###### Proportional Hazards Models

###### Risk Factors

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Prospective Studies

###### Prognosis

###### Survival Analysis

A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

###### Kaplan-Meier Estimate

A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

###### Incidence

###### Retrospective Studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

###### Survival Rate

###### Multivariate Analysis

###### Risk Assessment

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Predictive Value of Tests

In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

###### Risk

###### Cause of Death

###### Age Factors

Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

###### Neoplasm Staging

###### Confidence Intervals

###### Disease-Free Survival

###### Longitudinal Studies

###### Cardiovascular Diseases

###### Registries

###### SEER Program

A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)

###### Questionnaires

###### Sex Factors

Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

###### Disease Progression

###### Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

###### Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

###### Tumor Markers, Biological

Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

###### Kidney Failure, Chronic

The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

###### Stroke

A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

###### Comorbidity

The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

###### Body Mass Index

An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

###### European Continental Ancestry Group

###### Chi-Square Distribution

A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

###### Odds Ratio

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

###### Myocardial Infarction

###### Renal Dialysis

###### Coronary Disease

###### Biological Markers

Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

###### Severity of Illness Index

###### Colorectal Neoplasms

###### Lymphatic Metastasis

###### Epidemiologic Methods

###### Postmenopause

###### HIV Infections

###### Heart Failure

A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.

###### Neoplasms

###### African Americans

###### Regression Analysis

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

###### Age Distribution

###### Coffee

###### Models, Statistical

###### Alcohol Drinking

###### Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

###### Combined Modality Therapy

###### Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active

###### Analysis of Variance

###### CD4 Lymphocyte Count

###### Diabetes Mellitus

###### Chemotherapy, Adjuvant

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Sex Distribution

###### Case-Control Studies

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

###### Logistic Models

Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

###### African Continental Ancestry Group

###### Hypertension

###### Survival

###### Prostate-Specific Antigen

###### Life Style

###### Hip Fractures

###### Diabetes Complications

###### Socioeconomic Factors

###### Treatment Failure

###### Age of Onset

###### Prostatectomy

Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).

###### Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

###### Genotype

###### Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

###### Ovarian Neoplasms

###### Receptors, Estrogen

###### Residence Characteristics

###### Anti-HIV Agents

###### Dementia

An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

###### Biometry

###### Prevalence

###### Endometrial Neoplasms

###### Immunohistochemistry

###### Multicenter Studies as Topic

###### Health Surveys

###### Diet Surveys

###### Life Tables

###### Carcinoma, Hepatocellular

A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

###### Neoplasm Grading

###### Estrogen Replacement Therapy

The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

###### Netherlands

###### Receptors, Progesterone

Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.

###### beta Carotene

A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)

###### ROC Curve

###### Coronary Artery Disease

###### Aging

###### Glomerular Filtration Rate

###### Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols

###### Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

###### Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Medicare

Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)

###### Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

###### Death, Sudden, Cardiac

Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)

###### Death

###### Pancreatic Neoplasms

Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).

###### Brain Neoplasms

Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.

###### Dairy Products

###### C-Reactive Protein

###### Survivors

###### Neoplasm Metastasis

###### National Institutes of Health (U.S.)

###### Menopause

###### Ethnic Groups

###### Reproductive History

An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.

###### Carcinoma, Renal Cell

###### Nomograms

Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.

###### Chronic Disease

Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

###### Obesity

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

###### Biostatistics

###### Double-Blind Method

###### Pregnancy

###### Genetic Predisposition to Disease

###### Population Surveillance

###### Dietary Supplements

Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.

###### Neoplasms, Second Primary

Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.

###### Bias (Epidemiology)

Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

###### Peritoneal Dialysis

###### Peripheral Arterial Disease

###### Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

###### Graft Survival

###### Postoperative Complications

###### Occupational Exposure

###### British Columbia

A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)

###### Asian Continental Ancestry Group

###### Hawaii

A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)

###### Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous

###### Carcinoma

###### Canada

###### Morbidity

###### Karnofsky Performance Status

A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.

###### Viral Load

###### Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

###### Nurses

###### Continental Population Groups

###### Melanoma

A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)

###### Osteoporotic Fractures

###### Reoperation

###### Computer Simulation

## Microvascular loops and networks as prognostic indicators in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas. (1/14874)

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid of the eye is a tumor that disseminates frequently, and 50% of the diagnosed patients die within 10 years. We investigated the hypothesis that, by histopathologic analysis of the arrangement of microvessels (i.e., small blood vessels) in loops and networks, we might be able to differentiate better those patients with a favorable prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of melanoma-specific and all-cause mortality for 167 consecutive patients who had an eye surgically removed because of malignant choroidal or ciliary body melanoma during the period from 1972 through 1981. Microvascular loops and networks were evaluated independently by two pathologists who were unaware of patient outcome. RESULTS: Microvascular patterns could be assessed in 134 (80%) of 167 melanoma specimens. The 10-year probability of melanoma-specific survival was worse if microvascular loops (0.45 versus 0.83; two-sided P<.0001) and networks (0.41 versus 0.72, two-sided P<.0001) were present. In multivariate Cox regression analysis of melanoma-specific survival, the hazard ratios were 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.30) for the presence of loops and networks as a combined three-category variable, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.37-4.05) for the presence of epithelioid cells, 1.11 (95% CI = 1.03-1.19) for the largest basal tumor diameter (evaluated as a continuous variable), and 2.14 (95% CI = 1.25-3.67) for ciliary body involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with malignant uveal melanoma who have a favorable prognosis can be distinguished from those with a poor prognosis by histopathologic analysis of microvascular patterns in uveal melanoma tumor specimens. (+info)## Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. (2/14874)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in patients with diabetes and hypertension. We previously reported that antihypertensive treatment with the calcium-channel blocker nitrendipine reduced the risk of cardiovascular events. In this post hoc analysis, we compared the outcome of treatment with nitrendipine in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. METHODS: After stratification according to center, sex, and presence or absence of previous cardiovascular complications, 4695 patients (age, > or =60 years) with systolic blood pressure of 160 to 219 mm Hg and diastolic pressure below 95 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive active treatment or placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10 to 40 mg per day) with the possible addition or substitution of enalapril (5 to 20 mg per day) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 to 25 mg per day) or both, titrated to reduce the systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg and to less than 150 mm Hg. In the control group, matching placebo tablets were administered similarly. RESULTS: At randomization, 492 patients (10.5 percent) had diabetes. After a median follow-up of two years, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the placebo and active-treatment groups differed by 8.6 and 3.9 mm Hg, respectively, among the diabetic patients. Among the 4203 patients without diabetes, systolic and diastolic pressures differed by 10.3 and 4.5 mm Hg, respectively, in the two groups. After adjustment for possible confounders, active treatment was found to have reduced overall mortality by 55 percent (from 45.1 deaths per 1000 patients to 26.4 deaths per 1000 patients), mortality from cardiovascular disease by 76 percent, all cardiovascular events combined by 69 percent, fatal and nonfatal strokes by 73 percent, and all cardiac events combined by 63 percent in the group of patients with diabetes. Among the nondiabetic patients, active treatment decreased all cardiovascular events combined by 26 percent and fatal and nonfatal strokes by 38 percent. In the group of patients receiving active treatment, reductions in overall mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, and all cardiovascular events were significantly larger among the diabetic patients than among the nondiabetic patients (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nitrendipine-based antihypertensive therapy is particularly beneficial in older patients with diabetes and isolated systolic hypertension. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that the use of long-acting calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in diabetic patients. (+info)## Association between age and survival following major amputation. The Scottish Vascular Audit Group. (3/14874)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether age is associated with survival following major amputation and whether this association is independent or simply reflects selection bias in amputation level. DESIGN AND MATERIALS: Computer linkage of routine discharge and death data on the 2759 patients undergoing major amputation in Scotland between 1989 and 1993 for peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Cox's proportional hazards model and multivariate logistic regression analysis using death as the outcome variable and age, sex, urgency, amputation level and recent arterial reconstructive surgery as predictor variables. RESULTS: Proximal amputation was more common in older patients. Survival was associated with both age (p < 0.001) and amputation level (p < 0.001). Age was an independent predictor of death at 30 days (p < 0.0001), 6 months (p < 0.001), 12 months (p < 0.0001) and 2 years (p < 0.0001) postoperation. CONCLUSIONS: Survival following amputation was poor, with only half the patients alive at 2 years. Above-knee amputation was associated with poorer survival, presumably due to the presence of more severe and widespread disease, and was undertaken more commonly in older patients. However, age remained a predictor of survival after adjustment for amputation level. Higher early mortality suggest that a worse prognosis in elderly patients cannot be attributed wholly to actuarial considerations. (+info)## Prognostic value of ECG findings for total, cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease death in men and women. (4/14874)

