An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.

Binding of propofol to blood components: implications for pharmacokinetics and for pharmacodynamics. (1/1774)

AIMS: Propofol is a widely used i.v. anaesthetic agent. However, its binding properties to blood components have not been fully studied. METHODS: We studied the binding of propofol to erythrocytes, to human serum and to isolated serum proteins. Because propofol bound to ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis membranes, we used a co-binding technique with dextran coated charcoal and with erythrocytes. RESULTS: Propofol free fraction in blood was 1.2-1.7% at total concentrations ranging from 2.80 to 179 microM (0.5 to 32 microg ml(-1)). Fifty percent was bound to erythrocytes and 48% to serum proteins, almost exclusively to human serum albumin. In the clinical range of concentrations (0.5-16 microg ml(-1)) 40% of the molecules bound to erythrocytes are on the red blood cells membranes. No binding to lipoproteins occurred and binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein was less than 1.5% CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypoalbuminaemia may increase propofol free fraction particularly during prolonged administration. Since propofol is non-restrictively cleared, no change in clearance is expected to occur, and the increase in free fraction will not be compensated by a parallel increase in clearance. It is also noted that many in vitro studies used concentrations 50 to 500 times the concentration expected to be encountered in the immediate cellular environment.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (2/1774)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (3/1774)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 mg.kg-1 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 mg.kg-1.h-1 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 microgram.ml-1 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 microgram.ml-1 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Mode of action of ICS 205,930, a novel type of potentiator of responses to glycine in rat spinal neurones. (4/1774)

The effect of a novel potentiator of glycine responses, ICS 205,930, was studied by whole-cell recordings from spinal neurones, and compared with that of other known potentiators, in an attempt to differentiate their sites of action. The ability of ICS 205,930 (0.2 microM) to potentiate glycine responses persisted in the presence of concentrations of Zn2+ (5-10 microM) that were saturating for the potentiating effect of this ion. Preincubation with 10 microM Zn2+ before application of glycine plus Zn2+ had an inhibitory effect, which did not result from Zn2+ entry into the neurone, since it persisted with either 10 mM internal EGTA or 10 microM internal Zn2+. To test whether the potentiating effects of ICS 205,930 and Zn2+ interact, both compounds were applied without preincubation. The potentiating effect of ICS 205,930 was similar for responses to glycine and for responses to glycine plus Zn2+, provided the concentrations of agonist were adjusted so as to induce control responses of identical amplitudes. ICS 205,930 remained able to potentiate glycine responses in the presence of ethanol (200 mM). ICS 205,930 also retained its potentiating effect in the presence of the anaesthetic propofol (30 90 microM), which strongly potentiated glycine responses but, in contrast with ICS 205,930, also markedly increased the resting conductance. The anticonvulsant chlormethiazole (50-100 microM) neither potentiated glycine responses nor prevented the effect of ICS 205,930, even though it increased the resting conductance and potentiated GABA(A) responses. The mechanism of action of ICS 205,930 appears to be different from those by which Zn2+, propofol or ethanol potentiate glycine responses.  (+info)

Effects of inhaled oxygen concentration on fat metabolism during propofol infusion in rabbits. (5/1774)

We have investigated the effect of inhaled oxygen tension on lipid metabolism during propofol infusion. Propofol is supplied as a lipid emulsion containing 10% soybean oil, which is rich in triglycerides (TG). Infused TG are metabolized via three pathways in the liver cell; Krebs cycle, ketogenesis and release as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into the blood. For this reason, we measured TG and the products of the three pathways; carbon dioxide, ketone bodies and VLDL. Thirty-two rabbits were anaesthetized under four different conditions: propofol under hyperoxia, normoxia, hypoxia and isoflurane anaesthesia under hyperoxia. Our results indicated that hyperoxia produced more ketone bodies, normoxia more PaCO2 and hypoxia more free fatty acids (FFA) and TG compared with the other propofol infusion groups. We conclude that hyperoxia during propofol infusion facilitated fat metabolism through ketogenesis, while normoxia did so via the Krebs cycle. Also, hypoxia suppressed utilization of TG and VLDL production in the liver.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (6/1774)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (7/1774)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Postsurgical Candida albicans infections associated with an extrinsically contaminated intravenous anesthetic agent. (8/1774)

From 16 to 30 April 1990, four of 364 (1%) postsurgical patients at one hospital developed Candida albicans fungemia or endophthalmitis. The case patients' surgeries were clustered on two days. To identify risk factors for C. albicans infections, we conducted a cohort study comparing these 4 patients with 67 control patients who had surgeries on the same days but did not acquire C. albicans infections. The participation of anesthesiologist 9 (relative risk [RR], undefined; P < 0.001) and receipt of intravenous propofol, an anesthetic agent without preservative, which was administered by an infusion pump (RR, 8.8; P = 0.048) were identified as risk factors for C. albicans infections. The anesthetic had been recently introduced in the hospital. Hand cultures of 8 of 14 (57%) anesthesiologists were positive for Candida species; one yielded C. albicans. Anesthesiologist 9 was the only one to use stored syringes of propofol in the infusion pump and to reuse propofol syringes. DNA fingerprinting with a digoxigenin-labeled C. albicans repetitive element 2 probe and electrophoretic karyotyping showed two distinct banding patterns among patient isolates. We hypothesize that extrinsic contamination of propofol by anesthesiologist 9 likely resulted in C. albicans infections. These data suggest that strict aseptic techniques must be used when preparing and administering propofol.  (+info)

Background: Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. In rare conditions, a life-threatening complication known as propofol infusion syndrome can occur. The pathophysiologic mechanism is still unknown. Some studies suggested that propofol acts as uncoupling agent, others suggested that it inhibits complex I or complex IV, or causes increased oxidation of cytochrome c and cytochrome aa(3), or inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Although the exact site of interaction is not known, most hypotheses point to the direction of the mitochondria. Methods: Eight rats were ventilated and sedated with propofol up to 20 h. Sequential biopsy specimens were taken from liver and skeletal muscle and used for determination of respiratory chain activities and propofol concentration. Activities were also measured in skeletal muscle from a patient who died of propofol infusion syndrome. Results: In rats, authors detected a decrease in complex II+III activity starting at low tissue ...
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), an intravenous sedative-hypnotic approved by the FDA for the induction and maintenance of sedation and anesthesia, is one of the most commonly utilized medications in the ICU setting secondary to its anti-epileptic and neuro-protective properties. Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of propofol administration. First described in children in 1992, and subsequently named by Bray in 1998, PRIS was classically defined as acute bradycardia progressing to asystole status post propofol administration; occurring in the setting of one of the following: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of propofol sedation on seizures and intracranially recorded epileptiform activity in patients with partial epilepsy. AU - Samra, S. K.. AU - Sneyd, J. R.. AU - Ross, D. A.. AU - Henry, T. R.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Background: Case reports suggesting both pro- and anticonvulsant effect(s) of propofol have been published in recent years. The effects of sedative doses of propofol on epileptiform activities in patients suffering from intractable partial epilepsy were systematically investigated. Methods: Fourteen patients suffering from complex partial seizures were studied. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from intracranial electrodes implanted in the hippocampi and temporal neocortex. Propofol was given as a computer-controlled infusion in four steps to achieve target plasma propofol concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 μg/ml. Each concentration was maintained for 30 min, and steady-state kinetics were confirmed by blood levels drawn at 10th and ...
In humans, prolonged sedations with propofol or using high doses have been associated with propofol infusion syndrome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged high-dose administration of a specific propofol emulsion (Propofol Lipuro) and an improved lipid formulation (SMOFlipid) in liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress of rabbits, comparatively to a saline control. Twenty-one male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated in three groups that were continuously treated for 20 h. Each group of seven animals received separately: NaCl 0.9 % (saline), SMOFlipid (lipid-based emulsion without propofol) and Lipuro 2 % (propofol lipid emulsion). An intravenous propofol bolus of 20 mg kg−1 was given to the propofol Lipuro group to allow blind orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Anesthesia was maintained using infusion rates of: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg kg−1 h−1, according to the clinical scale of anesthetic depth and the index of
Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent with antioxidant properties secondary to its phenol based chemical structure. Treatment with propofol has been found to attenuate oxidative stress and prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat heart. Here, we report that propofol protects cardiac H9c2 cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury by triggering the activation of Akt and a parallel up-regulation of Bcl-2. We show that pretreatment with propofol significantly protects against H2O2-induced injury. We further demonstrate that propofol activates the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The protective effect of propofol on H2O2-induced injury is reversed by PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, which effectively suppresses propofol-induced activation of Akt, up-regulation of Bcl-2, and protection from apoptosis. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism by which propofol inhibits H2O2-induced injury in cardiac H9c2 cells, supporting a potential application of propofol as a preemptive ...
Background: The use of clinical signs may not be reliable to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. Bispectral Index monitoring provides a direct measurement of the hypnotic effect of the anaesthetic agent used and it may have certain clinical advantages over clinical signs. Objective: This study consists of dose requirement of propofol with bispectral Index monitoring and without bispectral Index monitoring. Material and Methods: In the present study, 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group), one group received Standard dose of propofol while the other received propofol infusion with BIS monitoring. Results: Mean amount of propofol for induction used was 1.6 vs 2.24 mg/kg in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the induction dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P. Key words: Bispectral Index monitoring system, propofol, anaesthetic drug consumption, ...
Background: Propofol is widely used for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia and offers many key attractive pharmacological qualities that make it suitable for these indications. However, pain on injection is one of its major drawbacks and can be very distressing to patients. There is a paucity of studies that have looked at the effect of lornoxicam on propofol injection pain either as a sole intervention or in combination with any other method. Primary objective: To determine whether premedication with intravenous lornoxicam had any effect on the intensity of propofol injection pain at induction of general anaesthesia in adult patients. Secondary Objectives: (I)To determine whether premedication with lornoxicam had any effect on the incidence of propofol injection pain at induction of general anaesthesia in adult patients.(II)To document any adverse events (allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, gastritis and/or gastrointestinal bleeding, dizziness, phlebitis) that resulted from the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of propofol on nociceptive response and power spectra of electroencephalographic and systemic arterial pressure signals in the rat. T2 - Correlation with plasma concentration. AU - Yang, Chen Hsein. AU - Shyr, M. H.. AU - Kuo, T. B.J.. AU - Tan, P. P.C.. AU - Chan, S. H.H.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We applied simultaneous spectral analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and systemic arterial pressure signals in Sprague-Dawley rats to monitor the status of consciousness and cardiovascular functions during intravenous anesthesia with propofol and to assess their correlations with plasma propofol concentration. Our results support the hypothesis that a threshold plasma concentration (1.7-1.8 μg/ml) exists for propofol anesthesia. This threshold level, we further showed, may be attained by both i.v. bolus injection and continuous infusion, although the pharmacokinetic profiles, as well as EEG and hemodynamic correlates, may be different. Continuous, on- line power ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anesthetic propofol reduces endotoxic inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling. AU - Hsing, Chung-Hsi. AU - Lin, Ming-Chung. AU - Choi, Pui-Ching. AU - Huang, Wei-Ching. AU - Kai, Jui-In. AU - Tsai, Cheng-Chieh. AU - Cheng, Yi-Lin. AU - Hsieh, Chia-Yuan. AU - Wang, Chi-Yun. AU - Chang, Yu-Ping. AU - Chen, Yu-Hong. AU - Chen, Chia-Ling. AU - Lin, Chiou-Feng. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings: Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. ...
Background and study aims : In endoscopic procedures, propofol can be safely administered either alone or in conjunction with remifentanil. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of the administration of propofol alone and the administration of remifentanil in addition to propofol on patient and endoscopist satisfaction, preoperative hemodynamic response, and propofol consumption. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction dose of propofol for pediatric patients undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department. AU - Jasiak, Karalea D.. AU - Phan, Hanna. AU - Christich, Anna C.. AU - Edwards, Christopher J.. AU - Skrepnek, Grant H.. AU - Patanwala, Asad E.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to determine if patient age is an independent predictor of the propofol dose required for the induction of sedation in pediatric patients for procedures performed in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in an academic, tertiary ED between May 2005 and October 2009. Medical records of patients younger than 18 years who received propofol for procedural sedation were evaluated. Data collected included patient demographics, procedure type, propofol doses administered, time to sedation induction, pain scores before procedure, opioid administration, and adverse effects. Factors predictive of propofol induction dose were analyzed ...
Uncertainty exists as to the most suitable pharmacokinetic parameter sets for propofol target-controlled infusions (TCI). The pharmacokinetic parameter sets currently employed are clearly not universally applicable, particularly when patient attributes differ from those of the subjects who participated in the original research from which the models were derived. Increasing evidence indicates that the pharmacokinetic parameters of propofol can be scaled allometrically as well as in direct proportion to lean body mass (LBM). Appraisal of hitherto published studies suggests that an allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameter set may be applicable to a wide range of patients ranging from children to obese adults. On the other hand, there is evidence that propofol pharmacokinetic parameters, scaled linearly to LBM, provide improved dosing in normal and obese adults. The Schnider pharmacokinetic parameter set that has been programmed into commercially available TCI pumps cannot be employed at ...
Seizures or seizure-like phenomena which are mostly convulsive have been observed during the induction, maintenance and withdrawal phases of propofol administration. The nature and mechanism of this phenomenon are not well understood and several case reports on these phenomena have presented only indirect evidence. We report on a patient who was administered propofol in order to control status epilepticus with success. However, every attempt at propofol withdrawal was followed by convulsive seizure-like activity. Continuous EEG monitoring showed muscle artefacts without any ictal discharges. Based on this finding, the propofol treatment was withdrawn and the seizure-like activity eventually attenuated and resolved. We propose that seizure-like phenomena associated with propofol withdrawal may not be ictal in nature and should not lead to unnecessary resumption of propofol infusion without documentation of an epileptic origin by EEG.. ...
BACKGROUND: The Narcotrend is a new electroencephalographic monitor designed to measure depth of anesthesia, based on a six-letter classification from A (awake) to F (increasing burst suppression) including 14 substages. This study was designed to investigate the impact of Narcotrend monitoring on recovery times and propofol consumption in comparison to Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring or standard anesthetic practice.. METHODS: With institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 120 adult patients scheduled to undergo minor orthopedic surgery were randomized to receive a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic controlled by Narcotrend, by BIS(R), or solely by clinical parameters. Anesthesia was induced with 0.4 micro x kg-1 x min-1 remifentanil and a propofol target-controlled infusion at 3.5 microg/ml. After intubation, remifentanil was reduced to 0.2 micro x kg-1 x min-1, whereas the propofol infusion was adjusted according to clinical parameters or to the following target values: ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion on hemodynamic parameters, pain, sedation, and recovery score during oocyte retrieval. ...
This project was designed to compare the dose requirements and the development of tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of propofol versus propofol plus remifentanil administered in rabbits under prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV).. Eight male, clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits were intubated under xylazine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia. After isoflurane discontinuation, the animals received either propofol (group P, n=4) or propofol plus remifentanil (group P/R, n=4) by continuous intravenous infusion for a maximum period of 38 hours. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), electrocardiograph (ECG) and spO2 were continuously measured while arterial blood gases were analysed periodically. Initial doses were adjusted in order to achieve adequate level of sedation and analgesia based on reflexes, HR, arterial pressure and attempt for spontaneous breathing. Tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of the agents was indicated by the increase of their ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
Objectives This study evaluated the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on renal function of dogs with naturally acquired chronic renal failure. Materials & Methods The anesthetic procedures included: three hours using sevoflurane (1.5CAM) in O2 flow of 30mL/kg/min, in a semiclosed-circuit, after induction with propofol at 10mg/kg, in bolus (P-S group), or after induction with sevoflurane (S-S group), and for the P group it was used only propofol in the same dose employed for induction. Evaluations were performed in six sessions and included creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and ureia, protein and glucose urinary excretion. The renal function evaluations were performed 30 minutes before anesthesia, two times during anesthesia, and one, two and five days after. Results All anesthetic procedures were well succeeded and animals recovered uneventfully. No renal toxicity were observed in any of the anesthetic protocols. However, during the transanesthetic period it was observed ...
