The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Diseases of BONES.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to produce local hyperthermia in certain diseased or injured parts of the body or to destroy the diseased tissue.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Graphic displays of height and weight showing development over time.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
The part of the face above the eyes.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
The upper arm (humerus) was relatively slender, and only slightly longer than the hand. The ulna and radius (lower arm bones) ... The arm bones of Deinocheirus were similar in proportions to those of the small theropod Compsognathus.[7] The wishbone ( ... The lower temporal fenestrae, openings behind the eyes, were partially closed off by the jugal bones, similar to Gallimimus. ... and the lower jaw was very massive and deep compared to the slender and low upper jaw. The relative size of the lower jaw was ...
The long bones of the lower arm, the ulna and radius, are much longer than the humerus. They were probably incapable of ... All preserve bones that show a relatively high degree of hardening (ossification) for their age, and wing proportions similar ... The upper bone, the shoulder blade, was a straight bar. It was connected to a lower bone, the coracoid that is relatively long ... The bony elements of the arm formed a mechanism to support and extend the wing. Near the body, the humerus or upper arm bone is ...
... lower arm bones) were short, and the latter was and strongly arched from top to bottom, ranging from 37 to 42 mm (1.5 to 1.7 in ... The bones associated with the forelimbs were generally small in proportion to the bird. The scapula (shoulder blade) was small ... The humerus (upper arm bone) was very small, its shaft was curved from top to bottom, and it ranged from 45 to 50 mm (1.8 to ... The tibiotarsus (lower leg bone) was short but robust, and ranged from 84 to 101 mm (3.3 to 4.0 in). The fibula was also short ...
... bones of the upper arm or thigh mesomelic = middle, i.e., bones of the forearm or lower leg acromelic = end, i.e., bones of ... Injections of thyroid hormone can mitigate the effects of the condition, but lack of proportion may be permanent. Pain and ... arm span, upper to lower segment ratio) indicate disproportion. Bone X-rays are often key to diagnosing a specific skeletal ... Physical effects of malformed bones vary according to the specific disease. Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal bone ...
She wears a helmet with a low crest; its main section resembles a cap. The left arm swings a spear with a very carefully ... The foot is tiny in proportion to the vase. The amphora was uncovered in 1813 in Athens and is named after Thomas Burgon (1787- ... It was discovered full of bone fragments, having been used as a funerary urn. The back side of the vase was seriously damaged ... The 61 cm high vase is short and squat, with a very low mouth and short neck. The handles are close to the body and small. ...
... arm span, upper to lower segment ratio) indicate disproportion.[28] Bone X-rays are often key to diagnosing a specific skeletal ... Injections of thyroid hormone can mitigate the effects of the condition, but lack of proportion may be permanent. ... Physical effects of malformed bones vary according to the specific disease. Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal bone ... and Sky Low Low was the first holder of the National Wrestling Alliance's World Midget Championship. In the following couple of ...
... and the bones lacked the bony processes and some unusual proportions present in Carnotaurus. The hand of Aucasaurus was unusual ... The small arms of Aucasaurus were also like that of its horned relative, but were proportionally longer due to its small size, ... Also, instead of horns, it had a pair of low ridges above each eye. In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated its body length at 5.5 ... It was smaller than the related Carnotaurus, although more derived in some ways, such as its extremely reduced arms and almost ...
... most of the left arm and leg, and the right upper arm, thigh bone, and shin bone. It was found with the fossils of several ... the paired bones that made up the cheeks), and an unknown number in the lower jaw. The teeth differed slightly from the tip of ... The skeleton of the type and only known individual of Dromicosuchus is similarly proportioned to that of Hesperosuchus agilis, ... these included bones and scutes of the aetosaur Stegomus, some with tooth marks; bones from the snout, arm, and shoulder of the ...
The limb proportions are most similar to those of bonobos. Adaptations for load bearing in both the arm and leg joints to this ... The robust finger and hypertrophied wrist and elbow bones indicate a strong grip and load bearing adaptations for the arms. The ... It is the first recorded Miocene great ape to have had the diaphragm located in the lower chest cavity, as in Homo, indicating ... It is the first-discovered Late Miocene great ape with preserved long bones which could possibly be used to reconstruct the ...
... lower arm bones), a right hand, a partial left hand, both pubes (a hip bone) and the right femur, tibia and fibula (shank bones ... The humerus was less slender than that of Giraffatitan, while the femur had similar proportions. This might indicate that the ... upper arm bone), the right femur (thigh bone), the right ilium (a hip bone), the right coracoid (a shoulder bone), the sacrum ( ... forearm bones, partial left pelvis, lower leg bones, and part of the right ankle. The low neural spines, the prominent ...
The arms of Sinosauropteryx (humerus and radius) were only 30% the length of its legs (thigh bone and shin), compared to 40% in ... differing from its European relatives in its proportions. The skull of Sinosauropteryx was 15% longer than its thigh bones, ... The teeth of the lower jaws were similarly differentiated. A pigmented area in the abdomen of the holotype has been suggested ... Its hands were long compared to its arms, about 84% to 91% of the length of the rest of the arm (humerus and radius), and half ...
... and gracile facial bones. The shearing crests on its molars suggest a diet specializing in plant leaves. The very robust lower ... Its foot proportions are close to the unusual proportions of Gorilla and Homo but are distinct from those found in specialized ... Its fingers and arms seem to show adaptations for climbing and swinging. Its foot has been described as chimp-like, but is ... In 1898, a left lower jaw was described by Felice Ottolenghi. In 1907, Giuseppe Merciai reported four maxillae and a lower jaw ...
Most bones of the postcranial skeleton, including the bones of the hands, feet, vertebral column, ribs, radius (lower arm bone ... both in morphology and proportions. The four lower incisors that would have made up the toothcomb were modified, being shorter ... lower arm bone), and two femurs, both lacking the epiphyses (rounded end of the bone) on both ends. Archaeoindris is one of the ... Two of these belonged to an adult and include a damaged humerus (upper arm bone) and an almost complete femur (thigh bone). The ...
The quadrate bone is part of the outer edge of the foramen paraquadraticum. In the lower jaw the external side opening is small ... the left arm, a thighbone piece, and the left and right lower legs minus the right toes. The skeleton was partially articulated ... The specimen may represent an adult or subadult individual, due to the lack of cranial and body proportions associated with ... It consists of a partial skeleton containing the rear skull and lower jaws, hyoid bones, five neck vertebrae, the first back ...
The bones of the hand were fused together, as in modern birds, and a ridge on the ulna (lower arm bone) was interpreted as an ... The proportions of the leg bones add further weight to the idea of Avimimus was quick on its feet.[1] The animal's shins were ... A variety of isolated bones that have been attributed to Avimimus were considered to be distinct from A. portentosus, and were ... The size of the bones which surrounded the brain and were dedicated to protecting it are large.[1] This is also consistent with ...
You can no more feel the jaw bone of one of those girls than you can the bone of a blacksmith's arm by touching the biceps ... Their arms and legs are large, but not out of proportion to their bodies, and they taper gracefully. There are no knots of ... The breadth that is noticeable in the lower part of their faces is owing neither to the osseous formation nor to fleshy tissue ...
The radius (the other bone in the lower arm) was long and slender with a more expanded upper end compared to the lower. The ... The shape and proportions of the skull changed significantly during growth. The rear of the skull and the orbits decreased in ... The fibula of the lower leg was flat, thin and broad at the upper end narrowing towards the lower end. The lower half of the ... and that the adults bore wing-like structures as evidenced by the presence of quill-knobs on the ulna bone of the lower arm, ...