OBJECTIVE: To study abnormalities in the resting ECG as independent predictors for all cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population based random sample of men and women, and to explore whether their prognostic value is different between sexes. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: An age and sex stratified random sample was selected from the total Belgian population aged 25 to 74 years. Baseline data were gathered and resting ECGs were classified according to Minnesota code criteria. The sample was then followed for at least 10 years with respect to cause specific death. Results are based on observations from 5208 men and 4746 women free from prevalent CHD at the start of the follow up period. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of major abnormalities in general was comparable between sexes, women had more ischaemic findings, ST segment changes, and abnormal T waves on their baseline ECG, while men showed more arrhythmias, bundle branch blocks, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Fitting the multiplicative effect on subsequent mortality between all ECG classifications under study and sex indicated that the prognostic value of ECG changes was equal in women and men. Independently of other risk factors and other major ECG changes, almost all ECG classifications were significantly related to all cause, CVD, and CHD mortality. The most predictive ECG findings for CVD death were ST segment depression (risk ratio (RR) 4.71), major ECG findings (RR 3.26), left ventricular hypertrophy (RR 2.79), bundle branch blocks (RR 2.58), T wave flattening (RR 2.47), ischaemic ECG findings (RR 2.35), and arrhythmias (RR 2.15). The prognostic value of major ECG findings for CVD and CHD death was more powerful than well established cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in the baseline ECG are strongly associated with subsequent all cause, CVD, and CHD mortality. Their predictive value was similar for men and women. (+info)## Recurrence in affective disorder: analyses with frailty models. (5/14874)

The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded that the risk of recurrence seems to increase with the number of episodes of bipolar affective disorder in general and for women with unipolar disorder. (+info)## Influence of a family history of cancer within and across multiple sites on patterns of cancer mortality risk for women. (6/14874)

A case-control study nested within a large cohort, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-1, was conducted to test associations between a family history of cancer and cancer mortality in women. By using logistic regression, the authors analyzed family history, as reported by 429,483 women enrolled in 1959, relative to subsequent mortality through 1972 from cancer within and across multiple sites. The associations between family history and cancer mortality were generally stronger within cancer sites than across cancer sites. Within-site associations were found for breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.9), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.6), stomach cancer (OR = 1.9), and lung cancer (OR = 1.7). Across-site associations were observed for a family history of 1) breast cancer as a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality (OR = 1.6), 2) stomach cancer as a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality (OR = 1.5), and 3) uterine cancer as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer mortality (OR = 1.6). A general pattern of positive associations was observed between a family history of cancer at several sites and subsequent death from pancreatic cancer. These findings support the growing body of evidence from cancer genetics suggesting that inherited cancer-susceptibility genes increase the risk for cancer at many sites and are not specific to cancer risk within a single site. (+info)## Prognostic significance of extent of disease in bone in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. (7/14874)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of a bone scan index (BSI) based on the weighted proportion of tumor involvement in individual bones, in relation to other factors and to survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Baseline radionuclide bone scans were reviewed in 191 assessable patients with androgen-independent disease who were enrolled onto an open, randomized trial of liarozole versus prednisone. The extent of skeletal involvement was assessed by scoring each scan using the BSI and independently according to the number of metastatic lesions. The relationship of the scored bone involvement to other known prognostic factors was explored in single- and multiple-variable analyses. RESULTS: In single-variable analyses, the pretreatment factors found to be associated with survival were age (P = .0446), performance status (P = .0005), baseline prostate-specific antigen (P = .0001), hemoglobin (P = .0001), alkaline phosphatase (P = .0002), AST (P = .0021), lactate dehydrogenase (P = .0001), and treatment (P = .0098). The extent of osseous disease was significant using both the BSI (P = .0001) and the number of lesions present (P = .0001). In multiple-variable proportional hazards analyses, only BSI, age, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and treatment arm were associated with survival. When the patient population was divided into three equal groups, with BSI values of < 1.4%, 1.4% to 5.1%, and > 5.1%, median survivals of 18.3, 15.5, and 8.1 months, respectively, were observed (P = .0079). CONCLUSION: The BSI quantifies the extent of skeletal involvement by tumor. It allows the identification of patients with distinct prognoses for stratification in clinical trials. Further study is needed to assess the utility of serial BSI determinations in monitoring treatment effects. The BSI may be particularly useful in the evaluation of agents for which prostate-specific antigen changes do not reflect clinical outcomes accurately. (+info)## Hematocrit level and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients. (8/14874)

Although a number of clinical studies have shown that increased hematocrits are associated with improved outcomes in terms of cognitive function, reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, increased exercise tolerance, and improved quality of life, the optimal hematocrit level associated with survival has yet to be determined. The association between hematocrit levels and patient mortality was retrospectively studied in a prevalent Medicare hemodialysis cohort on a national scale. All patients survived a 6-mo entry period during which their hematocrit levels were assessed, from July 1 through December 31, 1993, with follow-up from January 1 through December 31, 1994. Patient comorbid conditions relative to clinical events and severity of disease were determined from Medicare claims data and correlated with the entry period hematocrit level. After adjusting for medical diseases, our results showed that patients with hematocrit levels less than 30% had significantly higher risk of all-cause (12 to 33%) and cause-specific death, compared to patients with hematocrits in the 30% to less than 33% range. Without severity of disease adjustment, patients with hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% appear to have the lowest risk for all-cause and cardiac mortality. After adjusting for severity of disease, the impact of hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% is vulnerable to the patient sample size but also demonstrates a further 4% reduced risk of death. Overall, these findings suggest that sustained increases in hematocrit levels are associated with improved patient survival. (+info)###### survival - Interval censored Cox proportional hazards model in R - Cross Validated

###### Com Ref - Analysis: COXPH - User Guide | Epi Info™ | CDC

###### Physical Activity and Mortality in Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis

###### Clinical and multiple gene expression variables in survival analysis of breast cancer: Analysis with the hypertabastic survival...

###### Validation of a Metastatic Assay using biopsies to improve risk stratification in patients with prostate cancer treated with...

###### SAS Training in the United States -- Survival Analysis Using the Proportional Hazards Model

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**Proportional** **hazards** **model**

The generic term parametric

**proportional****hazards****models**can be used to describe**proportional****hazards****models**in which the**hazard**...**Proportional****hazards****models**are a class of survival**models**in statistics. Survival**models**relate the time that passes, before ... For example, assuming the**hazard**function to be the Weibull**hazard**function gives the Weibull**proportional****hazards****model**. ...**hazards****models**and Poisson regression**models**which is sometimes used to fit approximate**proportional****hazards****models**in software ...###### Regression dilution

... and for some non-linear regression

**models**. Other non-linear**models**, such as**proportional****hazards****models**for survival analysis, ... Hughes, M. D. (1993). "Regression dilution in the**proportional****hazards****model**". Biometrics. 49 (4): 1056-1066. doi:10.2307/ ... derived either directly by observation-with-error or from application of a measurement**model**, such as the Rasch**model**. Also, ... The case that x is fixed, but measured with noise, is known as the functional**model**or functional relationship. It can be ...###### Survival analysis

The Cox

**model**assumes that the**hazards**are**proportional**. The**proportional****hazard**assumption may be tested using the R function ... For quantitative predictor variables, an alternative method is Cox**proportional****hazards**regression analysis. Cox PH**models**work ... Cox**models**may be extended for such time-varying covariates. The Cox PH regression**model**is a linear**model**. It is similar to ... Tree-structured survival**models**may give more accurate predictions than Cox**models**. Examining both types of**models**for a given ...**Hazard** ratio

