Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Synaptonemal Complex: The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.WingCentral Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
"Proper wound care: How to minimize a scar". American Academy of Dermatology. 2017.. Missing or empty ,url=. (help); ,access- ...
One example is a Sudoku with 3 empty rows, 3 empty columns, and 3 empty boxes (third image).[76][77][irrelevant citation] ... A proper puzzle has a unique solution. See Glossary of Sudoku for other terminology.[2] Solving Sudokus from the viewpoint of a ... Ordinary Sudokus (proper puzzles) have a unique solution. A minimal Sudoku is a Sudoku from which no clue can be removed ... If any clue is removed from either of these Sudokus, the puzzle would have more than one solution (and thus not be a proper ...
"They Made Me Do It, Episode 1011 "Survivalist". Proper Television,. March 3, 2008. Missing or empty ,url= (help) "American ... Missing or empty ,url= (help) "Collective Protection Conference for the Army". Marines, Navy, Air Force. 2004. Missing or empty ... Missing or empty ,url= (help) "About the Author". McCarthy, Walton. "Modern Marvels". "Modern Marvels: Built to Last,Season 17 ... Missing or empty ,url= (help) Donimirska, Monika (November 18, 2016). "NORAD Shelter Systems LLC's Solar-Powered S16x10-CIV - ...
In set theory, singletons are "atoms" that have no (non-empty) proper parts; many consider set theory useless or incoherent ( ... Let there be an object O such that every object that is not a proper part of itself is a proper part of O. Is O a proper part ... An immediate defined predicate is "x is a proper part of y", written PPxy, which holds (i.e., is satisfied, comes out true) if ... The mereological universe consists of all objects we wish to think about, and all of their proper parts:. *Overlap: x and y ...
The Living Tradition Ltd (70). Proper: PROPERFOLK03 Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Ltd. April 1999. Missing or empty , ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) Martin, Judith. Miss Manners on Painfully Proper Weddings. Page 92. Post, Peggy. Etiquette. ... Miss Manners on Painfully Proper Weddings. Page 87. Martin, Judith. Miss Manners on Painfully Proper Weddings. Page 104. Post, ... Miss Manners on Painfully Proper Weddings. Chapter 7. Page 70. Martin, Judith. Miss Manners on Painfully Proper Weddings. ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "Miss Manners" column by Judith Martin, United Features Syndicate, Mar. 17, 2009 "Cover Your ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) Malka, Eli S. (1997). Jacob's Children in the Land of the Mahdi: Jews of the Sudan. Syracuse ... "Khartoum's Jewish Community: A Proper Burial". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2016-10-30. ...
"Gla" for Glastonbury; "wack" for wacky; and "us" as a proper Latin ending. It caught on like magic. Lowell Thomas, a radio ... The search came back empty-handed. The event, however, was memorialized in verse: "Say did the fearless hunters, Pick up the ...
The proper algorithm starts in line 4. This loop will continue searching for an optimal solution until a user-specified ... and initializing an empty tabu list. In this example, the tabu list is simply a short term memory structure that will contain a ... an empty candidate list is initialized. The neighboring solutions are checked for tabu elements in line 6. In line 7 we look ...
Append the closed tabs items as a proper submenu.. The location is empty and focused by default ... Title case and proper packing in bookmark dialog. Delete PO files Launchpad spewed into root directory when it couldn't find po ...
This barricade plug has a draw out pipe fitted at bottom with a V notch for proper decantation and monitoring. This empty stope ... The empty stope is filled with cement fill. Water is drained from the bottom of the stope, and the fill gradually solidifies. ... Decantation is the first step for proper solidification. 8000 m3 of material with maximum head of 50 meter remaining in slurry ...
Racket and Scheme also provide a proper do loop. (define (factorial n) (do ((counter n (- counter 1)) (result 1 (* result ... The body of the do-loop is empty. )) counter = 10 factorial = 2 begin factorial *= counter counter -= 2 end while counter > 1 ...
Send them off to me empty-handed. I send to you as your greeting-gift 3-minas of genuine lapis lazuli, and 5-teams of horses ... Index of Proper Names, Geographical names. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 390. ISBN 0-8018-6715-0. Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992 ...
