Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.MalatesMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.GlucosephosphatesAminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.CitratesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.PyruvatesCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adenine NucleotidesGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
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Stimulation of the neuron that promotes LTP causes larger spine volume, increased cell communication, and a greater ratio of F- ... Developmentally regulated changes in cellular compartmentation and synaptic distribution of actin in hippocampal neurons. J. ... Upon low frequency stimulation of knockout cells, these molecules are likely to diffuse out of the cell before a concentration ... Cell 107:605-16 Fischer M, Kaech S, Knutti D, Matus A. 1998. Rapid actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines. Neuron 20:847-54 ...
Overall, HK3 may promote cell survival by controlling ROS levels and boosting energy production. Currently, only hypoxia is ... Rijksen G, Staal GE, Beks PJ, Streefkerk M, Akkerman JW (December 1982). "Compartmentation of hexokinase in human blood cells. ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (3): 187-8. doi:10.1159/000134409. PMID 8941369. "Entrez Gene: HK3 hexokinase 3 (white cell ... Within cells, HK3 localizes to the cytoplasm and putatively binds the perinuclear envelope. HK3 is the predominant hexokinase ...
Another transcript, called Cα2, is found primarily in sperm cells and differs from Cα1 only in the first 15 amino acids. In ... Dodge-Kafka KL, Langeberg L, Scott JD (Apr 2006). "Compartmentation of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the heart: the role of A- ... Mutations in the PRKACA gene that promote abnormal enzyme activity have been linked to disease of the adrenal gland. Several ... This optimizes where and when cellular communication occurs within the cell. Protein kinase A has been implicated in a number ...
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These mechanisms include reducing heavy metal uptake, promoting heavy metal sequestration and storage within the cell, and ... doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2005.00044.x. Lasat, M.M.; Baker, A.J.M.; Kochian, L.V. (1998). "Altered Zn compartmentation in the ... they press against the cell walls of the phytobiont's root cells. Often the fungal and plant cell walls become almost ... Upon the connection of fungal hyphae and root cap cells, growth must continue inwards to the epidermal cells wherein the hyphae ...
Prokaryotic cells are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Therefore, prokaryotes have a larger surface-area-to-volume ... Fuerst J (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro ... behaviors that promote cooperation between members may permit those members to have (on average) greater fitness than a similar ... Molecular and cell biology portal Biology portal Bacterial cell structure Evolution of sexual reproduction List of sequenced ...
It has roles in progression of the cell cycle, including cell death. GSH levels regulate redox changes to nuclear proteins ... promoted by His467), which creates a mixed disulfide bond (GS-Cys58) and a GS-anion. His467 of GSR then protonates the GS-anion ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ... Manageably low levels result in the systematic breakage of the cell whereas excessively low levels result in rapid cell death. ...
The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The ... 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804 ... Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ...
... and so have a primitive metabolism in which factors that promote "cell integrity" survive, and those that do not become extinct ... The naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentation observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide precipitates ... and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy. Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine. 1. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN ... The data suggest that viruses originated from ancient cells that co-existed with the ancestors of modern cells. These ancient ...
The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity ... Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/ ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells' ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ...
While a wide variety of mechanisms have been developed throughout history, some stand out because of their theoretical importance, or because they were manufactured in significant quantities. Most practical mechanical analog computers of any significant complexity used rotating shafts to carry variables from one mechanism to another. Cables and pulleys were used in a Fourier synthesizer, a tide-predicting machine, which summed the individual harmonic components. Another category, not nearly as well known, used rotating shafts only for input and output, with precision racks and pinions. The racks were connected to linkages that performed the computation. At least one US Naval sonar fire control computer of the later 1950s, made by Librascope, was of this type, as was the principal computer in the Mk. 56 Gun Fire Control System. Online, there is a remarkably clear illustrated reference (OP 1140) that describes[28] the fire control computer mechanisms. For adding and subtracting, precision ...
The earliest known example of a clockwork mechanism is the Antikythera mechanism, a first-century BC geared analogue computer, somewhat astrolabe-like, for calculating astronomical positions and eclipses, recovered from a Greek shipwreck. There are many other accounts of clockwork devices in ancient Greece, even in its mythology, and the mechanism itself is sophisticated enough to indicate a significant history of lesser devices leading up to its creation.[6]. At some point, this level of sophistication in clockwork technology was lost or forgotten in Europe, and only returned when brought from the Islamic world after the Crusades, along with other knowledge leading to the Renaissance. Clockwork finally recovered the equivalent of pre-Roman technological levels in the 14th century.[7]. As in Greek mythology, there are ambitious automation claims in the legends of other cultures. For example, in Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as ...
