Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Apitherapy: The medical use of honey bee products such as BEE VENOM; HONEY; bee pollen; PROPOLIS; and royal jelly.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.LatviaAnti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.BulgariaLactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.BenzophenonesAloe: A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Pulpectomy: Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Dental Fistula: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.CinnamatesHydrocarbons, IodinatedPhytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Pulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.PicratesLaxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.BrazilPropolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Sarcoma 180Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Silver Sulfadiazine: Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.Rhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.AlloxanLithuaniaPhenylpropionatesMicrobial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.PolandParasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.PortugalDentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Biphenyl CompoundsCarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Bacteria, AnaerobicDrug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)EstersWound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.TurkeyChemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ThiazolesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

Antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of an extract of red propolis. (1/151)

AIM: To study the antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of red propolis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This extract induced the formation of granular layer in the mouse tail test used as a model of psoriasis. Propolis 50 mg.kg-1 i.g. showed anti-inflammatory activity in the cotton-pellet granuloma assay in rats, in croton oil-induced edema in mice at a dose of 25% (2.5 microL), and in the peritoneal capillary permeability test in mice at a dose of 10 mg.kg-1. The extract (25 mg.kg-1 i.g.) showed analgesic effect in the model of acetic acid-induced writhings, whereas 40 mg.kg-1 was effective in the hot plate test in mice. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipsoriatric properties of Cuban red propolis were evident.  (+info)

Isolation and structures of two new compounds from the essential oil of Brazilian propolis. (2/151)

Two new and seven known compounds, including terpenoids and aromatic compounds, were isolated from the essential oil of Brazilian propolis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 2,2-dimethyl-8-prenyl-6-vinylchromene (1) and 2,6-diprenyl-4-vinylphenol (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses.  (+info)

Two novel long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol from alecrim-propolis. (3/151)

Two new long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol were isolated together with known triterpenoids, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, cycloartenol, lanosta-7,24-diene-3beta-ol and lupeol from Alecrim-propolis collected in Brazil. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic means.  (+info)

Effects of compounds found in propolis on Streptococcus mutans growth and on glucosyltransferase activity. (4/151)

Propolis, a resinous bee product, has been shown to inhibit the growth of oral microorganisms and the activity of bacterium-derived glucosyltransferases (GTFs). Several compounds, mainly polyphenolics, have been identified in this natural product. The present study evaluated the effects of distinct chemical groups found in propolis on the activity of GTF enzymes in solution and on the surface of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) beads. Thirty compounds, including flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, and terpenoids, were tested for the ability to inhibit GTFs B, C, and D from Streptococcus mutans and GTF from S. sanguinis (GTF Ss). Flavones and flavonols were potent inhibitors of GTF activity in solution; lesser effects were noted on insolubilized enzymes. Apigenin, a 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone, was the most effective inhibitor of GTFs, both in solution (90.5 to 95% inhibition at a concentration of 135 microg/ml) and on the surface of sHA beads (30 to 60% at 135 microg/ml). Antibacterial activity was determined by using MICs, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and time-kill studies. Flavanones and some dihydroflavonols, as well as the sesquiterpene tt-farnesol, inhibited the growth of S. mutans and S. sobrinus; tt-farnesol was the most effective antibacterial compound (MICs of 14 to 28 microg/ml and MBCs of 56 to 112 microg/ml). tt-Farnesol (56 to 112 microg/ml) produced a 3-log-fold reduction in the bacterial population after 4 h of incubation. Cinnamic acid derivatives had negligible biological activities. Several of the compounds identified in propolis inhibit GTF activities and bacterial growth. Apigenin is a novel and potent inhibitor of GTF activity, and tt-farnesol was found to be an effective antibacterial agent.  (+info)

The effect of herbal remedies on the production of human inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (5/151)

BACKGROUND: Some herbal remedies are sold as food additives and are believed to have immune-enhancing properties. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of five herbal remedies--Sambucol Black Elderberry Extract, Sambucol Active Defense Formula and Sambucol for Kids (with known antiviral properties), Protec and Chizukit N (containing propolis and Echinacea, claimed to be immune enhancers)--on the production of cytokines, one of the main components of the immune system. METHODS: The production of four inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6 and IL-8) and one anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was tested using blood-derived monocytes from 12 healthy donors. RESULTS: The Sambucol preparations increased the production of five cytokines (1.3-6.2 fold) compared to the control. Protec induced only a moderate production of IL-8 (1.6 fold) and IL-10 (2.3 fold) while Chizukit N caused only a moderate increase in IL-10 production (1.4 fold). Both Protec and Chizukit N caused moderate decreases in IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and IL-6 production. Lipopolysaccharide, a known activator of monocytes, induced the highest levels of cytokine production (3.6-10.7 fold). CONCLUSIONS: The three Sambucol formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines production, while the effect of Protec and Chizukit N is much less. Sambucol could therefore have immunostimulatory properties when administered to patients suffering from influenza (as shown before), or immunodepressed cancer or AIDS patients who are receiving chemotherapy or other treatments.  (+info)