2,6‑diisopropylphenol (propofol) is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic drug, which has been reported to serve an antitumor role in human cancers. The current study aimed to assess the effects of propofol on the biological behaviors of human bladder cancer cells and to elucidate its potential molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays demonstrated that propofol significantly inhibited the viability, migration and invasion of bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro. Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting revealed that propofol decreased the expression levels of microRNA (miR)‑10b and increased the expression levels of homeobox D10 (HOXD10) in T24 cells. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that HOXD10 was a direct target of miR‑10b in T24 cells. T24 cells transfected with a miR‑10b mimic significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXD10. In addition, overexpression of miR‑10b partly reversed the inhibitory ...
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Propofol reportedly possesses potential antioxidant properties caused by its chemical structure similar to that of phenol-based free-radical scavengers such as vitamin E.10 Previous in vivo or in vitro studies documented that this intravenous anesthetic reduces oxidative stress toward blood vessels.11,12 These results suggest that this anesthetic may be protective against the vascular dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress. Indeed, propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) recovered vascular ATP-sensitive K+channel function via reduction of superoxide levels within arterial walls. In addition, 10−6m of this agent completely inhibited protein expression of a Nox2-related NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The plasma concentration of propofol during induction of anesthesia in humans has been reported as up to 3 × 10−5m, and burst suppression doses of propofol for cerebral protection are up to 6 × 10−5m.20-22 Effective concentrations of propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) to inhibit NADPH oxidase ...
Methods: Preparation of propofol nanoemulsion using NEMS™ technology has been performed for propofol 1% in NEMS™ (P1%), and propofol 2% in NEMS™ (P2%). Determination of free propofol concentration in aqueous phase was conducted using HPLC and rat paw lick test was evaluated as in vivo test to assay the intensity of pain on injection site. The sleep recovery test was conducted to evaluate the pharmacological effect and erythrocyte hemolysis test also conducted to ensure the safety of propofol in NEMS™. All of the test results were compared with Diprivan®1% as a positive standard. ...
Propofol is ideal for bronchoscopy sedation because of its fast onset and quick recovery effect. Our research and reports from different investigators demonstrate that patients received propofol sedation recover fast with excellent satisfaction for bronchoscopy. However, the amount of propofol for induction and maintenance is calculated simply by patients body weight and physicians experience. For those non-anesthesiologists, who perform sedative work outside the operating room, and inexperienced anesthesiologist without fully considering the individual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences may generate unstable drug plasma concentration and increase cardio-respiration suppression. Therefore, a manner which can assess and measure objectively individual pharmacokinetic differences may improve the sedative quality and decrease the complication rate.. A model called Target-controlled infusion(TCI), built from massive pharmacokinetic samples of propofol, could now give precise ...
Background:Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP is a painful and long procedure requiring transient deep analgesia and conscious sedation. An ideal anaesthetic that guarantees a rapid and smooth induction, good quality of maintenance, lack of adverse effects and rapid recovery is still lacking.This study aimed to compare safety and efficacy of a continuous infusion of low dose remifentanil plus ketamine combined with propofol in comparison to the standard regimen dose of remifentanil plus propofol continuous infusion during ERCP.Material/Methods:322 ASAI-III patients, 18-85 years old and scheduled for planned ERCP were randomized. Exclusion criteria were a predictable difficult airway, drug allergy, and ASA IV-V patients.We evaluated Propofol 1 mg/kg/h plus Remifentanil 0.25 µg/kg/min (GR) vs. Propofol 1 mg/kg/h plus Ketamine 5 µg/kg/min and Remifentanil 0.1 µg/kg/min (GK).Main outcome measures were respiratory depression, nausea/vomiting, quality of intraoperative conditions, and
Introduction: less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) limits tracheal invasive ventilation in premature infants but adequate premedication which preserves respiratory function needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerance of intravenous administration of ketamine or propofol. Methods: we retrospectively included premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome below 30 weeks of gestational age (wGA), hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit of Montpellier treated with LISA procedure. -Primary outcome: comparison of the intubation rate within 2 hours following intravenous ketamine versus propofol administration. -Secondary outcomes: intubation rate within 24 and 72hours, pain scores, haemodynamic tolerance and morbi-mortality. Results: 77 infants were included from January 2016 to February 2019, with a mean (SD) wGA and birth weight of 27 (1.4) and 990 (265) g. LISA in ketamine and propofol group was performed at (70(95) vs 62(97) min; p=0
Anesthesia is the procedure to ensure the absence of pain, the inhibition of autonomic reactions and a good surgical. Today, most anesthetic procedures involve the combination of different drugs, using anesthetics at considerably lower concentrations if compared to those that would be needed if they were used without association; modern anesthetic techniques typically involve the association of hypnotics, analgesics, and muscle relaxants [1].. The use of barbiturates as intravenous anesthetics have been tested in the last 70 years; among these, propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) was introduced clinically in 1977 and demonstrates many positive effects [2]. Because of its unique pharmacological properties [3], it is an anesthetic drug used in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in adults, being popular for providing an easy induction and recovery is faster than other drugs, such as thiopental [4]. Sedation with propofol does not provide relief from pain, however it provides anxiolysis, ...
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Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a brain protein implicated in learning, memory and other cognitive functions. Changes in cellular brain functions as well as cognitive defects have been observed the days following anaesthesia, even for short-duration anaesthesia with/without surgery. Despites the role of neurotrophic factors in cognition, no data are still available on brain effects after anaesthesia. Purpose: To study the effect of minor surgery under short duration anaesthesia on cognition by investigating BDNF levels in plasma, hippocampus and cortex. METHODS: Male rats received an intra-peritoneal injection of either 120 mg/kg of propofol or intralipids solution or minor surgery was performed under propofol anaesthesia. The animals were euthanized at ZT5 (peak of the circadian profile of brain BDNF in rat) after 3 days and brain homogenates of prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus were prepared and blood was also collected for plasma. The amount of BDNF was assessed using ELISA (Millipore) on
The intravenous sedation with propofol is very useful for patients with mental retardation and challenging behavior. However, it is very difficult to titrate the dose of propofol for maintaining the adequate sedation depth because of the difficulty of verbal communication with them. Most of them have a epilepsy and take antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs are thought to influence on the effect of anesthetics. Valproate is reported to inhibit the metabolism of propofol. Therefore, we divide the patients into two groups : patients receiving valproate (valproate group), patients receiving no antiepileptic drugs (control group), and compare the required dose of propofol and the recovery time ...
BACKGROUND: Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects.. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection ...
On the morning Jackson died, Murray tried to induce sleep without using propofol, according to the affidavit. He said he gave Jackson valium at 1:30 a.m. When that didnt work, he said, he injected lorazepam intravenously at 2 a.m. At 3 a.m., when Jackson was still awake, Murray administered midazolam. Over the next few hours, Murray said he gave Jackson various drugs. Then at 10:40 a.m., Murray administered 25 milligrams of propofol after Jackson repeatedly demanded the drug, according to the court records. Although Murray acknowledged to police that he administered propofol, authorities said they could find no evidence that he had purchased, ordered or obtained the medication under his medical license or Drug Enforcement Administration tracking number. However, police detectives saw about eight bottles of propofol in the house along with other vials and pills that had been prescribed to Jackson by Dr. Murray, Dr. Arnold Klein and Dr. Allan Metzger. Other drugs that were confiscated in the ...
On the morning Jackson died, Murray tried to induce sleep without using propofol, according to the affidavit. He said he gave Jackson valium at 1:30 a.m. When that didnt work, he said, he injected lorazepam intravenously at 2 a.m. At 3 a.m., when Jackson was still awake, Murray administered midazolam. Over the next few hours, Murray said he gave Jackson various drugs. Then at 10:40 a.m., Murray administered 25 milligrams of propofol after Jackson repeatedly demanded the drug, according to the court records. Although Murray acknowledged to police that he administered propofol, authorities said they could find no evidence that he had purchased, ordered or obtained the medication under his medical license or Drug Enforcement Administration tracking number. However, police detectives saw about eight bottles of propofol in the house along with other vials and pills that had been prescribed to Jackson by Dr. Murray, Dr. Arnold Klein and Dr. Allan Metzger. Other drugs that were confiscated in the ...
Background: Propofol is known to interact with the γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor, however, activating the receptor alone is not sufficient for producing anaesthesia. Propofol tyresine phosphorylates the GABAA receptor and reorganises the actin cytoskeleton, eausing ring structures and rnembrane ruffles. Propofol, but not GABA, the endogenous tigand for the GABAA receptor, tyresine phosphorylates actin, both in the membrane and cytoskeletal fractions of the neuron.. Aim: How does propofol cause the actin reorganisation and is this a specific effect of propofol? Is the small membrane associated G-protein rho involved in the signal cascade towards the actin reorganisation?. Methods: Westem blotting (WB) was used to visualize tyresine phosphorylated immunoprecipitated proteins and changes in actin between the different cellularcompartments after inhibition with rho (C3 exotoxin) and rho kinase (ROK) (HA-1077) inhibitors. Fluoreseenee mireoscopy after rhodamine-phalloidin labelling of actin ...
OBJECTIVES: Propofol is an agent commonly used for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in the emergency department (ED), but it can cause respiratory depression and hypotension. The combination of ketamine-propofol (K-P) is an alternative that theoretically provides a reduction in adverse events compared to propofol. The primary objective of this review was to determine if K-P has a lower frequency of adverse respiratory events in patients undergoing PSA in the ED than propofol alone. Secondary objectives were to compare the proportion of overall adverse events, sedation time, procedure time, and recovery time between K-P and propofol.. METHODS: Electronic searches of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL were conducted and reference lists were hand-searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English comparing the use of K-P to propofol alone for PSA in the ED were included.. RESULTS: Six RCTs were included with a combined total of 932 ...
Author: Driscoll David F, Deaconess Beth Israel, Lawrence Kenneth R, Lewis Keith, Bistrian Bruce R, Year: 1997, Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control has identified intravenous propofol, a lipid-based medication, as a cause of postoperative infections in hospitalized patients. It appears the increased risk results from poor aseptic technique in the preparation, storage and administration of extemporaneously prepared propofol infusions. An additional risk of preparing propofol injection includes glass particulate contamination when the ampule dosage form is used. The current study, therefore, examines th
We all know what happens when the drugs we use in practice become controlled substances. Were faced with more paperwork and tighter Drug Enforcement Agency restrictions in terms of access, use and logging of our drug inventory, and how we dispose of them. The DEA is considering placing propofol on Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act. Considering how important propofol is in veterinary practice, the AVMA has concerns about what this might mean for veterinarians. At the same time, part of the AVMAs mission is to improve human health, so we were also concerned when we saw the DEAs alarming information about the dangers of propofol when its used inappropriately. More specifically, the DEA cited research showing that 28 percent of propofol abusers die from this abuse. Thats why we recently sent a letter to the DEA expressing our understanding of DEAs scheduling of drugs with high-abuse potential, while also expressing our concerns that adding propofol as a Schedule IV controlled ...
The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with alkalinised lignocaine reduced the incidence and severity of pain during propofol injection. This prospective, randomised, double-blind study included 300 adult, American Society of Anesthesiologists physcial status I to II patients undergoing elective surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: Group L received 0.05 ml/kg of 1% lignocaine (5 ml normal saline + 5 ml 2% lignocaine), Group A received 0.05 ml/kg alkalinised lignocaine (5 ml 2% lignocaine + 1 ml 8.4% NaHCO3 + 4 ml normal saline), and Group S, the control group, was given the same amount of normal saline (NaCl 0.9%). All drugs were given as a bolus over 20 seconds before propofol administration. A blinded researcher assessed the patients pain level using a four-point scale. The pain score [median (range)] and the incidence of pain in Group A (6%) was significantly lower than in groups L (41%) and S (88%, P ...
The effects of thiopental and propofol were comparatively evaluated about its influence on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, blood gas, blood glucose levels, cell kinetics and recovery period in 20 rabbits of New Zealand White, adults, male and female, with weight between 3,67±0,43 Kg. After a random selection, they were shared into two groups of 10 animals, called propofol group (GP) and thiopental group (GT). For GP, general anesthesia was induced by intravenous (IV) administration of propofol (10 mg/Kg) and then began continuous infusion at an initial dose 1 mg/Kg/min, and then was adjusted as necessary to the bispectral index values vary between 65 and 75. The same method was employed for GT, using thiopental instead propofol, at the dose of 10 mg/Kg for induction followed the initial dose of 1 mg/Kg/min. Data collection of the variables of interest in both groups began 20 minutes after induction of anesthesia (M0) and new measurements were made at 15 minutes intervals for a period ...
Fospropofol (INN), often used as the disodium salt (trade name Lusedra) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. It is currently approved for use in sedation of adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures such as endoscopy. Several water-soluble derivatives and prodrugs of the widely used intravenous anesthetic agent propofol have been developed, of which fospropofol has been found to be the most suitable for clinical development thus far. Purported advantages of this water-soluble chemical compound include less pain at the site of intravenous administration, less potential for hyperlipidemia with long-term administration, and less chance for bacteremia.[citation needed] Often, fospropofol is administered in conjunction with an opioid such as fentanyl.[citation needed] Fospropofol is a prodrug of propofol; it is metabolized by alkaline phosphatases to an active metabolite, propofol. Initial trial results on fospropofol pharmacokinetics were retracted by the investigators. As ...
Very interesting. I have some caveats, though. The deficiency observed in the GABA-A alpha-1 receptors of ALS patients is a logical target for therapeutic drugs. However, there are good reasons to suppose that GABA-A deficiency is not common to all ALS patients. This is why propofol works for some but not others. Still, I disagree with the claim that the effect of propofol is as short lasting as they make it out to be. Various reports from those who have tried it point to a beneficial effect (e.g., a recovery of a lost function) lasting up to a month or more. So, its certain that propofol can continue to cause the potentiation of GABA-A receptors long after the hypnotic effect is gone. What this research is showing is that it should be possible to make the potentiation permanent, which would be an enormous breakthrough ...
Aim: This study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lipid emulsion propofol administered by a target-controlled infusion (TCI) anesthesia in pediatric surgery.. Method: Forty patients (ASA PS 1,2) aged 2-12 years were given an intravenous bolus of 2% propofol (Fresofol?, Fresenius Kabi Korea Ltd., Korea) 3 mg/kg, followed by continuous infusion at the rate of 200 mg/kg/min for variable periods. Arterial concentrations of propofol were measured at preset intervals and bispectral index (BIS) values were recorded throughout the study period. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics were evaluated using a population analysis with nonlinear mixed effects modeling.. Results: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in children were best described by a two compartment model and inhibitory sigmoid Emax with effect-compartment model, respectively. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models were directly connected by effect compartment. The final ...