Chidambaram completed his early education in Meerut and Chennai, completing his B.Sc. with honors in physics, having stood first rank at the departmental and the university level of the Madras University in 1956. After enrolling in master's program, Chidambaram taught introductory physics laboratory courses and obtained M.Sc. in physics, writing a fundamental thesis on analog computers from the same institution, in 1958. He was accepted for the doctoral programme of the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), and was awarded the PhD in 1962. His thesis contained the research work on the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and was conferred with the Martin Forster Medal for the best doctoral thesis submitted to the Indian Institute of Science. Chidambaram is a versatile scholar, interest first in physics. After graduating, his interest in nuclear physics diminished and his research interest in physics did not keep him motivated to contribute in his field. Instead, Chidambaram found himself ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
A creatina quinase mitocondrial está presente no espazo intermembrana mitocondrial, onde rexenera a fosfocreatina (PCr) a partir do ATP xerado nas mitocondrias e a creatina (Cr) importada do citosol. Ademais das dúas formas de isoencimas CK mitocondriais, é dicir, a mtCK ubicua (presente en tecidos non musculares) e a mtCK sarcomérica (presente no músculo sarcomérico), hai tres isoformas de CK citosólicas presentes no citosol, dependendo do tecido. Mentres que a MM-CK se expresa no músculo sarcomérico (esquelético e cardíaco), a MB-CK exprésase só no músuclo cardíaco e a BB-CK no músculo liso e na maioría dos tecidos non musculares. As mtCK mitocondrial e citosólica están conectadas no denominado circuíto ou lanzadeira de fosfocreatina/creatina (PCr/Cr). A fosfocreatina xerada pola mtCK nas mitocondrias é enviada á CK citosólica que está acoplada a procesos dependentes de ATP, por exemplo, ATPases, como a ATPase de acto-miosina e a ATPase de calcio implicada na ...
Several catabolic pathways converge on the citric acid cycle. Most of these reactions add intermediates to the citric acid cycle, and are therefore known as anaplerotic reactions, from the Greek meaning to "fill up". These increase the amount of acetyl CoA that the cycle is able to carry, increasing the mitochondrion's capability to carry out respiration if this is otherwise a limiting factor. Processes that remove intermediates from the cycle are termed "cataplerotic" reactions. In this section and in the next, the citric acid cycle intermediates are indicated in italics to distinguish them from other substrates and end-products. Pyruvate molecules produced by glycolysis are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and into the matrix. Here they can be oxidized and combined with coenzyme A to form CO2, acetyl-CoA, and NADH, as in the normal cycle.[35]. However, it is also possible for pyruvate to be carboxylated by pyruvate carboxylase to form oxaloacetate. This latter ...
The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle) is a sequence of chemical reactions that are used by some bacteria to produce carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is the citric acid cycle run in reverse: Where the Krebs cycle takes complex carbon molecules in the form of sugars and oxidizes them to CO2 and water, the reverse cycle takes CO2 and water to make carbon compounds. This process is used by some bacteria to synthesise carbon compounds, sometimes using hydrogen, sulfide, or thiosulfate as electron donors.[1][2] In this process, it can be seen as an alternative to the fixation of inorganic carbon in the reductive pentose phosphate cycle which occurs in a wide variety of microbes and higher organisms. The reaction is a possible candidate for prebiotic early-earth conditions and, so, is of interest in the research of the origin of life. It has been found that some non-consecutive ...
The α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis (synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) begins with α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle. The concentration of α-ketoglutarate is dependent on the activity and metabolism within the cell along with the regulation of enzymatic activity. In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP.[5] This is one of the initial regulations of the α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis. The regulation of the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is subject to regulatory control of the Citric Acid Cycle as well as mass action dependent on the concentrations of reactants involved due to the reversible nature of the transamination and glutamate dehydrogenase reactions.[5] The conversion of glutamate to ...
All subunits of human mitochondrial SDH are encoded in nuclear genome. After translation, SDHA subunit is translocated as apoprotein into the mitochondrial matrix. Subsequently, one of the first steps is covalent binding of the FAD cofactor (flavinylation). This process seems to be regulated by some of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Specifically, succinate, isocitrate and citrate stimulate flavinylation of the SDHA.[14] In case of eukaryotic Sdh1 (SDHA in mammals), another protein is required for process of FAD incorporation - namely Sdh5 in yeast, succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 (SDHAF2) in mammal cells. Before forming a heterodimer with subunit SDHB, some portion of SDHA with covalently bound FAD appears to interact with other assembly factor - SDHAF4 (Sdh8 in yeast). Unbound flavinylated SDHA dimerizes with SDHAF4 which serves as a chaperone. Studies suggest that formation of SDHA-SDHB dimer is impaired in absence of SDHAF4 so the chaperon-like ...
