Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Synaptonemal Complex: The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mitosis Modulators: Agents that affect MITOSIS of CELLS.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).PhosphoproteinsSex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Coprinus: A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.ThionesImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Physarum: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Fertility Agents, Male: Compounds which increase the capacity of the male to induce conception.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.EsterasesApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Mitosis includes four phases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Prophase is the initial phase when spindle fibers ... The cell cycle begins with interphase when the DNA replicates, the cell grows and prepares to enter mitosis. ... During the final phase of mitosis, telophase, the furrow forms an intercellular bridge using mitotic spindle fibers. ...
Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Anaphase Telophase "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". Science Daily. Retrieved 12 June ... Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which ... microtubules formed in prophase have already found and attached themselves to kinetochores in metaphase. In metaphase, the ...
In the upper part a mitosis (prophase) is obvious (orange circle). In addition, a putative stem cell (SC, green oval) is in ...
", "prophase", "metaphase", "anaphase", "telophase", and "interphase". This mirrors the major phases of cell cycle: interphase ... and mitosis. This book introduces one of Bear's favorite themes: reality as a function of observers. In Blood Music, reality ...
It is visible on a chromosome during the prophase of meiosis and mitosis. Giant banded (Polytene) chromosomes resulting from ... The chromomeres are present during leptotene phase of prophase I during meiosis. During zygotene phase of prophase I, the ... during the prophase stage of meiosis. The linear pattern of chromomeres is linked to the arrangement of genes along the ...
Like mitosis, meiosis also has distinct stages called prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. A key difference, however, ... Like mitosis, meiosis is a form of eukaryotic cell division. Meiosis gives rise to four unique daughter cells, each of which ...
This is not to be confused with mitosis. Mitosis also has prophase, but does not ordinarily do pairing of two homologous ... Synapsis takes place during prophase I of meiosis. When homologous chromosomes synapse, their ends are first attached to the ... McKee B (2004). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1677 (1-3): 165-80. ... Revenkova E, Jessberger R (2006). "Shaping meiotic prophase chromosomes: cohesins and synaptonemal complex proteins" (PDF). ...
Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Telophase Anaphase I Anaphase II Cdc20 "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". ... Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes ...
During mitosis, there are four stages of cell division: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. During prophase, two ... An aster is a cellular structure shaped like a star, formed around each centrosome during mitosis in an animal cell. Astral ...
However, since mitosis is the division of the nucleus, prophase is actually the first stage. In interphase, the cell gets ... Mitosis and cytokinesis, however, are separate from interphase. When G2 is completed, the cell enters a relatively brief period ... ISBN 978-0-07-325839-3 Re: Are the cells in the G0 (g zero) phase of mitosis really suspended? Erin Cram, Grad student, ... During this phase, the cell copies its DNA in preparation for mitosis. Interphase is the 'daily living' or metabolic phase of ...
During the prophase of mitosis, the chromatin in a cell compacts to form condensed chromosomes; this condensation is required ... This material was named to be mitosis promoting factor (MPF). The precise mechanism of chromosome condensation, as well as the ... Premature chromosome condensation (PCC), also known as premature mitosis, occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells ...
This will take place during prophase I in meiosis. Growth 2 (G2) phase: G2 phase as seen before mitosis is not present in ... Therefore, meiosis includes the stages of meiosis I (prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I) and meiosis II (prophase ... prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. In prophase II we see the disappearance of the nucleoli and the ... Prophase I is typically the longest phase of meiosis. During prophase I, homologous chromosomes pair and exchange DNA ( ...
... is the phase of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells. In prometaphase, ... Prometaphase is not always presented as a distinct part of mitosis. In sources that do not use the term, the events described ... here are instead assigned to late prophase and early metaphase. The microtubules are composed of two types, kinetochore ...
During the different stages of mitosis, one could see that survivin follows a certain localization pattern. At prophase and ... During prophase, as the chromatin condenses so that it is visible under the microscope, survivin starts to move to the ... It is known that survivin associates with microtubules of the mitotic spindle at the start of mitosis. It has been shown in the ... Mita AC, Mita MM, Nawrocki ST, Giles FJ (August 2008). "Survivin: key regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and novel target for ...