... and upper arm in turn. Leonardo da Vinci believed that the ideal human proportions were determined by the harmonious ... measure is the most used but arguably the distance from ankle bone to outer hip bone is more rigorous. On this (latter) metric ... Stephen A. Bernstein, M.C. USA (Ret.); Michael Lo, MSPH; W. Sumner Davis, PhD (1 March 2017). "Proposing Using Waist-to-Height ... This image was used in Eugene F. Fairbanks' book on Human Proportions for Artists. Avard Fairbanks drawing of proportions of ...
The upper arm bone, the humerus, was short but robust. It had a narrow upper end with an exceptionally rounded head. The lower ... In contrast to the arms, the hindlimbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod. In the foot, the ... from within fossilized bone. Femur (thigh bone) Tibia (shin bone) Metatarsals (foot bones) Dewclaw Phalanges (toe bones) ... The lower jaw was robust. Its front dentary bone bore thirteen teeth. Behind the tooth row, the lower jaw became notably taller ...
... upper arm bone), the illium (a hip bone), the upper portion of the femur (upper leg bone), the tibia and fibula (lower leg ... They are similar in proportion to the spines of Sphenacodon, although Echinerpeton is considerably smaller in overall size. The ... The dentary or lower jaw bone has a slight upward curve. The teeth of both the upper and lower jaws are small and cone-shaped, ... The first vertebra preserved in the series, the axis bone, has a neural spine that is low and broad like those of many other ...
The ulna (lower arm bone) was short and strongly arched from top to bottom. Its legs were long and slender for such a large ... The red rail was also larger, with somewhat smaller wings, but their leg proportions were similar. The pelvis and sacrum was ... The tibiotarsus (lower leg bone) was large and robust, especially the upper and lower ends, and was 98-115 mm (3.9-4.5 in) long ... The sternum (breast bone) and humerus (upper arm bone) were small, indicating that it had lost the power of flight. The humerus ...
The mandible (lower jaw) looks chunky and has a long condyloid process at its back; that of T. talamancae is more slender. The ... Usually, the mastoid bone lacks openings (fenestrae), which are present in T. talamancae. The pattern of the arteries in the ... A study in Costa Rica found that there are 58 chromosomes, including many that are large and have two arms, and the fundamental ... It differs from that of T. talamancae in various proportions. Although the subspecies previously recognized in "Oryzomys ...
... can be seen among the bones of the lower jaws, palate (palatine bone, "pl" + pterygoid, "pt"), and braincase (parasphenoid, "ps ... The large hatchet-shaped deltopectoral crest of the humerus ("hu") or upper arm bone, in this case more precisely in the form ... In terms of the proportions of limb bones, Bellubrunnus most closely resembles the rhamphorhynchid Rhamphorhynchus, which is ... In BSP-1993-XVIII-2, in both the left wing and the right wing the last finger bone or distal (fourth) phalanx bone ("wpx4") ...
The lower boundary of abdomen occasionally forms a deep curve. Forearm and arm sometimes correctly semi-pronated; both directed ... The external malleolus is lower and further back than the internal one. The little toes slant inwards. The metatarsal bones are ... The system of proportion in the second Egyptian canon of the Saite period consisted of a grid of twenty-one and one-fourth ... The lower boundary of thorax arch is indicated. In the flanks the swelling of the external part is well developed. Lower ...
The articulated elbow joins upper and upper arm at a 45-degree angle; the wrist joins lower arm and manus at a 100-degree angle ... a number of bones of the arms and especially the hand with all three fingers well-preserved, a small piece of the pelvic girdle ... These hindlimb proportions agree roughly with those of the London specimen.[92] The claw arc of the central pedal digit is ... Some suggestions of slightly curved, parallel structures lie between the left lower arm and the right upper leg, likely to ...
There are some openings in the mastoid bone. In the mandible (lower jaw), the mental foramen, an opening just before the first ... The X chromosome is either acrocentric, with a long and a short arm, or subtelocentric, with a long and a vestigial arm. The ... On Cozumel, the proportion of juveniles and females is higher near roads that function as habitat edges. Cozumel rice rats ... The parietal bones extend to the sides of the braincase. The interparietal bone is narrow and wedge-shaped, so that the ...
... lower and rearmost hip bone) in proportion to the illium (main hip bone) of any other known theropod. Spinosaurus had an even ... long bone of the forearm) was stout and usually only half as long as the humerus (upper arm bone). Spinosaurid hands had three ... The coracoid bones of the shoulders in spinosaurids were robust and hook shaped. The arms were relatively large and well-built ... The maxillae (main upper jaw bones) were long and formed a low branch under the nostrils that connected to the rear of the ...
It comprised the cranium, thigh bones, right arm, left humerus and ulna, left ilium (hip bone), part of the right shoulder ... De Groote, I. (2011). "The Neanderthal lower arm". Journal of Human Evolution. 61 (4): 396-410. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.05. ... Body proportions are usually cited as being "hyperarctic" as adaptations to the cold, because they are similar to those of ... Purported Neanderthal bone flute fragments made of bear long bones were reported from Potočka zijalka, Slovenia, in the 1920s, ...
The splenial bone was three-pronged (as in some modern birds, but unlike the simple splenial of Archaeopteryx), and its lower ... Confuciusornis had an exceptionally large humerus (upper arm bone). Near its shoulder-end this was equipped with a prominent ... The formula of the toe phalanges was 2-3-4-5-0. The proportions of the toes suggest that they were used for both walking and ... The metatarsals of the foot were relatively short and fused to each other and to the lower ankle bones, forming a ...
The talus bone is stout and more like those of non-human apes, and features a medially twisted neck and a low neck torsion ... Like other australopithecines and early Homo, A. sediba had somewhat apelike upper body proportions with relatively long arms, ... The nasomaxillary (bone from the nose to the upper lip) complex indicates a great degree of bone resorption, most markedly at ... The juvenile MH1 developing a bone tumour is consistent with the general trend of bone tumours mostly occurring in younger ...
The upper and lower thigh bones approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively, forming a relatively ... Bone oval rather than round. Development (length and substance) should be well proportioned to the size of the dog. Pastern ... The upper and lower thigh bones approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively, forming a relatively ... Tail strong at the base, bone to reach hock. At rest the dog holds it low, the tip bent back level with the hock. When in ...
The shoulders broaden, as does the lower part of the trunk. The arms and legs lengthen but remain spindly until adolescence. ... Bones and Muscles. Bones gradually harden and muscles grow stronger. Thoughout childhood, however, the bones remain so soft ... Body Proportions. The infants body gradually changes. The face enlarges, as do the facial features; but at six or seven years ... Not until physical growth is completed in late adolescence does the body have mature proportions. ...
Limb Proportions.. In addition to their specialized hands, feet, and short rigid lower backs, modern great apes have long arms ... and another individuals associated arm bones) allows accurate determination of its limb proportions. Not only do its ratios ... Lower Back and Pelvis.. Equally striking are differences in the lower backs and pelves of humans and modern African apes. The ... Ardis limb bones are quite large, with measures exceeding those of Lucy by as much as 30%. Furthermore, the largest of eight ...
The upper and lower thigh bones approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively, forming a relatively ... Legs - are in length and substance well proportioned to the size of the dog with the bone oval rather than round. Legs are ... with the upper arm. Legs - are straight, strong and parallel to each other with bone oval rather than round. Development ( ... Ears - are triangular in shape, stiff, erect, and in proportion to the head in size. Base of the ear should not come below the ...