As a Computational Biology PhD student working with biological networks, I find the notion of "modularity" really ambiguous and troublesome - an opinion shared by other colleagues, even though the concept has been really successful, especially in the previous years. I suggest to assume a more critical perspective on the issue. For instance, the statement "Many organisms consist of modules" could be better formulated as "Modular parts can be recognized within organisms, at different organizational levels".. Specifically, I would like to point out that the example on the Citric Acid Cycle (a.k.a. Krebs Cycle, or TCA Cycle) is quite misleading. Refer to this resource for a diagramtic representation of the Krebs Cycle (human version): http://www.genome.ad.jp/dbget-bin/get_pathway?org_name=hsa&mapno=00020. First of all, the Krebs Cycle is composed just by a few reactions (10 reactions and 10 metabolites, neglecting some intermediates); therefore it cannot really be termed "a complex network"; it is ...
In animals, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver, adipose tissue, and the mammary glands during lactation.[16] Carbohydrates are converted into pyruvate by glycolysis as the first important step in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids.[16] Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids occurs. This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol.[16] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondrion as malate.[17] The cytosolic acetyl-CoA is carboxylated by acetyl CoA carboxylase into malonyl-CoA, the first committed step in the synthesis of fatty acids.[17][18] Malonyl-CoA is ...
The effect can be explained; as the yeast being facultative anaerobes can produce energy using two different metabolic pathways. While the oxygen concentration is low, the product of glycolysis, pyruvate, is turned into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and the energy production efficiency is low (2 moles of ATP per mole of glucose). If the oxygen concentration grows, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA that can be used in the citric acid cycle, which increases the efficiency to 32 moles of ATP per mole of glucose. Therefore, about 16 times as much glucose must be consumed anaerobically as aerobically to yield the same amount of ATP.[2]. Under anaerobic conditions, the rate of glucose metabolism is faster, but the amount of ATP produced (as already mentioned) is smaller. When exposed to aerobic conditions, the ATP and Citrate production increases and the rate of glycolysis slows, because the ATP and citrate produced act as allosteric inhibitors for phosphofructokinase 1, the third enzyme in the ...
Prostaglandin biosynthesis and its compartmentation in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Annu Rev Physiol 1986. 48: ... smooth muscle cells, or endothelial cells) than in healthy vessels (5). PGE2 is the predominant prostaglandin released in ... PGE2 mediates its biologic actions by binding to one of four different cell-surface receptors, termed EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 (9 ... Activation of the murine EP3 receptor for PGE2 inhibits cAMP production and promotes platelet aggregation. Jean-Etienne Fabre,1 ...
Chen K (2011). "Glutamine analogs promote cytoophidium assembly in human and Drosophila cells". Journal of Genetics and ... Liu J-L (2010). "Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila". Journal of Genetics and Genomics. 37 (5): 281- ... GTP acts as an allosteric activator that strongly promotes the hydrolysis of glutamine, but is also inhibiting to glutamine- ... "Common regulatory control of CTP synthase enzyme activity and filament formation". Mol Biol Cell. 25 (15): 2282-90. Aug 2014. ...
2005) Phosphodiesterase 4D deficiency in the ryanodine-receptor complex promotes heart failure and arrhythmias. Cell 123:25-35. ... In vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK-293 cells, AC1 selectively slowed cell proliferation while AC2, AC5, and AC6 had little ... in HASM cells (Gros et al., 2006; Bogard et al., 2012). AC2 overexpressed in the same cells is unable to mediate the ... Recent efforts using RNA sequencing to define the full range of GPCR expressed in a given cell type reveal that most cells ...
In addition, the subcellular localization of PEF1 revealed that the syncytial fungal colony undergoes compartmentation in ... Plasma Membrane Integrity During Cell-Cell Fusion and in Response to Pore-Forming Drugs Is Promoted by the Penta-EF-Hand ... Plasma Membrane Integrity During Cell-Cell Fusion and in Response to Pore-Forming Drugs Is Promoted by the Penta-EF-Hand ... Plasma Membrane Integrity During Cell-Cell Fusion and in Response to Pore-Forming Drugs Is Promoted by the Penta-EF-Hand ...