... insert current element into proper position in non-empty sorted list struct LIST * p = head; while(p != NULL) { if(p->pNext == ... The input items are taken off the list one at a time, and then inserted in the proper place in the sorted list. When the input ... The algorithm starts with an initially empty (and therefore trivially sorted) list. ... build up the sorted array from the empty list */ struct LIST * pSorted = NULL; /* take items off the input list one by one ...
Before a decrement our machine must always ask the question: "Is the tape/counter empty? If so then I can't decrement, ... Melzak allowed for proper subtraction of any count of pebbles and "adds" of any count of pebbles. He defines indirect ... proper-Subtract from accumulator contents of register r, } Augmented RAM, RASP: All of the reduced instructions plus: { ... the others remaining empty (i.e. containing 0) throughout the computation." Shepherdson and Sturgis 1961:219. Lambek 1961:295 ...
Why did they go to your country without proper authority? If you are loyal to me they will not negotiate any business. Send ... them to me empty-handed!" Yet the new Assyrian power could not be denied, and Burnaburiash even married the daughter of the ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) [en.wikipdia.org en.wikipdia.org] Check ,url= value (help). Missing or empty ,title= (help) ... Proper righteousness Rashidun Mahdi for the Islamic concept of righteousness. Righteous Among the Nations Holiness Salvation ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) [wikipedia.com wikipedia.com] Check ,url= value (help). Missing or empty ,title= (help) Craig, ... For Sikhs, the word Dharm means the path of righteousness and proper religious practice. The major Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra ...
Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Abedi, Jamal. "The No Child Left Behind Act and English ... Cultural barriers prevent proper health care access. Many Asian Americans only visit the doctor if there are visible symptoms. ... Lastly, many beliefs bar access to proper medical care. For example, many believe that blood is not replenished, and are ...
For example, on the set of real numbers a property of the relation "≤" is that every non-empty subset S of R with an upper ... A minor modification needs to be made to the concept of the ordered triple (X, Y, G), as normally a proper class cannot be a ... Another solution to this problem is to use a set theory with proper classes, such as NBG or Morse-Kelley set theory, and allow ... A difunctional relation can then be equivalently characterized as a relation R such that wherever x1R and x2R have a non-empty ...
It is neither a proper class (because it is not singleton) nor an element of itself (because it is neither empty nor infinite ... Suppose that { ∅ } {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\{\emptyset \}}} is a proper class. Then by (A4), every proper class is a ... A class is a proper class if and only if it is equinumerous with all proper classes. ∀ X ∀ Y ( ( p r ( X ) ∧ p r ( Y ) ) ↔ ( p ... A proper class is a class that is not a set. Two classes are equinumerous iff a bijection exists between them. A class is ...
... and No non-empty proper subset of S fulfills the first property. A set of candidates that meets the first requirement is also ... A Schwartz set component is any non-empty set S of candidates such that Every candidate inside the set S is pairwise unbeaten ... The Schwartz set is always non-empty-there is always at least one Schwartz set component. Any two distinct Schwartz set ...
I is a maximal ideal, i.e. for any proper ideal J, if I is contained in J then I = J. For every element a of B, I contains ... An order ideal is a (non-empty) directed lower set. If the considered partially ordered set (poset) has binary suprema (a.k.a. ... Ideals are proper if they are not equal to the whole poset. Historically, the first statement relating to later prime ideal ... In this special case, maximal filters (i.e. filters that are not strict subsets of any proper filter) and prime filters (i.e. ...
Every (nonempty) open set is dense in X. The interior of every proper closed set is empty. A space which satisfies any one of ... In mathematics, a hyperconnected space is a topological space X that cannot be written as the union of two proper closed sets ( ... Some authors do not consider the empty set to be irreducible (even though it vacuously satisfies the above conditions). An ... X cannot be written as the union of two proper closed sets. ...
Willow Creek, farther on the east side of the county, empties into Lake Huron. Drift soil composed of a mixture of clay, sand, ... The Water Trail, which is best utilized via sea kayaks by people who have had proper sea kayaking instruction, consists of camp ... The Cass, Pinnebog, Sebewaing, and Pigeon rivers all head toward the center of the county and empty into Saginaw Bay. ... It is easily tilled, holds moisture well, and allows for proper drainage. This also made Huron County popular. Information from ...