Apparently the proportions of key bones in the forelimbs are not , the same. I belive the forearms are proportionately shorter ... Deinocheirus probably ate leaves hooked by its long arms, as well as smaller dinosaurs that the raptorial claws helped kill. , ... Differences from Therizinosaurus include- taller coracoid; short blunt posteroventral coracoid process; low deltopectoral crest ... No evolutionary pressure was exerted to give Deinocheirus huge arms, they were huge because the animal was huge. The ...
The upper and lower thigh bones should approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively. The legs are in ... The bone is oval rather than round. Length and substance are well in proportion to the size of the dog. The pastern is of ... Bone structure is moderately heavy in proportion to height so that the dog is well balanced throughout and neither spindly or ... proportion to the size of the dog; oval bone rather than round. Legs are parallel to each other. The thighs should be well ...
In addition, statistically significant differences in bone and renal safety were observed between the two arms in favor of the ... The study found that the TAF-based regimen met its primary objective based on the proportion of patients with HIV RNA (viral ... The primary endpoint of the studies will be the proportion of patients with viral load , 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks of treatment ... Phase 1b dose-ranging studies identified a dose of TAF that is ten times lower than Viread and provides greater antiviral ...
But the studies also showed: The change in body proportions did not automatically lead to more strength in arms and legs. And ... Up to know the studies were laid out rather small considering only few aspects of the aging process: bone- and muscle mass or ... although the fat-free body mass increased the same level as the percentage of fat got lower. ... the mineral content of the bones hardly changed as well after six months. Director of studies Yvonne an der Schouw has even ...
The long bones of the lower arm, the ulna and radius, are much longer than the humerus. They were probably incapable of ... All preserve bones that show a relatively high degree of hardening (ossification) for their age, and wing proportions similar ... The upper bone, the shoulder blade, was a straight bar. It was connected to a lower bone, the coracoid that is relatively long ... The bony elements of the arm formed a mechanism to support and extend the wing. Near the body, the humerus or upper arm bone is ...
... it is associated with lower risk of venous thrombosis. Since the initial data from the PT-1 study, a caution has been ... favoring the HC arm possibly skewing the fibrotic transformation rate in the ANA arm; a higher proportion (6%) in the ANA arm ... Such patients are younger and have a higher platelet count, lower white cell count, a relatively lower hemoglobin and a lower ... Clinical impact of bone marrow morphology for the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia: comparison between the BCSH and the ...
Body Proportion • Measurement • Sitting height and standing height • Arm span • Upper/lower segment ratio • Lahir:1.7 dan 8 th ... region of bone Metaphysis : trabecular region of bone just at the end of diaphysis Epiphysis : ends of bone, which are highly ... Bone growth is a large part of overall body growth • Bones growth longitudinally and circumferentially from embryonic to ... years of life can be attributed to low birth weight. • inadequate nutrition may still be implicated because some low weight ...
Effect of low-intensity ultrasound on bone healing in osteotomies of the lower extremity: a randomised trial. In: Nolte PA, ed ... To calculate absolute effects, we applied the effect estimate from the meta-analysis to the control arm of the TRUST trial, ... Another randomized controlled trial in patients with delayed union of tibia fracture reported only the proportion of healed ... Gan TY, Kuah DE, Graham KS, Markson G. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in lower limb bone stress injuries: a randomized ...
The number of patients with high & low CTX values by arm will be reported here. ... or multiple myeloma involving bone, as measured by the proportion of patients who would have experienced at least one skeletal ... Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Arm I (zoledronic acid every 4 weeks) Patients receive zoledronic acid IV over at ... Specifically the difference in score change per 4 weeks for Arm I using Arm II as the reference is reported. The score of the ...
... lower segment ratio.56,57 Klinefelter syndrome patients differ from other eunuchoid patients in that their arm span is usually ... 49,XXXYY has been reported at least twice.103,104 Both patients had mental retardation, delayed bone age, mandibular ... The cellular cause of the abnormal proportions is unknown. It is possible that the epiphyses respond abnormally to androgens,39 ... The epiphyses, in fact, close earlier in Klinefelter syndrome boys than in girls.58 The bone age is usually normal. ...
The upper arm (humerus) was relatively slender, and only slightly longer than the hand. The ulna and radius (lower arm bones) ... The arm bones of Deinocheirus were similar in proportions to those of the small theropod Compsognathus.[7] The wishbone ( ... The lower temporal fenestrae, openings behind the eyes, were partially closed off by the jugal bones, similar to Gallimimus. ... and the lower jaw was very massive and deep compared to the slender and low upper jaw. The relative size of the lower jaw was ...
The adult indication is also supported by data from the 48-week, open-label, single-arm bone biopsy study in 14 adult XLH ... Crysvita treatment resulted in a higher proportion of patients achieving serum phosphorus levels above the lower limit of ... Pain in arms and legs. • Decreased vitamin D levels. • Rash. • Toothache. • Muscle pain. • Tooth infection. • Dizziness ... In children, XLH causes rickets that leads to lower-extremity deformity, delayed growth and decreased height. Adults with XLH ...
The adult indication is also supported by data from the 48-week, open-label, single-arm bone biopsy study in 14 adult XLH ... Crysvita treatment resulted in a higher proportion of patients achieving serum phosphorus levels above the lower limit of ... If serum phosphorus is above the lower limit of the reference range for age and below 5 mg/dL, continue treatment with the same ... Crysvita improved rickets and lower-limb deformity, increased serum phosphorus levels and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase ...
... was associated with less harm to bones and kidneys than the older formulation, tenofovir ... ... Consequently, lipid levels were higher in the TAF arm (which delivers lower plasma tenofovir concentrations) than the TDF arm. ... The median CD4+ cell count was over 400 and only a small proportion of participants had viral loads over 100,000 copies/mL. ... These studies also looked at changes in both arms of measures of renal function and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and ...
... lower arm bones) were short, and the latter was and strongly arched from top to bottom, ranging from 37 to 42 mm (1.5 to 1.7 in ... The bones associated with the forelimbs were generally small in proportion to the bird. The scapula (shoulder blade) was small ... The humerus (upper arm bone) was very small, its shaft was curved from top to bottom, and it ranged from 45 to 50 mm (1.8 to ... The tibiotarsus (lower leg bone) was short but robust, and ranged from 84 to 101 mm (3.3 to 4.0 in). The fibula was also short ...
The humerus (arm bone) falls into the lower range for modern humans (just), but the leg bones are much shorter than any modern ... The overall body proportions of the hobbit were quite different to that of any populations of modern human pygmies. The weight ... upper limb bones have been found from six different individuals, and lower limb bones have been found from up to nine ... The lower jaw has no chin but is instead strengthened by internal bone, similar to australopithecines, and the anatomy of some ...
The foot proportions of Oreopithecus. A calculation of the power arm/load arm ratio (EMA) (21) for a broad spectrum of ... This requires a change of proportions to maintain peak bone stresses similar to those of quadrupeds (21). The foot proportions ... Both features, short legs and short lever arm of the feet, indicate short stride length and low speed and suggest bipedal ... Foot proportions (power arm/load arm ratio) of primates reflect body weight carried by the feet (Fig. 4). Platyrrhines, ...
J bone joint surg br 1970;35:470-501. It involves externalization of the dose of 7-2 weeks and monthly blood cultures if a more ... Therapeutic uses: It has a large proportion of respondents on separate occasions. ... a need to be involved due to the posterior interosseous nerve palsy is it only when cns involvement is uncommon in swinging arm ... Sometimes there may be higher with low serum levels, and increased bleeding complications. From top down: Outer sheath of the ...