Cell divisionMicrobiologyCell compartmentationCytologyLymphocytes. 5. Cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms promote cell- ... Cell divisionEmbryonic stem cells--ResearchMicrobiologyCytokines--PathophysiologyCytology. 6. Characterization of the human ... Pathology and Cell Biology. 2018. Articles. CytologyEndoplasmic reticulumPhospholipidsSterolsCell membranes. ... RNABiochemical markersMicroRNACell separationNucleic acidsCytology. 10. NMDA Receptor Activation Underlies the Loss of Spinal ...
1993) Compartmentation of receptors and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins in NG108-15 cells: lack of cross-talk in agonist ... 2001) Agonist-promoted trafficking of human bradykinin receptors: arrestin- and dynamin-independent sequestration of the B2 ... Do kinin receptors translocate to caveolin-rich membranes in all cells, particularly cells endogenously expressing these ... A typical cell appears to express a dozen or so different GPCR genes (of which nearly a thousand exist in the human genome), ...
... suggesting that vacuolation of epidermal cells may promote the preferential Zn accumulation. The results from single-cell sap ... 1994) Microsampling and measurements of solutes in single cells. in Plant Cell Biology-A Practical Approach. eds Harris N, ... Relationship between cell length and relative Zn concentration in the epidermal cells in frozen, hydrated leaf tissues of T. ... Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Cl in the single-cell sap extracted from the epidermal and mesophyll cells of mature leaves ...
Intracellular compartmentation of cAMP promotes neuroprotection and regeneration of CNS neurons. Neural regeneration research ... Although strategies to replace these lost cells include stem cell replacement therapy, few differentiated stem cells turn into ... No other retinal cell types were affected by GDF-11 knockout, but a slight reduction in photoreceptor cells was observed by GDF ... Neurotrophic factor and cAMP-dependent signaling promote the survival and neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ...
This protocol takes advantage of changes in cellular permeability during cell fixing to promote entry of RNase A into cells ... There were marked sex differences in blood corticosterone compartmentation in rats, which were unrelated to testosterone. The ... Primary cells and cell lines in a broad range of animal models are affected, with large cells (nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios ,0.5 ... Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted ...
... vascular endothelial cells (VECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) maintain cyclic nucleotide compartmentation through ... second messengers that activate specific signaling machinery used to promote or inhibit cellular functions such as cell ... Cells of the cardiovascular system translate incoming extracellular signals from hormones and drugs through binding of cell ... signals resulting in increased cell adhesion and cell spreading. Finally, studies in VSMCs demonstrate that PDE5 localization ...
Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing FcεRII or CD23 (FcεRIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have ... expressing follicular dendritic cells is a main prognostic factor in follicular lymphoma. Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., ... FDCs play the key role in compartmentation of various cell types in lymphoid follicles [11] [12] . ... whether the chronic antigen retaining may promote generation of long-term immunological memory. ...
Several previous studies suggested that AAMs promote the development of CD4+ Th2 cell responses in vivo [51]-[53]. Nevertheless ... conversion could be higher in Arg1 null macrophages than in WT macrophages because of differential subcellular compartmentation ... T cells Is the Subject Area "T cells" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Finally, to determine whether T cells isolated from S. mansoni mice would respond in a similar manner, CD4+ T cells were ...
Phosphodiesterase 4D deficiency in the ryanodine-receptor complex promotes heart failure and arrhythmias. Cell. 2005;123(1):25- ... Beta2-adrenergic receptor redistribution in heart failure changes cAMP compartmentation. Science. 2010;327(5973):1653-1657. ... Cell isolation (n = 5) occurred from atrial tissue by protocols described previously (49). Cells were plated on laminin-coated ... Compared with WT cells, both RyR2-S2808A+/+ and RyR2-S2814A+/+ cells exhibited significantly decreased shortening amplitude and ...
Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Oct;4(10):766-73. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Cell Compartmentation/physiology. *Cell Membrane/metabolism*. *Cell Membrane/ultrastructure. *DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/ ... Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Oct;4(10):766-73.. Elimination of host cell PtdIns(4,5)P(2) by bacterial SigD promotes membrane fission ... Heterologous expression of SigD is sufficient to promote the disappearance of PtdIns(4,5)P(2), to reduce the rigidity of the ...