This stream is the western border of Oslo proper. To the south-east Lysaker is bordered by the fjord. To the south-west is the ... Lysaker is located where a stream, Lysakerelva, empties into Lysakerfjorden-a branch of the Oslofjorden. ... Lysaker is the easternmost part of Bærum, and borders Oslo proper. Lysaker was initially a farming community, later becoming a ... Oslo proper, and Fornebu Airport. During the 1980s the old, polluted industrial sites and central residential areas became the ...
A opt-suffix-part consists of a suffix, such as "Sr.", "Jr." or a roman-numeral, or an empty string (i.e. nothing). A opt-apt- ... This assumes that no whitespace is necessary for proper interpretation of the rule. represents the appropriate line-end ... Note that "" is the empty string. The original BNF did not use quotes as shown in rule. ... num consists of an apartment number or an empty string (i.e. nothing). Note that many things (such as the format of a first- ...
In 2011, Proper Records released an album by Hot Club of Cowtown titled What Makes Bob Holler: A Tribute To Bob Wills And His ... "Empty Chair at the Christmas Table" 1946 "New Spanish Two Step" 1 Columbia 36966 ...
He did not receive a proper empty casket burial until 61 years later. Macio's story, along with the murder of the two black ... Snipes' family was left with an empty grave and no justice. Minor, Elliot. "Answers Sought in 1946 Ga. Killing". Washington ...
2010). ELE restrains empty glumes from developing into lemmas. J. Genet. Genomics 37: 101-115. ... Once proper amphitelic attachment is established, the spindle pulling force separates the kinase from its outer kinetochore ... The mechanism by which the SAC is modified and its core kinases cooperate to regulate the generation of proper tension across ... Bub1 has been reported to be required for proper chromosome congression during metaphase of human cell and the high fidelity of ...
Our current results demonstrate that HSP70 is required for the accurate assembly of the pericentriolar material and proper ... Cells were also transduced with empty-vector pLKO.1 and pFB-Neo to provide controls for depletion and overexpression of HSP70, ... HSP70 is required for the proper assembly of pericentriolar material and function of mitotic centrosomes. *Chieh-Ting Fang1,2. ... Fang, C., Kuo, H., Hsu, S. et al. HSP70 is required for the proper assembly of pericentriolar material and function of mitotic ...
Proper management of empty follicle syndrome is as follows: Firstly, we use a double lumen needle for the egg collection, and ... How should a doctor manage the crisis of empty follicle syndrome?. Its important to realize that 99 percent of the time empty ... Proper medical response. emptyf 30.01.2018 Treatment A vaginal egg collection is a very routine part of the IVF process. The ... Empty follicle syndrome is detected when no eggs are visible under the microscope. This is unexpected and uncommon; and many ...
The funny thing is while we have parents who suffer from empty nest syndrome, we have those who are suddenly burdened by ... Proper Way to Serve Tea. Staff. April 1, 2015. October 28, 2016. ... Middle Aged Women and the Empty Nest Syndrome. by Staff1819 ... Middle-Aged Women and the Empty Nest Syndrome , Ways of Coping. To lessen the impact of empty nest syndrome, here are some ... Middle-Aged Women and the Empty Nest Syndrome. One question that arises about middle-aged women and the empty nest syndrome is ...
PROPER-CONSP -- recognizer for proper (null-terminated) non-empty lists *. PSEUDO-TERMP -- a predicate for recognizing term- ... TRUE-LIST-LISTP -- recognizer for true (proper) lists of true lists *. TRUE-LISTP -- recognizer for proper (null-terminated) ... CAR -- returns the first element of a non-empty list, else nil. ... LENGTH -- length of a string or proper list *. LET -- binding ...
Contents include: list of main hazards; when to empty and clean; proper sequence for oil draining; cleaning procedures; ... Safety during emptying and cleaning of fryers Accidents during the emptying and cleaning of fryers are a major cause of burns ... This information sheet provides guidance on how to empty and clean fryers safely. ...