Indicate involvement of forearm, arm, leg, thigh. Indicate bones involved.. *Laterality right, left, bilateral. ... Q72.0 Congenital complete absence of lower limb(s); amelia of lower limb. Q72.2 Congenital absence of both lower leg and foot. ... A small proportion of cases are syndromic. Syndromes with intercalary limb deficiencies include Roberts syndrome; in its most ... Q72.1 Congenital absence of thigh and lower leg with foot present. Phocomelia of lower limb. Q72.4 Longitudinal reduction ...
Boned with the guaranteed Spirella, with one flat stay each side of center back. Medium and low bust, with long hips and back. ... under arm and hips. Bust confiners should be worn with both styles as the bust of the corset is too low to control the usual ... The well proportioned figure, without excessive flesh front or back, may wear either front-laced or back-laced models, as she ... Medium and low bust; good length groin. Boned with the guaranteed Spirella. Draw-tape in bust. Groin lacing on each side, from ...
His bones do not grow correctly and this means the proportions of some parts of his body are different, so for example he has ... He has hypotonia or very low tone in his muscles. This has led to his fine and gross motor skills being quite delayed, and has ... short arms. He has a bilateral hearing impairment that is made up of both a neural loss and a conductive loss. ...
More than half of arm injuries and 21 percent of leg injuries included a broken bone. ... Injuries were also more likely to occur in the lower extremities, rather on the head or neck, which is more common for younger ... Boys injured at school had a higher proportion of lacerations while girls were more likely to have internal organ injuries. ... due to the cost of compliance and low benefits. For college students in particular, its up to the consumers themselves to ...
... the use of cytotoxic drugs can be completely omitted in a substantial proportion of low risk patients with neuroblastoma. On ... For practical reasons, patients may be categorised as an observation, a standard risk or a high risk treatment arm. ... predominantly during the periods of bone marrow depression and the development of secondary leukaemias (up to 7% cumulative ...
They found that two of the bones-the forearm (radius) and lower leg (tibia)-as well as overall body size did appear to evolve ... "What were looking at is how adaptation to latitude, often interpreted as a proxy for climate, has affected proportions over ... The study indicates that long bones of the arms and legs do not evolve independently as scientists have long assumed. Instead ... upper arm), radius (forearm), femur (upper leg) and tibia (lower leg)-as well as the femoral head diameter and pelvic width ...
... but is a promising treatment with the potential to reduce the incidence of falls as well as maintain or improve bone health. ... and have lower bone mass in the affected arm or leg, the occurrence of fragility fractures is not surprising. In addition to ... A large proportion of people living with stroke (,60%) are able to regain standing and some walking function [20]. The ground ... Low-trauma fractures have a number of known risk factors in older adults. Low bone mass [16-17] and frequent falls [18-19] are ...
... arm span, upper to lower segment ratio) indicate disproportion.[28] Bone X-rays are often key to diagnosing a specific skeletal ... Injections of thyroid hormone can mitigate the effects of the condition, but lack of proportion may be permanent. ... Physical effects of malformed bones vary according to the specific disease. Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal bone ... and Sky Low Low was the first holder of the National Wrestling Alliances World Midget Championship. In the following couple of ...
  • Bone mineral density will be assessed for all patients by DEXA scans at baseline and every 24 weeks. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • These studies also looked at changes in both arms of measures of renal function and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and hip, serum creatinine, and treatment-emergent proteinuria at week 48. (thebodypro.com)
  • However, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to assess bone density at baseline, week 24, and at week 48. (thebodypro.com)
  • BBS = Berg Balance Scale, BMD = bone mineral density, DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, FAME = Fitness and Mobility Exercise (Program), ICTP = carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, pQCT = peripheral quantitative computed tomography, PTH = parathyroid hormone, SD = standard deviation. (va.gov)
  • People who swapped the atazanavir/TDF regimen for TAF plus elvitegravir/cobicistat and FTC (E/C/F/TAF) had significant improvements in bone mineral density and kidney markers and moderately but significantly worse lipid changes. (natap.org)
  • Total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides all rose slightly but significantly with the switch to E/C/F/TAF while staying nearly unchanged in the control arm. (natap.org)
  • DXA-measured spine bone mineral density (BMD) rose an average 2.18% through 48 weeks in the E/C/F/TAF arm while waning 0.54% in the TDF arm, a significant difference (P (natap.org)
  • People randomised to begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately in the international START trial had steeper declines in bone mineral density (BMD) than people randomised to delayed therapy. (thebodypro.com)
  • Effects of immediate versus deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy on bone mineral density: a substudy of the INSIGHT strategic timing of antiretroviral therapy (START) study. (thebodypro.com)
  • They also had significantly less change in bone mineral density at both hip and spine. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The substudy patients underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning at baseline and then frequently during the study to look at two things, bone mineral density and fat in the limbs and trunk. (medpagetoday.com)
  • We found a decline in bone mineral density during the first year of treatment," McComsey said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • At 96 weeks, patients on abacavir experienced a 2.5% decrease in hip bone mineral density compared with a 4% decrease among patients on tenofovir ( P =0.025). (medpagetoday.com)
  • McComsey also found that at the lumbar spine patients receiving the protease inhibitor regimen had reduced bone mineral density at that point when compared with the non-nucleoside agent. (medpagetoday.com)
  • As a result of low bone density, patients may develop osteonecrosis, chronic inflammation and related pain. (punchng.com)
  • Maximum effects on bone histology and density occur within the first year following treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-RANK ligand antibody improves bone mineral density in individuals with OI types I, III, IV and VI without accumulating in the bone matrix. (nih.gov)
  • responders also have improved bone histology, increased bone density and fewer fractures. (nih.gov)
  • Visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, sagittal diameter, and mid-thigh low-density lean tissue (intramuscular fat) did not differ by hormone status. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, a comparison of insulin sensitivity and concomitant characterization of total and visceral obesity and mid-thigh low-density lean tissue (a marker of intra-muscular fat) in women taking estrogen, taking estrogen plus progesterone, and not taking hormone therapy has not been conducted. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cardiac, skin, or by histopathological changes in bone density. (norfolkspca.com)
  • Bone mineral density can suffer because of changes in calcium and vitamin D metabolism. (abeezarsarela.co.uk)
  • Fractures after bariatric surgery occur in the sites that are most prone to loss of bone mineral density (osteoporosis). (abeezarsarela.co.uk)
  • Resistance training helps build bone density and can improve health in general. (cnn.com)
  • A bone density test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are packed into a segment of bone. (aidsmap.com)
  • And the mineral content of the bones hardly changed as well after six months. (doccheck.com)
  • The higher your bone mineral content, the denser your bones are. (aidsmap.com)
  • Important Proportions: The length of body only slightly exceeds the height at withers. (dogsnsw.org.au)
  • Nevertheless, in the late 1950s and 1960s some Oreopithecus characters (high epicondylar angle of the distal femur, relatively short hip bone, reduced distance between insertion area of the sacrum on the ilium and acetabulum, and a hominid-like antero-inferior iliac spine) were linked to bipedality ( 3 , 5 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Savell and colleagues, using the same groups to obtain comparable data, compared the variation in lengths of four bones-humerus (upper arm), radius (forearm), femur (upper leg) and tibia (lower leg)-as well as the femoral head diameter and pelvic width among 14 human populations including more than 400 individuals. (phys.org)
  • The growth of the arm (humerus) and thigh (femur), however, are influenced by more than just the direct response to natural selection. (phys.org)
  • But, the proportion of fractures of the hip, pelvis and femur (thigh bone) is tripled! (abeezarsarela.co.uk)
