Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.AmidinesCyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsBenzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.North AmericaSouth AmericaLatin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.IndiaAlcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.

Positive selection of novel peroxisome biogenesis-defective mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris. (1/231)

We have developed two novel schemes for the direct selection of peroxisome-biogenesis-defective (pex) mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Both schemes take advantage of our observation that methanol-induced pex mutants contain little or no alcohol oxidase (AOX) activity. AOX is a peroxisomal matrix enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the methanol-utilization pathway. One scheme utilizes allyl alcohol, a compound that is not toxic to cells but is oxidized by AOX to acrolein, a compound that is toxic. Exposure of mutagenized populations of AOX-induced cells to allyl alcohol selectively kills AOX-containing cells. However, pex mutants without AOX are able to grow. The second scheme utilizes a P. pastoris strain that is defective in formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD), a methanol pathway enzyme required to metabolize formaldehyde, the product of AOX. AOX-induced cells of fld1 strains are sensitive to methanol because of the accumulation of formaldehyde. However, fld1 pex mutants, with little active AOX, do not efficiently oxidize methanol to formaldehyde and therefore are not sensitive to methanol. Using these selections, new pex mutant alleles in previously identified PEX genes have been isolated along with mutants in three previously unidentified PEX groups.  (+info)

Examination of low-incidence brain tumor responses in F344 rats following chemical exposures in National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity studies. (2/231)

Neoplasms in the brain are uncommon in control Fischer 344 (F344) rats; they occur at a rate of less than 1% in 2-yr toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. Furthermore, only 10 of nearly 500 studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed any evidence of chemically related neoplastic effects in the brain. Generally, the brain tumor responses were considered equivocal, because the characteristics of potential neurocarcinogenic agents (such as statistically significant increased incidences, decreased latency and/or survival, and demonstration of dose-response relationships) were not observed. A thorough examination, including comparisons with a well-established historical database, is often critical in evaluating rare brain tumors. Chemicals that gave equivocal evidence of brain tumor responses were generally associated with carcinogenicity at other sites, and many chemicals were mutagenic when incubated with metabolic activating enzymes. Other factors that were supportive of the theory that marginal increases in brain tumor incidence were related to chemical exposure were that (a) some of the tumors were malignant, (b) no brain neoplasms were observed in concurrent controls from some studies, and/or (c) brain tumors were also seen following exposure to structurally related chemicals. In 2-yr studies in F344 rats (studies conducted by the NTP), equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity was observed for the following 9 chemicals: isoprene, bromoethane, chloroethane, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, furosemide, C.I. direct blue 15, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and 1-H-benzotriazole. Glycidol was the only chemical evaluated by the NTP with which there was clear evidence of brain tumor induction in F344 rats. Clarification of the potential neurocarcinogenic risks of chemicals that produce equivocal evidence of a brain tumor response in conventional 2-yr rodent studies may be aided by the use of transgenic mouse models that exhibit genetic alterations that reflect those present in human brain tumors as well as by the use of in utero exposures.  (+info)

The evaluation of hypersensitivity tests in cattle after foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. (3/231)

The response to passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, dermal hypersensitivity and intravenous provocation tests has been compared in 30, 40, 31 and 24 cattle injected with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine 0, 1, 2 and 3 times respectively, using vaccine components and other substances as test materials. Reaginic antibodies demonstrated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in goats, were directed against BHK 21 cell extracts (20), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (3) and an unidentified vaccine component (3), and distributed in 0, 5, 19 and 75 per cent of the cattle vaccinated 0, 1, 2 and 3 times. None of the animals showed clinical signs of allergy after vaccination. When BHK 21 cell extract was injected intradermally a significant correlation was noted between the development of large weals and the presence of reagins although the size of the weals was not correlated with the reagin titres. In the case of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose a similar trend was evident. The majority of cattle with large dermal weals possessed reagins but the number of reactions was too small for statistical evaluation. Dermal reactions to sodium penicillin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, saponin and whole vaccine occurred in both unvaccinated and vaccinated cattle but BHK 21 cell lysate and normal bovine serum provoked weals which increased in frequency according to the number of vaccinations experienced. Intravenous hydroxypropylmethylcellulose elicited a response in all the animals previously injected with certain batches of vaccine but cell extract intravenously produced a clinical response in half the tested animals which was uncorrelated with the results of the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis or dermal hypersensitivity tests.  (+info)

Preparation of synthetic human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in a stable conformation to enable study of conversion to amyloid-like fibrils. (4/231)

Human synthetic islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is rapidly converted to beta-sheet conformation and fibrils in aqueous media. Optimal solubility conditions for hIAPP were determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. hIAPP in trifluoroethanol or hexafluoro-2-isopropanol (HFIP) diluted in water or phosphate buffer (PB) exhibited random structure which was converted to beta-sheet and fibrils with time. hIAPP, solubilised in HFIP, filtered and lyophilised remained in stable random structure for up to 7 days in water; in PB, insoluble aggregates precipitated from which protofilaments and fibrils formed with time. This suggests that amorphous aggregates of hIAPP could initiate islet amyloidosis in vivo.  (+info)