Anti-herpes simplex virus effect of an aqueous extract of propolis. (6/151)

BACKGROUND: Propolis, a natural product from beehives, comprises a complex of chemicals, the most important group being flavinoids, which play a role in antiviral protection. OBJECTIVES: To test the inhibitory effect of propolis extract against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vitro: propolis was added to Vero cells at various times and concentrations before, at or after infection with HSV-1. In vivo: the effect of propolis was tested in newborn rats infected s.c. or i.p. and on rabbit come as infected with HSV-1. RESULTS: In vitro: 0.5% propolis extract caused 50% inhibition of HSV infection. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the propolis extract and the surface of the Vero cells, but there was no direct interaction with HSV-1 particles. Administration of propolis before or at the time of infection yielded the most significant inhibitory effect, but even when 10% propolis extract was added 2 hours post-infection it gave 80-85% protection. In vivo: as little as 5% propolis prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of local and i.p. HSV-1 infection in rats and of corneal HSV-1 infection in rabbits. There were no cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 10% in vitro or 20% in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The potent antiviral activity of propolis against HSV-1 infection in vitro and In vivo is probably due to prevention of virus absorption into the host cells and/or inhibition of an internal step(s) during the viral replication cycle.  (+info)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) analogues: potent nitric oxide inhibitors from the Netherlands propolis. (7/151)

The MeOH and water extracts of the Netherlands propolis were tested for their inhibitory activity toward nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells. Both of the extract possessed significant NO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values of 23.8 and 51.5 microg/ml, respectively. Then 13 phenolic compounds obtained from the MeOH extract showing stronger NO inhibition were examined on their NO inhibitory activities. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) analogues, i.e., benzyl caffeate, CAPE and cinnamyl caffeate, possessed most potent NO inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 13.8, 7.64 and 9.53 microM, respectively, which were two- to four-fold stronger than the positive control N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; IC(50), 32.9 microM). Further study on the synthetic analogues of CAPE revealed that both of 3-phenylpropyl caffeate (18; IC(50), 7.34 microM) and 4-phenylbutyl caffeate (19; IC(50), 6.77 microM) possessed stronger NO inhibitory activity than CAPE (10) and that elongation of alkyl side chain of alcoholic parts of caffeic acid esters enhance the NO inhibitory activity. In addition, it was found that CAPE analogues having longer carbon chain (>C(5)) in alcoholic part showed toxic effects toward J774.1 cells. This NO inhibitory effect may directly correlate with antiinflammatory properties of the Netherlands propolis.  (+info)

Effect of a novel type of propolis and its chemical fractions on glucosyltransferases and on growth and adherence of mutans streptococci. (8/151)

Flavonoids have been considered the main biologically active components in propolis. However, a new variety of flavonoid-free propolis was recently found and chemically classified as type 6. Because it showed activity against oral microorganisms, this study evaluated the effects of the crude ethanolic extract of this propolis and its chemical fractions on the activity of purified glucosyltransferases (GTFs) and on the growth and adherence of mutans streptococci. The inhibitory effect of propolis extracts on GTF activities was determined either in solution or adsorbed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, and two clinical isolates of each species were used for antibacterial assays. Susceptibilities to the test extracts were analyzed using the agar diffusion method and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC); the effect on bacterial adherence to a glass surface was also assessed. The activity of GTFs in solution was effectively inhibited by the ethanolic extract of propolis type 6 (EEP) (>80% inhibition at 0.5 mg/ml), hexane, and chloroform fractions (60-90% inhibition at 100 microg/ml); their inhibitory effects on surface enzymes were less pronounced. The EEP, hexane, and chloroform fractions also showed significant antibacterial activity. The data showed that propolis type 6 remarkably reduced GTF activity and inhibited mutans streptococci growth and adherence; these biological activities are associated with its nonpolar components.  (+info)