  • The main risks of chemotherapy are toxic death (rate up to 15%) predominantly during the periods of bone marrow depression and the development of secondary leukaemias (up to 7% cumulative risk after 4 years). (nih.gov)
  • 1% in the bone marrow and completely missing in the peripheral blood and the serum IgM level was 0.3 g/liter (normal, 0.4 to 2.3 g/liter). (asm.org)
  • ZARXIO is indicated to reduce the duration of neutropenia and neutropenia-related clinical sequelae ‚ e.g.‚ febrile neutropenia, in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation [see Clinical Studies ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Candidates are screened with a medical history and physical examination, blood tests, chest x-ray, and bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For the bone marrow biopsy, the area of the hip is anesthetized and a special needle is used to draw marrow from the hipbone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Myeloid malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia and the related disorders myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative diseases represent a wide group of bone marrow stem cell malignancies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • [2] The holotype forelimbs measure 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long - the humerus (upper arm bone) is 93.8 cm (36.9 in), the ulna 68.8 cm (27.1 in), and the hand is 77 cm (30 in) - including the 19.6 cm (7.7 in) long recurved claws. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper arm (humerus) was relatively slender, and only slightly longer than the hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The humerus (arm bone) falls into the lower range for modern humans (just), but the leg bones are much shorter than any modern humans. (pandasthumb.org)
  • It is the universal practice, so far as I know, in dressing fractures of the humerus, to place the forearm at a right angle with the arm. (ebooksread.com)
  • The humerus or upper arm bone alone measured 2 metres in length, compared with 1.75 metres maximum for A. exelsus. (kheper.net)
  • Not until physical growth is completed in late adolescence does the body have mature proportions. (infobarrel.com)
  • Clean-cut and strong, overall size should be in proportion to the body. (akc.org)
  • Shoulder long and oblique, laid flat against the body, forming a sharp angle (approximately 90 degrees) with the upper arm. (akc.org)
  • The humeroscapular ratio was 80% compared to 118% in Gallimimus and 108% in Ornithomimus, so the arms were possibly shorter compared to body size than smaller ornithomimosaurs. (cmnh.org)
  • This randomized phase III trial studies two different schedules of zoledronic acid to compare how well they work in reducing bone-related complications in patients with breast cancer, prostate cancer, or multiple myeloma that has spread to other places in the body and have bone involvement. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Enormous sizes were also suggested by comparing the arms with those of tyrannosaurs , even though members of that group did not have large arms in proportion to their body size. (wikipedia.org)
  • After half a year, the level of the free or bonded hormone was not any higher than in the beginning, although the fat-free body mass increased the same level as the percentage of fat got lower. (doccheck.com)
  • But the studies also showed: The change in body proportions did not automatically lead to more strength in arms and legs. (doccheck.com)
  • His bones do not grow correctly and this means the proportions of some parts of his body are different, so for example he has short arms. (swanaus.org.au)
  • The overall body proportions of the hobbit were quite different to that of any populations of modern human pygmies. (pandasthumb.org)
  • Researchers have studied the relationship between body proportions and latitude using groups in four geographic regions: sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Temperate Europe and the Arctic. (phys.org)
  • They found that two of the bones-the forearm (radius) and lower leg (tibia)-as well as overall body size did appear to evolve in direct response to natural selection as expected, becoming shorter at higher latitudes . (phys.org)
  • The upper arm extends well back so that the elbow is placed directly below the top of the shoulder blade when viewed from the side and structurally the elbows are held close to the body. (akc.org)
  • The skull is strong and in proportion with the rest of the body. (ildobermann.it)
  • Proportion of neck to body = 1/5. (ankc.org.au)
  • Because the upper leg sections are relatively short, the major muscle groups (and weight) are all located close in to the body, improving the angular acceleration of the legs for speed, while the elongation of the lower leg segments greatly increases the stride. (oricomtech.com)
  • generally skeletal abnormality is discovered by the childâ s oldsters or specialist because the childâ s head grows out of proportion to the body and limbs. (omicsonline.org)
  • To validate their findings, the authors conducted detailed assessments of fat distribution in different regions of the body of 18,000 people using DEXA, a low-intensity X-ray scan that can distinguish body fat, bone composition, muscle and lean mass across the whole body. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In proportion, the body is slightly longer than tall. (ukcdogs.com)
  • In pediatric renal transplant recipients, a sustained increase in standardized leg length and total body height is observed from preschool until adult age, resulting in restoration of body proportions in most patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • It has a height of 111 millimetres (4.4 in), and a width of 43 millimetres (1.7 in) at its widest point and is made of a clay body fired at a relatively low temperature. (donsmaps.com)
  • His gums have tooth buds, and throughout his body, rubbery cartilage is turning into bone. (parenting.com)
  • Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body. (worldwidepups.com)
  • Length of neck proportioned to body and head. (worldwidepups.com)
  • Hips broad and in proportion to body, breadth of hips being approximately equal to breadth of body at rib cage and shoulders. (worldwidepups.com)
  • Balanced in proportion to body. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Body resistance (measured in ohms/cm 2 ) is provided primarily by the skin, because all internal tissue (except bone) has negligible resistance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It seems that McCurdy's body popped up everywhere after that, in places such as an amusement park near Mount Rushmore, lying in an open casket in a Los Angeles wax museum, and in a few low-budget films. (whaleoil.co.nz)
  • The neck was very short, consisting of only 11 or 12 vertebrae, and the head was - for a sauropod - unusually large in proportion to the body. (kheper.net)
  • Head out of balance in proportion to body, dish-faced, snipy or cheeky very highly undesirable. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • muscled and sinewy, with round bone in proportion to body structure. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Therefore, instead of increasing the size of the muscles, they will slowly decrease, until the student possesses a body consisting of bones and long, stringy-looking muscles, not only unpleasing to the eye, but useless from the standpoint of strength. (naturalstrength.com)
  • The skull was 1.024 m (3.36 ft) long, with a wide bill and a deep lower jaw, similar to those of hadrosaurs . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1874, the French zoologist Alphonse Milne-Edwards connected Leguat's account with three subfossil bones (a sternum, a tarsometatarsus, and a fragmentary skull) found in caves of the Plaine Corail region, Rodrigues. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a top and a frontal view the lateral side of the skull should not be bulging.The slight bulge formed between the zygomatich arch and the masseter region ( cheek bone) should be in harmony with the total length of the head. (ildobermann.it)
  • The occipital bones (back skull) should well developed without being too conspicuous. (guardianrottweilers.com)
  • The sex was determined by basic criteria of specific development of an osteal relief on a skull, under the form of a hip bone and on the general sizes of long bones. (skadi.net)
  • The ageing of adults was based on criteria of occlusal wear of teeth, obliteration of skull sutures, preservation of surface joints of long bones, pubis symphyses and on some other additional parameters. (skadi.net)
  • The breed's ears are set relatively far back, somewhat low on the skull, and are well in proportion. (greatdogsite.com)
  • The ulna and radius (lower arm bones) were elongate and not firmly connected to each other in a syndesmosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The bones of the hand were fused together, as in modern birds, and a ridge on the ulna (lower arm bone) was interpreted as an attachment point for feathers by Kurzanov. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray of both hands including wrists showed short and stubby metacarpals, only two carpal bones were present with stippled calcification of growth plate in radius and ulna. (bmj.com)
  • Development (length and substance) should be well proportioned to the size of the dog. (akc.org)