0183;&32;Like other opioids, Narcan can be given to block and reverse the effects of an overdose of fentanyl. Unfortunately Propofol is very irritating and causes a burning pain in the arms of many people when injected. &0183;&32;These formulas are typically rich in choline and methionine, two important nutrients for the liver, along with supportive nutrients and/or what are the after effects of propofol herbals. Seven, or what are the after effects of propofol 28%, had died using the drug. Dosage for propofol, as for all licensed drugs, is governed by the FDA. If you feel that the scope is. Even then, some need to have their arms and legs restrained to.. Conclusions: We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients enjoy its acute effects; and that no residual after-effects should arise. &0183;&32;Effects of Anesthesia on Elderly Patients General anesthesia does carry a higher risk for the elderly population, admits Damon Raskin, MD, a board-certified internist what and medical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of the GABAA receptor by propofol is independent of the gamma subunit. AU - Jones, M V. AU - Harrison, N L. AU - Pritchett, D B. AU - Hales, T G. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Many anxiolytics, anticonvulsants and general anesthetics modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The anxiolytic benzodiazepines potentiate the actions of GABA, and this only at GABAA receptors with gamma subunits. The general anesthetics both potentiate GABA and activate GABAA receptors directly, but their binding sites on the receptor are poorly defined. We examined whether the gamma 2 subunit was required for the modulation of GABAA receptors by the general anesthetic 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol). Using the patch-clamp technique, we recorded membrane currents from HEK293 cells transfected with human alpha 2, beta 1 and gamma 2 cDNAs and with alpha 2 and beta 1 cDNAs alone. Both forms of the receptor were activated by GABA and by propofol at low concentrations. At ...
Second, whatever the cause of pain in veins, the perception of pain is the same because of the polymodal nociceptors that transmit their information via A [Greek small letter delta] fibers [3]; to abolish the injection pain of propofol, a method that can block A [Greek small letter delta] fibers must be used. Unfortunately, we do not think that propofol at 4 [degree sign]C or 37 [degree sign]C has such an effect. So we do not think that the effect of changes in the temperature of propofol are relevant.. ...
Dosage Calculations This unit looks at drug calculations. -Maintenance (Titrated to Clinical Response): 100 mcg/kg/min to 150 mcg/kg/min IV -When an opioid is used as the primary agent, propofol maintenance rates should not be less than 50 mcg/kg/min, and care should be taken to ensure amnesia. -Safety and efficacy have not been established in patients younger than 16 years for intensive care unit (ICU) sedation of intubated, mechanically ventilated patients. Nevertheless, the exact propofol dosage in CF Dexdomitor/Ketamine/Torbutrol (Kitty Magic) Dosing. -This drug is not recommended by the manufacturer for obstetrics, including Cesarean section deliveries as it crosses the placenta, and may be associated with neonatal depression. Uses: Propofol (Propofol Injectable Emulsion) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health resources. 10. F. As with propofol, the ketamine infusion rate was ...
Prenatal propofol exposure induced neurotoxicity in the developing brains and led to persistent learning deficits in the offspring. Our goal was to use zebrafish to explore whether the decline in learning and memory was correlated with inhibition of neuronal growth after propofol exposure. Zebrafish embryos at 6 hours postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to control or 1, 2 or 4 μg/mL propofol until 48 hpf. Spontaneous locomotor activity and swimming behavior in response to dark‐to‐light photoperiod stimulation were studied in zebrafish larvae at 6 days postfertilization (dpf). The adaptability to repeated stimulation was used to indicate learning and memory function of larvae. Transgenic NBT line zebrafish was used to quantitate the effect of propofol on motor neuronal growth of embryos in vivo. Six dpf transgenic zebrafish larvae went through photoperiod stimulation after their neuronal length had been analyzed during the embryonic period. Our data indicate that embryonic exposure to 1, 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Propofol may increase caspase and MAPK pathways, and suppress the Akt pathway to induce apoptosis in MA‑10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. AU - Kang, Fu Chi. AU - Wang, Shu Chun. AU - So, Edmund Cheung. AU - Chang, Ming Min. AU - Wong, Kar Lok. AU - Cheng, Ka Shun. AU - Chen, Yung Chia. AU - Huang, Bu Miin. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by Chi Mei-NCKU hospital grant CMNCKU10705 (FCK and BMH) and Ministry of Science and Technology MOST 105-2320-B-006-028 (BMH), Taiwan, Republic of China.. PY - 2019/6. Y1 - 2019/6. N2 - In the western world, there is an increasing trend of occurrence in testicular cancer. Treatment of malignant testicular cancer is primarily combined surgery with various chemical drugs. Propofol has been frequently used as an anesthetic and sedative induction agent, which could modulate different γ-aminobutyric acid receptors in the central nervous system. Studies demonstrated that propofol activates endoplasmic reticulum stress to induce ...
title:Comparison Of haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous Propofol - Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure. Author:Madhavi S Mavani, Sudevi Desai. Keywords:Ketamine, Propofol, Fentany, Minor Surgical Procedures, Haemodynamic Fluctuation. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: An increasing interest in intravenous anesthetic agent has resulted from the availability of more effective intravenous agents. Objectives: Comparison of intravenous Ketamine with combination of intravenous Propofol and Fentanyl in ASA Gr. 1 patients of middle age in minor surgical procedures, To compare the haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol - fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure and to compare recovery and side-effective in postoperative period of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol- Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedures. Methodology: This observational study includes 20 patients of ASA Grade I of either ...
title:Comparison Of haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous Propofol - Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure. Author:Madhavi S Mavani, Sudevi Desai. Keywords:Ketamine, Propofol, Fentany, Minor Surgical Procedures, Haemodynamic Fluctuation. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: An increasing interest in intravenous anesthetic agent has resulted from the availability of more effective intravenous agents. Objectives: Comparison of intravenous Ketamine with combination of intravenous Propofol and Fentanyl in ASA Gr. 1 patients of middle age in minor surgical procedures, To compare the haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol - fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure and to compare recovery and side-effective in postoperative period of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol- Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedures. Methodology: This observational study includes 20 patients of ASA Grade I of either ...
General anaesthesia in pigs maintained with intravenous drugs such as propofol may cause respiratory depression. Alfaxalone gives less respiratory depression than propofol in some species. The aim of the investigation was to compare respiratory effects of propofol-ketamine-dexmedetomidine and alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine in pigs. Sixteen pigs premedicated with ketamine 15 mg/kg and midazolam 1 mg/kg intramuscularly were anaesthetised with propofol or alfaxalone to allow endotracheal intubation, followed by propofol 8 mg/kg/h or alfaxalone 5 mg/kg/h in combination with ketamine 5 mg/kg/h and dexmedetomidine 4 µg/kg/h given as a continuous infusion for 60 min. The pigs breathed spontaneously with an FIO2 of 0.21. Oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 concentration (PE′CO2), respiratory rate (fR) and inspired tidal volume (VT) were measured, and statistically compared between treatments. If the SpO2 dropped below 80% or if PE′CO2 increased above 10.0 kPa, the pigs were recorded as failing to
Some additional limitations deserve special emphasis. First, our models assume steady-state conditions. This assumption is violated whenever drug concentrations are rapidly changing (e.g. , such as after a bolus). The respiratory depression associated with bolus doses of ventilatory depressants is greater than when the same drugs are administered by infusion to similar target concentrations.39,40 Thus, the simulations involving bolus drug administration are likely to be associated with more respiratory compromise than our models predict. Second, pharmacokinetic models are associated with substantial variability. For example, using target-controlled infusions, median absolute performance errors for propofol and remifentanil alone of 25%41 and 22%42, respectively, have been reported. The median performance error of propofol in the presence of remifentanil has been reported at 49%.42 Third, some published dosing regimens did not provide weight-adjusted dosing. When conducting our simulations, we ...
This study aimed to compare dexmedetomidine and propofol, in terms of haemodynamic parameters, respiratory rates and offset times, when used for sedation in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic and surgical procedures under regional anaesthesia. This was a prospective, randomised, single-blind study where 88 patients were recruited. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive either dexmedetomidine or propofol infusion. Central neuraxial blockade (spinal, epidural or combined spinal epidural) was performed. After ensuring an adequate block and stable haemodynamic parameters, dexmedetomidine was infused 15 minutes later at 0.4 μg/kg/hr, and propofol, at a target concentration of 2.5 μg/ml. Both drugs were titrated to achieve a bispectral index score of 70 before surgery commenced. Sedation level was monitored using the bispectral index score and assessed by the Observer Assessment of Alertness Scale score. Drug infusion was adjusted to maintain bispectral index scores ranging ...
To compare the effects of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the respiratory control system, we have studied the acute ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) in 12 adults with and without three different concentrations of propofol and halothane. Target doses for propofol were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the effective plasma concentration (EC50 = 8.1 micrograms ml-1). Target doses for halothane were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC = 0.77%). The doses achieved experimentally were 0.01, 0.06, 0.13 and 0.26 of the EC50 for propofol and 0, 0.05, 0.11 and 0.20 MAC for halothane. During the experiment subjects breathed via a mouthpiece from an end-tidal forcing system. End-tidal PO2 (PEO2) was held at 13.3 kPa for 5 min, and then at 6.7 kPa for 5 min. End-tidal PCO2 (PECO2) was held constant at 0.13-0.27 kPa greater than the subjects natural level throughout. The mean values for AHVR with propofol were: 12.8 (SEM 2.4) litre min-1 (0.01 EC50), 10.0 (1.9
To compare the effects of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the respiratory control system, we have studied the acute ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) in 12 adults with and without three different concentrations of propofol and halothane. Target doses for propofol were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the effective plasma concentration (EC50 = 8.1 micrograms ml-1). Target doses for halothane were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC = 0.77%). The doses achieved experimentally were 0.01, 0.06, 0.13 and 0.26 of the EC50 for propofol and 0, 0.05, 0.11 and 0.20 MAC for halothane. During the experiment subjects breathed via a mouthpiece from an end-tidal forcing system. End-tidal PO2 (PEO2) was held at 13.3 kPa for 5 min, and then at 6.7 kPa for 5 min. End-tidal PCO2 (PECO2) was held constant at 0.13-0.27 kPa greater than the subjects natural level throughout. The mean values for AHVR with propofol were: 12.8 (SEM 2.4) litre min-1 (0.01 EC50), 10.0 (1.9
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential impact of propofol immediately after motor vehicle accident on later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder at 6-month follow up. T2 - a retrospective cohort study. AU - Usuki, Masato. AU - Matsuoka, Yutaka. AU - Nishi, Daisuke. AU - Yonemoto, Naohiro. AU - Matsumura, Kenta. AU - Otomo, Yasuhiro. AU - Kim, Yoshiharu. AU - Kanba, Shigenobu. PY - 2012/10/28. Y1 - 2012/10/28. N2 - Introduction: Critically injured patients are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Propofol was recently reported to enhance fear memory consolidation retrospectively. Thus, we investigated here whether administration of propofol within 72 h of a motor vehicle accident (MVA) affects the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms.Methods: We examined data obtained from a prospective cohort study of MVA-related injured patients, admitted to the intensive care unit of a general hospital. We investigated the effect of propofol administration within 72 h of MVA on outcome. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Propofol for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia. T2 - A tale of three centers. AU - Burton, John H.. AU - Miner, James R.. AU - Shipley, Eric R.. AU - Strout, Tania D.. AU - Becker, Chris. AU - Thode, Henry C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Objectives: To characterize propofol procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) encounters for a large patient population at multiple emergency department (ED) sites. The authors sought to assess the frequency of respiratory and cardiovascular events during propofol PSA within these settings. Methods: This study was a prospective, descriptive series of a consecutive sample of ED patients receiving propofol for PSA at three study sites. Patients were monitored for PSA-related events, including predefined clinically relevant cardiovascular and respiratory events. Data collection was performed during PSA with a standardized data collection sheet unique to each ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of midazolam on induction dose of propofol. AU - Kapoor, Ruchi. AU - Gopalakrishna, K.. AU - Ambareesha, M.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Patients & Methods: Fifty ASA Class 1 and 2 adult patients posted for elective surgery were randomly allocated to control and study groups with 25 patients in each groups. The control groups received 10ml of saline while the study group received 0.04mg kg-1 of midazolam diluted to 10ml of saline over one minute. Three minutes later in both the groups, general anaesthesia was induced with propofol 10mg boluses every 15 seconds till endpoint is achieved. The endpoint was defined as first lack of response to command i.e the patient is unable to lift the hand when asked to do so. The dose at which end is achieved is noted. The results were analysed by chi-square test. Results: The dose of propofol required for induction in control group was 2.23mg Kg-1 compared to study group which required 1.3mg kg -1. Thus a 42% reduction in ...
Enting et al. are to be congratulated for their report of a possible thiopental infusion syndrome with similar clinical characteristics to the syndrome we recently reported (1). Unfortunately, their patient succumbed to multisystem organ failure. In our case of cardiogenic shock associated with large-dose propofol infusion, the patient survived after institution of extracorporeal circulation and termination of the propofol infusion (1). This syndrome has not been reported in association with thiopental.. As these authors noted, the propofol infusion syndrome has been extensively reviewed in children and adults (2-14). Although the associations of this syndrome have been described, the exact pathogenesis remains to be determined. There is the possibility that this syndrome may be attributable not only to propofol but also to pentothal. Indeed, this syndrome has been described previously in the setting of status epilepticus (15,16). The possibility exists that this syndrome in status epilepticus ...
Background : Patient safety during sedation for closed rhizotomies is improved when analgesia is optimised, rather than relying on deep sedation for patient comfort. This retrospective study determined the appropriate effect-site concentration (Ce) for alfentanil, in combination with a constant propofol infusion, for optimal pain control during sedation for closed rhizotomies. Airway maintenance is ensured by keeping patients responsive to verbal commands, albeit at the price of inevitable ventilatory depression. Method : The records of patients who received rhizotomies over a six-month period were studied retrospectively. Sixty-three outpatients were included. Patients rated the level of analgesia with each needle placement. If the Ce for alfentanil was adequate, it was kept constant. Otherwise, it was increased in 5 ng/ml increments with each needle placement until analgesia was effective, or up to the maximum Ce for alfentanil of 100 ng/ml. Propofol infusion at a constant Ce of 200 ng/ml was added.
Nurse-administered propofol sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: first Nordic results from implementation of a structured training ...
Movie buffs and science fiction fans certainly remember HAL, the computer in 1968s hit movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. Considered one of the greatest villains in film history, HAL was capable of reasoning and language processing to assist the astronauts on their space mission. Ultimately, however, HAL decided that its best course of action was to kill all the astronauts. I am putting myself to the fullest possible use, said HAL, which is all I think that any conscious entity can ever hope to do.. Forty-five years later, the FDA in its wisdom has given premarket approval to the Sedasys® Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation System, developed by Ethicon Endo-Surgery Inc. The device has the potential to redefine sedation delivery, according to Ethicons press release, with propofol sedation personalized to the needs of each patient, by precisely integrating drug delivery and comprehensive patient monitoring. The Sedasys device is designed for healthy adult patients who undergo ...
In opening statements, prosecutors said that Dr. Murray was an incompetent physician who improperly used a dangerous anesthetic called propofol to help Jackson sleep and that this misuse ultimately caused Jacksons death.. The defense countered by arguing that Jackson took several pills of the sedative lorazepam on the morning of his death which would be enough to put six people to sleep. They further argued that Jackson then took a self-administered dose of propofol. This final dose, the defense explained, killed Jackson instantly. The defense argued that Jackson accidently killed himself after Doctor Murray refused to administer any more propofol to Jackson for his sleep disorders. They explained that Murray had been attempting to wean Jackson off of propofol by administering other sleep aids (benzodiazepines) to him. Jackson did not want to change the drugs he was taking and therefore began administering the drugs to himself which caused his death.. The defense said, What we will hear is ...