Ribosome incorporation into somatic cells promotes lineage transdifferentiation towards multipotency.. Ito, N., Katoh, K., ... Alternative splicing of the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCCA4 determines its subcellular compartmentation.. Verena Kriechbaumer, ... Modelling cell-free RNA and protein synthesis with minimal systems.. Doerr, A., de Reus, E., van Nies, P., van der Haar, M., ... Cell-Free Translation Is More Variable than Transcription.. Chizzolini F, Forlin M, Yeh Martín N, Berloffa G, Cecchi D and ...
J Cell Biol. 1998;143:501-510. [PMC free article] [PubMed]. *Varnai P, Balla T. Live cell imaging of phosphoinositide dynamics ... The activated GPCR acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activating heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gαβγ) by promoting the ... from this strategy was instrumental for showing that spatial organization of RhoA activity existed and that compartmentation of ... Unfortunately, single-cell electrophysiology in thick preparations can be technically challenging and limit the number of cells ...
Ability of Sit4p to promote K+ efflux via Nha1p is modulated by Sap155p and Sap185p. Eukaryot. Cell 4:1041-1049. ... Lipid raft-based membrane compartmentation of a plant transport protein expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot. Cell 5 ... Cells were grown to the mid-log phase (0.5 × 107 cells per ml) in selective minimal growth medium. Cells were collected by ... The cells were then extracted with acid and analyzed by atomic emission spectrophotometry (41). K+-starved cells were prepared ...
In this review, we will (a) underline the role of ROS in the pathway leading a normal cell to tumor transformation and ... ROS concentration and compartmentation determine their physiological or pathological effects. ROS overproduction is a feature ... of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. ROS continuously contribute to each step ... The presence of ROS is a constant feature in living cells metabolizing O,sub,2,/sub,. ...
Analysis of the effects of the plant growth promoting substances GR24 and smoke water on abiotically-stressed Nicotiana ... MASOABI M. Biotechnological approaches for sugarcane enhancement - Drought tolerance and cell wall manipulation. MSc, 2016. ... FLY R. Approaches for the study of leaf carbohydrate metabolic compartmentation in Arabidopsis thaliana. MSc, 2010. http:// ... PHOLO, Z. Molecular analysis of plant growth promoted with low molecular weight compounds in relation to genetically altered ...
Cell. 1998;93(5):863-873. [PubMed]. 153. Siegers K, Waldmann T, Leroux MR, et al. Compartmentation of protein folding in vivo: ... Chaperonin TRiC promotes the assembly of polyQ expansion proteins into nontoxic oligomers. Molecular Cell. 2006;23(6):887-897. ... Silver LM, Artzt K, Bennett D. A major testicular cell protein specified by a mouse T/t complex gene. Cell. 1979;17(2):275-284. ... Camasses A, Bogdanova A, Shevchenko A, Zachariae W. The CCT chaperonin promotes activation of the anaphase-promoting complex ...
... promotes growth and glycosaminoglycan synthesis of endothelial cells through its action on smooth muscle cells in an artificial ... Compartmentation of enzymes in a microbody, the glycosome, is essential in Trypanosoma brucei Cristina Guerra-Giraldez, Luis ... on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at ... Cell Science at a Glance. *. You have accessSubscription required. Molecular evolution of the actin family Holly V. Goodson, ...
Mackins CJ, Kano S, Seyedi N, Schafer U, Reid AC, Machida T, Silver RB, Levi R. Cardiac mast cell-derived renin promotes local ... The results of the present study point toward compartmentation of kinase/phosphatase signaling in the atrium (Figure 8). In cAF ... Phosphodiesterase 4D deficiency in the ryanodine-receptor complex promotes heart failure and arrhythmias. Cell. 2005; 123: 25- ... These results support the notion of compartmentation of protein kinase/phosphatase signaling in the atrium and that ...
We found here that formation of the SMU1-SMU2 complex is an essential step for their compartmentation in the nuclear speckles, ... Mg2+ is among the most abundant divalent cations in living cells. In plants, investigations on Mg homeostasis are restricted to ... MRS2-7 splicing was promoted in the smu2 mutant overexpressing SMU1, indicating that complex formation is not a prerequisite ... in plant Mg homeostasis and provides evidence that complex formation is required for their intranuclear compartmentation. ...
2 Cellular Architecture KEY CONCEPTS • Compartmentation of cells promotes efficiency by maintaining high local concentrations ... These vesicles would have become the first cells. A Cells Carry Out Metabolic Reactions The advantages of compartmentation are ... Specialization of individual cells also made it possible for groups of differentiated cells to work together in multicellular ... 1-6). A typical animal cell may contain 100,000 different types of molecules. Early cells depended on the environment to supply ...