Such

**models**are generally classed**proportional****hazards**regression**models**; the best known being the Cox**proportional****hazards**... Survival analysis Failure rate and**Hazard**rate**Proportional****hazards****models**Relative risk Najjar-Debbiny, R.; Gronich, N.; Weber ... If the**proportional****hazard**assumption holds, a**hazard**ratio of one means equivalence in the**hazard**rate of the two groups, ... Regression**models**are used to obtain**hazard**ratios and their confidence intervals. The instantaneous**hazard**rate is the limit ...###### Mare reproductive loss syndrome

"On the Use of the Accelerated Failure Time

**Model**as an Alternative to the**Proportional****Hazards****Model**in the Treatment of Time ... Patel, K; Kay, R; Rowell, L (2006). "Comparing**proportional****hazards**and accelerated failure time**models**: an application in ... Simino, J.; Hollander, M.; McGee, D. (2012). "Calibration of**Proportional****Hazards**and Accelerated Failure Time**Models**". ... In most toxicological**models**, the effect is**proportional**to concentration of toxin or amount of insult. However, in the AFT ...###### Customer attrition

Van Den Poel; Lariviére (2004). "Customer Attrition Analysis For Financial Services Using

**Proportional****Hazard****Models**". European ... Several studies combine several different types of predictors to develop a churn**model**. This**model**can take demographic ... Since these**models**generate a small prioritized list of potential defectors, they are effective at focusing customer retention ... One of the main objectives of**modeling**customer churn is to determine the causal factors, so that the company can try to ...###### Multicollinearity

"Customer attrition analysis for financial services using

**proportional****hazard****models**". European Journal of Operational Research ... A principal danger of such data redundancy is that of overfitting in regression analysis**models**. The best regression**models**are ... Such a**model**is often called "low noise" and will be statistically robust (that is, it will predict reliably across numerous ... More importantly, the usual use of regression is to take coefficients from the**model**and then apply them to other data. Since ...###### Hypertabastic survival **models**

If the sample consists of right censored data and the

**model**to use is Hypertabastic**proportional****hazards****model**, then, the ... Hypertabastic**Proportional****Hazards****Model**with Log Time */ title1 'Kidney Carcinoma'; max logf; /***Model**Parameter Initial ... was performed using the generalized chi-square test statistics and**proportional****hazards****model**. The Hypertabastic**proportional**... The Hypertabastic**proportional****hazards****model**was used to analyze the survival time of patients diagnosed with kidney carcinoma ...###### MedCalc

Survival analysis includes Cox regression (

**Proportional****hazards****model**) and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Procedures for ...###### Accelerated failure time **model**

... that would be the

**proportional****hazards****model**. Unlike**proportional****hazards****models**, in which Cox's semi-parametric**proportional**... AFT**model**) is a parametric**model**that provides an alternative to the commonly used**proportional****hazards****models**. Whereas a ... Unlike**proportional****hazards****models**, the regression parameter estimates from AFT**models**are robust to omitted covariates. They ...**proportional****hazards****model**assumes that the effect of a covariate is to multiply the**hazard**by some constant, an AFT**model**...###### Semiparametric **model**

These

**models**often use smoothing or kernels. A well-known example of a semiparametric**model**is the Cox**proportional****hazards**... a semiparametric**model**is a statistical**model**that has parametric and nonparametric components. A statistical**model**is a ... However, a semiparametric**model**is considered to be "smaller" than a completely nonparametric**model**because we are often ... It may appear at first that semiparametric**models**include nonparametric**models**, since they have an infinite-dimensional as well ...###### Nested case-control study

"Methods for the Analysis of Sampled Cohort Data in the Cox

**Proportional****Hazards****Model**" (PDF). Annals of Statistics. 23 (5): ... The analysis of a nested case-control**model**must take into account the way in which controls are sampled from the cohort. ... Since the covariate is not measured for all participants, the nested case-control**model**is both less expensive than a full ...###### David Cox (statistician)

An example of the use of the

**proportional****hazards****model**is in survival analysis in medical research. The**model**can be used in ... The**proportional****hazards****model**, which is widely used in the analysis of survival data, was developed by him in 1972. ... the**proportional****hazards****model**and the Cox process, a point process named after him. He was a professor of statistics at ... "the development of the**Proportional****Hazard**Regression**Model**." In 2010 he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society "for ...###### Kaplan-Meier estimator

... parametric survival

**models**and the Cox**proportional****hazards****model**may be useful to estimate covariate-adjusted survival. The ... Both are based on rewriting the survival function in terms of what is sometimes called**hazard**, or mortality rates. However, ... "sts - Generate, graph, list, and test the survivor and cumulative**hazard**functions" (PDF). Stata Manual. Cleves, Mario (2008). ... Kaplan-Meier estimator can be derived from maximum likelihood estimation of**hazard**function.[self-published source?] More ...###### Flow sampling

These estimators range from fully parametric

**models**such as the Mixed**Proportional****Hazard****model**, to nonparametric and ... Salant shows that heterogeneity in**hazard**rates between the stock and the flow distribution provides a key to understanding why ... Hausman, J. A. and T. Woutersen (2014), Estimating a semi-parametric duration**model**without specifying heterogeneity. Journal ...###### Logrank test

The logrank statistic can be derived as the score test for the Cox

**proportional****hazards****model**comparing two groups. It is ... assume the**hazard**functions in the two groups are**proportional**with**hazard**ratio λ {\displaystyle \lambda } and d 1 {\ ... If the**hazard**ratio is λ {\displaystyle \lambda } , there are n {\displaystyle n} total subjects, d {\displaystyle d} is the ... The logrank test statistic compares estimates of the**hazard**functions of the two groups at each observed event time. It is ...###### Patricia Grambsch

Meller Grambsch is an American biostatistician known for her work on survival

**models**including**proportional****hazards****models**. She ... With Terry M. Therneau, Grambsch is the author of the book**Modeling**Survival Data: Extending the Cox**Model**(Statistics for ... retrieved 2020-06-20 Reviews of**Modeling**Survival Data: Broström, Göran, zbMATH, Zbl 0958.62094{{citation}}: CS1 maint: ...###### Poisson regression

... creates

**proportional****hazards****models**, one class of survival analysis: see**proportional****hazards****models**for ... Other generalized linear**models**such as the negative binomial**model**or zero-inflated**model**may function better in these cases. ... A Poisson regression**model**is sometimes known as a log-linear**model**, especially when used to**model**contingency tables. Negative ... This**model**is popular because it**models**the Poisson heterogeneity with a gamma distribution. Poisson regression**models**are ...###### Randomized controlled trial

Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox

**proportional****hazards****models**for time to coronary heart disease after receipt of hormone ... Vonesh, Edward F.; Chinchilli, Vernon G. (1997). "Crossover Experiments". Linear and Nonlinear**Models**for the Analysis of ...###### Teaching-family **model**

Cox

**Proportional****Hazards**Regression Analysis as a**Modeling**Technique for Informing Program Improvement: Predicting Recidivism ... The Teaching-Family**Model**(TFM) is a**model**of care for persons in need of services and care necessary to support an improved ... The Teaching-Family**Model**has been suggested as a**model**program for residential treatment facility and behavior modification ... The**model**has been replicated over 800 times, although not all of the replications have proven effective and successful. This ...###### Nancy Flournoy

Her work in this time on the graft-versus-tumor effect become "the first major application of the

**proportional****hazards****model**... for serving as a role**model**and mentor for graduate students and young faculty; for her scholarship in teaching and research, ...###### Cyntha Struthers

... mathematical statistician whose research topics include missing data in longitudinal studies and

**proportional****hazards****models**. ... "Role**models**needed for women students, says new prof", Update!, St. Jerome's College, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 7, Fall 1985, retrieved ...###### Lasso (statistics)

...