Fluorinated alcohol, the third group of cosolvents that stabilize the molten-globule state relative to a highly denatured state of cytochrome c. (5/231)

The effects of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) on the conformation of cytochrome c (cyt c) at pH 1.9 were studied using a combination of spectroscopic and physical methods. Analysis varying the HFIP concentration showed that a compact denatured conformation (M(HF)) accumulates in a low concentration range of HFIP in the middle of structural transition from the highly unstructured acid-denatured state to the highly helical alcohol-denatured state of cyt c. This contrasts clearly with the effect of isopropanol (IP), in which no compact conformation accompanied with the transition. Analysis varying concentrations of HFIP and NaCl concurrently showed that the M(HF) state of cyt c is essentially identical to the salt-induced molten-globule (M(G)) state, and the M(G) state in the presence of salt was also stabilized by a low concentration of HFIP. Furthermore, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol stabilized M(HF) similarly to HFIP, supporting the proposition that the specific effect observed for HFIP is caused by fluorination of alcohol. The mechanism stabilizing compact conformation by HFIP remains unclear, but is probably distinct from that of salts and polyols, which are also known to stabilize the M(G)-like state.  (+info)

Pentoxifylline attenuates bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced enhancement of allyl alcohol hepatotoxicity. (6/231)

Small amounts of exogenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/kg-100 microg/kg) enhance the hepatotoxicity of allyl alcohol in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This augmentation of allyl alcohol hepatotoxicity appears to be linked to Kupffer cell function, but the mechanism of Kupffer cell involvement is unknown. Since Kupffer cells produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) upon exposure to LPS, and this cytokine has been implicated in liver injury from large doses of LPS, we tested the hypothesis that TNF alpha contributes to LPS enhancement of allyl alcohol hepatotoxicity. Rats were treated with LPS (10-100 microg/kg iv) 2 h before allyl alcohol (30 mg/kg ip). Co-treatment with LPS and allyl alcohol caused liver injury as assessed by an increase in activity of alanine aminotransferase in plasma. Treatment with LPS caused an increase in plasma TNF alpha concentration, which was prevented by administration of either pentoxifylline (PTX) (100 mg/kg iv) or anti-TNF alpha serum (1 ml/rat iv) one h prior to LPS. Only PTX protected rats from LPS-induced enhancement of allyl alcohol hepatotoxicity; anti-TNF alpha serum had no effect. Exposure of cultured hepatocytes to LPS (1-10 microg/ml) or to TNF alpha (15-150 ng/ml) for 2 h did not increase the cytotoxicity of allyl alcohol (0.01-200 microM). These data suggest that neither LPS nor TNF alpha alone was sufficient to increase the sensitivity of isolated hepatocytes to allyl alcohol. Furthermore, hepatocytes isolated from rats treated 2 h earlier with LPS (i.e., hepatocytes which were exposed in vivo to TNF alpha and other inflammatory mediators) were no more sensitive to allyl alcohol-induced cytotoxicity than hepatocytes from naive rats. These data suggest that circulating TNF alpha is not involved in the mechanism by which LPS enhances hepatotoxicity of allyl alcohol and that the protective effect of PTX may be due to another of its biological effects.  (+info)

Neonatal induction of tolerance to T(h)2-mediated autoimmunity in rats. (7/231)

Brown-Norway (BN) rats are highly susceptible to drug-induced immune dysregulations and when injected with mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) or sodium aurothiopropanolsulfonate (ATPS), they develop a syndrome characterized by a polyclonal B cell activation depending upon CD4(+) T(h)2 cells that recognize self-MHC class II molecules. Since peripheral tolerance of T(h)2 cells might be crucial in the prevention of immunological manifestations such as allergy, establishing conditions for inducing tolerance to HgCl(2)- or ATPS-mediated immune manifestations appeared to be of large interest. We report here that BN rats neonatally injected with HgCl(2): (i) do not develop the mercury disease, (ii) remain resistant to HgCl(2)-induced autoimmunity at 8 weeks of age and later, provided they are regularly exposed to HgCl(2), (iii) are still susceptible to ATPS-induced immune manifestations, and (iv) exhibit spleen cells that adoptively transfer tolerance to HgCl(2)-induced autoimmunity in naive, slightly irradiated, syngeneic recipients. These findings demonstrate that dominant specific tolerance can be neonatally induced using a chemical otherwise responsible for T(h)2-mediated autoimmunity.  (+info)

The microaerophilic flagellate Giardia intestinalis: Allium sativum (garlic) is an effective antigiardial. (8/231)