  • Propolis is a material that bees make by combining their discharges, beeswax and needle-leaved-tree sap or evergreen sap, and is typically sticky and greenish-brown in color, explains Healthline. (reference.com)
  • However, the chemical components of propolis may differ from one location to another because bees in different locations may access different trees and flowers, making medical researchers unable to make a universal agreement regarding the health benefits of propolis. (reference.com)
  • Bee Propolis is a resin collected from plants by bees and used in the construction of hives. (astronutrition.com)
  • Bee Propolis is a waxy substance collected by honey bees which contains phytotonizides. (astronutrition.com)
  • Bee propolis is defined as a resinous mixture that honey bees produce by combining their own saliva and beeswax with exuded substances they collect from tree buds, sap flows and other botanical sources. (draxe.com)
  • Propolis serves a huge purpose in the world of honey bees. (draxe.com)
  • By mixing the wax with their saliva and resins collected from various woody plants or insects, honey bees produce this strong, natural adhesive called propolis. (natureword.com)
  • As far as its composition is concerned, propolis generally contains 50% resins, 30% wax materials, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% other biologically active constituents ( Propolis: A Wonder Bees Product and Its Pharmacological Potentials ). (natureword.com)
  • Propolis is a nutrient-rich substance made by honey bees. (coolherbal.com)
  • Because propolis comes from a variety of plants, availability of the plants sap and the type of bees, no two propolis are alike. (coolherbal.com)
  • Using materials collected from tree bark and leaves, honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.) partially digest this product to form a resin that produces a multifunctional substance (propolis) for the maintenance of their hives. (aspenpharmacy.org)
  • Bee Propolis is a type of antimicrobial glue that bees collect from tree buds, sap and/or other botanical sources. (lby3319.com)
  • Propolis is a substance collected by honey bees from a plant's buds and exudates and consists mainly of resins, balsams, beeswax, essential oils, pollen and other organic compounds [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This red propolis has been discovered in beehives along the shorelines of the northeastern region of Brazil, and Apis mellifera bees have been found to gather these reddish exudates from the surface of Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L.) Taub [ 7 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Propolis is a resinous material gathered by bees from the deciduous tree bark and leaves. (yherbal.com)
  • Many people prefer Liquid Bee Propolis as it is quickly absorbed and is often easier for children or the elderly to take than capsules. (aspenpharmacy.org)
  • One of the most powerful foods found in nature, Propolis is a highly complex mixture of waxes, resins, balsams, oils and a small amount of pollen. (astronutrition.com)
  • Bee propolis ingestion may result in anaphylactic shock for those individuals suffering from allergies to plants where pollen is derived from. (astronutrition.com)
  • In general, raw propolis is made up of approximately 50 percent resins, 30 percent waxes, 10 percent essential oils, 5 percent pollen and 5 percent of various organic compounds. (draxe.com)
  • Propolis soothes and supports your body naturally-without any nasty ingredients or a sugar hangover. (aliveandwellaustin.shop)
  • Nourish your skin with 100% natural bee propolis and other ingredients from the beehives of our family-farm in Janesville, WI - made by hand, and shipped right to your door. (beerescued.com)
  • Science and personal experience continue to show that bee propolis remains an incredibly medicinal substance today. (draxe.com)
  • The therapeutic value of bee propolis includes a strong antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action, anti-ulcer and other skin benefits, antitumour activity, hepatoprotective benefits, strong immune system-boosting action and potential benefits for diabetes disease. (natureword.com)
  • With Organika®'s Liquid Bee Propolis, people can now take advantage of the antioxidant and anti-microbial benefits of the product in an easy-to-swallow liquid formula. (aspenpharmacy.org)
  • Green propolis presents a potential source of bioactive compounds, responsible for its antioxidant capacity. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Results demonstrated the antioxidant properties of the propolis extract was similar or better than the ones from synthetic antioxidants and warrant further investigation to determine its potential industrial application. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Considering this, this chapter presents the types of Brazilian propolis as the types available nowadays, their chemical compositions, as well as, some of their important biological properties enabling employing them as important health food, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulation action. (intechopen.com)
  • I'm talking about bee propolis, also called "bee glue. (draxe.com)
  • We've traveled the globe to bring you the very highest quality raw materials and blended them by hand with bee propolis harvested from our own chemical-free bee hives in Southern Wisconsin. (beerescued.com)
  • Other than applying propolis directly to the skin, an individual can also take it by mouth in tablet, capsule or liquid-extract form. (reference.com)
  • If you are sensitive to alcohol, consider our alcohol free Bee Propolis. (aspenpharmacy.org)
  • 1 ml of Organika®'s Bee Propolis Liquid, in an alcohol-free or alcohol-base formula, three times daily, can help relieve throat and mouth ailments including infection, inflammation, canker sores and early flu-like symptoms. (aspenpharmacy.org)
  • One of my favorite bee propolis benefits is that it appears to possess anti-tumoral and anticancer properties. (draxe.com)
  • Bee propolis has actually been used medicinally by humans since ancient times. (draxe.com)
  • Scientists believe that the ability of propolis to prevent cancer from developing in both animal models and human cell cultures is likely the result of its ability to inhibit DNA synthesis in tumor cells as well as its capability to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) of tumor cells. (draxe.com)
  • This isn't surprising once you know that bee propolis benefits include it having antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-ulcer and anti-tumor properties. (draxe.com)
  • Propolis has medicinal value as well and has been used for its curative properties in traditional medicines around the world. (natureword.com)