**proportional****hazards****models**, and M-estimators. Given the objective function 1 N ∑ i = 1 N f ( x i , y i , α , β ) {\ ...**proportional****hazards****models**, and M-estimators. Lasso's ability to perform subset selection relies on the form of the constraint ... lasso regularization is easily extended to other statistical**models**including generalized linear**models**, generalized estimating ... This can be**modeled**using the following regularization: ∑ i < j p , β i − β j , ≤ t 2 . {\displaystyle \sum _{i. < p < 1 {\ ...###### Perfluorooctanoic acid

A

**proportional****hazards**regression**model**was used for each cancer type with the cancer as the outcome and PFOA serum level ... Office of Environmental Health**Hazard**Assessment, Cancer Toxicology and Epidemiology Section, Reproductive and Cancer**Hazard**...**Models**were adjusted for time-varying- smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as sex, education and five-year birth cohort. ...**hazard**ratio = 1.10 and 1.34, respectively, for a 1-unit increase in log-transformed serum PFOA]. The study consisted of 32,254 ...###### Cinnabar moth

An Analysis Based on the

**Proportional****Hazards****Model**." Journal of Animal Ecology. 54 (3). Coombs, E. M., et al., Eds. (2004). ...###### Formica polyctena

An Analysis Based on the

**Proportional****Hazards****Model**."Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Oct., 1985). Helantera, Heikki ... F. polyctena is consistent with this**model**, with almost completely sterile workers that do not lay eggs. This is in contrast to ... Aubert and Richard proposed this social vaccination**model**, where they argue that if fellow nestmates groom an infected ant, ...###### Likelihood function

It is a key component of the

**proportional****hazards****model**: using a restriction on the**hazard**function, the likelihood does not ... of a**model**, given an event, is the negative of the surprisal of the event, given the**model**: a**model**is supported by an event to ... That is, a**model**that does not meet these regularity conditions may or may not have a maximum likelihood estimator of the ... Due to the introduction of a probability structure on the parameter space or on the collection of**models**, it is possible that a ...###### First-hitting-time **model**

Survival analysis

**Proportional****hazards****models**Redner 2001 Bachelier 1900 Von E 1900 Smoluchowski 1915 Lundberg 1903 Tweedie ... Lee, M.-L. T.; Whitmore, G. A. (2010). "Threshold**Proportional****hazards**and threshold regression: their theoretical and ... The**model**considers the event that the amount of money reaches 0, representing bankruptcy. The**model**can answer questions such ... In statistics, first-hitting-time**models**are a sub-class of survival**models**. The first hitting time, also called first passage ...###### Compensation law of mortality

...

**proportional****hazard****models**). The compensation law of mortality also represents a great challenge for many theories of aging and ... PMID 111909 Gavrilov, L.A. "A mathematical**model**of the aging of animals". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1978, 238(2): 490-492. ...###### Unobserved heterogeneity in duration **models**

McCall, B. P. (1994): Testing the

**Proportional****Hazards**Assumption in the Presence of Unmeasured Heterogeneity. Journal of ... and it enters the**hazard**function multiplicatively. One can define the conditional**hazard**as the**hazard**function conditional on ... It then follows that the average**hazard**is given by exp(x'β) αtα-1. More generally, it can be shown that as long as the**hazard**... and the**hazard**function λ(.). Recent examples provide a nonparametric approaches to estimating the baseline**hazard**and the ...###### Imperial examination

These features have been compared to similar aspects of the earlier Chinese

**model**. In the British civil service, just as it was ... in numbers roughly**proportional**to each province's population. Elite individuals all over China, even in the disadvantaged ... over birth and allow for dramatic social mobility was most attractive for contemporary Europeans in the grip of the**hazards**of ... With the disappearance of the old aristocracy, Wu's system of bureaucrat recruitment once more became the dominant**model**in ...###### False vacuum decay

The former tends as the cube of the bubble's radius while the latter is

**proportional**to the square of its radius, so there is a ... Ellis, J.; Espinosa, J.R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hoecker, A.; Riotto, A. (2009). "The Probable Fate of the Standard**Model**". Phys. Lett ... Space**hazards**, Ultimate fate of the universe, Vacuum). ... Nonetheless, new physics beyond the Standard**Model**of Particle ... Salvio, Alberto (2015-04-09). "A Simple Motivated Completion of the Standard**Model**below the Planck Scale: Axions and Right- ...###### Capacitor

The

**hazards**posed by a capacitor are usually determined, foremost, by the amount of energy stored, which is the cause of things ... The simplest**model**of a capacitor consists of two thin parallel conductive plates each with an area of A {\displaystyle A} ... Thus the charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current as well as**proportional**to the voltage, as discussed ... This**model**applies well to many practical capacitors which are constructed of metal sheets separated by a thin layer of ...###### Impact event

**Models**developed in 2018 to explain the unusual spin of Uranus support a long-held theory that this was caused by an oblique ... Melosh, H. J. (2003). "Impact-generated tsunamis: An over-rated

**hazard**". Lunar and Planetary Science Conference Abstract. 34: ... which is on average

**proportional**to the diameter of the impactor. Asteroids with a 1 km (0.62 mi) diameter strike Earth every ... Computer

**modelling**suggests that the impact involved large asteroids or protoplanets similar to the events believed to have led ...

###### Global Positioning System

AFGRL developed the Klobuchar

**model**for computing ionospheric corrections to GPS location. Of note is work done by Australian ... the time delay between when the satellite transmits a signal and the ground station receives it is**proportional**to the distance ... GPS can be used to measure crustal motion and deformation to estimate seismic strain buildup for creating seismic**hazard**maps. ... longitude and height relative to an ellipsoidal Earth**model**. The height may then be further converted to height relative to the ...###### Flood basalt

Cox, K. G. (1 November 1980). "A

**Model**for Flood Basalt Vulcanism". Journal of Petrology. 21 (4): 629-650. doi:10.1093/ ... The lateral extent of a flood basalt flow is roughly**proportional**to the cube of the thickness of the flow near its source. ... Geological**hazards**, Future problems, Doomsday scenarios). ... "A new**model**for the emplacement of Columbia River basalts as ...###### Deep diving

... has more

**hazards**and greater risk than basic open water diving. Nitrogen narcosis, the "narks" or "rapture of the ... Using normal scuba equipment, breathing gas consumption is**proportional**to ambient pressure-so at 50 metres (160 ft), where the ...**model**, a two-stage regulator (patented by Novelli and Buggiani) equipped with a lung bag and soda lime filter for CO2 removal, ... Nitrogen narcosis becomes a**hazard**below 30 metres (98 ft) and hypoxic breathing gas is required below 60 metres (200 ft) to ...###### Infrared

Light from a near-IR laser may thus appear dim red and can present a

**hazard**since it may actually be quite bright. And even IR ... Jones, B.S.; Lynn, W.F.; Stone, M.O. (2001). "Thermal**Modeling**of Snake Infrared Reception: Evidence for Limited Detection ... 1879: Stefan-Boltzmann law formulated empirically that the power radiated by a blackbody is**proportional**to T4. 1880s and 1890s ... Thermal infrared radiation also has a maximum emission wavelength, which is inversely**proportional**to the absolute temperature ...###### Linear no-threshold **model**

The LNT

**model**is sometimes applied to other cancer**hazards**such as polychlorinated biphenyls in drinking water. The association ... response**model**in which the risk of inducing a cancer in an irradiated tissue by low doses of radiation is**proportional**to the ... The validity of the LNT**model**, however, is disputed, and three other significant**models**exist: the threshold**model**, which ... The LNT**model**has been contested by a number of scientists. It has been claimed that the early proponent of the**model**Hermann ...###### Coaxial cable

With sufficient power, this could be a

**hazard**to people near the cable. A properly placed and properly sized balun can prevent ... Coaxial cable is a particular kind of transmission line, so the circuit**models**developed for general transmission lines are ... The outer diameter is roughly inversely**proportional**to the cutoff frequency. A propagating surface-wave mode that only ... with the depth of penetration being**proportional**to the square root of the resistivity. This means that, in a shield of finite ...###### Sweetened beverage

The food addiction

**model**asserts that excessive consumption of palatable foods may be understood within the same ... Mishra, MB; Mishra, Shanu (2011-01-01). "Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: General and Oral Health**Hazards**in Children and Adolescents ... increase in sugar-sweetened beverage taxes would result in**proportional**reduction in consumption. Other solutions target ...**model**of overweight". Appetite. 114: 64-72. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.024. hdl:1983/699cf0f2-1344-4414-bd84-0cf80c0feff5. ...###### Transmission system operator