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is related to microcirculation impairment caused by tissue hypoxia and peripheral cytokine overproduction in the affected human limb and chronic post-ischemic pain (CPIP) is considered as an animal model for this intractable disease. Previous studies suggest that the pathogenesis of CPIP involves the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and an exaggerated regional inflammatory and free radical response. The inhibition of HIF-1α is known to relieve CPIP. So, propofol, as a free radical scavenger, is very likely to be beneficial in terms of relieving CPIP. We set up a CPIP model using the hindpaw of mice. We administered propofol (10 mg/kg) just after the reperfusion period (early stage) and also on the second day (late stage), as treatment. The analysis evaluated the expression of HIF-1α, free radicals, and inflammasome. Propofol administration produced obvious analgesia in both mechanical and thermal evaluation in the early stage of CPIP (2 h after reperfusion).
The mechanisms underlying anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness remain a matter of debate. Recent electrophysiological reports suggest that while initial propofol infusion provokes an increase in fast rhythms (from beta to gamma range), slow activity (from delta to alpha range) rises selectively during loss of consciousness. Dynamic causal modeling was used to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating these changes in spectral power in humans. We analyzed source-reconstructed data from frontal and parietal cortices during normal wakefulness, propofol-induced mild sedation, and loss of consciousness. Bayesian model selection revealed that the best model for explaining spectral changes across the three states involved changes in corticothalamic interactions. Compared with wakefulness, mild sedation was accounted for by an increase in thalamic excitability, which did not further increase during loss of consciousness. In contrast, loss of consciousness per se was accompanied by a decrease in ...
Yet another drugmaker has agreed to settle a large backload of product liability lawsuits. In the latest instance, Teva Pharmaceutical will pay more than $250 million to settle more than 80 lawsuits alleging the drugmaker intentionally sold its Propofol anesthetic in vials that were large enough to be reused by doctors, but led some colonoscopy patients to develop hepatitis C, Bloomberg News reports.. The deal also resolves a May 2010 case that prompted a jury award of more than $500 million in punitive damages and $5 million in compensatory damages against the Israeli drugmaker, according to the news service, citing sources and a filing with the Nevada Supreme Court. A private school principal charged the sedative lacked appropriate warnings and large vials should not have provided to doctors (back story).. So far, Teva has settled about 120 Propofol lawsuits and reserved $270 million for the litigation, according to a filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (see page 39). A Teva ...
Propofol is one of the most commonly used anesthetics in the world, but much remains unknown about the mechanisms by which it induces loss of consciousness. In this resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined qualitative and quantitative changes of resting-state networks (RSNs), total brain connectivity, and mean oscillation frequencies of the regional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, associated with propofol-induced mild sedation and loss of responsiveness in healthy subjects. We found that detectability of RSNs diminished significantly with loss of responsiveness, and total brain connectivity decreased strongly in the frontal cortex, which was associated with increased mean oscillation frequencies of the BOLD signal. Our results suggest a pivotal role of the frontal cortex in propofol-induced loss of responsiveness.
BACKGROUND: For decades thiopental has been considered as the hypnotic drug of choice for intracranial surgery. However, total intravenous anesthesia performed with thiopental is associated with delayed recovery, whereas early post-operative neurological evaluation is critical. For this reason, target controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol is increasingly used for maintenance of anesthesia. However, a thiopental TCI has never been assessed for this purpose. We tested the hypothesis that a thiopental TCI provides an acceptable way to achieve early recovery compared to a propofol TCI during supratentorial surgery ...
Combinations of medetomidine with either propofol or ketamine were compared for the sedation and induction of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of surgical (60 per cent) and non.surgical (40 per cent) procedures. Eighty.four dogs were used at four sites. Medetomidine was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1000 μg/m2 body surface area 10 to 15 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia by the administration of propofol (n = 44) or ketamine (n = 40) dosed to effect. The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration rates decreased. Sixteen of the dogs suffered an adverse effect, 13 of them vomited. Anaesthesia was induced by the intravenous administration of propofol (2.1 [0.7] mg/kg) or ketamine (3.7 [1.9] mg/kg), and further doses of the anaesthetic were given, depending on the length of the operation, once in 17 per cent, twice in 11 per cent and three or more times in 24 per cent of the cases. The heart ...
Actavis documents ANDA to advertise Propofol Injection Actavis, Inc. today confirmed that it has filed an Abbreviated New Drug Program with the U priligy online .S. Food and Medication Administration seeking authorization to market Propofol Injection 10mg/mL. Fresenius Kabi USA, On June 6 LLC filed suit against Actavis, 2013, in the U.S. District Courtroom for the District of Delaware seeking to prevent Actavis from commercializing its ANDA item before the expiration of certain U.S. Patents. Related StoriesMylan announces U.S. Release of generic AXERT tabletsMylan announces U.S.S.. It is not recommended to scrub the affected section of the skin as it could aggravate the problem. If nothing seems to work, it is advisable to visit a dermatologist and seek medical assistance. There are numerous medications to cure the nagging problem of acne. The antibiotics as well as retinoids are of help in treating acne on the hands. So far as the medicines are concerned, there are oral and topical formulations ...
Headache is a common and frequently disabling clinical disorder that accounts for nearly 2% of all emergency department presentations. Often patients are experiencing a headache that is not responding to commonly available medications. However, there is no good evidence to support which available hospital medications consistently offer effective pain relief to individuals with these types of refractory headache. Understandably this is a challenging scenario in the emergency department setting for both the patient and physician that often leads to inadequate or unsatisfactory symptom relief.. In a few small trials, there has been promising evidence that the medication propofol is potentially an effective, safe and quick treatment alternative for stubborn headaches. It is important to note that propofol is not a new medication and is routinely used on a daily basis throughout hospitals for both general anaesthesia and procedural sedation.. It is the intention of this research project to ...
Prior multicenter clinical studies have confirmed propofol as a fast-acting anesthetic agent, with a favorable recovery and safety profile [1, 3]. The single-use formulations of this drug, however, do not allow multiple withdrawals for more than six hours from first penetration which can result in wastage of the unused drug. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of MDP under a wide range of clinical circumstances. Results of this study suggest that the addition of benzyl alcohol to the formulation of the sterile injectable has the potential to reduce wastage by allowing a shelf-life of up to 28 days after the initial withdrawal/needle penetration without altering the safety or efficacy of the preparation. While direct comparisons cannot be made in the absence of control groups in which preservative-free propofol was used, results of dosing and prevalence of side effects can be compared to those from published studies on single-use propofol.. The population in this ...
Propofol prevents electroconvulsive-shock-induced memory impairment through regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a rat model of depression Jie Luo, Su Min, Ke Wei, Jun Cao, Bin Wang, Ping Li, Jun Dong, Yuanyuan Liu Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although a rapid and efficient psychiatric treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) induces memory impairment. Modified ECT requires anesthesia for safety purposes. Although traditionally found to exert amnesic effects in general anesthesia, which is an inherent part of modified ECT, some anesthetics have been found to protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on memory in depressed rats undergoing electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the analog of ECT in animals, under anesthesia as well as its mechanisms.Methods: Chronic
The American Veterinary Medical Association reported today that it sent a letter to the Drug Enforcement Agency offering guidance on the DEAs proposal of designating propofol as a Schedule IV drug under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA issued the proposal in late October based on reports it received concerning the increased abuse of propofol and that the abuse potential is comparable to other Schedule IV substances. Propofol abuse also has a high …
BACKGROUND. Differentiating drug-related changes and state-related changes on the electroencephalogram during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness has remained a challenge. To distinguish these, we designed a rigorous experimental protocol with two drugs known to have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. We hypothesized that drug- and state-related changes can be separated.. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy participants were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) as target-controlled infusions until loss of responsiveness. Then, an attempt was made to arouse the participant to regain responsiveness while keeping the drug infusion constant. Finally, the concentration was increased 1.5-fold to achieve presumable loss of consciousness. We conducted statistical comparisons between the drugs and different states of consciousness for spectral bandwidths, and observed how drug-induced electroencephalogram patterns reversed upon awakening. Cross-frequency coupling was also ...
In the present study, we investigated the influence of etomidate and propofol on haemodynamics in patients who underwent ERCP. The results showed that etomidate anesthesia during ERCP caused more stable haemodynamic responses compared with propofol.. In our endoscopy center, as a rule, the patients underwent ERCP in the prone position without tracheal intubation. It is known that the prone position may lead to inhibition of breathing because of airway obstruction. To reduce the incidence of respiratory depression caused by opioid agents, patients received pethidine pretreatment (100mg i.m.) instead of intravenous opioids. The absorption of intramuscular injection of drugs may be irregular and a confounding factor to the hemodynamic stability. Patients in both groups received pethidine pretreatment, therefore, the analgesia level could be comparable between two groups. In the present study, no patient experienced desaturation or apnoea, and the incidence of respiratory depression was much lower ...
Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
To explore the effects of propofol post-conditioning (PPC) on hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the potential mechanisms that might be involved in the interaction of Brahma-related gene1(BRG1) and Nuclear-related factor 2(Nrf2). Patients were randomized into PPC(n = 16) and non-PPC(NPC)( n = 21) groups. Propofol(2 mg/kg) was infused within 10 min. of the onset of liver reperfusion during liver transplantation in the PPC group. Liver function tests, as well as Brg1, Nrf2, Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1) expression levels were evaluated. CMV-Brg1 mice were designed to investigate the role of Brg1 overexpression during HIRI. Brg1 and Nrf2 siRNA were used to examine the relationship between Brg1 and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in propofol-mediated effects in a human hepatocyte(L02) hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) model. In patients, PPC attenuated both donor liver pathological and function injury, and reducing oxidative stress markers, compared to the NPC group, 24 hrs ...
Autism Spectrum Disorder - NIMH - NIH www.nimh.nih.gov › health › autism-spectrum-disorder. Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: Revisiting gastrointestinal involvement and immune imbalance Mohtashem Samsam, Raheleh Ahangari, and Saleh A NaserWorld J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug 7; 20(29): 9942-9951. Published online 2014 Aug 7. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9942. Age-Dependent Changes in the Propofol-Induced Electroencephalogram in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Elisa C. Walsh Johanna M. Lee1 Front. Syst. Neurosci., 22 June 2018 ,. Eliez S, Reiss AL 2000 MRI neuroimaging of childhood psychiatric disorders: a selective review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41: 679-694. Sury MR, Smith JH. Deep sedation and minimal anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 18 - 24. Krauss B, Green SM. Sedation and analgesia for procedures in children. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 938 -45. Wakasugi M, Hirota K, Roth SH, Ito Y. the effects of general anesthetics on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in ...
Emergency physicians routinely perform emergency department procedural sedation (EDPS) with propofol and its safety is well established. However, in 2009 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) enacted guidelines defining propofol as deep sedation and requiring administration by a physician.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Propofol Modulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid-mediated Inhibitory Neurotransmission to Cardiac Vagal Neurons in the Nucleus Ambiguus. AU - Wang, Xin. AU - Huang, Zheng Gui. AU - Gold, Allison. AU - Bouairi, Evguenia. AU - Evans, Cory. AU - Andresen, Michael C.. AU - Mendelowitz, David. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Background: Although it is well recognized that anesthetics modulate the central control of cardiorespiratory homeostasis, the cellular mechanisms by which anesthetics alter cardiac parasympathetic activity are poorly understood. One common site of action of anesthetics is inhibitory neurotransmission. This study investigates the effect of propofol on γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) and glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Methods: Cardiac parasympathetic neurons were identified in vitro by the presence of a retrograde fluorescent tracer, and spontaneous GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic currents were examined using whole cell ...
Background. Numerous animal studies have shown that all commonly used intravenous anaesthetic drugs and volatile agents may cause neuronal apoptosis following exposure in early life. Most studies have focussed on detecting increased apoptosis but their methods are not always readily transferrable to humans.. The lipid formulation of etomidate represents an alternative to the currently established intravenous anaesthetic agents but there is no animal or human data on apoptosis or long-term behavioural changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of etomidate on cerebral neuronal apoptosis and long-term behavioural effects using an established mouse model that represents the clinically relevant period of anaesthesia during early infancy in humans.. Methods. Six groups of 10 day old mice (P10) were injected with either etomidate 0.3, 3 or 10 mg/kg, propofol 60 mg/kg, ketamine 50 mg/kg or placebo only. Apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was assessed 24 h after treatment ...
Rocuronium Kabi is the drug of choice for muscle relaxation during rapid sequence induction because of its fast onset similar to suxamethonium. It offers flexibility in usage and patient groups, and superior safety (less histamine release, better haemodynamical stability). Rocuronium Kabi is an excellent partner for combination with our world-leading intravenous general anaesthetic propofol.. ...
No definitive outcomes study has explored whether administering a total intravenous anesthetic via TCI or with conventional continuous infusion rates impacts emergence. One might hypothesize that if administering a lengthy anesthetic, TCI would provide a more economical anesthetic and avoid unnecessary drug delivery that would perhaps delay emergence. Figure 30-1 presents a simulation of 2 intravenous techniques: one using TCI and the other set infusion rates for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Both approaches used a high-dose remifentanil and low dose propofol technique. In fact the TCI target effect-site concentrations were selected to be near the effect-site concentrations that resulted from propofol infusions of 100 mcg/kg/min and remifentanil 0.2 mcg/kg/min. In general, with increasing duration of the anesthetic, the simulation predicted the time to emergence would become longer. Time to emergence was defined as the time required for the model of loss of responsiveness to predict that only 1 out of ...
Some types of anaesthetics cause an increase in the level of lactate production in unconscious childrens brains, causing delirium.. Two commonly used anaesthetics produce different metabolic patterns in the brains of children, according to a study from Anesthesiology. Researchers from Stony Brook University, New York, found the inhalant gas anaesthetic sevoflurane produced more lactate, a marker for enhanced or changed brain metabolism, compared to the intravenous anaesthetic propofol.. While past paediatric literature has reported that sevoflurane may be associated with emergence delirium, a state of consciousness in which a child is inconsolable, irritable or uncooperative, the study explored the potential association between emergence delirium and specific brain metabolites like lactate.. Applied proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anaesthesia in the brains of rodents. Findings revealed inhalant gas anaesthetic was ...
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States (Mandel, Tanner, Lichtenstein, Metz, Katzka, Ginsberg, & Kochman, 2008; Siegel, DeSantis, & Jemal, 2014). Because this lethal disease claims lives of many people every year, more patients are undergoing screening colonoscopies, which have greatly aided in decreasing the number of colorectal cancer deaths (Siegel et al., 2014). The most common form of sedation for colonoscopies is moderate sedation with a benzodiazepine and an opioid (Cohen, Hightower, Wood, Miller, & Aisenberg, 2004; Lera dos Santos, et. al., 2013). However, sedation by anesthesia providers using propofol is becoming more common and may aid in reducing recovery and discharge times from the postoperative anesthesia care unit (PACU) as well as reducing overall costs. A retrospective chart review (N=176; 88 in propofol group and 88 in benzodiazepine and opioid group) was performed to determine if propofol sedation did reduce discharge times and decrease overall costs
Data were extracted from each manuscript. The following outcomes were identified as important before the literature search was started: (1) time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patients followed simple (i.e., hand-squeezing) commands, (2) time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patients left the first stage (i.e., higher acuity level) of recovery, (3) time from discontinuation of anesthesia until ambulatory surgery patients were discharged from the hospital, (4) group sample size, (5) duration of anesthesia, and (6) dose of volatile anesthetic. Criteria for transfer from the first to the second stage of recovery were inconsistent among studies. Therefore, times to leaving first stage were eliminated from the analysis. However, several papers comparing desflurane to propofol included time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patients sat. We therefore added this outcome to the study but did not analyze it statistically. For the comparison of desflurane to isoflurane, only one ...