  • Legs - are in length and substance well proportioned to the size of the dog with the bone oval rather than round. (akc.org)
  • Length and substance are well in proportion to the size of the dog. (kukasworld.com)
  • He should have sufficient bone and substance and a very compact frame. (guardianrottweilers.com)
  • If he is lacking in bone or substance, then he will not have the strength and hegemony required to challenge a 2000 pound bull or absorb the impact of an attacker. (guardianrottweilers.com)
  • The vertebral bones are cushioned between vertebral discs that are made up of an interior gel-like substance surrounded by a tougher outer layer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In people with this condition, bones and other tissues in the elbows, forearms, wrists, and hands have characteristics of related structures in the lower limbs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, bones in the elbows are abnormally shaped, which affects mobility of the joints. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chest measurement immediately behind elbows smaller than that of about a hand's breadth behind elbows so that upper arm has freedom of movement. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Bones gradually harden and muscles grow stronger. (infobarrel.com)
  • He has hypotonia or very low tone in his muscles. (swanaus.org.au)
  • Because the PITX1 protein normally directs lower limb structure, bones, muscles, and tendons in the arms and hands develop more like those in the legs and feet, leading to the features of Liebenberg syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clearly, the long lower leg sections, the leverage afforded by the powerful tendons, the low degree of weight in the legs, and the huge muscles located in the upper legs and torso all contribute to the speed and power of the horse. (oricomtech.com)
  • Welcome to my class, "Dynamic Anatomy for Artists - Drawing the Muscles of Arm. (skillshare.com)
  • Vitamin D nutrient is needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy and hence my interest as someone with sickle cell disease. (punchng.com)
  • Typical intercalary deficiencies present with absence of all limb bones proximal to a normal or malformed hand or foot which attaches directly to the trunk. (cdc.gov)
  • A second lower jaw very similar to the first one has been found, upper limb bones have been found from six different individuals, and lower limb bones have been found from up to nine individuals. (pandasthumb.org)
  • The first confirmed limb bones of Homo habilis were discovered in 1986. (creationscience.com)
  • Injuries were also more likely to occur in the lower extremities, rather on the head or neck, which is more common for younger children who tumble out of bed. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The top of the rear legs of dogs and cats attach up near the tail, while its front legs attach lower down, near the bottom of the neck. (oricomtech.com)
  • A little more than one third of the group (38.3%) had low BMD at the baseline visit (T score at or below -1 at spine, total hip, or femoral neck), and 3.3% had osteoporosis. (thebodypro.com)
  • Like all the Diplodocids, the Apatosaurs were huge terrestrial herbivores with a snake-like neck and whiplash tail, that probably fed on lower crown layers of trees and on undergrowth. (kheper.net)
  • Instead of the lower part of the mask (from below the jawline) being removeable, it's sculpted on the neck and shoulders. (joecustoms.com)
  • Fingers and toes were short, and he had short arms and legs with broad oedematous hands ( figure 3 A,B). Neck was thick and there was no palpable goitre or thyroid nodules. (bmj.com)
  • The upper arms are long and very muscular. (ukcdogs.com)
  • The lower thigh is fairly long and muscular. (ukcdogs.com)
  • Forelegs straight and lean, sufficiently muscular and strong but not coarse-boned. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • I have seen some chaps swinging and twisting their arms madly, probably thinking in their minds that they were securing muscular development and strength. (naturalstrength.com)
  • The large size of all the bones was remarked, and the teeth were described as "double all the way round. (tripod.com)
  • For non-adult individuals age estimation was carried out on the base of teeth eruption, epiphyseal closure and length of long bones without epiphyses. (skadi.net)
  • The amplified development of bone relief in the attachment area of a m. masseter testifies possible functional age influence on teeth. (skadi.net)
  • 42 correctly placed teeth, 22 in the lower, 20 in the upper jaw. (worldwidepups.com)
  • Teeth and jaws strong, with perfect regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws, with full dentition. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • This mistaken belief resulted from piecing together, in 1932, fragments of upper teeth and bones into the two large pieces shown in the upper left. (creationscience.com)
  • The upper and lower thigh bones approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively, forming a relatively sharp angle at stifle joint. (akc.org)
  • The upper and lower thigh bones should approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively. (kukasworld.com)
  • In citing evidence to support this new conclusion, Dubois admitted that he had withheld parts of four other thigh bones of apes found in the same area. (creationscience.com)
  • The researchers attributed the significant improvements in renal and bone safety after the switch to E/C/F/TAF to the approximately 90% lower in plasma tenofovir levels seen with TAF than TDF. (natap.org)
  • The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma viral load of less than 50 copies of HIV RNA per mL after 24 weeks of treatment, but the researchers also analyzed cellular and plasma levels of active tenofovir, as well as markers of renal and bone safety. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The forearm is straight, with strong bone. (ukcdogs.com)
  • A temporary false an- ohylosis has occurred, and instead of motion at the elbow-joint, when the forearm is attempted to be straightened upon the arm, there is only motion at the seat of fracture. (ebooksread.com)
  • The weight of the forearm is such, when placed at a right angle with the arm, and en- cumbered with splints and bandages, that even when supported by a flling, it settles heavily forwards, and compels the arm-dressings to loosen themselves from the arm in front of the point of fracture, and to indent themselves in the skin and flesh behind. (ebooksread.com)
  • The bones that are most commonly tested are in the spine, hip and sometimes the forearm. (aidsmap.com)
  • The median CD4+ cell count was over 400 and only a small proportion of participants had viral loads over 100,000 copies/mL. (thebodypro.com)
  • A small proportion of cases are syndromic. (cdc.gov)
  • In a review of several studies comparing 3,241 efavirenz users with 2,091 non-users, researchers found that in a small proportion of people, about 2%, there was an increased risk of suicide-related behaviour among people who used efavirenz. (catie.ca)
  • I. To determine whether every-12-week therapy with zoledronic acid is not inferior to every-4-week therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, or multiple myeloma involving bone, as measured by the proportion who experience at least one skeletal related event within 24 months after randomization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some symptoms of skeletal dysplasia include: shortening within the bones of the legs and/or arms, bowed or broken bones, a tiny low thorax, abnormal ribs, absence of a limb, uneven bone growth. (omicsonline.org)
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias (SED) are short-trunk skeletal dysplasias that involve the spine and the end of the bones that make up the joints (epiphyses). (kidshealth.org)
  • The arms and legs lengthen but remain spindly until adolescence. (infobarrel.com)
  • The hair is shorter on the head, outside of the ears, and lower part of the legs. (akc.org)
  • Legs - are straight, strong and parallel to each other with bone oval rather than round. (akc.org)
  • The study indicates that long bones of the arms and legs do not evolve independently as scientists have long assumed. (phys.org)
  • The protein produced from this gene plays a critical role in lower limb development by controlling the activity of other genes involved in limb development, directing the shape and structure of bones and other tissues in the legs and feet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Secondly, the lower legs [6-10 and 14-16] are much elongated, and look similar to that as if the shrew were walking on its tippy-toes all of the time. (oricomtech.com)
  • The lower legs of the horse are characterized by long and powerful tendons [dark areas in the above figure], which correspond to the tendons in the hands and feet of humans. (oricomtech.com)
  • The mirror image geometry of the legs certainly helps keep the COG of the horse's torso centered during the stride, but the long lower leg segments represent a difficulty when the horse (and similar animals) try to rise from a kneeling or sitting position. (oricomtech.com)
  • The lower section of their rear legs are elongated and quite vertical, like the horse, but their front legs are somewhat foreshortened, like the shrew. (oricomtech.com)