Natural

**hazards**and generation/consumption imbalances are a major cause of concern. To minimize the probability of grid ... System operations staff undertake this work using sophisticated energy**modelling**and communications systems. In addition to its ... They are financed either by the states or countries or by charging a toll**proportional**to the energy they carry. The system ...###### Risk score

... as reverse-engineered by ProPublica using logistic regression and Cox's

**proportional****hazard****model**. Hastie, T. J.; Tibshirani, R ... is estimated using a generalized linear**model**: E ( Y , X ) = P ( Y = 1 , X ) = g − 1 ( X β ) {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}\ ... J. (1990). Generalized Additive**Models**. Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 978-0-412-34390-2. Toren, Yizhar (2011). "Ordinal Risk-Group ...###### Sabancaya

Rock fall would affect the area close to the summit domes, as would pyroclastic flows; these would be a further

**hazard**to the ... and the**proportional**amount of fresh volcanic material increased at first; since 1997 discontinuous eruptions generate steam ... "Geomorphologic map and derived geomorphological evolution**model**of the Ampato volcanic complex (Southern Peru)". EGU General ... Annen, Catherine; Wagner, Jean-Jacques (2003-11-01). "The Impact of Volcanic Eruptions During the 1990s". Natural**Hazards**...###### Standard diving dress

Most of the

**hazards**to which the standard diver was exposed are much the same as those to which any other surface supplied ... No-bolt**model**used similar rubber flange to 3-bolt helmets, but clamped between the bonnet and corselet which were connected at ... which was**proportional**to the depth at which the diver worked.[citation needed] Umbilical: A diver's umbilical is a cable made ... Later**models**were equipped with a diver's telephone for voice communications with the surface. The term deep sea diving was ...###### Surface-supplied diving

A

**hazard**is any agent or situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most**hazards**remain ... Some**models**require a bailout block to provide alternative breathing gas supply from the umbilical and bailout cylinder, but ... and the weight is directly**proportional**to the total volume - smaller helmets are lighter. To avoid fatigue, divers avoid ... or the combined probability of undesirable consequences of all the**hazards**of a specific activity. A**hazard**that is understood ...###### Ultraviolet index

The UV index is designed as an open-ended linear scale, directly

**proportional**to the intensity of UV radiation that causes ... Predictions are made by a computer**model**that accounts for the effects of sun-earth distance, solar zenith angle, total ozone ...**Hazard**scales). ... reports is usually a prediction based on a computer**model**. ...###### Carbon monoxide detector

These advanced

**models**cost somewhat more but are otherwise similar to the basic**models**. The digital**models**offer the advantage ... A biomimetic sensor works in a fashion similar to hemoglobin which darkens in the presence of CO**proportional**to the amount of ... They will warn the driver and passenger if there is a CO**hazard**. Another type is used by industrial hygienists and first ... Newer**models**are designed to signal a need to be replaced after a set time span. CO detectors all have "test" buttons like ...###### Overfitting

For logistic regression or Cox

**proportional****hazards****models**, there are a variety of rules of thumb (e.g. 5-9, 10 and 10-15 - the ... The book**Model**Selection and**Model**Averaging (2008) puts it this way. Given a data set, you can fit thousands of**models**at the ... An under-fitted**model**is a**model**where some parameters or terms that would appear in a correctly specified**model**are missing. ...**Model**Selection and**Model**Averaging, Cambridge University Press. Harrell, F. E. Jr. (2001), Regression**Modeling**Strategies, ...###### Water security

There is no unifying theory or

**model**for determining or managing water risk.: 13 Instead, a range of theories,**models**, and ... Water security risks in Bangladesh include:: 45 some natural**hazards**that related to climate (climate**hazards**) the impacts of ... 140 Water scarcity and water security do not have to be directly**proportional**: There are regions with high water security, ... For example, the long rains in East Africa which fall March to May have been difficult to simulate within the climate**models**...###### Arcade game

In Drive Mobile, a steering wheel was used to control a

**model**car over a road painted on a metal drum, with the goal being to ... The gameplay itself can be of any arcade game, and the number of tickets received are**proportional**to the player's score. Skee ... Cabot, Anthony N.; Light, Glenn J.; Rutledge, Karl F. (2009). "Alex Rodriguez, a Monkey, and the Game of Scrabble: The**Hazard**... with later arcade systems such as the Sega**Model**3 remaining considerably more advanced than home systems through the late ...###### Testing cosmetics on animals

doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(07)61866-1. Mone, Gregory (April 2014). "New

**Models**in Cosmetics Replacing Animal Testing". ... the acceptability of this to opponents of testing is inversely**proportional**to how recent the data is. Methods of testing ... repeated oral force-feeding studies lasting weeks or months to look for signs of general illness or specific health**hazards**, ... research companies such as NOTOX have developed a synthetic**model**of the human liver, which is the main organ to detox the body ...###### Static electricity

For

**modelling**the effect of static discharge on sensitive electronic devices, a human being is represented as a capacitor of ... As little as 0.2 millijoules may present an ignition**hazard**; such low spark energy is often below the threshold of human visual ... and can be roughly**proportional**to particulate flow. Dust clouds of finely powdered substances can become combustible or ... This is not considered to be a**hazard**for dust clouds. Propagating brush discharge is high in energy and dangerous. Occurs when ...###### Glossary of underwater diving terminology: P-S

red tide reduced gradient bubble

**model**A computationally intensive bubble**model**decompression algorithm developed by Bruce ... pressure transducer A component that produces a signal**proportional**to a pressure input, which can be processed to give an ... element Item of equipment or process with the purpose to prevent or limit the consequences of a high risk**hazard**, that if ... perfusion limited The assumption in a decompression**model**that perfusion has the dominant influence on gas uptake and release. ...###### Buoyancy compensator (diving)

One of these later

**models**was the Seatec Manta, with shoulder buckles and a softpac structure (without a rigid backpack) In ... The buoyancy compensator is both an important safety device when used correctly, and a significant**hazard**when misused or ... The depth range in which effectively stable neutral buoyancy can be maintained is inversely**proportional**to the volume of ... Most BCs do not have a CO2 inflation option, which eliminates this**hazard**. Redundant bladders may be inadvertently filled, ...###### Sea

... so global climate

**modelling**makes use of ocean circulation**models**as well as**models**of other major components such as the ... Homer describes the ten-year voyage of the Greek hero Odysseus who struggles to return home across the sea's many**hazards**after ... radiating outwards at a velocity**proportional**to the square root of the depth of the water and which therefore travels much ... Ocean**models**make use of a branch of physics, geophysical fluid dynamics, that describes the large-scale flow of fluids such as ...###### Earthquake casualty estimation

A

**model**of a city in which each district has its own distribution of buildings into classes and its population, is far superior ... This is so because the surface wave M, which is quickly obtained, is defined as**proportional**to the 20 sec Reighly surface wave ... Such calculations are similar to those made to assess the seismic**hazard**, part of the field of engineering seismology. Errors ... A cost-effective way to**model**a large city is to treat each administrative district as a separate settlement. In many large ...###### Erodability

An alternative

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###### Internet Scientific Publications

Results: Cox

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###### NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

###### Application of **hazard** analysis and critical control point system in the dairy industry

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###### Prediction of resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer: a systematic review | BMC Cancer | Full Text

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...