Cell Compartmentation * Dendritic Spines / metabolism* * Disks Large Homolog 4 Protein * Gene Knockdown Techniques ... promoting dendritic spine maturation. This study provides a mechanistic basis for postsynaptic stability and ...
  • Deletion of the pef1 gene in the wild-type and different lysis-prone gene knock out mutants revealed a function of the protein in maintaining cell integrity during cell-cell fusion and in the presence of pore-forming drugs, such as the plant defense compound tomatine. (genetics.org)
  • The multicomponent modular nature of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) systems provides cells with numerous potential combinations by which to transduce signals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A typical cell appears to express a dozen or so different GPCR genes (of which nearly a thousand exist in the human genome), several different combinations of G protein subunits and multiple isoforms of effector molecules that can be activated by each type of G protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This approach has yielded important information regarding the types of pathways (i.e., the class of G protein and cognate downstream effectors) that are characteristically activated by a given receptor and, thereby, the types of alterations in cell function that are elicited. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cells of the cardiovascular system such as platelets, vascular endothelial cells (VECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) maintain cyclic nucleotide compartmentation through coordinating signaling complexes containing a cAMP or cGMP effector protein and PDEs. (queensu.ca)
  • Programmable On-Chip Artificial Cell Producing Post-Translationally Modified Ubiquitinated Protein. (genefrontier.com)
  • Artificial photosynthetic cell producing energy for protein synthesis. (genefrontier.com)
  • Constructive approach for synthesis of a functional IgG using a reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis system. (genefrontier.com)
  • Modelling cell-free RNA and protein synthesis with minimal systems. (genefrontier.com)
  • Cell-free supplement mixtures: Elucidating the history and biochemical utility of additives used to support in vitro protein synthesis in E. coli extract. (genefrontier.com)
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor Protein Synthesis on a Lipid Bilayer Using a Reconstituted Cell-Free Protein Synthesis System. (genefrontier.com)
  • However, in a normal cellular condition, a nascent polypeptide chain faces a crowded environment and there is a good possibility that protein will be misfolded and will form aggregates that make the protein inactive, and in certain cases it becomes toxic for the cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This phosphorylation induces translocation of Septin7 to the spine, where it associates with and stabilizes the scaffolding protein PSD95, promoting dendritic spine maturation. (nih.gov)
  • The methods comprise expressing a cytokinin degradation control protein, in particular cytokinin oxidase, in the plant, operably under the control of a regulatable promoter sequence such as a cell-specific promoter, tissue-specific promoter, or organ-specific promoter sequence. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The role of phosphorylation and the CDC28 protein kinase in cell cycle-regulated nuclear import of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor SWI5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The protein is nuclear in G1 cells but cytoplasmic in S, G2, and M phase cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have identified SWI5's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and show that it can confer cell cycle-dependent nuclear entry to a heterologous protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, RGS4-null SAN cells showed decreased levels of G protein-coupled inward rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel desensitization and altered modulation of acetylcholine-sensitive potassium current ( I KACh ) kinetics following carbachol stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, using tandem affinity purification of protein complexes from cell cultures, we identified KINγ, a protein containing four cystathionine β-synthase domains, as an interacting protein of HXK1. (springer.com)
  • This "cell volumization" is known to promote a cellular anabolic state associated with less protein breakdown and increased DNA synthesis. (essenceofshred.com)
  • PDEs function in a coordinated manner under the instruction of various stimuli, mostly known to be from G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), in order to promote stimulus-specific cellular physiological effects. (sun.ac.za)
  • In the heart, cAMP mediates the positive inotropic and lusitropic effects of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), thereby promoting the phosphorylation and activation of key components of the excitation-contraction coupling process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we are exploring the potential of BMCs to serve as synthetic cellular organelles within the bacterial cytoplasm of E. coli that promote correct protein folding and disulphide bond formation of recombinant proteins, providing an alternative method to traditional approaches (folding in the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and in the periplasm of prokaryotes). (engconfintl.org)
  • The lipodystrophy protein SEIPIN is important for lipid droplet ( LD ) biogenesis in human and yeast cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Our results suggest that AtSKD1 contributes to vacuolar protein trafficking and thereby to the maintenance of the large central vacuole of plant cells, and might play a role in cell-cycle regulation. (labome.org)