Whole garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract and some of its components were assayed for antigiardial activity. Whole garlic extract gave an IC(50) at 24 h of 0.3 mg ml(-1). Most of the components assayed were inhibitory to the organism, especially allyl alcohol and allyl mercaptan, with IC(50) values of 7 microg ml(-1) and 37 microg ml(-1) respectively. Studies with calcofluor white indicated that whole garlic and allyl alcohol collapse the transmembrane electrochemical membrane potential (Deltapsi) of the organism, as indicated by uptake of the fluorochrome. Electron microscopy allowed the morphological changes that occur with garlic inhibition to be recorded. Both the surface topography and internal architecture of the organism changed during incubation with the biocides. Both whole garlic and allyl alcohol resulted in fragmentation of the disc and an overexpression of disc microribbons, internalization of flagella, vacuole formation and an increase in distended vesicles. Allyl mercaptan, however, only gave an increase in distended vesicles, suggesting that this biocide has a different mode of action.  (+info)

  • Consumers who have products on the list of hand sanitizers with potential methanol or 1-propanol contamination should immediately stop using the product and dispose of it, ideally in a hazardous waste container . (
  • Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by the production and use of 2-propanol, a liquid widely used as a low-cost solvent in industry and in the home. (
  • What's more,Its systematic name is 1-Propanol.It is a colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.It may form peroxides in contact with air.And it is incompatible with alkali metals, alkaline earths, aluminium, oxidizing agents, nitro compounds,highly flammable.And it is used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry, and for resins and cellulose esters. (
  • The polymers were stabilized with DBPC, coagulated from 2-propanol and steam desolventized or passed through a drum-dryer to remove residual solvent. (
  • 1-Propanol is used as a solvent and an entrainer in azeotropic distillation. (
  • Çehreli, S., Özmen, D., Dramur, U.: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + 1-propanol + solvent) at T = 298.2 K. Fluid Phase Equilib. (
  • The study provides a decisive view of the global propanol market by segmenting it in terms of product type (iso-propanol and n-propanol) and applications such solvent, chemical intermediate, cosmetics & pharmaceuticals, others (Cleansers, adhesives, agricultural chemicals, etc. (
  • The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. (
  • The report provides the actual market size of propanol for 2016 and estimated market size for 2017 with forecast for the next eight years. (
  • Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) date for the ternary systems of {water + 1-propanol + dibutyl ether (DBE)} and (water + 1-butanol + DBE) were determined at T = (293.15, 303.15, 308.15) K under atmospheric pressure. (
  • 3-Cyclohexyl-1-propanol and 3-cyclohexyl-1-butanol rank among synthetic fragrant compounds. (
  • N-butanol production by the upstream ethylene prices greater impact, most enterprises will be processed into sales propanol acetate, acrylic ester compound. (
  • Ramirez De La Piscina, P. "H2 production from oxidative steam reforming of 1-propanol and propylene glycol over yttria-stabilized supported bimetallic Ni-M (M = Pt, Ru, Ir) catalyst" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 39, 10, pp. 5225 - 5233. (
  • The new facility "Propanol 2" is now being commissioned and is scheduled for commercial production in the third quarter of 2018. (
  • 3-(BENZYLMETHYLAMINO)-1-PROPANOL (CAS 5814-42-6) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in March, 2018. (
  • Please note that 3-(BENZYLMETHYLAMINO)-1-PROPANOL (CAS 5814-42-6) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (
  • Adi YK, Widayanti R, Pangestiningsih TW (2018) n-Propanol extract of boiled and fermented koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens seed) shows a neuroprotective effect in paraquat dichloride-induced Parkinson's disease rat model, Veterinary World, 11(9): 1250-1254. (
  • The worldwide market for N-propanol is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly 3.7% over the next five years, will reach 980 million US$ in 2023, from 790 million US$ in 2017, according to a new GIR (Global Info Research) study. (
  • Cháfer, A., de la Torre, J., Lladosa, E., Montón, J.B.: Liquid-liquid equilibria of 4-methyl-2-pentanone + 1-propanol or 2-propanol + water ternary systems: measurements and correlation at different temperatures. (
  • More specifically, this invention relates to novel 1-aryl-2-acylamido-3-fluoro-1-propanol antibacterial agents, to methods for their manufacture and to novel intermediates useful therein, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said 1-aryl-2-acylamido-3-fluoro-1-propanols and to methods for their use in treating antibacterial infections. (
  • Brains from ten rats per group were dissected and assayed for protein, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, beta-endorphin, Met-enkephalin, and substance-P. The results indicated that exposure to high concentrations of 1-propanol affected fertility in exposed males, but no consistent effects were noted in the behavioral or neurochemical tests measured. (
  • At these levels of exposure 1-propanol is not a selective developmental toxicant, and exposure to concentrations of 1-propanol as carried out in this research will likely not result in behavioral teratogenicity. (
  • Because of its cooling, antipyretic, rubefacient, cleaning, and antiseptic properties, 2-propanol is used to produce a large number of household and personal products, including topically applied pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. (
  • The agency urges consumers not to use these 1-propanol-contaminated products and has expanded its do-not-use list of hand sanitizers at to include hand sanitizers that are or may be contaminated with 1-propanol, in addition to other hand sanitizers the agency is urging consumers not to use. (
  • Top sale 71-23-8 1-Propanol with best price Our main products: Crovell is specialized in pharmaceutical intermediates, veterinary drug intermediates and dyes intermediates,such as phenylacetamide, dimethylamine hcl, benzyl chloride etc. (