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###### Individual social capital and survival: a population study with 5-year follow-up | BMC Public Health | Full Text

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Evaluating bias from birth cohort effects in the age-based Cox

**proportional****hazards****model**. Epidemiology 2011;22:249-56. ... Initial analyses using continuous exposure-response**models**were based on power**models**(ie, log-linear**models**using a log- ... are identical to those from Cox**proportional****hazards**regression.**Hazard**ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality were estimated ... Final**models**were checked for proportionality of**hazards**with age by evaluating its product with each exposure metric as an ...###### Preterm birth and risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a national cohort study | SpringerLink

Grambsch PM (1995) Goodness-of-fit and diagnostics for

**proportional****hazards**regression**models**. Cancer Treat Res 75:95-112 ... The**proportional****hazards**assumption was assessed by examining log-log plots [29], and was met in each**model**. ... Cox**proportional****hazards**regression was used to compute HRs and 95% CIs for associations between gestational age at birth and ... In the stratified Cox**model**, each set of siblings had its own baseline**hazard**function that reflects the familys shared ...###### PUB HLTH 7104 - Biostatistics | Course Outlines

Assessing the assumptions of Cox

**proportional****hazards**regression**models**. Practical: Stratified Cox**proportional****hazards****models**... Lecture: Introduction to Cox**proportional****hazards**regression**models**. Practical: Fitting a Cox**model**in Stata. ... Practical: Fitting a multiple linear regression**model**. Linear**Models**3. Lecture: Analysis of covariance and**model**assumptions. ... Generalized Linear**Models**. Lecture: Introduction to common Generalized Linear**Models**. Practical: Poisson regression and glm. ...###### Potential Survival Benefit of Anti-Apoptosis Protein: Survivin-Derived Peptide Vaccine with and without Interferon Alpha...

... and differences between two groups were compared using the log-rank test and Cox

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###### SAS Training in Finland -- Find a Course

Survival Analysis Using the

**Proportional****Hazards****Model**3 Intermediate. Advanced Statistical**Modeling**Using the NLMIXED ... Managing**Models**in SAS Viya 3 Intermediate. Managing SAS Analytical**Models**Using SAS**Model**Manager Version 14.2 3 Intermediate ... Credit Risk**Modeling**3 Intermediate. Risk**Modeling**Add-on for SAS Visual Machine Learning: Using Credit Scoring Nodes 3 ... Predictive**Modeling**Using Logistic Regression 4 Expert. Predictive**Modeling**Using SAS High-Performance Analytics Procedures 4 ...###### Courses - Arnold School of Public Health | University of South Carolina

... variables and the

**proportional****hazards****model**. BIOS 765 Research Design in the Biomedical Sciences. (3) (Prereq: BIOS 757) ( ... frailty**model**, competing risk**model**and multi-state**model**. Techniques motivated by applications in epidemiology and clinical ... Encompasses logistic and other binary regressions, log-linear**models**, and gamma regression**models**. ... BIOS 815 Generalized Linear**Models**[=STAT 775] (3) (Prereq: STAT 713 or STAT 513, and STAT 705 or BIOS 757. Statistical theory ...###### Time to Colonoscopy After Positive Fecal Blood Test in Four U.S. Health Care Systems | RAND

###### Miki Horiguchi, Ph.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

###### Etudes spécifiques pays-régions sur le Nutri-Score - Ministère de la Santé et de la Prévention

Multivariable-adjusted Cox

**proportional****hazards****models**were used to estimate**hazard**ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals ( ... Multi-adjusted Cox**proportional****hazards****models**were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional ...**model**in the Bulgarian context, with the potential to help consumers better understand the nutritional quality of. food. The ... regression**models**within and across food categories were fit.. Results : Compared with the Reference Intakes group, ...###### Haploidentical Versus Matched Sibling Donor Hematopoietic St... : HemaSphere

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**proportional****hazards****model**for sub distribution of a competing risk. J Am Stat Assoc. 1999; 94:496-509.. * Cited Here , ... 22 Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox**proportional**-**hazards****model**which included variables differing significantly ... Results were expressed as the**hazard**ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). All tests were 2-sided with a type 1 ...**hazard**ratio [HR] = 0.56; P = 0.14), respectively. By multivariate analysis, relapse incidence, and leukemia-free survival were ...###### Survival example | Stata

Here we will focus on the Cox

**proportional****hazards****model**using a**model**fitted on our dose-age data that we described above: . ... and gamma**models**. In the case of the Cox**proportional****hazards****model**, ... The robust inference of the Cox**proportional****hazards****model**. Journal of the American Statistical Association 84: 1074-1078. ... baseline**hazard**(and stratified baseline**hazard**if estimates are stratified) *cumulative baseline**hazard***baseline survivor ...###### Transferrin Saturation, Dietary Iron Intake, and Risk of Cancer | Annals of Family Medicine

Schoenfeld D. Partial residuals for the

**proportional****hazards****model**. Biometrika. 1982;69:51-55. ... Without adjustments, the Cox**proportional****hazards****model**analysis indicates that increased serum transferrin saturation did not ... We performed Cox**proportional****hazards**analysis with cancer event time for each group, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking ... The results of the Schoenfeld analysis indicated that the**hazards**were**proportional**. No significant interaction was found in ...Assessed using Cox proportional hazards regrRatioMultivariable Cox proportionalCovariatesRatios and 95AnalysesEstimatesOutcomesResultsKaplan-MeierUnivariatePredictionMortalityParametricEstimateEstimationStatisticalPoissonPredictorsCohortHealth hazardsAssumptionSpatialPredictiveHeterogeneityDurationMETHODSHistologyDerived a Cox regression modelExposuresPrognosticCategoricalStrokeDataRiskMedian ageDependencePercentageStudyReductionEvaluationsTimeVariableEmpirical evidenceDiabetes

###### Assessed using Cox proportional hazards regr1

- The risk of reHospIS was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. (frontiersin.org)

###### Ratio5

- After adjusting for sex, age and frailty, in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between transplant and dialysis patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.59-1.10, P = 0.18]. (medscape.com)
- We compare hazard ratio estimates for effect of an aggressive treatment regimen from Cox proportional hazards models using time to initial treatment outcome, predicted vital status, and true vital status at the end of the cohort period. (cdc.gov)
- A study by Moss et al found that in patients with KCNQ1 mutations, the Cox proportional hazards survivorship model indicated an increased risk for cardiac events in patients with transmembrane versus C-terminus mutations (hazard ratio, 2.06), as well as in patients with mutations resulting in dominant-negative versus haploinsufficiency ion channel effects (hazard ratio, 2.26). (medscape.com)
- Cox regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR).A count of 314 cases (3.4%) of hypoparathyroidism was identified. (elsevier.com)
- Further multivariable analysis revealed a proportional hazard ratio (HR) for disease-free survival rate of 1.87 (95% CI: 1.04-3.37 pâ ¯=â ¯0.036). (bvsalud.org)

###### Multivariable Cox proportional2

- Groups were compared through a multivariable Cox proportional Hazards model. (ices.on.ca)
- Prediction models were developed in UKB using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression for circulatory mortality, incident stroke and MI, and externally validated in EPIC-Norfolk. (ucl.ac.uk)

###### Covariates8

- As more extensions of the Cox model with time-dependent covariates are developed, simulations studies will grow in importance as well. (lse.ac.uk)
- This paper develops a method for the generation of survival times that follow a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. (lse.ac.uk)
- However, due to its restrictive proportional hazards (PH) assumption, some covariates of interest which do not satisfy the assumption are often excluded in the analysis to avoid mis-specifying the model. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus the first part of the analysis is based on the use of the classical Cox PH model and the second part of the analysis is based on the use of random survival forests in the presence of covariates that do not necessarily satisfy the PH assumption. (biomedcentral.com)
- Random survival forests and the Cox proportional hazards model agree that the sex of the household head, sex of the child, number of births in the past 1 year are strongly associated to under-five child mortality in Uganda given all the three covariates satisfy the PH assumption. (biomedcentral.com)
- Random survival forests are appealing methods in analysing public health data to understand factors strongly associated with under-five child mortality rates especially in the presence of covariates that violate the proportional hazards assumption. (biomedcentral.com)
- Analysis of the Proportional Hazards Model with Sparse Longitudinal Covariates. (unc.edu)
- Time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific CVDs associated with PM2.5, adjusting for conventional covariates. (ox.ac.uk)

###### Ratios and 952

- Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations with 10-year breast cancer-specific survival were estimated in Cox proportional-hazard models. (elsevier.com)