Following interphase, the cell transitions into mitosis, containing four sub stages: prophase, anaphase, metaphase, and ... one spindle assembly checkpoint in mitosis, and a chromosome segregation checkpoint during mitosis. Between G1 and S phase, ... In mitosis, DNA condenses into chromosomes, which are lined up and separated by the mitotic spindle. After duplicate DNA is ... After complete synthesis of its DNA, the cell enters the G2 phase where it continues to grow in preparation for mitosis. ...
In most cells, the disassembly of the nuclear envelope marks the end of the prophase of mitosis. However, this disassembly of ... In closed mitosis, the daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite poles of the nucleus, which then divides in two. The cells of ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ... Steen R, Collas P (2001). "Mistargeting of B-type lamins at the end of mitosis: implications on cell survival and regulation of ...
These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During the process of mitosis the pairs of ... Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer. The process of mitosis ... These phases are sequentially known as: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic ... Because cytokinesis usually occurs in conjunction with mitosis, "mitosis" is often used interchangeably with "M phase". However ...
In early mitosis, it associates with mitotic spindle poles. A recombinant GFP-PLK1 protein localizes to centromere/kinetochore ... Plk1 supports the functional maturation of the centrosome in late G2/early prophase and establishment of the bipolar spindle. ... Plk1 localizes to the central region of the spindle in late mitosis and associates with kinesin-like protein CHO1/MKLP1. The ... Centrosome duplication and maturation regulated by Plk1 occurs from late S phase to prophase. Abnormal centrosome amplification ...
... may refer to: Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) Four of the phases of Mitosis: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, ...
... kinases sequentially assemble onto kinetochores during prophase with hBUBR1 concentrating at the kinetochore plates in mitosis ...
During the prophase in the process of cell division called mitosis, the centrosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell. The ... Centrosomes are associated with the nuclear membrane during the prophase stage of the cell cycle. In mitosis the nuclear ... Centrioles however, are not required for the progression of mitosis. When the centrioles are irradiated by a laser, mitosis ... Although the centrosome has a key role in efficient mitosis in animal cells, it is not essential in certain fly and flatworm ...
... ends with the onset of prophase, the first phase of mitosis in which the cell's chromatin condenses into chromosomes. ... G2 phase, or Gap 2 phase, is the second subphase of Interphase in the cell cycle directly preceding mitosis. It follows the ... G2 phase is a period of rapid cell growth and protein synthesis during which the cell prepares itself for mitosis. Curiously, ... Though much is known about the genetic network which regulates G2 phase and subsequent entry into mitosis, there is still much ...
... and drops dramatically after mitosis. During prophase it localizes as one of the first proteins to the outer kinetochore, a ... Jang YJ, Ji JH, Choi YC, Ryu CJ, Ko SY (Jan 2007). "Regulation of Polo-like kinase 1 by DNA damage in mitosis. Inhibition of ... In turn APC/C, now in complex with Cdh1, also acts on Bub1 by priming it for degradation to exit mitosis. In addition, ... Mitosis Cell Cycle GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169679 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
At entry to mitosis, Sororin is phosphorylated and replaced again by Wapl, leading to loss of cohesion. Sororin also has ... Human Wapl is a Cohesin-Binding Protein that Promotes Sister-Chromatid Resolution in Mitotic Prophase. Curr. Biol. 16, 2406- ... Some studies have suggested that cohesion aids in aligning the kinetochores during mitosis by forcing the kinetochores to face ... Shintomi, K., and Hirano, T. (2009). Releasing cohesin from chromosome arms in early mitosis: opposing actions of Wapl-Pds5 and ...
23] In early mitosis, several motor proteins drive the separation of centrosomes. With the onset of prophase, the motor protein ... that aids in the processes of mitosis. As mitosis occurs, the distance between mother and daughter centriole increases until, ... Initiation of the centrosome cycle occurs early in the cell cycle, so that by the time mitosis occurs there are two centrosomes ... In cycling cells, after mitosis the centrosome loss most of its pericentriolar material (PCM) and its microtubule nucleation ...
mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular component disassembly involved in ... Early in mitosis, MPF phosphorylates specific serine residues in all three nuclear lamins, causing depolymerization of the ...
The structure and distribution of cytoplasmic membranes during mitosis and cytokinesis in maize root tip meristematic cells was ... Thin sections show the nuclear envelope to disassemble at prophase and become indistinguishable from the surrounding ER and ... Low and high voltage electron microscopy of mitosis and cytokinesis in maize roots Planta. 1981 Aug;152(5):397-407. doi: ... The structure and distribution of cytoplasmic membranes during mitosis and cytokinesis in maize root tip meristematic cells was ...