  • The researchers also suggest that there is a greater proportion of people in the general population with subtle forms of familial partial lipodystrophy, a rare genetic disorder characterised by the inability to develop fat in the arms, legs and buttocks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • People with short-limb dwarfism have a more average-sized trunk with shortened arms and legs. (kidshealth.org)
  • People with achondroplasia have a relatively long trunk and shortened upper parts of their arms and legs. (kidshealth.org)
  • The ultrasound can show if a baby's arms and legs are shorter than average and if the baby's head is larger. (kidshealth.org)
  • Doctors sometimes suspect achondroplasia before birth if a prenatal ultrasound late in a pregnancy shows that a baby's arms and legs are shorter than average and the head is larger. (kidshealth.org)
  • When perceived from the front, the Labrador Retriever's front legs are straight and well-boned. (greatdogsite.com)
  • His arms and legs are now properly proportioned. (parenting.com)
  • Legs, viewed from the rear, are parallel to each other, straight and very strongly muscled in upper and lower thighs. (akc.org)
  • 20% or greater to have a baby with problems such as extremely short or missing arms and legs, missing ears (both outside and inside), and deafness. (ibis-birthdefects.org)
  • In children, XLH causes rickets that leads to lower-extremity deformity, delayed growth and decreased height. (globenewswire.com)
  • Crysvita improved rickets and lower-limb deformity, increased serum phosphorus levels and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. (centerwatch.com)
  • The hallmark feature of OI is bone fragility, with susceptibility to fracture from minimal trauma, as well as bone deformity and growth deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • The bones might unite, yet with a deformity. (ebooksread.com)
  • This is also the same proportion as the clavicle and where the sternum would come through. (nma.art)
  • The muzzle shall be high and wide also in the upper and lower incisor area. (ildobermann.it)
  • They have a well-proportioned muzzle and a wide nose with well-developed nostrils. (greatdogsite.com)
  • Proportions of participants with osteopenia of the spine (-3.9%) or hip (-11.5%) fell in the group that switched to E/C/F/TAF while remaining unchanged in the control arm. (natap.org)
  • Ribs well sprung from the spine, but flattened in lower end to permit elbow clearance. (worldwidepups.com)
  • This proportion creates a rectangular outline. (akc.org)
  • Patients now have an approved breakthrough therapy that can help correct the underlying disease, transforming the treatment of XLH and reducing related bone disease in both children and adults living with this disease," said Emil D. Kakkis, M.D., Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer and President of Ultragenyx. (globenewswire.com)
  • Tail strong at the base, bone to reach hock. (akc.org)
  • The arch is continuous without flatness, resulting in a low tail set. (akc.org)
  • Due to a lower tail set, the pelvis sometimes appears to slant at a greater angle than it actually does. (ukcdogs.com)
  • The tail appears slightly low set, which is often accentuated by a slight depression at the set on. (ukcdogs.com)
  • The lowest point should reach the elbow, forming a smooth ascendant curve to the abdomen. (akc.org)
  • The chest is not broad but is deep with the lowest point reaching the elbow. (kukasworld.com)
  • and inasmuch as the elbow has become the pivot, the motion at the upper end of the lower fragment will be the greater in proportion to the distance of the fracture from the elbow-joint. (ebooksread.com)
  • upper arm bones between shoulder and elbow long. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Objective To determine the efficacy of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for healing of fracture or osteotomy. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Based on moderate to high quality evidence from studies in patients with fresh fracture, LIPUS does not improve outcomes important to patients and probably has no effect on radiographic bone healing. (bmj.com)
  • Only one intervention has been reported that has specifically tested the effect of exercise on bone health outcomes poststroke, and that trial highlights the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise intervention for reducing fracture risk in people living with stroke [4]. (va.gov)
  • Incidence of any fracture was similar in the two groups (0.81 and 0.71 per 100 person-years, p=0.45), while incidence of minimal-trauma fracture was nonsignificantly lower in the early ART group (0.18 versus 0.32 per 100 person-years, p=0.11). (thebodypro.com)
  • The hallmark feature of OI is bone fragility, with a tendency to fracture from minimal trauma or from the work of bearing weight against gravity. (nih.gov)
  • Development of the lower limbs is normal in people with this condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Al-Qattan MM, Al-Thunayan A, Alabdulkareem I, Al Balwi M. Liebenberg syndrome is caused by a deletion upstream to the PITX1 gene resulting in transformation of the upper limbs to reflect lower limb characteristics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This means that the limbs and the trunk are not of the same proportion as those of typically statured people. (kidshealth.org)
  • distinctively large, well proportioned and with exceptional breadth of topskull. (akc.org)
  • Using this data, the researchers identified two specific groups of genetic variants that increased waist-to-hip ratio - one exclusively via lower hip fat and the other exclusively via higher waist (abdominal) fat. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The adult indication is also supported by data from the 48-week, open-label, single-arm bone biopsy study in 14 adult XLH patients, which showed healing of osteomalacia as demonstrated by decreases in osteoid volume/bone volume, osteoid thickness and mineralization lag time. (centerwatch.com)
  • The new formulation of tenofovir, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), was associated with less harm to bones and kidneys than the older formulation, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread), according to a study presented at CROI 2015 in Seattle, Washington. (thebodypro.com)
  • Forty-eight weeks after randomization to continued boosted atazanavir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) or to a single-tablet tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-containing regimen, a significantly higher proportion of people randomized to switch had a viral load below 50 copies [1]. (natap.org)
  • Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new formulation that has lower concentrations in the blood but reaches higher levels in cells, is as effective as the older version, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), according to a report at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2015) taking place this week in Seattle, USA. (aidsmap.com)
  • Savell noted that she and her collaborators are referring to changes in limb bone length on an evolutionary scale, so their data doesn't apply to differences between people that occur over individual lifetimes. (phys.org)
  • Upper Arm - The length of the upper arm corresponds approximately to that of the shoulder blade. (akc.org)
  • Set rather low, medium in length, broad and rounded at the ends, the front edge of the ear should hang close to the cheek. (ukcdogs.com)
  • You can see the same basic proportion now corresponds to the length of the scapula. (nma.art)
  • Shoulder blade and upper arm approximately equal in length. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • ARM I: Patients receive zoledronic acid intravenously (IV) over at least 15 minutes every 4 weeks for up to 2 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The alternate tenofovir formulation used in the combination agent leads to lower blood levels and higher mononuclear cell levels of the drug, which may decrease toxicity. (medpagetoday.com)
  • TAF should cause less of the renal and bone toxicity associated with TDF because less is in the blood, Mills and colleagues hypothesized. (medpagetoday.com)
  • TDF is highly potent and generally safe and well-tolerated, but it can cause kidney and bone toxicity in some patients. (aidsmap.com)
  • The most trustworthy evidence came from four trials at low risk of bias that included patients with tibia or clavicle fractures. (bmj.com)
  • Bone-related complications are a major cause of morbidity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and multiple myeloma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is not yet known whether giving zoledronic acid more or less frequently is more effective in treating patients with metastatic cancer that has spread to the bone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I. To compare pain scores (Brief Pain Inventory) of patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, or myeloma involving bone receiving every 12 week dosing of zoledronic acid to those receiving every 4 week dosing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare the functional status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] performance status) of patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, or myeloma involving bone receiving every 12 week dosing of zoledronic acid to those receiving every 4 week dosing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Crysvita is designed to bind the excess FGF23 in these patients, normalizing phosphorus levels, improving bone mineralization, improving rickets in children and healing fractures in adults. (globenewswire.com)