Can and should I continue to give Metronidazole on an empty dog stomach?. My dog (2yrs) had diarrhea and was vomiting. I took ... What is proper dosage of Amoxicillin for Pyometra dogs? I need the dosage amount for amoxicillin on a 22 pound dog, 10 years ... I was wondering if we could give her dog Phenergan to help alleviate the vomiting? If so what would be the proper dosage? I was ... My question: can & should I cont to give Metronidazole on an empty stomache? Hes lost his appetite and I worry of giving the ...
feeling sad or empty * feeling unusually cold * flushing * full or bloated feeling or pressure in the stomach ... Proper Use. A nurse or other trained health professional will give you this medicine. You may also be taught how to give your ... It can also lower the number of platelets, which are necessary for proper blood clotting. If this occurs, there are certain ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/azacitidine-subcutaneous-route/proper-use/DRG-20062061 ...
feeling sad or empty * feeling unusually cold * fever * general feeling of discomfort or illness ... Proper Use. Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/tramadol-oral-route/proper-use/drg-20068050 ...
"Proper wound care: How to minimize a scar". American Academy of Dermatology. 2017.. Missing or empty ,url=. (help); ,access- ...
Sadness, anxiety, or feeling empty. *Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ... Its also important to point out that without proper treatment, the symptoms can get worse. ... which are required for proper function of the therapeutic protein. ...
More about Is It Proper to place someone in jail for a seatbelt violation. * Letter And Probation Violations : Are Jail ... Is It Proper to place someone in jail for a seatbelt violation. 1513 Words 7 Pages ... When trying to determine whether or not it is proper to put someone in jail for violating the seat belt law courts must examine ... Is It Proper to place someone in jail for a seatbelt violation ... Is It Proper to place someone in jail for a seatbelt violation ...
One example is a Sudoku with 3 empty rows, 3 empty columns, and 3 empty boxes (third image).[76][77][irrelevant citation] ... A proper puzzle has a unique solution. See Glossary of Sudoku for other terminology.[2] Solving Sudokus from the viewpoint of a ... Ordinary Sudokus (proper puzzles) have a unique solution. A minimal Sudoku is a Sudoku from which no clue can be removed ... If any clue is removed from either of these Sudokus, the puzzle would have more than one solution (and thus not be a proper ...
Money to empty refugee camp toilets has run out. Clintons own foundation, together with UNICEF and USAID, supplied some 11,000 ... Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says. Posted on March 9, 2012 by dietvorst , 1 ... One response to "Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says" * Pingback: Le manque ... The NGOs that distributed the toilets and paid for them to be emptied are now pulling out one by one, leaving overflowing ...
A style-free WordPress theme to get you started with proper HTML5 semantics and structures. - murtaugh/HTML5-Reset-WordPress- ... Empty print and small-screen media queries. *Modernizr.js http://www.modernizr.com/ enables HTML5 compatibility with IE (and a ... A style-free WordPress theme to get you started with proper HTML5 semantics and structures. ...
Is this a proper subset? (ie. a subset but not equal).. Construction. empty :: Set a Source # ... splitRoot empty == []. Note that the current implementation does not return more than three subsets, but you should not depend ...
4. Watch for empty calories. In my office we call them Freebies. Chips, candy, soda, sweets, fast food, fried food, sugary ... 5. Proper hydration. Hydrating has been proven to aid in protein synthesis, fat burning, strength, speed, power, and fatigue ...
Proper supraspinatus technique "EMPTY CAN TEST". • Patient holds arms at shoulder height (90°, making a "V" shape (not directly ...
Leave this empty: YES, I CONSENT. *We do not sell your e-mail address to 3rd parties, we simply forward their offers to you. Of ... Successful Allergy Management Hinges On Awareness, Proper Protocols. As allergies continue to rise, so do treatment options.. ...
... "empty" your stomach, then your chest. This type of breathing is easier to observe and test while lying down, with one hand on ... Proper Breathing Brings Better Health. Stress reduction, insomnia prevention, emotion control, improved attention-certain ...
Proper use of spiramycin. Spiramycin is best taken on an empty stomach. ...
"We need proper biomedical research urgently." The major topic of conversation at todays demo is likely to be the news that CFS ... PICTURE UPDATE: Rows of empty shoes represent hidden sufferers at city centre protest. 4 ... Rows of empty shoes outside the Radcliffe Camera, Oxford will represent Chronic Fatigue Syndrome sufferers at Millions Missing ...
Your Shopping Cart is currently empty. Use Quick Order or Search to quickly add items to your order! ...
