thus, the P peak behaves in a similar way as in higher plants where it reflects a traffic jam of electrons induced by a transient block at the acceptor side of PSI. The increasing part of the dip in FI remained unaffected by the addition of MV. We have found that the fluorescence dip is insensitive to antimycin A, rotenone (inhibitors of cyclic electron flow around PSI), and propyl gallate (an inhibitor of plastid terminal oxidase). The 2-h treatment with 5 microM nigericin, an ionophore effectively dissipating the pH-gradient across the thylakoid membrane, did not lead to significant changes either in FI nor I(820) kinetics. On the basis of the presented results, we suggest that the decreasing part of the fluorescence dip in FI of Trebouxia-lichens reflects the activation of ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase or Mehler-peroxidase reaction leading to the fast reoxidation of electron carriers in thylakoid membranes. The increasing part of the dip probably reflects a transient reduction of plastoquinone (PQ) pool that is not associated with cyclic electron flow around PSI. Possible causes of this MV-insensitive PQ reduction are discussed. (+info)
Propyl Gallate is a synthetic antioxidant used in the preservation of fats and oils, as well as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Its chemical formula is C10H12O3, and it is structurally similar to other gallates such as octyl gallate and dodecyl gallate. Propyl Gallate works by scavenging free radicals and preventing the oxidation of lipids, thereby increasing the shelf life of products. It has been approved for use in food by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), but its use is restricted to certain levels due to potential health concerns. Some studies have suggested that propyl gallate may have hormonal effects, genotoxicity, and carcinogenic potential, but more research is needed to confirm these findings.
Gallic acid is an organic compound that is widely found in nature. It's a type of phenolic acid, which means it contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic ring. Gallic acid is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and alcohol.
In the medical field, gallic acid is known for its antioxidant properties. It has been shown to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Gallic acid also has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties.
Gallic acid is found in a variety of plants, including tea leaves, grapes, oak bark, and sumac. It can be extracted from these plants and used in the production of pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics. In some cases, gallic acid may be used as a marker for the identification and authentication of plant-based materials.
It's important to note that while gallic acid has potential health benefits, it should not be taken as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional.
Salicylamides are organic compounds that consist of a salicylic acid molecule (a type of phenolic acid) linked to an amide group. They are derivatives of salicylic acid and are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. Salicylamides have been used in various pharmaceutical and therapeutic applications, including the treatment of pain, fever, and inflammation. However, they have largely been replaced by other compounds such as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) due to their lower potency and potential side effects.
A catechin is a type of plant phenol and antioxidant found in various foods and beverages, such as tea, cocoa, and certain fruits and vegetables. Chemically, catechins are flavan-3-ols, which are a subclass of flavonoids. They have several potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Catechins are known to have anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidiabetic properties. They can also help improve oral health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in the mouth. The most well-known catechin is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is found in high concentrations in green tea and has been extensively studied for its potential health benefits.
In summary, a catechin is a type of antioxidant compound found in various plant-based foods and beverages that may have several health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases and improving oral health.
Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.
Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.
In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
Medical Definition of Vitamin E:
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting your body's cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to environmental toxins like cigarette smoke and radiation. Vitamin E is also involved in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.
It is a collective name for a group of eight fat-soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E in humans and is the one most commonly found in supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency is rare but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders or who cannot absorb fat properly. Symptoms of deficiency include nerve and muscle damage, loss of feeling in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, and vision problems.
Food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils (such as sunflower, safflower, and wheat germ oil), nuts and seeds (like almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds), and fortified foods (such as cereals and some fruit juices).
Beta-carotene is a type of carotenoid, which is a pigment found in plants that gives them their vibrant colors. It is commonly found in fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach.
Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body, which is an essential nutrient for maintaining healthy vision, immune function, and cell growth. It acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
According to the medical definition, beta-carotene is a provitamin A carotenoid that is converted into vitamin A in the body. It has a variety of health benefits, including supporting eye health, boosting the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of beta-carotene supplements can lead to a condition called carotenemia, which causes the skin to turn yellow or orange.
Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.
In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.
Medical Definition of Vitamin A:
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.
The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.
Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.
Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.
In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.
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-  These preservatives include natural antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA, E300) and tocopherols (E306), as well as synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG, E310), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, E320) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, E321). (wikipedia.org)
- Antioxidants: E310 Propyl gallate - 50 mg/kg, E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole - 50 mg/kg. (cuttlebrookkoifarm.co.uk)
- Antioxidants: E310 Propyl gallate - 46mg/kg, E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole - 46 mg/kg. (cuttlebrookkoifarm.co.uk)
- Furthermore, regulatory pressures and consumer awareness regarding synthetic additives drive the market towards natural antioxidants like propyl gallate. (imarcgroup.com)
- Schwarzer: 'In the early 1990's there was a true revolution in synthetic antioxidants towards food approved molecules such as BHA, BHT, propyl gallate. (perstorp.com)
- Modification of carcinogenesis by α-tocopherol, t-butylhydro-quinone, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model. (wikipedia.org)
- This introduction explores the multifaceted role of propyl gallate as an essential preservative and antioxidant. (imarcgroup.com)
- Several brands are now preserved with Vitamins C and E instead of chemical preservatives (such as BHA, BHT, ethoxyquin and propyl gallate). (perfectdogtraining.com)
- Propyl gallate works by inhibiting the formation of harmful free radicals, which can cause spoilage and rancidity in foods containing fats and oils. (imarcgroup.com)
- Propyl gallate's ability to prevent oxidative deterioration of fats, oils, and products containing them aligns with the growing focus on reducing food waste. (imarcgroup.com)
- As consumers increasingly prioritize health and natural ingredients, propyl gallate's role in extending shelf life while maintaining product quality appeals to manufacturers. (imarcgroup.com)
- A nutritious dog food should not contain by-products or synthetic additives such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate, propylene glycol (also used as a less-toxic version of automotive antifreeze), and ethoxyquin. (vetinfo.com)
- Propyl gallate, or propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate is an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. (wikipedia.org)
- The trigger for releasing SV 40 viruses from Pancreatic Flukes is Gallic Acid, a common preservative, called propyl gallate! (drclark.net)
- The sensitizing capacity of the antioxidants propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallate and some related gallic acid esters. (nih.gov)
- BHA, propyl gallate, citric acid added to help protect flavor. (safeway.com)
- Modification of carcinogenesis by α-tocopherol, t-butylhydro-quinone, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model. (wikipedia.org)
- Pretreatment with glutathione and propyl gallate, which are antioxidants and free radical scavengers, has been shown to antagonize the increase in triglycerides. (medscape.com)
- Factory Cheap Hot Food Grade Methyl Gallate CAS. (sanjiangbio-tech.com)
- with ethoxyquin, BHT, BHA and propyl gallate as preservatives. (kaeco.com)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology Rodent Cytogenetics study conclusions related to Propyl gallate (121-79-9). (nih.gov)
- ACS's Standard Package lets you stay up to date with C&EN, stay active in ACS, and save. (acs.org)
- AMCA fades rapidly in conventional epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, and therefore it should be used with mounting media containing an anti-fading agent such as n-propyl gallate. (jacksonimmuno.com)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Propyl Gallate in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)