Propofol[edit]. Propofol[5] is a non-barbiturate derivative that is thought to act by stimulating inhibitory GABA receptors and ... It takes 40 seconds for the effects of propofol to kick in, and effects lasts 6 minutes. Propofol has both sedative and ... Propofol is also painful when administered intravenously, therefore, lidocaine is commonly used as a pretreatment to help ... It was commonly used with midazolam for effective PSA prior to propofol and etomidate. The major complication of fentanyl is ...
ISBN 978-0-399-15727-1. "Propofol". The New Yorker. June 30, 2008. "Lemnos". Poetry. March 2008. "The Red Portrait". Poetry. ...
Propofol (Diprivan, Propoven) is a commonly used intravenous sedative. Because it is only slightly soluble in water, it is ... "Propofol". Drugs.com. 6 July 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019. Dewachter P, Kopac P, Laguna JJ, Mertes PM, Sabato V, Volcheck ... "Diprivan (propofol) Injectable Emulsion, USP". RxList. Retrieved 2 November 2019. Thanai Pongdee (2019). "Soy-allergenic and ... and the vast majority of people with known soy or egg allergies do not have a reaction to propofol. Protein contact dermatitis ...
PROPOFOL 133. PROTIPENDIL 134. PROTRIPTILINE 135. PROXIMETACAINE 136. RISPERIDONE 137. ROPINIROL 138. SELEGILINE 139. ...
... (INN) (brand name Nopron) is a sedative-hypnotic drug of the phenylpiperazine group.[1][2] It has been used in the treatment of sleep disturbances since the early 1970s in several European countries including France, Italy, and Luxembourg.[3][4] It is commonly used with children and adolescents on account of its favorable safety and tolerability profile and lack of abuse potential.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Originally believed to act as an antihistamine and anticholinergic,[11] niaprazine was later discovered to have low or no binding affinity for the H1 and mACh receptors (Ki = , 1 μM), and was instead found to act as a potent and selective 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki = 75 nM and 86 nM, respectively).[12] It possesses low or no affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2B, D2, and β-adrenergic, as well as at SERT and VMAT (Ki = all , 1 μM), but it does have some affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 730 nM),[12] likely acting as an antagonist there as well. Niaprazine ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebig's student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1848 by the German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another student of Liebig; he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and medicine. ...
Propofol. *Quisqualamine. *Sarcosine. *Taurine. *Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ...
... , also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid. It is a transparent oily, colorless liquid with a smell of menthol. It is very slightly soluble in ethanol, while practically insoluble in water. It is used as a food additive for flavor and fragrance.[1] ...
Phenols (e.g., propofol). *Phenytoin. *Piperidinediones (e.g., glutethimide). *Propanidid. *Pyrazolopyridines (e.g., etazolate) ...
... , also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.[1] It is primarily available in fixed-dose combination with diazepam under the brand name Reladorm (100 mg cyclobarbital + 10 mg diazepam) and is used to treat insomnia in Russia.[2] ...
Propofol: an anesthetic medication that confers antiemetic properties Alternative medicine[edit]. In conjunction with ... The intravenous anaesthetic propofol is currently the least emetogenic general anaesthetic. These medications are thought to ... A 2008 study compared 121 Japanese patients who experienced PONV after being given the general anesthetic propofol to 790 ...
When given slowly by an intravenous route, sodium amobarbital has a reputation for acting as a so-called truth serum. Under the influence, a person will divulge information that under normal circumstances they would block. This was most likely due to loss of inhibition. As such, the drug was first employed clinically by Dr. William Bleckwenn at the University of Wisconsin to circumvent inhibitions in psychiatric patients.[7] The use of amobarbital as a truth serum has lost credibility due to the discovery that a subject can be coerced into having a "false memory" of the event.[8](subscription required)[citation needed] The drug may be used intravenously to interview patients with catatonic mutism, sometimes combined with caffeine to prevent sleep.[9] It was used by the United States armed forces during World War II in an attempt to treat shell shock and return soldiers to the front-line duties.[10] This use has since been discontinued as the powerful sedation, cognitive impairment, and ...
... has potential for either medical misuse when the drug is continued long term without or against medical advice, or for recreational use when the drug is taken to achieve a "high".[53][54] The transition from medical use of zolpidem to high-dose addiction or drug dependence can occur with use, but some believe it may be more likely when used without a doctor's recommendation to continue using it, when physiological drug tolerance leads to higher doses than the usual 5 mg or 10 mg, when consumed through inhalation or injection, or when taken for purposes other than as a sleep aid.[53] Recreational use is more prevalent in those having been dependent on other drugs in the past, but tolerance and drug dependence can still sometimes occur in those without a history of drug dependence. Chronic users of high doses are more likely to develop physical dependence on the drug, which may cause severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, if abrupt withdrawal from zolpidem occurs.[55] Other ...
... (also known as clonitrazolam) is a benzodiazepine that has had very little research done about its effects and metabolism, and has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2][3][4][5] The synthesis of clonazolam was first reported in 1971 and the drug was described as the most active compound in the series tested.[6][7] Clonazolam is reported to be highly potent, and concerns have been raised that clonazolam and flubromazolam in particular may pose comparatively higher risks than other designer benzodiazepines, due to their ability to produce strong sedation and amnesia at oral doses of as little as 0.5 mg.[8] ...
... is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research. It has similar effects to sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. U-90042 is a GABAA agonist acting primarily at the α1, α3 and α6 subtypes, with a Ki of 7.8nM at α1, 9.5nM at α3 and 11.0nM at α6. It produces sedation and ataxia and prolongs sleeping time in mice, rats and monkeys, but does not produce amnesia and blocks the amnestic effect of diazepam, reflecting its different subtype affinity compared to benzodiazepine drugs.[1] It was developed by a team at Novo Nordisk in the 1980s.[2] ...
The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[5][6][7] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[5] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[8] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[9] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[10]) during and after anaesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing. At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual ...
... became increasingly popular as a recreational drug in the late 1960s and 1970s, known variously as "ludes" or "sopers" (also "soaps") in the United States and "mandrakes" and "mandies" in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The drug was more tightly regulated in Britain under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and in the U.S. from 1973. It was withdrawn from many developed markets in the early 1980s. In the United States it was withdrawn in 1982 and made a Schedule I drug in 1984. It has a DEA ACSCN of 2565 and in 2013 the aggregate annual manufacturing quota for the United States was 10 grams. Mention of its possible use in some types of cancer and AIDS treatments has periodically appeared in the literature since the late 1980s; research does not appear to have reached an advanced stage. The DEA has also added the methaqualone analogue mecloqualone (also a result of some incomplete clandestine syntheses) to Schedule I as ACSCN 2572, with zero manufacturing quota. Gene Haislip, the former ...
Propofol. *Quisqualamine. *Sarcosine. *Taurine. *Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ...
A benzodiazepine (sometimes colloquially "benzo"; often abbreviated "BZD") is a drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann-La Roche, which has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium) since 1963. Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABAA receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties; also seen in the applied pharmacology of high doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines are amnesic-dissociative actions. These properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures. Benzodiazepines are categorized as either short-, intermediate-, ...
Propofol. *Quisqualamine. *Sarcosine. *Taurine. *Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ...
In order to hydroxylate L-tryptophan, the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (THB) must first react with oxygen and the active site iron of tryptophan hydroxylase. This mechanism is not well understood, but two mechanisms have been proposed: 1. A slow transfer of one electron from the THB to O2 could produce a superoxide which could recombine with the THB radical to give 4a-peroxypterin. 4a-peroxypterin could then react with the active site iron (II) to form an iron-peroxypterin intermediate or directly transfer an oxygen atom to the iron. 2. O2 could react with the active site iron (II) first, producing iron (III) superoxide which could then react with the THB to form an iron-peroxypterin intermediate. Iron (IV) oxide from the iron-peroxypterin intermediate is selectively attacked by a double bond to give a carbocation at the C5 position of the indole ring. A 1,2-shift of the hydrogen and then a loss of one of the two hydrogen atoms on C5 reestablishes aromaticity to furnish ...
... (Alphenal, Efrodal, Prophenal, Sanudorm), also known as 5-allyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate derivative developed in the 1920s.[1] It has primarily anticonvulsant properties, and was used occasionally for the treatment of epilepsy or convulsions, although not as commonly as better known barbiturates such as phenobarbital.[2][3] [4][5] LD50: Mouse (Oral): 280 mg/kg ...
Non-medication based strategies have comparable efficacy to hypnotic medication for insomnia and they may have longer lasting effects. Hypnotic medication is only recommended for short-term use because dependence with rebound withdrawal effects upon discontinuation or tolerance can develop.[66]. Non medication based strategies provide long lasting improvements to insomnia and are recommended as a first line and long-term strategy of management. The strategies include attention to sleep hygiene, stimulus control, behavioral interventions, sleep-restriction therapy, paradoxical intention, patient education, and relaxation therapy.[67] Some examples are keeping a journal, restricting the time spent awake in bed, practicing relaxation techniques, and maintaining a regular sleep schedule and a wake-up time.[65] Behavioral therapy can assist a patient in developing new sleep behaviors to improve sleep quality and consolidation. Behavioral therapy may include, learning healthy sleep habits to promote ...
... is an antihistamine and anticholinergic of the pyridine chemical class which was developed in the early 1950s. It was sold under the trade names Co-Pyronil and Histadyl EC.[1] It has relatively strong sedative effects, to the extent that its primary use was as a medication for insomnia rather than for its antihistamine action. Together with scopolamine, it was the main ingredient in Sominex, Nytol, and Sleep-Eze. It also provided the sedative component of Excedrin PM. All of these products were reformulated in the late 1970s when methapyrilene was demonstrated to cause liver cancer in rats when given chronically.[2] ...
... but was supplanted by propofol.[4] Despite this thiopental is still listed as an acceptable alternative to propofol, depending ... Its use has been largely replaced with that of propofol, but retains popularity as an induction agent for rapid sequence ... However, in comparison with propofol, the reflex tachycardia seen during states of hypotension is relatively spared (a ... It has now been superseded by drugs such as propofol because their effects wear off more quickly than thiopental. Patients with ...
... (Ro41-3696) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug which binds to benzodiazepine sites on the GABAA receptor. In human clinical trials, lirequinil was found to have similar efficacy to zolpidem, with less side effects such as clumsiness and memory impairment. However it was also much slower acting than zolpidem, with peak plasma concentrations not reached until 2.5 hours after oral administration, and its O-desethyl metabolite Ro41-3290 is also active with a half-life of 8 hours.[1][2][3][4] This meant that while effective as a hypnotic, lirequinil failed to prove superior to zolpidem due to producing more next-day sedation, and it has not been adopted for clinical use. It was developed by a team at Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1990s.[5] ...
... is primarily used to induce anesthesia, and is generally provided as a sodium salt (i.e. methohexital sodium). It is only used in hospital or similar settings, under strict supervision.[citation needed] It has been commonly used to induce deep sedation or general anesthesia for surgery and dental procedures. Unlike many other barbiturates, methohexital actually lowers the seizure threshold, a property that make it particularly useful when anesthesia is provided for an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).[2] And rapid recovery rate with consciousness being gained within three to seven minutes after induction and full recovery within 30 minutes is a major advantage over other ECT barbiturates.[2] ...
Propofol. *HIV medications. Screening[edit]. In 2016 the United States Preventive Services Task Force concluded that testing ...
NaBr crystallizes in the same cubic motif as NaCl, NaF and NaI. The anhydrous salt crystallizes above 50.7 °C.[7] Dihydrate salts (NaBr·2H2O) crystallize out of water solution below 50.7 °C.[8] NaBr is produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide. Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine. This can be accomplished by treating an aqueous solution of NaBr with chlorine gas: ...
Propofol infusion syndrome[edit]. Main article: Propofol infusion syndrome. A rare, but serious, side effect is propofol ... "PropoFlo (propofol) for Animal Use". Drugs.com. Retrieved 13 February 2019.. *^ "Discovery and development of propofol, a ... Although propofol is heavily used in the adult ICU setting, the side effects associated with propofol seem to be of greater ... Propofol is often used instead of sodium thiopental for starting anesthesia because recovery from propofol is more rapid and " ...
Propofol for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in patients with Brugada syndrome. Pacing and Clinical ...
See an archive of all propofol stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and ...
It is associated with high doses and long-term use of propofol (> 4 mg/kg/h for more than 24 hours). It occurs more commonly in ... Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of ... PRIS is a rare complication of propofol infusion. It is generally associated with high doses (>4 mg/kg per hour or >67 mcg/kg ... McKeage, K; Perry, CM (2003). "Propofol: a review of its use in intensive care sedation of adults". CNS Drugs. 17 (4): 235-72. ...
Propofol , Monograph containing literature references, physical and biological properties and relevant information ...
Propofolunknown. A short acting sedative hypnotic used in short procedures and minor surgeries. It is God's gift the ... Patient: 10, 9, 8, hey that b......*Goes into deep coma from propofol* ...
... Matt Jones jonesmat at ohsu.edu Fri Oct 11 11:33:56 EST 1996 *Previous message: Propofol ... We are looking for the receptor type on which propofol is binding to and ,(ultimately) act through. ,Thanks in advance Hi, ... Propofol both potentiates the channel response to GABA, and directly activates the channel in the absence of GABA: Hales and ... 1993) Propofol activates GABA-A receptor-chloride ionophore complex in dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons of the rat. ...
Conrad Murrays new lawyer claims hes the best of the best when it comes to cases involving Propofol and death -- and dude has ... Conrad Murrays new lawyer claims hes the best of the best when it comes to cases involving Propofol and death -- and dude has ... TMZ spoke to J. Michael Flanagan who told us, "Im probably the only attorney in town that has successfully tried a Propofol ...
Propofol was first tested clinically in 1977. Following reformulation into an oil-based emulsion, giving it a milky appearance ... Propofol, anesthetic drug used to induce and maintain general anesthesia and to sedate patients for certain medical procedures ... Side effects of propofol include pain at the injection site, hypotension, hypertension, nausea, cough, tingling sensation, and ... Propofol, anesthetic drug used to induce and maintain general anesthesia and to sedate patients for certain medical procedures ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Propofol-Hospira is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Propofol-Hospira is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Propofol-Hospira may be available in the countries listed below.. Ingredient matches for Propofol-Hospira. Propofol. Propofol ...
Weve learned the FDA and CDC have issued a warning over certain batches of Propofol -- the drug found in Michael Jacksons ...
Does the combined use of propofol and dexmedetomidine provide cardiovascular stability with a safer profile than either drug ... Backgroud: Although propofol and dexmedetomidine have been widely used for monitored anesthesia care, their adverse effects ... Conclusions: The combined use of propofol and dexmedetomidine provided cardiovascular stability with decreased adverse effects ... Therefore, we performed this randomized controlled trial to evaluate the combined use of propofol and dexmedetomidine. ...