During prophase, the cytoskeleton (composed of cytoplasmic microtubules) begins to disassemble and the main component of the ... Mitosis: Early Prophase. The first phase of mitosis is known as the prophase, where the nuclear chromatin starts to become ... The photomicrograph above depicts the initial chromosome condensation at the beginning of prophase (early prophase) when the ... During prophase, the cytoskeleton (composed of cytoplasmic microtubules) begins to disassemble and the main component of the ...
Late prophase, or prometaphase, begins with the disruption of the nuclear envelope, which is broken down into small membrane ... Mitosis: Late Prophase. Late prophase, or prometaphase, begins with the disruption of the nuclear envelope, which is broken ... continue to condense and gradually shorten and thicken until they have completely formed the units that will undergo mitosis. ...
During prophase of mitosis, nuclear DNA is in which of the following forms? (A) Daughter chromosomes (B) Chromatin (C) ... Prophase of Mitosis. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... The daughter cells are what you get at the end of mitosis. You start off with 1 cell and then they go through mitosis and at ... The daughter cells are what you get at the end of mitosis. You start off with 1 cell and then they go through mitosis and at ...
... mitosis). Mitosis is cell division in which each daughter cell contains the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. The ... Prophase, the first stage, is pictured here. The chromatin granules of the nucleus (centre, round) have become organized into ... Coloured high resolution scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a pollen mother cell of a Tradescantia plant at the prophase ... mitosis). Mitosis is cell division in which each daughter cell contains the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. The ...
View Stock Photo of The Prophase Or Initial Stage Of Mitosis Begins When The Chromosomes Have Condensed. Find premium, high- ... The prophase or initial stage of mitosis begins when the chromosomes have condensed.. TEM X8840 ...
M- Nuclear division (mitosis) • mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase • C -Cytoplasmic division ... Unformatted text preview: • M- Nuclear division (mitosis) • mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase • C - ... Microbiology, Cell Cycle, DNA, Mitosis, Nucleolus, RNA, Cell nucleus, Nuclear Organization * Click to edit the document details ... Following S and leading up to metaphase of mitosis (100X condensation). • Metaphase chromosomes represent the most condensed ...
Guarda Foto stock di The Prophase Or Initial Stage Of Mitosis Begins When The Chromosomes Have Condensed. Cerca foto premium ad ... The prophase or initial stage of mitosis begins when the chromosomes have condensed.. TEM X8840 ...
... mitosis the chromatin materials get condensed by folding and the chromosome appears as thin threads at the begning of prophase ... In prophase of mitosis the chromatin materials get condensed by folding and the chromosome appears as thin threads at the ... How would you define the events of prophase of mitosis?. by Maria (Pakistan) ...
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Mitosis is the reason why human bodies can grow and repair themselves while meiosis is the... ... Mitosis and meiosis are very significant because they are the processes by which cells reproduce themselves. ... Both mitosis and meiosis have similar steps, including prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Meiosis, however, has two ... During mitosis, a parent cell divides itself into two daughters cells that have the same exact DNA. Because of this, mitosis is ...
Prophase, in both mitosis and meiosis, is recognized by the condensing of chromosomes and separation of the centrioles in the ... Prophase is the starting stage of cell division in eukaryotes. ... Prophase occurs in mitosis, and prophase I occurs in the first ... Prophase Definition. Prophase is the starting stage of cell division in eukaryotes. Prophase, in both mitosis and meiosis, is ... Although prophase II is very similar to prophase of mitosis, the complicated actions in prophase I allow sexually reproducing ...
Prophase is one of the first phases of mitosis and it focuses on preparing the spindles, metaphase plate and chromosomes to ... What are the stages of mitosis?. A: The stages of mitosis are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telekinesis. ... What are the phases of mitosis?. A: The phases, or stages, of mitosis include interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, ... During mitosis and meiosis, prophase is the first phase of the division cycle after DNA replication in G and S phases. The main ...
Stages of Mitosis by Katyalynn Bourgeois , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful ... Prophase Chromatin in the nucleus begins to condense and becomes visible in the light microscope as chromosomes. The nucleolus ... The cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing its prepare for mitosis (the next four phases that lead up to and ...