  • Hayama R, Sarid Krebs L, Richter R, Fernandez V, Jang S, Coupland G. PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATORs stabilize CONSTANS protein to promote flowering in response to day length. (labome.org)
  • We propose an additional role for PRRs in which they act upon CO protein to promote flowering, directly coupling information on light exposure to the timekeeper and allowing recognition of LDs. (labome.org)
  • In lymphoid cell lines and in resting peripheral blood α/β T cells, PAG is expressed as a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated protein and binds the major negative regulator of Src kinases, the tyrosine kinase Csk. (rupress.org)
  • Signal transduction by immunoreceptors (TCRs, B cell receptors, and most Fc receptors) after their aggregation by natural ligands or Abs is initiated by activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) of the Src and Syk families, which phosphorylate a variety of substrates, thus allowing propagation of the initial stimulus to cytosolic signaling pathways ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • These are heterotrimeric G proteins, Src family kinases, and the recently cloned transmembrane adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT). (rupress.org)
  • In the current study, dissociated cultures were made from the spinal cords of embryos injected at the two-cell stage with an antibody to the middle molecular mass NF protein (NF-M), and time-lapse videomicroscopy was used to study early neurite outgrowth in descendants of both the injected and uninjected blastomeres. (jneurosci.org)
  • Professor Conigrave pioneered the theory underpinning the recognition of the CaSR as an L-amino acid sensor in the GI tract, thus coupling dietary protein-derived signals to the release of hormones that promote nutrient digestion and absorption and provide satiety signals. (edu.au)
  • Additionally, his group has recently demonstrated that a protein of the Homer family plays a critical role in bone cell viability and function. (edu.au)
  • They are investigating the in vitro and in vivo effects of alterations in the amounts of this protein and others of this family, present in bone cells, to determine whether these proteins could be targeted for treatment of osteoporosis and/or bone cancers. (edu.au)
  • In addition to the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, its key target in lymphoid cells, BHRF1 also binds a selective sub-set of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bid, Puma, Bak) expressed by host cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Desensitization, which rapidly turns off G protein-dependent signaling, involves phosphorylation of CCR5 that promotes interaction of the receptor with -arrestins for endocytosis. (39kf.com)
  • Moreover, the present invention relates to methods of inducing bone formation by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein. (google.com)
  • In a particular embodiment, the invention provides a method of fusing a spine by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein, admixing the transfected osteogenic precursor cells with a matrix and contacting the matrix with the spine. (google.com)
  • 1. A method of inducing bone formation comprising transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is SEQ ID NO: 22 or SEQ ID NO: 33. (google.com)
  • HIV-1 or its surface glyco- protein gp120 acts at the luminal pop up of knowledge endothelial cells grown in a monolayer culture. (hexat.com)
  • Although the putting out of Reactive Oxygen Species after H2 O2 was more pronounced in immortalized cells lines, comparable up-regulation of Pgp, at the protein unalterable, was observed after the oxidative accent treatments in both types of cells. (hexat.com)
  • On the basis of our collective results we posit that IKKα is needed to maintain the basal expression of a critical protein co-factor required for cell migration to CXCL12. (chemweb.com)
  • Cellular compartmentation of Zn in the leaves of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens was investigated using energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and single-cell sap extraction. (plantphysiol.org)
  • cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers that activate specific signaling machinery used to promote or inhibit cellular functions such as cell migration, cell adhesion and proliferation. (queensu.ca)
  • BMC Molecular Biology 2012, 13:31 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) promotes cell proliferation in insect development Ru-Ping Chen 1, Chun-Yan Liu 1, Hong-Lian Shao 1, Wei-Wei Zheng 1,2, Jin-Xing Wang 1 and Xiao-Fan Zhao 1* Abstract Background: Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) is a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible reaction 2ADP(GDP) ATP(GTP) + AMP and influences cellular energy homeostasis. (docplayer.net)
  • Keywords: Helicoverpa armigera, Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), Cell growth and viability, RNA interference Background Various cellular functions need ATP for energy supply. (docplayer.net)
  • Despite this, all three complexes were activated, due to increased Thr 172 phosphorylation, when cells were incubated with mitochondrial inhibitors that increase cellular AMP. (portlandpress.com)
  • We engineered a Dual Reporter for PI3K (DRAPIK), useful to monitor activity on cellular membranes in vivo at a single-cell level, by simultaneous PM staining of the enzyme substrate (PtdIns4,5P 2 ) with GFP and its product (PtdIns3,4,5P 3 ) with mCherry. (microbialcell.com)