MRI BOLD signal data obtained from individuals undergoing various levels of sedation with the anaesthetic agent propofol, ... Propofol Sedation. Intravenous propofol was administered with a Baxter AS 50 (Singapore). The infusion pump was manually ... Propofol Sedation. Propofol was administered intravenously as a "target controlled infusion" (plasma concentration mode), using ... to assess plasma propofol levels. In total, 6 blood samples were drawn during the study. The mean (SD) measured plasma propofol ...
propofol was found in Washington Manual. The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics helps you diagnose and treat hundreds of ...
... and the practice performing the procedure uses propofol for deep sedation administered venously... ... They will sedate me with IV propofol, and the anesthesiologist stays in the room to monitor my breathing and heart rate. The ... Any advice for me? What was your experience? Some people (in average health) find propofol downright pleasant and others are in ... Im scheduled to have an upper GI endoscopy next week, and the practice performing the procedure uses propofol for deep ...
Professional guide for Propofol. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions ... Propofol emulsion contains 1.1 kcal/mL. Soybean fat emulsion is used as a vehicle for propofol. Formulations also contain egg ... RifAMPin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Propofol. Management: Note that use of propofol in a patient who has been ... Because Fresenius Propoven 2% contains double the concentration of propofol (20 mg/mL) compared to the FDA-approved propofol ...
Propofol is used to help you relax before and during general anesthesia for surgery or other medical procedures. Propofol is ... also used to sedate a patient who is under critical care and needs a mechanical ventilator (breathing machine). Propofol may ... Propofol slows the activity of your brain and nervous system. ... What is propofol?. Propofol slows the activity of your brain ... How is propofol given?. Propofol is injected into a vein through an IV. A healthcare provider will give you this injection. ...
Might the addition of intravenous lidocaine to propofol-based sedation decrease the overall propofol requirement in elderly ... The addition of intravenous lidocaine to propofol-based sedation resulted in a remarked reduction of supplemental propofol in ... Table 3. Comparison of propofol doses between the two groups Items. NS + P group (n = 40). L + P group (n = 39). ... the supplemental amount of propofol after induction, and the frequencies of boluses of supplemental propofol. ...
Transcript of PROPOFOL. CVL 2013. Utilización del Propofol en Perros y Gatos. Propofol. 1. 2,6-disopropilfenol. 2. 10 mg/mL 20 ... Propofol + Remifentanilo. TIVA. TCI Propofol 3.5 mcg/mL. Remifentanilo 0.2 mcg/kg/min. No proporciona analgesia. Propofol. No ... Propofol. Pancreatitis Propofol PANCREATITIS (humanos). 10% PROPOFOL es Intralipidico Hipertrigliceridemia. La disminución de ... Cargar el propofol en una jeringa estéril (marcar el día y hora). Desechar en 6 horas. Evitar la contaminación con sangre y ...
... leading Murray to treat it with propofol. Read more: Conrad Murray Trial: Propofol Expert Only Suggested Jackson Ingested the ... Aside from there being no residual propofol in the bag or in the upper part of the IV line, propping the bottle up in a bag in ... Murray was infusing propofol, White (pictured) said on Thursday. It wasnt obvious to me. I thought there were questions. ... Paul White said he believes after Michael Jackson was given a dose of propofol by Conrad Murray in the early morning hours of ...
Capnographic monitoring of propofol-based sedation during colonoscopy.. Friedrich-Rust M1, Welte M1, Welte C2, Albert J1, ... In patients undergoing colonoscopy during propofol-based sedation capnography monitoring with a simple and inexpensive device ... In patients with anesthesiologist-administered sedation, sedation was deeper, a combination of sedative medication (propofol, ... Age correlates with hypotension during propofol-based anesthesia for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. [Acta ...
The appearance of Propofol can differ based on the dosing. ... PROPOFOL (injection, emulsion) comes in different strengths and ...
Singer Michael Jackson was warned by a nurse practitioner about using the sedative propofol to help him sleep, a Los Angeles ... Cherilyn Lee said Jackson told her that Diprivan - a brand name for propofol - was the only thing that would knock him out and ... She told jurors she had tried to give Jackson natural remedies to deal with his insomnia and had told him propofol was too ... Singer Michael Jackson was warned by a nurse practitioner about using the sedative propofol to help him sleep, a Los Angeles ...
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
Active Comparator: Propofol Propofol anesthesia. Drug: propofol Induction with propofol (1.5 to 2mg/kg) and maintenance of ... Propofol and Perioperative Inflammation. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... as well as the solvent of propofol 1% (Intralipid 10%; corresponding to a target-controlled infusion of propofol with ... Propofol and/or Its Solvent Modify the Course of Inflammatory Response After Surgical Stress: A Randomized, Controlled, Double- ...
Propofol, a powerful anesthetic typically used in operating rooms, and the tranquilizer lorazepam (Ativan) were identified as " ... A statement from the coroners office said the cause of death was established as "acute propofol intoxication" aggravated by " ... Jackson Autopsy Fingers Propofol, Lorazepam as Cause of Death. Published: Aug 28, 2009 ...
Medical Board has gone ahead and barred Michael Jacksons former physician from administering heavy sedatives like Propofol to ...
Ten bottles of Propofol were found in Jacksons home.. Propofol and Teva, which is headquartered in Israel, have had a rocky. ... The worldwide scorn directed at those closest to Michael Jackson in his final days may have extended to the drug Propofol and ... Propofol in 2009 after 41 patients fell ill with flu-like symptoms.. That fueled several of the lawsuits. ... You are here: Home / News / Michael Jacksons Ghost Spooks Propofol Maker Teva ...
... means the sales value of Propofol This report studies Propofol in Global market, especially in Nor ... 3.2 Propofol Product Type, Application and Specification. 3.2.1 Type I. 3.2.2 Type II. 3.3 B.Braun Melsungen AG Propofol ... 2.2 Propofol Product Type, Application and Specification. 2.2.1 Type I. 2.2.2 Type II. 2.3 Fresenius Kabi Propofol Capacity, ... 5.2 Propofol Product Type, Application and Specification. 5.2.1 Type I. 5.2.2 Type II. 5.3 Xian Libang Propofol Capacity, ...
If Michael Jackson died from lethal levels of the powerful anesthetic propofol, then he must have been injected with much more ... Propofol dosage reported in Michael Jackson case is low, experts say. Dr. Conrad Murray told police he injected 25 milligrams ... Conrad Murray told police that he had been giving Jackson 50 milligrams of propofol each night for six weeks. In a three-hour ... The medical experts said that if the propofol dosage were higher and combined with other medications, it could have led to an ...
  • Propofol , marketed as Diprivan , among other names, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and a lack of memory for events . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cherilyn Lee said Jackson told her that Diprivan - a brand name for propofol - was the only thing that would knock him out and induce the sleep he needed. (modernghana.com)
  • FDA issues warning on propofol (Diprivan). (cmaj.ca)
  • Diprivan [propofol]. (cmaj.ca)
  • The warrant read: "The Los Angeles Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner, Dr. Sathyavagiswaran, indicated that he had reviewed the preliminary toxicology results and his preliminary assessment of Jackson's cause of death was due to lethal levels of Propofol (Diprivan). (postchronicle.com)
  • The Warnings section of the drug's package insert (Diprivan®, AstraZeneca 08/05, accessed 1-09) states that propofol used for sedation or anesthesia "should be administered only by persons trained in the administration of general anesthesia and not involved in the conduct of the surgical/diagnostic procedure. (asahq.org)
  • Anyone have any experiences with Propofol (diprivan) sedation during colonoscopy? (healingwell.com)
  • Although the powerful sedative propofol (Diprivan) was implicated in singer Michael Jackson's death in June, administration of the drug by a nonanesthesiologist is safe in trained hands, four major gastroenterology and hepatology societies asserted today. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In fact, at its October meeting, the American Society of Anesthesiologists reiterated its long held position, in a statement that the group "unequivocally maintains that Diprivan, or its generic name propofol, is a drug meant only for use in a medical setting by professionals trained in the provision of general anesthesia. (medpagetoday.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about propofol (Diprivan, Propoven)? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • How is propofol given (Diprivan, Propoven)? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • What should I avoid after receiving propofol (Diprivan, Propoven)? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Assessment report for Diprivan (propofol) (downloaded 2011-05-24). (janusinfo.se)
  • Propofol, whose trade name is Diprivan, is commonly used to sedate people undergoing colonoscopies, and leaves patients feeling well-rested when they wake up, experts say. (cnn.com)
  • What is Propofol (Diprivan) used for? (everydayhealth.com)
  • Can I take Propofol (Diprivan) if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (everydayhealth.com)
  • Use Propofol (Diprivan) exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Propofol (Diprivan) is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic agent. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Also known as Diprivan, Propofol is a general anesthesia used for surgery. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Propofol is the generic form of Diprivan and is administered by. (addictionsearch.com)
  • The effect of propofol on headaches more than a few days after the intervention has not been explored. (hindawi.com)
  • An extended cardiac arrest with 15 randomized piglets was studied to assess the effect of propofol or its solvent intralipid as the control group. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results emphasize the importance of recurrent corticocortical communication in the maintenance of consciousness and suggest a direct effect of propofol on cortical dynamics. (jneurosci.org)
  • Common side effects of propofol include an irregular heart rate , low blood pressure , a burning sensation at the site of injection and the cessation of breathing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects of propofol include pain at the injection site, hypotension , hypertension , nausea , cough , tingling sensation, and itching Rare side effects include arrhythmia , convulsion , and cardiac arrest . (britannica.com)
  • such interactions can increase the anesthetic and sedative effects of propofol, producing potentially dangerous effects, such as cardiorespiratory depression and slowing of heart rate. (britannica.com)
  • Your breathing, blood pressure, oxygen levels, kidney function, and other vital signs will be watched closely while you are under the effects of propofol. (cigna.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of propofol? (cigna.com)
  • These effects of propofol promote regeneration following sciatic nerve injury. (medindia.net)
  • This study determined acute and long-term effects of propofol administration in patients with severe headaches undergoing endoscopic procedures. (hindawi.com)
  • Effects of propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent that exerts potent antioxidant properties, were investigated in an experimental model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (diva-portal.org)
  • To investigate the effects of anesthetics on neurocognition, we compared the effects of propofol versus sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation and cognitive outcome in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation undergoing general anesthesia. (dovepress.com)
  • The sedative propofol, thought to be a factor in Michael Jackson's death, can make a 10-minute nap feel like a good night's sleep. (wsj.com)
  • The report said citing multiple law enforcement sources, two kinds of drugs, the anesthetic Propofol the pop star used to sleep and the alprazolam, known as Xanax used to treat anxiety were found in Michael Jackson's system. (ibtimes.com)
  • According to White, the fact that there was no infusion set-up found at Jackson's home makes the infusion theory highly likely, and the prospect of infusion is inconsistent with the level of propofol found in the singer's body during his autopsy. (reuters.com)
  • White also contended it was unlikely that the propofol had been infused via a bottle of the drug suspended inside a slit saline bag, such as the set-up that was found in Jackson's bedroom. (reuters.com)
  • Prosecutors contend Murray is criminally liable for Jackson's June 25, 2009 death because he recklessly administered the propofol, a potent surgical anesthetic drug, and was negligent in properly monitoring Jackson. (reuters.com)
  • The defense was trying to illustrate that withdrawal from the Demerol could have caused Jackson's insomnia, leading Murray to treat it with propofol. (reuters.com)
  • Propofol, a powerful anesthetic typically used in operating rooms, and the tranquilizer lorazepam (Ativan) were identified as "the primary drugs responsible for Mr. Jackson's death. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Teva Pharmaceuticals maintains it already discontinued the hypnotic drug-not because of Jackson's death, but because Propofol was hard to manufacture, the company got little or no profit from it and there were pending lawsuits tied to it. (ocweekly.com)
  • Ten bottles of Propofol were found in Jackson's home. (ocweekly.com)
  • In a three-hour interview with police two days after Jackson's death, Murray said he had been trying to wean the singer off the anesthetic and, on the day of his death, gave him a combination of other sedatives before succumbing to Jackson's demands for propofol. (latimes.com)
  • The preliminary toxicology reports cited in the court records said that "lethal levels" of propofol were found in Jackson's blood. (latimes.com)
  • Meanwhile, authorities are focused on propofol as a central element in Jackson's death at age 50. (pravda.ru)
  • On June 23, two days before Jackson's death, he administered those two medications and withheld the propofol. (latimes.com)
  • Between March and April 2009, Murray said he called Las Vegas doctor David Adams at Jackson's request to arrange for Adams to administer propofol. (latimes.com)
  • Dr. Steven Shafer's testimony Wednesday in Dr. Conrad Murray's involuntary manslaughter trial included a video re-enactment of the proper administration of propofol, the drug cited in a coroner's report on Jackson's death. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Toxicological testing done by the coroner's office determined that Jackson's death was caused by acute propofol intoxication, with 'benzodiazepene effect'' as a contributing condition, a deputy medical examiner testified last week. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • A propofol overdose, leading to respiratory depression and cardiac arrest, and aggravated by benzodiazepines and other drugs, caused Michael Jackson's death on June 25, his autopsy found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • With the opening of the trial for Michael Jackson's doctor Conrad Murray , we'll be hearing the word 'propofol' a lot again. (cnn.com)
  • Prosecutors have accused Murray of taking part in Jackson's overdose of propofol, alleging that Murray gave the pop icon a makeshift intravenous drip to administer the drug, intended to help Jackson sleep. (cnn.com)
  • [13] One of the reasons propofol is thought to be more effective (although it has a longer half-life than lorazepam) is because studies have found that benzodiazepines like midazolam and lorazepam tend to accumulate in critically ill patients, prolonging sedation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with anesthesiologist-administered sedation, sedation was deeper, a combination of sedative medication (propofol, midazolam and/or ketamine) was administered significantly more often, and sedative doses were significantly higher compared with patients receiving NAPS or EDS. (nih.gov)
  • In the days leading up to the star's death, Murray claims he started giving him the sedatives Lorazepam and Midazolam instead of Propofol to help him sleep. (postchronicle.com)
  • Chernoff did not deny Murray had given Michael Valium, Lorazepam, Midazolam and Propofol on the morning the singer died. (postchronicle.com)
  • He also told detectives he was worried that Michael was forming an addiction to Propofol, and tried to wean him off of it by lowering the dose from 50 milligrams to 25 and adding other sedatives, lorazepam and midazolam. (okmagazine.com)
  • A University of Utah study shows for the first time that continuous infusion benzodiazepines - a class of sedatives that includes lorazepam and midazolam, once considered the standard of care in the ICU - are linked to an increased likelihood of death among patients who receive mechanical ventilation, when compared to the sedative propofol. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that overall ICU mortality was 19.7 percent in propofol treated patients as compared to 28.8 percent in midazolam treated patients, and 19.3 percent for propofol compared to 25.2 percent for lorazepam treated patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, reviewed in AJRCCM by Timothy Girard, M.D., and Benjamin Ferrell, M.D., of Vanderbilt University, notes that "theirs [Lonardo and colleagues] is the first study to also suggest that sedation with propofol rather than midazolam or lorazepam might reduce short-term mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Conrad Murray 's new lawyer claims he's the best of the best when it comes to cases involving Propofol and death -- and dude has the track record to prove it. (tmz.com)
  • During the involuntary manslaughter trial of Dr. Conrad Murray on Friday, anesthesiologist Dr. Paul White testified for the defense that it's most likely Michael Jackson self-administered the dose of propofol that killed him on June 25, 2009. (reuters.com)
  • Dr. Paul White said he believes after Michael Jackson was given a dose of propofol by Conrad Murray in the early morning hours of the day he died that the pop star took lorazepam pills on his own later that morning. (reuters.com)
  • Although a judge has yet to make the decision to officially pull Dr. Conrad Murray 's medical license, the Texas Medical Board has gone ahead and barred Michael Jackson 's former physician from administering heavy sedatives like Propofol to any patients. (okmagazine.com)
  • According to court records unsealed in Houston on Monday, Dr. Conrad Murray told police that he had been giving Jackson 50 milligrams of propofol each night for six weeks. (latimes.com)
  • Dr Conrad Murray bought the anaesthetic propofol from Applied Pharmacy Services on May 12 and administered doses from that purchase to Jackson in the hours before his June 25 death, the source said. (pravda.ru)
  • As RadarOnline.com previously reported , Dr. Conrad Murray's defense team commissioned a study on Beagle dogs to determine how much Propofol would have to be orally ingested to cause Michael Jackson's death. (radaronline.com)