  • But today, on our annual N95 Day (09/04/2015), we embrace our dedication to proper respiratory protection practices, shining it with a bit of elbow grease, and displaying it at the very front line of our priorities. (cdc.gov)
  • Whether you are participating today as an N95 user who understands the benefit of learning about your respirator, as a dedicated respiratory protection program manager, or safety manager determined to create a workplace culture that embraces proper respiratory protection practices - we are here to provide you with the tools you need. (cdc.gov)
  • In some instances, proper hand hygiene and even medication preparation practices can suffer when they are under such intense time constraints. (cdc.gov)
  • The product is emptied employing the usual practices. (eponline.com)
  • Although future flare-ups of the disease are possible, the near-empty Ebola centers tell the story of an aggressive American military and civilian response that occurred too late to help the bulk of the more than 8,300 Liberians who became infected. (washingtonpost.com)
  • We're looking for someone who is available part- or full-time over the next few weeks to get things moving around the reuse of empty shops and other spaces in Tower Hamlets . (blogspot.com)
  • How toxin binders work 7 time they can consume huge that banks will re-evaluate some quantities of food waste or allows proper ventilation and of the strict conditions imposed to TOF on the web manure. (scribd.com)
  • We put in proper walls, air conditioning, ventilation and dropped the ceiling. (tapeop.com)
  • Universal Waste ( 40 CFR part 273 ) - A special form of hazardous waste subject to less strict regulations based on environmentally sound collection and proper recycling or treatment processes. (stmarytx.edu)
  • While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out that the country's lack of proper sanitation was the real cause of the outbreak. (wordpress.com)
  • execute changes in the house to keep your mind off the empty spaces. (professorshouse.com)
  • Now, together with Elin Ng and Emily Miller (who's also running the Meanwhile Project ), we're looking for proposals for empty shops and spaces around Tower Hamlets. (blogspot.com)
  • A determination is conducted on all waste to identify the proper disposal routes for the protection of the environment and compliance to Federal, State, and local regulation. (stmarytx.edu)
  • Proper boundaries are constantly tested. (newspring.cc)
  • A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cities proper and their boundaries and population data may not include suburbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Urbanization Prospects, a UN publication, defines population of a city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book continues to say that "city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • While scooping will do on a day-to-day basis, you'll need to completely empty the litter and scrub the box at least once every week. (wikihow.com)
  • All below listed responsibilities must be completed in compliance with federal, state, local and company-specific regulations related to quality of product, employee and donor safety, and to the proper performance of day-to-day activities. (careerbuilder.com)
  • Although from a nutritional point of view canine adulthood is a life stage less critical than puppyhood and old age, feeding adult dogs a proper, well balanced diet is still of paramount importance. (professorshouse.com)
  • This fixes a run-time error that occured with `\citet{}` (empty list of keys). (haskell.org)
  • Correctly handle empty bullet list items. (haskell.org)
  • Robert Stayton: pi.xsl In dbfo-need, replace empty list-item-label with empty block to make output valid. (sourceforge.net)
  • for_each from the overload list -- and end up with an empty list, thus the error message. (gnu.org)
  • We probably need to special-case the overload resolution process to handle this case: when we end up with an empty overload list but there is a function that would match were it not for a local class, we should report so. (gnu.org)
  • Your wish list is currently empty. (power-systems.com)
  • Before taking any dietary supplement, discuss proper dosages and risks with your doctor. (healthline.com)
  • Teach students the proper technique to administer ophthalmic ointment. (enasco.com)
  • We would like to share Eppendorf´s almost 60 years of experience in proper liquid handling with you - for more reproducible cell culture results and better contamination protection in your lab. (eppendorf.com)
  • Once the volume is reached, the collection vessel stops waste liquid flow until the vessel is emptied and reset. (google.com)
  • 21. Provide sanitary wipes, disposable diaper changing pads, sanitizing solution and proper hand-washing facilities for each diaper changing station. (cdc.gov)
  • An SVG document fragment can range from an empty fragment (i.e., no content inside of the 'svg' element), to a very simple SVG document fragment containing a single SVG graphics element such as a 'rect' , to a complex, deeply nested collection of container elements and graphics elements . (w3.org)
  • This entry was posted in Emergency Sanitation , Latin America & Caribbean , Sanitary Facilities and tagged Bill Clinton , cholera , Haiti , pit emptying . (wordpress.com)
  • So in you will create an empty view to be used as footer and set the height to near 0 (it could not be zero or the iOS will not render it). (stackoverflow.com)