The differences between Mitosis and Meiosis by Ariana Camacho , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for ... Prophase During Mitosis, the duration of prophase is short, usually a few hours. In Meiosis, prophase is longer and may take up ... Prophase During Mitosis, the duration of prophase is short, usually a few hours. In Meiosis, prophase is longer and may take up ... In Mitosis, the two chromatids of a chromosome do not exchange segments during prophase. Meanwhile, in Meiosis, chromatids of ...
In prophase, the longest phase of nuclear division, the mitotic spindle forms. Prophase I of meiosis includes five phases: ... Mitosis and meiosis are each divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. ... Prophase in Mitosis. Prophase occupies over half of mitosis. The nuclear membrane breaks down and forms small vesicles, and the ... Prophase: What Happens in this Stage of Mitosis & Meiosis?. By Kevin Beck; Updated September 24, 2018 ...
The Process of Mitosis. Mitosis can be divided into five distinct stages-prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and ... Prophase. As the cell enters mitosis, its replicated chromosomes begin to condense and become visible as threadlike structures ... Mitosis is now complete, generating two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. In most human cells, mitosis ... 10.6: Mitosis and Cytokinesis In eukaryotic cells, the cells cycle-the division cycle-is divided into distinct, coordinated ...
Prophase[edit]. Main article: Prophase. During prophase, which occurs after G2 interphase, the cell prepares to divide by ... Mitosis[edit]. Preprophase (plant cells)[edit]. Main article: Preprophase. In plant cells only, prophase is preceded by a pre- ... Forms of mitosis[edit]. The mitosis process in the cells of eukaryotic organisms follow a similar pattern, but with variations ... These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During mitosis, the chromosomes, which have ...
Stages of the Cell Cycle - Mitosis (Interphase and Prophase). 2 years ago ... Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis. 6 years ago. Cell division is the process by which biological cells multiply. Learn the ... Why do cells divide? Are mitosis and cell cycle the same thing? What are the stages of the cell cycle? What are the stages of ... Stages of the Cell Cycle - Mitosis (Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase). 2 years ago ...
Mitosis includes four phases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Prophase is the initial phase when spindle fibers ... The cell cycle begins with interphase when the DNA replicates, the cell grows and prepares to enter mitosis. ... During the final phase of mitosis, telophase, the furrow forms an intercellular bridge using mitotic spindle fibers. ...
Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Anaphase Telophase "Chromosome condensation through mitosis". Science Daily. Retrieved 12 June ... Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which ... microtubules formed in prophase have already found and attached themselves to kinetochores in metaphase. In metaphase, the ...
Prophase. Prometaphase. Metaphase. Anaphase. Telophase. Cytokinesis. Chromosomes begin to migrate to cell equator.. 2 complete ... Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical cells. Explain how interphase prepares a cell for mitosis.. Explain why ... Explain the function of each stage of mitosis. Compare the events of mitosis in plant-like and animal-like cells. Why do cells ... Mitosis. The continuity of life. 1 - In order to survive, the individual must replace damaged cells.. 2 - In order to grow, ...
Prophase. Prometaphase. Metaphase. Anaphase. Telophase. Cytokinesis. Chromosomes begin to migrate to cell equator.. 2 complete ... Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical cells. Explain how interphase prepares a cell for mitosis.. Explain why ... Explain the function of each stage of mitosis. Compare the events of mitosis in plant-like and animal-like cells. Why do cells ... Mitosis at a Glance. The Evolution of Mitosis. There are more similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell division ...
In a typical animal cell, mitosis can be divided into four principals stages:. *Prophase: The chromatin, diffuse in interphase ... Mitosis is a process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The ... At the end of prophase, the nuclear envelope breaks down into vesicles.. *Metaphase: The chromosomes align at the equitorial ...
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of ... However, there are important distinctions between prophase of mitosis and prophase of meiosis. The prophase of meiosis ... prophase pro·phase (prōfāz). n. *. The first stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes condense and become visible, the ... prophase of second maturation mitosis, showing dyads and element x. Studies in Spermatogenesis (Part 1 of 2) Nettie Maria ...
  • The structure and distribution of cytoplasmic membranes during mitosis and cytokinesis in maize root tip meristematic cells was investigated by low and high voltage electron microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas there is only one centrosome in a cell which is not undergoing division, when mitosis begins, it replicates into two and each one becomes the center of organization for half of the spindle. (wisegeek.com)