  • What in the world was MJ doing with Propofol and why was Conrad Murray injecting him with that? (mjjcommunity.com)
  • Was MJ doing Propofol before Conrad Murray came into the scene? (mjjcommunity.com)
  • Eighty-seven adult patients undergoing hand surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive 1.6 μg/ml of the target effect site concentration of propofol (P group) and infusion of 0.4 μg/kg/h dexmedetomidine following a loading dose of 1.0 μg/kg for 10 min (D group). (medscape.com)
  • In patients with more severe soy or egg allergy, some experts recommend the use of an alternative anesthetic or a small trial dose of propofol prior to full dose administration (Sicherer 2020). (drugs.com)
  • Since propofol is given by a healthcare professional in a medical setting, you are not likely to miss a dose. (cigna.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of valproate on the required dose of propofol for sedation in patients with mental retardation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, it is very difficult to titrate the dose of propofol for maintaining the adequate sedation depth because of the difficulty of verbal communication with them. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Therefore, we divide the patients into two groups : patients receiving valproate (valproate group), patients receiving no antiepileptic drugs (control group), and compare the required dose of propofol and the recovery time. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • some literature follows a propofol-lidocaine mixture infusion, again using low-dose lidocaine. (allnurses.com)
  • Electroconvulsive therapy pre-treatment with low dose propofol: comparison with unmodified treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Whilst unmodified ECT should never be used when modified ECT under anesthesia is available, we have found low dose propofol can be safely administered by the ECT psychiatrist to sedate patients pre-treatment who would otherwise receive completely unmodified treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Murray is accused of administering the fatal dose of propofol, a drug usually used in a surgical setting, then failing to properly monitor his superstar patient. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Authorities contend Jackson died after Murray gave him a lethal dose of propofol and other sedatives in the bedroom then delayed calling 911 while he collected and bagged medications. (today.com)
  • The dose of propofol used depends on why the medication is being given. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Using charts, diagrams and no small number of visual props, White sought to shoot down Shafer's contention that Murray had given Jackson a 1,000-milliliter infusion of propofol. (reuters.com)
  • I was somewhat perplexed at how a determination has been made that Dr. Murray was infusing propofol,' White (pictured) said on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • Among Shafer's conclusions was that Murray had used an IV to deliver propofol to Jackson, and when the singer stopped breathing during the IV drip, Murray failed to notice. (reuters.com)
  • Murray then gave Jackson 25 milligrams of propofol, according to the documents. (latimes.com)
  • Drug Enforcement Administration agents and police served a search warrant Tuesday and took evidence showing Murray legally bought the propofol from the store, said the official, who requested anonymity because the investigation is ongoing , The Associated Press reports. (pravda.ru)
  • Murray claims he had been treating the singer for insomnia for six weeks before he died, administering 50 milligrams of Propofol every night intravenously. (postchronicle.com)
  • At 10.40am an exhausted Murray claims he finally gave Michael Propofol, which finally put the star to sleep. (postchronicle.com)
  • Murray also told detectives he was not the first doctor to give Michael Propofol, but claims the singer refused to tell him which other physicians were treating him and what drugs they were prescribing. (postchronicle.com)
  • On the morning Michael passed away, Dr. Murray attempted to help him sleep without propofol, according to the affidavit. (okmagazine.com)
  • While Dr. Murray admitted to police that he administered the propofol, authorities could not find evidence that he had purchased, ordered or obtained the medication under his medical license or Drug Enforcement Administration tracking number. (okmagazine.com)
  • Police detectives did see around eight bottles of propofol in the house along with other vials and pills that had been prescribed to Michael by Dr. Murray, Dr. Arnold Klein and Dr. Allan Metzger. (okmagazine.com)
  • Dr. Murray also had propofol in his medical bag, and claimed he wasn't the first doctor to give it to Michael. (okmagazine.com)
  • On the morning Jackson died, Murray tried to induce sleep without using propofol, according to the affidavit. (latimes.com)
  • Murray administered 25 milligrams of propofol after Jackson repeatedly demanded the drug, according to the court records. (latimes.com)
  • Murray said he was present at a cosmetologist's office, where Adams used propofol to sedate Jackson. (latimes.com)
  • Murray has already acknowledged obtaining and administering propofol to Jackson the morning that the pop star died. (latimes.com)
  • During the trial's first week, a medical equipment executive said Murray lacked the proper monitoring equipment for the administration of propofol. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Fleak was told to search the room after police detectives interviewed Murray and he disclosed that he gave the singer propofol injections and several other medications before the singer's death, court records state. (today.com)
  • Authorities have said in court documents they believe Murray was having shipments of propofol and other medications used by Jackson sent to Alvarez. (today.com)
  • ACTH and β-endorphin levels increased significantly during haemorrhage under propofol and pentobarbitone anaesthesia but not with alphaxalone-alphadolone. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Dr John B Glen , the man who discovered and developed propofol, will provide information on the methods that are used to identify propofol as a useful agent, problems in obtaining a suitable formulation, and the development of equipment and techniques for maintenance of anaesthesia with propofol. (rsm.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, propofol anaesthesia is advantageous in ultra rapid opiate detoxification (Kienbaum et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Is intravenous, (directly into a vein), lidocaine injection effective in reducing the pain caused by the injection of propofol, given to induce anaesthesia in adults undergoing general anaesthesia? (cochrane.org)
  • Propofol is an anaesthetic drug (an induction agent) which is given to induce and maintain anaesthesia in adults undergoing surgery. (cochrane.org)
  • Propofol is also used to sedate individuals who are receiving mechanical ventilation but are not undergoing surgery, such as patients in the intensive care unit . (wikipedia.org)
  • Propofol , anesthetic drug used to induce and maintain general anesthesia and to sedate patients for certain medical procedures. (britannica.com)
  • They will sedate me with IV propofol, and the anesthesiologist stays in the room to monitor my breathing and heart rate. (healingwell.com)
  • Propofol is also used to sedate a patient who is under critical care and needs a mechanical ventilator (breathing machine). (cigna.com)
  • Reason for posting: Propofol - an anesthetic agent 1 - may cause life-threatening adverse events when used to sedate critically ill children. (cmaj.ca)
  • Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Imperial College London have identified the site where the widely used anesthetic drug propofol binds to receptors in the brain to sedate patients during surgery. (painweek.org)
  • Dexmedetomidine administration significantly reduced the requirement for both propofol and remifentanil during anesthetic induction and reduced propofol use during maintenance of anesthesia. (lww.com)
  • A rapid, but short-acting, intravenous drug called propofol is preferentially used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. (medindia.net)
  • You do realise propofol is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia? (drugs-forum.com)
  • The present study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying EEG spectral power changes observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Los Angeles County coroner ruled Michael Jackson died of 'acute propofol intoxication,' and that sedatives were also a factor. (reuters.com)
  • A statement from the coroner's office said the cause of death was established as "acute propofol intoxication" aggravated by "acute benzodiazepine effect. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Los Angeles County coroner ruled that the pop superstar died on June 25, 2009 from 'acute propofol intoxication. (cnn.com)
  • The drug: Propofol is a chemically distinct hypnotic agent administered intravenously for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia or for sedation in both adults and children. (cmaj.ca)
  • Propofol is adiministered intravenously and has a comfortable side effect profile. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propofol is given intravenously (through a vein) by an anesthetist (a doctor who specializes anesthesia). (medbroadcast.com)
  • Risks from the nonmedical use of Propofol were greatly exposed when the Los Angeles County coroner concluded in August 2009 that the King of Pop died from a mixture of Propofol-nicknamed "Milk of Amnesia"-and the benzodiazepine drug Lorazepam. (ocweekly.com)
  • But propofol appeared to have some advantages over standard sedation with a narcotic and a benzodiazepine, Cohen's group wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Pop star Michael Jackson died from a mixture of propofol and the benzodiazepine drugs lorazepam on top of diazepam ingested earlier. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Michael Jackson had taken a lethal amount of the anesthetic propofol and Xanax , according to the toxicology report, the TMZ.com reported Friday. (ibtimes.com)
  • If Michael Jackson died from lethal levels of the powerful anesthetic propofol, then he must have been injected with much more of the drug than his personal physician reportedly told police he gave the pop star, medical experts said. (latimes.com)
  • The Los Angeles County coroner's report found the 'King of Pop' died of a cardiac arrest on June 25 caused by a cocktail of drugs - including lethal levels of the powerful anaesthetic Propofol - he had been administered to help him sleep. (postchronicle.com)
  • According to a L.A. County coroner search warrant affidavit unsealed today in Houston, officials found lethal levels of the powerful anesthetic propofol after examining Michael Jackson 's body, the L.A. Times is reporting . (okmagazine.com)
  • Michael Jackson died of 'lethal levels' of the powerful anesthetic propofol, according to a search warrant affidavit unsealed today in Houston. (latimes.com)
  • With subsequent reformulation of propofol into an oil-based emulsion , giving it a milky appearance, this challenge was overcome, and propofol gained widespread use as a key anesthetic agent. (britannica.com)
  • M. Hynynen, K. Korttila and T. Tammisto, "Pain on IV Injection of Propofol (ICI 35868) in Emulsion Formulation. (scirp.org)
  • Each mL of white, oil in water emulsion contains 10 mg propofol for IV administration. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Various measures have been taken to reduce the pain on injection, e.g. administration of lidocaine or fentanyl prior to propofol administration, mixture of lidocaine and propofol as well as cooling of the emulsion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hospira, Inc. has announced a nationwide recall of seven lots of Propofol Injectable Emulsion, USP, due to a glass defect located on the interior neck of the vial, which was identified during a sample inspection where the glass vial contained visible embedded metal particulate. (aaoms.org)
  • I'm scheduled to have an upper GI endoscopy next week, and the practice performing the procedure uses propofol for deep sedation administered venously by an anesthesiologist. (healingwell.com)
  • We employed a nonrandomized, prospective observational study that recruited patients with chronic headaches who received propofol from an outpatient endoscopy center for either upper or lower endoscopies. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, the patients' response to propofol two days after endoscopy was assessed via phone. (hindawi.com)
  • The gastroenterologists statement said the group conducted a systematic review and found more than 460,000 published endoscopy cases in which propofol was administered by a nonanesthesiologist -- typically a nurse. (medpagetoday.com)
  • We are a free standing Endoscopy Center and we also keep the propofol under lock and key as we do with all drugs in our facility. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • Propofol is a short-acting, lipophilic intravenous general anesthetic. (drugs.com)
  • O. Eriksson, P. Pollesello and E. N. Saris, "Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria by the General Anesthetic Propofol," Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1992, pp. 391-393. (scirp.org)
  • They allege that they became infected with hepatitis C because Teva only sold so-called 'jumbo' vials of the general anesthetic drug propofol to colonoscopy clinics. (lexisnexis.com)
  • This trial investigates the relationship between concentrations of the anesthetic drug propofol in exhaled breath and blood in patients undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A cardiologist testified last week that Murray's treatment of Jackson, especially the administration of the powerful anesthetic propofol, before the superstar's death deviated from general standards. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • However, complexity has been defined in many ways by multiple different fields: here, we investigate measures of algorithmic and process complexity in both the temporal and topological domains, testing them on functional MRI BOLD signal data obtained from individuals undergoing various levels of sedation with the anaesthetic agent propofol, replicating our results in two separate datasets. (nature.com)
  • Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the effect of 3 common research-only anaesthetic agents (alphaxalone-alphadolone, propofol, and pentobarbitone) on ACTH and β-endorphin levels during haemorrhage was assessed in pigs. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Propofol is an ultrashort acting, general intravenous anaesthetic (Barr 1995) with growing off-label usage, e.g. for treatment of refractory delirium tremens (McCowan & Marik 2000) or some types of refractory headache (Krusz, Scott & Belanger 2000). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We read with interest the article by Clarke et al 1 and the accompanying editorial by Knoblanche, 2 and are concerned that they may be interpreted as endorsing the use of the anaesthetic agent propofol in sedation techniques by personnel inadequately trained in anaesthetic techniques. (mja.com.au)
  • The recorded primary endpoints included: the total amount of propofol administered during entire procedure, the supplemental amount of propofol after induction, and the frequencies of boluses of supplemental propofol. (medscape.com)
  • Propofol is a hypnotic drug commonly used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propofol will be measured in breath gas continuously from the induction of anesthesia until recovery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pain on injection is a most frequently reported side effect associated with the use of propofol for induction of anesthesia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propofol is a popular induction agent because it provides a smooth induction and faster recovery than other drugs such as thiopental. (cochrane.org)
  • It has largely replaced sodium thiopental (Pentothal) for induction of anesthesia, because recovery from propofol is more rapid and clear when compared with thiopental. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The motivation for abuse of propofol is generally for its sedative and relaxing properties and induction of euphoric effects, according the DEA. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • [13] Propofol is relatively inexpensive compared to medications of similar use due to shorter ICU stay length. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical experts said that if the propofol dosage were higher and combined with other medications, it could have led to an overdose. (latimes.com)
  • Due to the potential for rapid, profound changes in sedative/anesthetic depth and the lack of antagonist medications, agents such as propofol require special attention. (asahq.org)
  • To induce general anesthesia, propofol is the drug used nearly 100% of the time, [12] and for maintenance of general anesthesia (in some cases), having largely replaced sodium thiopental . (wikipedia.org)
  • The worldwide scorn directed at those closest to Michael Jackson in his final days may have extended to the drug Propofol and its Irvine-based maker, which announced it is laying off 200 employees this year after having already let go 70 workers. (ocweekly.com)
  • What to do: The propofol syndrome has occurred in critically ill children receiving the drug for sedation. (cmaj.ca)
  • In May 2010, Teva said it discontinued marketing propofol, saying the generic drug was not profitable. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Glen screened compounds from ICI's library in mice and came across propofol, which didn't accumulate in the body like other anesthetics did, allowing the drug to wear off quickly without causing lingering grogginess and other side effects. (xconomy.com)
  • PETA asserts that if attorneys from Flanagan, Unger, Grover & McCool did commission the tests for the drug propofol - the toxic effects of which have been extensively studied in dogs and humans - those tests were likely conducted in violation of the federal Animal Welfare Act's prohibition against tests on animals that duplicate previous experiments. (radaronline.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has officially moved propofol injections from the list of drugs currently in shortage to the list of resolved drug shortages. (asahq.org)
  • Some state nursing boards specifically exclude propofol administration by nurses, but trained nurses in those jurisdictions should still be able to monitor patients after the endoscopist starts the drug, Cohen said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Propofol has been added to Schedule IV, which means that providers will be required to store the drugs securely, and keep detailed records of who accesses the drugs, as well as the administration and disposal of the drug. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • Propofol should be administered only by people trained in giving general anesthesia, and who are not involved in the conduct of the surgery or diagnostic procedure, according to the The U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (cnn.com)
  • Propofol is a commonly used anesthetic drug for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), as evidenced by the frequency with which its use is reported in ECT literature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the beginning of his daily propofol consumption he remembered a voluntary drug holiday lasting two weeks which was associated with mild anxiety, lack of concentration, increasing sleeplessness and a strong desire for propofol before relapsing. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The vet would be asked to give a pig Propofol, in hopes of proving that the powerful anesthetic drug that felled MJ can be ingested, not just injected. (thehollywoodgossip.com)