###### Analyses4

- Below this value for EPV, the results of proportional hazards regression analyses should be interpreted with caution because the statistical model may not be valid. (nih.gov)
- Methods The authors conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of lung cancer risk with cumulative, mean and maximum 'daily weighted average' (DWA) exposure among 5436 workers, using age-based risk sets. (bmj.com)
- Cox proportional hazards models, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors of local failure. (oldcitypublishing.com)
- Univariate analyses were conducted using proportional hazards models. (emmes.com)

###### Estimates7

- large sample properties did not hold for variance estimates from the proportional hazards model, and the Z statistics used to test the significance of the regression coefficients lost validity under the null hypothesis. (nih.gov)
- In this secondary analysis, the effect of ECPR on 180-day survival using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard model was examined. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cox models yielded estimates of adjusted hazard ratios, with categorical variables for lagged cumulative exposure to 3 types of MWF (straight, soluble, and synthetic). (cdc.gov)
- For exponential and Weibull models, estimates are available in either the accelerated-time or hazard metric. (stata.com)
- This may violate the non-informative censoring assumption of the model and may produce biased effect estimates. (cdc.gov)
- Models utilizing the predicted vital status produce effect estimates consistently stronger and closer to the true treatment effect than estimates produced by models using the initial treatment outcome. (cdc.gov)
- Conclusions: Although studies often use initial treatment outcomes to estimate treatment effects, this may violate the non-informative censoring assumption of the Cox proportional hazards model and result in biased treatment effect estimates. (cdc.gov)

###### Outcomes4

- We introduce a duration model that allows for unobserved cumulative individual-specific shocks, which are likely to be important in explaining variations in duration outcomes, such as length of life and time spent unemployed. (monash.edu)
- Methods: We derive and apply a logistic regression model to predict vital status at the end of the cohort period and modify the unobserved survival outcomes to better match the predicted survival experience of study subjects. (cdc.gov)
- Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and vascular outcomes. (nyu.edu)
- We explored the association between complete and proportional ABCDEF bundle performance and three sets of outcomes: patient-related (mortality, ICU and hospital discharge), symptom-related (mechanical ventilation, coma, delirium, pain, restraint use), and system-related (ICU readmission, discharge destination). (anesthesiaexperts.com)

###### Results4

- Validity is assessed in a set of simulation experiments and results indicate that the proposed procedure performs well in producing data that conform to the assumptions of the Cox proportional hazards model. (lse.ac.uk)
- Exposure-response patterns were consistent with prior reports from this cohort, and results for splined exposures generally reflected their categorically modeled counterparts. (cdc.gov)
- Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group. (emmes.com)
- Multiple datasets are created, models run, and results pooled so conclusions can be drawn. (datasurg.net)

###### Kaplan-Meier1

- Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazard model were used to assess the association with predictors. (bvsalud.org)

###### Univariate1

- Suppose there is a series of observations from a univariate distribution and we want to estimate the mean of that distribution (the so-called location model ). (wikipedia.org)

###### Prediction4

- Quasi maximum likelihood estimation and prediction in the compound Poisson ECOGARCH(1,1) model. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Modeling dependencies between rating categories and their effects on prediction in a credit risk portfolio. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Prediction models for circulatory mortality in men and women had optimism adjusted C-statistics and R2 statistics between 0.75-0.77 and 0.33-0.44, respectively. (ucl.ac.uk)
- This model showed acceptable discrimination and good calibration for risk prediction of chronic cardio-metabolic disorders in short and long-term follow-up in the Iranian population. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Mortality10

- We apply the IMPH model to study the relationships among socioeconomic status, health shocks, and mortality, using 19 waves of data drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). (monash.edu)
- OBJECTIVE To use various exposure-response models to estimate the risk of mortality from lung cancer due to occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust. (bmj.com)
- METHODS Data from a cohort mortality study of 2342 white male California diatomaceous earth mining and processing workers exposed to crystalline silica dust (mainly cristobalite) were reanalyzed with Poisson regression and Cox's proportional hazards models. (bmj.com)
- For those who died of lung cancer the linear relative rate model predicted rate ratios for mortality from lung cancer of about 1.6 for the mean cumulative exposure to respirable silica compared with no exposure. (bmj.com)
- Cox analysis revealed that TB-related mortality hazard ratios included treatment default (8.9), multidrug resistance (5.7), recently transmitted TB (4.1), weight loss (3.9), and hav- ing less than 6 years of formal education (2). (cdc.gov)
- The Cox proportional hazards model has been a common choice in analysing data to understand factors strongly associated with high child mortality rates taking age as the time-to-event variable. (biomedcentral.com)
- The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were estimated using a Cox regression model. (jpmph.org)
- Cox proportional hazard logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between religious service attendance and mortality. (elsevier.com)
- Participants with the most frequent religious service attendance had a 47% reduction of all-cause mortality risk compared their peer who did not attend religious services at all (HR 0.53, CI 0.35-0.79) in the fully adjusted model including socioeconomic status, non-cardiovascular medical conditions, health behaviors, social support and allostatic load. (elsevier.com)
- Cox proportional hazard models with age at study entry as the time scale were used to investigate the relationship between DIS diagnoses and mortality, adjusted for participant education, smoking and obesity at baseline. (cambridge.org)

###### Parametric2

###### Estimate4

- The authors used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. (medscape.com)
- Because the shear wave velocity reduction is proportional to the percentage of serpentines in the mantle, we can use velocity reduction to estimate the degree of serpentinisation, and therefore, the amount of water that has been released from the subducted slab," said Assistant Professor Ping Tong, a Principal Investigator at EOS who co-authored the study. (earthobservatory.sg)
- combining extensive sea and land surface temperature reconstructions from the Last Glacial Maximum with climate model simulations we estimate a lower median (2.3 K) and reduced uncertainty (1.7-2.6 K 66% probability). (skepticalscience.com)
- The model estimate of the cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum is a clear underestimate. (skepticalscience.com)

###### Estimation2

- This paper develops a new semiparametric approach for the estimation of hazard functions in the presence of unobserved heterogeneity. (cambridge.org)
- Partial likelihood estimation of isotonic proportional hazards models. (unc.edu)

###### Statistical1

- Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time. (bvsalud.org)

###### Poisson3

- 0.05) in nearly all of the models evaluated and the linear relative rate model with a 10 year exposure lag seemed to give the best fit in the Poisson regression analysis. (bmj.com)
- Zero-inflated generalized Poisson models with regression effects on the mean, dispersion and zero-inflation level applied to patent outsourcing rates. (uni-muenchen.de)
- A geoadditive Bayesian latent variable model for Poisson indicators. (uni-muenchen.de)

###### Predictors1

- Multivariable analysis using a log-logistic model stratified by center and multivariable fractional polynomials was conducted to identify independent predictors of survival. (emmes.com)

###### Cohort2

- We constructed a semi-Markov cohort model using data from the North American Opiate Medication Initiative trial, supplemented with administrative data for the province of British Columbia and other published data, to capture the chronic, recurrent nature of opioid dependence. (cmaj.ca)
- For incident stroke and MI, addition of RV to FRS did not improve model performance in either cohort. (ucl.ac.uk)

###### Health hazards2

- Although the non-malignant respiratory health hazards of occupational exposure to dust have been known for centuries, the possibility of an association of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust with lung cancer has been debated in the scientific literature in recent decades. (bmj.com)
- EPID 747 Environmental Epidemiology (3) (Prereq: EPID 700, BIOS 700) (spring of every even year) Emphasis on the epidemiology of selected environmental factors which may affect human health including the identification of health hazards and methods of investigation. (sc.edu)

###### Assumption2

- Survival trees and random survival forests are increasingly becoming popular in analysing survival data particularly in the case of large survey data and could be attractive alternatives to models with the restrictive PH assumption. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additional y, most specimens were col ected shared frailty model, which is an extension of the Cox from cases in Cebu province, including from the independ- proportional hazards model that accounts for clustering, ent cities of Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu City and Mandaue City and the proportional hazards assumption was checked (191 [60.3%] of specimens overall and 48/68 [70.6%] using Schoenfeld residuals. (who.int)

###### Spatial2

- Modelling count data with overdispersion and spatial effects. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Annual PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using a satellite-based model with national coverage and 1 x 1 km spatial resolution. (ox.ac.uk)