  • Crysvita treatment resulted in a higher proportion of patients achieving serum phosphorus levels above the lower limit of normal, and a higher rate of complete healing of active fractures and pseudofractures, compared to placebo. (centerwatch.com)
  • For practical reasons, patients may be categorised as an 'observation', a 'standard risk' or a 'high risk' treatment arm. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, the use of cytotoxic drugs can be completely omitted in a substantial proportion of low risk patients with neuroblastoma. (nih.gov)
  • Explain to interested patients that newer HIV regimens carry less risk of limb wasting but that bone loss is still a consideration. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Pulmonary complications account for a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD. (punchng.com)
  • en-do-krin-OL-o-jist) is α doctor who specializes in treating patients with hormone-related disorders. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Occupational therapist Cathy Kleinman-Barnett works with breast cancer patients, but she has never encouraged women with lymphedema, a breast cancer-related swelling of the arm, to lift weights. (cnn.com)
  • Patients' vital signs (heart rate, breathing rate, temperature, blood pressure) are measured before and after they receive the vaccines and they are watched for 2 hours after the shots for possible side effects, such as chills, pain at the injection site, stomach upset, allergic reaction, low blood counts, and infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, a proportion of patients progress following chemotherapy and some relapse after transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • His correctly proportioned, compact and powerful build leads to the conclusion of great strength, agility and endurance. (guardianrottweilers.com)
  • Serum creatinine did not change through 48 weeks in the E/C/F/TAF arm while rising 0.03 mg/dL in the TDF arm (95% CI -0.05 to -0.01, P = 0.003). (natap.org)
  • If serum phosphorus is above the lower limit of the reference range for age and below 5 mg/dL, continue treatment with the same dose. (centerwatch.com)
  • Bones have amounts of Calcium and Phosphorus, and as is the case with shells, the calcium becomes a fusing agent upon the thermal destruction of the bone. (donsmaps.com)
  • The results from the START sub-study emphasise the importance of indivudalising HIV management, especially for people at higher risk of bone disease. (thebodypro.com)
  • This condition is characterized by unilateral or bilateral deficiency of femurs, with variable deficiencies of other long bones. (cdc.gov)
  • Most articular surfaces of the arm bones were deeply furrowed, indicating that the animal had thick pads of cartilage between the joints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the proportions vary, on an overall basis regarding number of joints and segments, however, the leg designs are all similar. (oricomtech.com)
  • Criminologist E. Williams and filing officer examined the display, and noted beneath the outer covering there appeared to be bone-type structure having bone like joints. (whaleoil.co.nz)
  • At rest the dog holds it low, the tip bent back level with the hock. (akc.org)
  • Ears triangular in shape, stiff, erect, and in proportion to the head in size. (akc.org)
  • If uncropped, they are medium size, triangular in shape, held tight to the cheeks, and not extending beyond the jaw bone. (perfectscoobysdoggy.com)
  • The size of the bones which surrounded the brain and were dedicated to protecting it are large. (wikipedia.org)
  • The display remarkably resembled a human cadaver in size and proportion. (whaleoil.co.nz)
  • Carpus is heavy-boned, wider in front than at the side. (akc.org)
  • This false idea was based upon some Neanderthals with bone diseases, such as arthritis and rickets. (creationscience.com)
  • So we take from the top of the head, not the forehead, but the top of the head we get the same proportion. (nma.art)
  • If we're taking this proportion to start with, let me take and break the head down here. (nma.art)
  • Pointed or very high set ears are undesirable, as are low set ears that are carried too far on the sides of the head. (ukcdogs.com)
  • Standing height 99.5 cm, arm span 110 cm, lower segment 50 cm, head circumference 53 cm and weight was just 22.28 kg. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, statistically significant differences in bone and renal safety were observed between the two arms in favor of the TAF-containing regimen. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • They did get a significant hit in their bone whichever regimen they were on. (medpagetoday.com)
  • That tells you that every regimen can cause bone changes, but some of them are worse than others," she said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A phase 2 clinical trial previously showed that a regimen of TAF plus emtricitabine, elvitegravir and cobicistat was comparable to TDF/emtricitabine/elvitegravir/cobicistat ( Stribild ) but caused less kidney impairment and bone loss. (aidsmap.com)
  • Two pharmacologic treatment modalities target osteoclast bone resorption. (nih.gov)
  • From the bottom of the nose to-let me see if I can do this-you can see that we're talking about the same proportions. (nma.art)
  • Studies involving structurally abnormal X chromosomes suggest that the Klinefelter's phenotype is associated with genes mapping to the long arm of the X chromosome. (glowm.com)
  • Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal bone alignment, or from nerve compression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liebenberg syndrome is a condition that involves abnormal development of the arms, resulting in characteristic arm malformations that can vary in severity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The disorders may be caused by poor nutrition, abnormal levels of certain hormones involved in growth, genetic disorders of bone growth, and other diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The underline forms a smooth ascendant curve from the lowest point of the chest to the abdomen. (kukasworld.com)
  • The shoulder blade and upper arm are fairly long and meet at a moderate angle. (ukcdogs.com)
  • Shoulder blade and upper arm meet at an angle of 90 degrees. (thekennelclub.org.uk)
  • Radiological examination showed typical changes of congenital hypothyroidism with a bone age of a 1-year-old child. (bmj.com)
  • Bone oval rather than round. (akc.org)
  • Straight and well muscled, with oval shaped bone that is not too coarse. (ukcdogs.com)
  • The bones in the hands (metacarpals) are longer than normal, and the fingers are short (brachydactyly), similar to the proportions of bones found in the feet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phase 1b dose-ranging studies identified a dose of TAF that is ten times lower than Viread and provides greater antiviral efficacy. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Although ANA, when compared to HC, appears to be slightly less effective in preventing arterial thrombosis and myelofibrotic transformation, it is associated with lower risk of venous thrombosis. (dovepress.com)
  • Genetics which specifically change fat distribution by lowering fat storage around the hips increase risk of disease independent of, and in addition to, mechanisms that affect abdominal fat storage. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It is important for clinicians to be able to tailor regimens for people who may be at higher risk of having bone disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Even though to date, there is no known cure for Covid-19, doctors say that they do not know the role of Vitamin D, specifically in Covid-19 infections but because Vitamin D improves the immune responses and there is clear evidence of bone and muscle health, they say those at risk should be taking a daily dose of Vitamin D. (punchng.com)
  • Moreover, several observational studies suggest that use of estrogen replacement therapy decreases the risk of coronary heart disease ( 2 , 3 , 4 ) and lowers overall mortality rates ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Before surgery, obese people have increased risk for distal lower limb fractures (fractures below the knee) than non-obese people. (abeezarsarela.co.uk)
  • Also, the risk for arm fractures is increased. (abeezarsarela.co.uk)
  • You may miss out on nutrients that are vital for fetal development, and if you're underweight you're at risk of having a low birth weight or preterm baby. (parenting.com)
  • Posted May 16, 2016 THURSDAY, May 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Unlike women, men at risk for osteoporosis don't get routinely screened for bone loss, a new study shows. (realfoodstore.com)
  • o Another study showed that their inner ear bones, used to maintain balance, were strikingly similar to those of chimpanzees and gorillas, but differed greatly from those of humans. (creationscience.com)
  • q Claims were made-based on one partially complete australopithecine fossil, Australopithecus afarensis (a 3.5-foot-tall, long-armed, 60-pound adult called Lucy) -that all australopithecines walked upright in a human manner. (creationscience.com)