  • Propofol is the same sedative that is at the center of the manslaughter trial of pop star Michael Jackson, who allegedly was administered the drug shortly before his death. (reuters.com)
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries ($TEVA) failed to persuade a Nevada jury its propofol drug wasn't responsible for a 2008 hepatitis C outbreak. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The AVMA has contacted the DEA regarding the placement of propofol under the Schedule IV drug class. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • The American Veterinary Medical Association reported today that it sent a letter to the Drug Enforcement Agency offering guidance on the DEA's proposal of designating propofol as a Schedule IV drug under the Controlled Substances Act. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • While we understand the importance of controlling the use of any drug with high abuse potential, we also have concerns that adding propofol as a Schedule IV controlled substance may result in decreased use of this important anesthetic by some veterinarians because of the burdens associated with registration, record keeping and, especially, waste disposal in accordance with DEA rules," Ron DeHaven, DVM, CEO of the AVMA, said in the letter. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • According to the DEA, the current abuse profiles of propofol indicate that it is abused by medical professionals since they have access to the drug in medical facilities which perform anesthesia. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Propofol may go down in history as being the drug that killed Michael Jackson, but it is also devastating the lives of other, ordinary people. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Propofol is not currently a controlled substance, but the Drug Enforcement Administration has proposed that it be added to the list as a schedule IV substance. (recoveryranch.com)
  • As with any drug, abusing Propofol carries some serious risks. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Propofol addiction is also a possible risk when someone abuses the drug. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Abusing any drug is risky and serious, but Propofol has a higher overdose rate than many other prescription drugs. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Propofol is an anesthetic drug that's administered to patients undergoing surgery and other medical procedures because the medication promotes sedation, sleep and loss of consciousness. (addictionsearch.com)
  • In critically ill patients, propofol is superior to lorazepam both in effectiveness and overall cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propofol for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in patients with Brugada syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Based on the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting, propofol is effective and may be considered for postoperative nausea and vomiting rescue therapy in patients still in the post anesthesia care unit [SAA [Gan 2014]] . (drugs.com)
  • This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the addition of intravenous lidocaine to propofol-based sedation could decrease the overall propofol requirement in elderly patients during colonoscopy while the procedural sedation satisfaction and the hemodynamic stability were not compromised. (medscape.com)
  • Ninety-two patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomly enrolled into lidocaine+propofol (L + P) group or normal saline+propofol (NS + P) groups. (medscape.com)
  • Anesthesia was induced with 2.5 μg sufentanil followed by injection of 1.2 mg kg − 1 propofol in all patients. (medscape.com)
  • The primary aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate whether capnographic monitoring without tracheal intubation reduces hypoxemia during propofol-based sedation in patients undergoing colonoscopy. (nih.gov)
  • In patients undergoing colonoscopy during propofol-based sedation capnography monitoring with a simple and inexpensive device reduced the incidence of hypoxemia. (nih.gov)
  • The company previously halted production and recalled some Propofol in 2009 after 41 patients fell ill with flu-like symptoms. (ocweekly.com)
  • The intravenous sedation with propofol is very useful for patients with mental retardation and challenging behavior. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subsequently termed "propofol syndrome," sporadic cases were described in the literature, including a report in 1998 of 18 critically ill pediatric patients who experienced bradycardia, asystole, severe metabolic acidosis, lipemia, hepatomegaly and rhabdomyolysis. (cmaj.ca)
  • They allege that when propofol was used for multiple patients, the vials became contaminated if one of the first patients was infected with the hepatitis C virus. (lexisnexis.com)
  • Patients recover fast after propofol anesthesia and are less likely to suffer from post-operative nausea and vomiting compared to general anesthesia with inhalational anesthetics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, titration of propofol can be challenging and patients may suffer from over- or underdosing during propofol anesthesia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Yet, it is unclear how propofol concentrations vary among patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will receive intravenous anesthesia with propofol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Even if moderate sedation is intended, patients receiving propofol should receive care consistent with that required for deep sedation . (asahq.org)
  • However, when this is not possible, non-anesthesia personnel who administer propofol should be qualified to rescue* patients whose level of sedation becomes deeper than initially intended and who enter, if briefly, a state of general anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • During the administration of propofol, patients should be monitored without interruption to assess level of consciousness, and to identify early signs of hypotension, bradycardia, apnea, airway obstruction and/or oxygen desaturation. (asahq.org)
  • There are different considerations when propofol is used for sedation of intubated, ventilated patients in a critical care setting. (asahq.org)
  • Intravenous propofol was prescribed (10 mg every 5 min) for eight patients with intractable migraine headaches visiting the Emergency Department. (nih.gov)
  • This study found that within the data from the 104 intensive care units analyzed, there were nearly three times as many patients treated with propofol as compared to benzodiazepines. (eurekalert.org)
  • Forty-nine patients received propofol pre-treatment and 50 patients received unmodified treatment as usual. (nih.gov)
  • Propofol patients were less likely to experience post-ictal delirium monitored by the CAM-ICU (p = 0.015) and had fewer cognitive side-effects on the MMSE (p = 0.004). (nih.gov)
  • Explain to interested patients that propofol administration by a nonanesthesiologist for sedation during GI procedures represents an off-label use. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Reuters) - A Nevada jury ordered a Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd unit and two other healthcare companies to pay $162.5 million in punitive damages to a group of colonoscopy patients who claimed they contracted Hepatitis C from vials of the sedative Propofol, Bloomberg reported on Monday. (reuters.com)
  • The patients accused Teva the world's largest maker of generic drugs, Baxter Healthcare Corp and McKesson Corp of selling Propofol in vials large enough to be reused by doctors. (reuters.com)
  • Based on these results we would expect that out of 1000 patients receiving intravenous propofol, about 384 who did not also receive intravenous lidocaine, would experience moderate to severe pain, compared to only 89 patients who also received intravenous lidocaine. (cochrane.org)
  • Sevoflurane showed similar effects in postoperative neurocognitive function as propofol but could improve cerebral oxygenation in patients with impaired cerebral oxygenation. (dovepress.com)
  • The DEA issued the proposal in late October based on reports it received concerning the increased abuse of propofol and that the abuse potential is comparable to other Schedule IV substances. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Shafer wrote guidelines and warnings that are included with every bottle of propofol. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • A judge didn't allow the investigator to answer that question, but Fleak did say several of the items, including a used bottle of propofol and syringe, were within two feet of the bed. (today.com)
  • The objective of this review was to determine how effective lidocaine was in reducing the high pain levels caused by the injection of propofol. (cochrane.org)
  • We found that the injection of lidocaine into a vein, either mixing lidocaine with propofol or injecting lidocaine before propofol, could effectively reduce the incidence and the high levels of pain associated with the injection of propofol. (cochrane.org)
  • Dr. Scott Engwall, vice chair of anesthesiology at UC Irvine's School of Medicine, said that for an average person without a high tolerance to drugs, 50 milligrams of propofol might be enough to make him or her doze off for five or 10 minutes. (latimes.com)
  • He had been giving Jackson 50 milligrams of propofol every night using an intravenous line, according to the court records. (okmagazine.com)
  • Finally at 10:40 a.m., he gave Michael 25 milligrams of propofol after MJ repeatedly demanded it, according to the court records. (okmagazine.com)
  • The experimental findings indicate that propofol inhibits the inflammatory and immune responses, decreases the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, and reduces apoptosis. (medindia.net)
  • Results indicate that propofol is indeed robustly associated with shorter seizures than other anesthetics but that antidepressant efficacy does not seem to be compromised. (biomedsearch.com)
  • [3] Other serious side effects may include seizures , infections due to improper use, addiction , and propofol infusion syndrome with long-term use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolf A, Weir P, Segar P, Stone J, Shield J. Impaired fatty acid oxidation in propofol infusion syndrome. (cmaj.ca)
  • 7 The 2002 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties states that propofol is indicated for anesthesia in children 3 years of age and older but that it is not recommended for sedation in children under the age of 18 years, either during surgical or diagnostic procedures or in the ICU. (cmaj.ca)
  • To compare the effects of intravenous infusion of ketamine and propofol anesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgery. (dovepress.com)
  • M. H. Lebenbom-Mansour, S. K. Pandit and S. P. Kothary, "Desflurane versus Propofol Anesthesia: A Comparative Analysis in Outpatients," Anesthesia and Analgesia, Vol. 76, 1993, pp. 936-94. (scirp.org)
  • The addition of intravenous lidocaine to propofol-based sedation resulted in a remarked reduction of supplemental propofol in the elderly during colonoscopy. (medscape.com)
  • One method for preventing propofol-induced pain is to give lidocaine either before the propofol injection or mixed in with the propofol. (cochrane.org)
  • The study participants were randomly selected to receive either intravenous lidocaine injection or normal saline (placebo) at the same time as the propofol injection. (cochrane.org)
  • The overall quality of evidence was high with a very large beneficial effect obtained by the administration of lidocaine to reduce painful propofol injections. (cochrane.org)
  • Currently available data from RCTs are sufficient to confirm that both lidocaine admixture and pretreatment were effective in reducing pain on propofol injection. (cochrane.org)
  • Intravenous lidocaine injection has been commonly used to attenuate pain on propofol injection. (cochrane.org)
  • The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy and adverse effects of lidocaine in preventing high-intensity pain on propofol injection. (cochrane.org)
  • We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using intravenous lidocaine injection as an intervention to decrease pain on propofol injection in adults. (cochrane.org)
  • At lower doses, propofol acts as a conscious sedative (or procedural sedative), inducing a semiconscious state. (britannica.com)
  • Smaller doses of Propofol can also be used to put a patient into a state of conscious sedation for outpatient procedures. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Although Propofol can knock you out, small doses are reported to make the user feel euphoric, drunk or high. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Propofol is used to induce and maintain sleep as part of anesthesia during surgery for adults and children 3 years of age and older. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The plaintiffs argued vials of propofol were too large and encouraged repeated use in more than one patient. (fiercepharma.com)
  • This overall complexity was also able to discriminate between levels of sedation and serum concentrations of propofol, supporting the hypothesis that consciousness is related to complexity - independent of how the latter is measured. (nature.com)
  • H. Chang, S. Y. Tsai and T. L. Chen, "Therapeutic Concentrations of Propofol Protects Mouse Macrophages from Nitric Oxide-Induced Cell Death and Apoptosis," Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2002, pp. 477-480. (scirp.org)
  • Monitoring of propofol concentrations in breath gas during anesthesia may help to titrate propofol anesthesia more effectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood samples will be drawn from the start of anesthesia up to 24 h after the end of the anesthesia procedure and assayed for propofol blood concentrations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We will built a pharmacokinetic model from breath and blood measurements in order to describe the variability of propofol breath concentrations among study participants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Propofol concentrations in breath gas will be assessed every 500 ms during the anesthesia procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Before you receive propofol, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions and allergies. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before I receive propofol? (cigna.com)
  • You should not receive propofol if you are allergic to it. (cigna.com)
  • Please note the woman on the table is a model, not an actual patient and does not actually receive propofol. (nbclosangeles.com)
  • If you miss an appointment to receive propofol, contact your doctor as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment. (medbroadcast.com)
  • We evaluated whether administration of intravenous propofol 0.5 mg/kg for sedation by the ECT psychiatrist just prior to otherwise unmodified treatment improved acceptance of and reduced anxiety surrounding the treatment. (nih.gov)
  • What other drugs will affect propofol? (cigna.com)
  • Other drugs may interact with propofol, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (cigna.com)
  • What other ways can you think of to help MJ get a good night sleep beside drugs and propofol? (mjjcommunity.com)
  • ANYTHING is better than propofol and other psychotic drugs. (mjjcommunity.com)
  • Capnographic monitoring of propofol-based sedation during colonoscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Propofol has been called milk of amnesia , because it has a milk appearance of its intravenous preparation. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The records note an 'inconsistent' log of the Propofol dosage. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • So it seems, according to the autopsy report, propofol did kill Michael Jackson. (drfunkenberry.com)
  • The investigators study hypothesis was that propofol might modify the Apo A-I blood levels, and thus, modulate the postoperative inflammatory course. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Study hypothesis: The use of a modified propofol preparation will reduce the incidence of injection pain in the study group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • it seems to be quite an invasive procedure just for propofol. (allnurses.com)
  • Another rejection I just recieved this morning was the propofol was inclusive with another procedure same day? (aapc.com)
  • Staff at the New York clinic where Joan Rivers suffered a heart attack during a routine throat procedure failed to weigh her before sedating her with Propofol - the anesthetic that killed Michael Jackson - a damning new report reveals. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • 50%) or cerebral blood flow/cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([CBF/CMRO 2 ] ≤15%) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomly allocated into propofol group (group P) or sevoflurane group (group S). The clinical parameters and jugular venous bulb blood gas analysis were monitored throughout the surgical procedure. (dovepress.com)
  • Propofol injection [product monograph]. (cmaj.ca)
  • Effective Aug 27, 2012-Propofol added to Controlled Substances list in Alabama by the Alabama State Committee of Public Health. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • Results of biochemical analyses throughout the clinical course of a pediatric patient who experienced propofol syndrome and recovered after hemodialysis suggest that impaired fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria may be responsible for this syndrome. (cmaj.ca)
  • M. Hamd, "The Clinical Pharmacology of Propofol:A Brief Review," Open Journal of Anesthesiology , Vol. 3 No. 8, 2013, pp. 367-373. (scirp.org)
  • Study subjects will undergo general anesthesia with propofol according to the clinical standard protocol practiced at the hospital of the University of Munich. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • John (Iain) Glen was awarded the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award for the discovery of propofol, a powerful and fast-acting anesthetic that is the standard intravenous anesthetic used in the U.S. and around the world. (xconomy.com)
  • Dr John B Glen recommended propofol for clinical development in 1973 but challenges in obtaining a satisfactory formulation delayed its clinical availability until 1986. (rsm.ac.uk)
  • The sedative effects set in and wear off quickly, making propofol an effective agent for inducing mild sedation in outpatient surgeries. (britannica.com)
  • Propofol is particularly dangerous in this way because its sedative effects set in so quickly. (recoveryranch.com)
  • Although propofol and dexmedetomidine have been widely used for monitored anesthesia care, their adverse effects necessitate the search for better methods. (medscape.com)
  • Propofol is also used for procedural sedation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vardi A, Salem Y, Padeh S, Paret G, Barzilay Z. Is propofol safe for procedural sedation in children? (cmaj.ca)
  • Herein, the author reviews the extensive literature for propofol in ECT, focusing on 5 outcome measures: seizure duration, hemodynamics, postanesthesia recovery, cognitive adverse effects, and therapeutic efficacy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All children developed lipaemic serum after starting propofol. (bmj.com)
  • Propofol provides a prominent sedation effect in colonoscopy. (medscape.com)