###### Predictive2

- Research into a predictive, as opposed to prognostic, model could be highly beneficial and aid the identification of the most suitable treatment for patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- A nonparametric predictive alternative to the Imprecise Dirichlet Model: the case of a known number of categories. (uni-muenchen.de)

###### Heterogeneity2

- The hazard function is specified parametrically, whereas the distribution of the unobserved heterogeneity is indirectly estimated using the method of kernels. (cambridge.org)
- This paper applies discrete-time proportional hazards models with unobserved heterogeneity for several worker skill measures and human capital accumulation, interacted with firm-size categories and industry knowledge-intensity to ascertain how knowledge-skill complementarities are influenced by firm size. (pej.pt)

###### Duration2

- We compare and contrast this model with the mixed proportional hazard (MPH) model, which continues to be the workhorse of applied single-spell duration analysis in economics and the other social sciences. (monash.edu)
- Dependence Measures in Bivariate Gamma Frailty Models * Bivariate duration data frequently arise in economics, biostatistics and other areas. (ijournalpapers.icu)

###### METHODS2

- 42 studies were identified and both the data collection and modelling methods were compared. (biomedcentral.com)
- One of most popular methods for survival analysis is Cox proportional hazards regression. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Histology1

- 9 ] investigated the survival of patients following paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy and found histology to be a significant predictor of overall survival in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Derived a Cox regression model1

- We derived a Cox regression model comparing differences in time to TB diagnosis after US entry among 19 birth regions, adjusting for sex, birth year, and age at entry. (cdc.gov)

###### Exposures1

- Relating in vitro to in vivo exposures with physiologically-based tissue dosimetry and tissue response models. (cdc.gov)

###### Prognostic4

- The present study aimed to construct a model based on pyroptosis-related long-stranded non-coding RNA (lncRNA) to evaluate the potential prognostic application in bladder cancer. (portlandpress.com)
- Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of prognostic factors on breast cancer survival using Additive Empirical Bayesian model with large data set. (who.int)
- Nine clinical factors can be used to model survival in mRCC and form distinct prognostic groups. (emmes.com)
- 0.001] were prognostic in univariable models. (elsevier.com)

###### Categorical1

- The best-fitting models were generally categorical or piecewise log-linear, with the steepest increase in lung cancer risk between 0 and 10 μg/m 3 for both mean and maximum DWA exposure and between 0 and 200 μg/m 3 -days for cumulative DWA exposure. (bmj.com)

###### Stroke1

- Performance of Framingham risk scores (FRS) for incident stroke and incident MI, with addition of RV to FRS, were compared with a simpler model based on RV, age, smoking status and medical history (antihypertensive/cholesterol lowering medication, diabetes, prevalent stroke/MI). (ucl.ac.uk)

###### Data10

- An essential starting point for simulation studies of time-to-event models is the ability to produce simulated survival times from a known data generating process. (lse.ac.uk)
- The IMPH model is found to fit the data statistically better than the MPH model, and unobserved health shocks and socioeconomic status are shown to play powerful roles in predicting longevity. (monash.edu)
- Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. (greenmedinfo.com)
- When using Cox proportional hazards models to analyze these cohorts, this leads to censoring subjects at the time of the initial treatment outcome, instead of them providing full survival data. (cdc.gov)
- The model was validated using an independent data set of 645 patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. (emmes.com)
- The experimental data indicate that the CDW consists on an alternating Star of David and trihexagonal distortions and its dynamics goes beyond the classical weak-coupling scenario and is discussed within strong-electron phonon coupling and non-adiabatic models. (bvsalud.org)
- Such an approach willCited by: Concerning bivariate least squares linear regression, the classical re-sults obtained for extreme structural models in earlier attempts [18] [11] are reviewed using a new formalism in terms of deviation (matrix) traces which, for homoscedastic data, reduce to usual quantities leaving aside an unessential (but dimensional) multiplicative factor. (ijournalpapers.icu)
- Moreover, adding data of educational levels and marital status did not improve, the discrimination and calibration in the enhanced model. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because seismic noise occurs all the time and from a variety of locations, we had a wealth of data to construct a high-resolution 3D shear wave velocity model of Myanmar," said Dr Shucheng Wu, a Research Fellow at EOS and the lead author of the study. (earthobservatory.sg)
- For example, the study uses a relatively new global mean surface temperature reconstruction for the LGM of just 2.2°C cooler than interglacial temperatures in the locations where they have proxy data, or 2.6°C from the global model average. (skepticalscience.com)

###### Risk5

- In this model, two key work characteristics-(1) one's job demands and (2) the level of one's decision latitude-combine to determine the risk of psychological strain and physical illness. (ispub.com)
- The estimated mean DWA beryllium exposure associated with 10 −3 excess lifetime risk based on the piecewise log-linear model is 0.033 μg/m 3 . (bmj.com)
- Subdistribution hazards models to evaluate the outcome risk with non-CVD death treated as a competing event. (ajkd.org)
- In a multivariable model, the highest cancer risk was calculated among nonpersistent statin users. (cdc.gov)
- The present study used proportional hazards models with the General Social Survey, Cycles 20 and 21, to assess the impact of providing care to a partner, a parent or parent-in-law, another relative, or a non-relative on the risk of leaving employment. (open.ac.uk)

###### Median age1

- The median age of all cases models were adjusted for morbidity, week of specimen was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-46), and 142 col ection of first positive test, age, sex and province. (who.int)

###### Dependence2

- In normal distribution models, we are familiar with using the ordinary product moment correlation (Pearson correlation) for measuring the dependence between the various : Philip Hougaard. (ijournalpapers.icu)
- In "bivariate frailty models", dependence between the frailties (i.e., unobserved determinants) induces dependence between the durations. (ijournalpapers.icu)

###### Percentage1

- INTERVENTIONS We defined ABCDEF bundle performance (our main exposure) in two ways: 1) complete performance (patient received every eligible bundle element on any given day) and 2) proportional performance (percentage of eligible bundle elements performed on any given day). (anesthesiaexperts.com)

###### Study4

- This study aimed to assess the hygiene quality of some packaged milk [pasteurized or sterilized] and dairy products before and after application of a hazard analysis and critical control point [HACCP] system at a milk and dairy products company in Cairo, Egypt. (who.int)
- His Meningioma study combines topics from a wide range of disciplines, such as Transcriptome, Local failure and Proportional hazards model. (research.com)
- For external validation of the model in the Tehran lipids and glucose study (TLGS), the Area under the curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) goodness of fit test were performed for discrimination and calibration, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Another concern regarding the study is in the model they used - the University of Victoria (UVic) climate model. (skepticalscience.com)

###### Reduction1

- Early detection of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace if followed by appropriate preventive interventions like hazard reduction, modified work, recovery time, task rotation or other measures can serve as tools for primary prevention. (cdc.gov)

###### Evaluations1

- Evaluations of the fit of the models were performed by comparing their deviances. (bmj.com)

###### Time2

- Cody, I have tried the survreg() in the Design library, it is analogous to survreg() in the survival library and it seems to me it is designed only for accelerated time models like the accelerated failure model (or accelerated lifetime model) and not for proportional hazard models. (ethz.ch)
- Her main research lines include the analysis of time series, models for load forecasting (long, medium and short term), machine learning and clustering, which are key techniques to develop suitable Demand Response programs. (upct.es)

###### Variable2

- Importance of events per independent variable in proportional hazards regression analysis. (nih.gov)
- A Bayesian semiparametric latent variable model for mixed responses. (uni-muenchen.de)

###### Empirical evidence2

- However, despite the wide use of Karasek's model in the literature (as well as variations such as the demand-control-support model), empirical evidence for this model is mixed (Totterdell, Wood, and Wall, 2006). (ispub.com)
- Propriety of Posteriors in Structured Additive Regression Models: Theory and Empirical Evidence. (uni-muenchen.de)

###### Diabetes1

- Age, gender, drug dosage, comorbidities of diabetes and heart failure (HF), and characteristics of the first hospitalization due to IS were all adjusted in models. (frontiersin.org)