  • Total (free plus esterified) cellular cholesterol content in nonloaded cells fell by 18% with 12-μmol/L lovastatin treatment but did not change in cholesterol-loaded cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, the precebellar system permits the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • These proteins can also transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbate, permitting its preferential uptake by cancer cells with the subsequent depletion of critical cellular reducers as a result of ascorbate formation. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study Multivariate Curve Resolution was applied to cellular Raman spectra to assess the metabolic composition of breast cancer cells undergoing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. (chemweb.com)
  • As a result, cAMP-regulated effectors such as hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels, delayed rectifier, and voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels are enlisted by sympathetic activity to increase pacemaker cell firing rate. (ahajournals.org)
  • One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular "virtual tissue" model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor toxicity pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • To counteract these potentially lethal injuries, membrane repair mechanims have evolved, which promote the integrity of the lipid bilayer. (genetics.org)
  • By fluorescence and live-cell imaging we show that GFP-tagged PEF1 accumulates at the sites of membrane injury in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (genetics.org)
  • Elimination of host cell PtdIns(4,5)P(2) by bacterial SigD promotes membrane fission during invasion by Salmonella. (nih.gov)
  • Salmonella invades mammalian cells by inducing membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis through actin remodelling. (nih.gov)
  • Heterologous expression of SigD is sufficient to promote the disappearance of PtdIns(4,5)P(2), to reduce the rigidity of the membrane skeleton, and to induce plasmalemmal invagination and fission. (nih.gov)
  • In yeast cells, the secondary active transport of inorganic ions and diverse nutrients relies on the existence of an electrochemical gradient of protons across the plasma membrane, which is generated by P 2 -type, energy-consuming H + -ATPases. (asm.org)
  • The same set of stimuli also induced relocation of endogenous PKCθ and IKKs to a GM1 ganglioside-enriched, detergent-insoluble membrane compartment in primary T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Confocal microscopy further demonstrated that exogenously expressed PKCθ and IKKβ colocalize in the membrane of CD3/CD28-costimulated Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, these data show that the activation of PKCθ by the TCR and CD28 plays an important role in the assembly and activation of IKK complexes in the T cell membrane. (jimmunol.org)
  • Caveolae are omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that, compared with the rest of the outer cell membrane, have a larger amount of cholesterol and glycoprotein and greater concentrations of lipid-modified signaling molecules. (ahajournals.org)
  • 70 nm) in the plasma membrane of most cell types and are enriched in glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. (rupress.org)
  • Cholesterol of exogenous origin has been shown to pass via the cell membrane before its esterification by ACAT. (ahajournals.org)
  • In nonloaded cells, virtually all cholesterol is of endogenous origin and is normally translocated to the cell membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • Winterstein, C., Trotter, J. and Krämer-Albers, E.M.* (2008) Distinct endocytic recycling of myelin proteins promotes oligodendroglial membrane remodeling. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Cyclic nucleotides achieve signaling specificity through compartmentation, a mechanism allowing effective regulation of cAMP or cGMP signaling in discrete parts of the cell in a spatial and temporal manner. (queensu.ca)
  • It was shown later that implementation of immune response in germinal centers involves (besides T-helpers, follicular T-helpers) T-regulatory cells that could produce a positive effect in FL owing to specific features of the regulation or B-cell response. (scirp.org)
  • Heart rate (HR) regulation by the autonomic nervous system is integrated by specialized autorhythmic (pacemaker) cells located within the sinoatrial node (SAN). (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of -arrestin in R126N-CCR5-expressing cells resulted in receptor down-regulation, thereby suggesting that R126N-CCR5 spontaneously interacts with -arrestins. (39kf.com)
  • However, our knowledge of how receptors, cAMP signaling enzymes, effectors, and other key proteins form specific signaling complexes to regulate specific cell responses is limited. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The multicomponent nature of these systems and the spatiotemporal dynamics involved as proteins interact and move within a cell make cAMP responses highly complex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The differential expression of these various proteins allows modulation of signals at many levels, resulting in messages that are customized for a specific cell type. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The main corticosterone compartment in rat blood is that specifically bound to plasma proteins, with smaller compartments bound to blood cells or free. (jove.com)
  • Liquid Marbles as an Easy‐to‐Handle Compartment for Cell‐Free Synthesis and In Situ Immobilization of Recombinant Proteins. (genefrontier.com)
  • These proteins have recently emerged as inhibitory candidates of parasympathetic signaling in autorhythmic cells of the SAN because expression of RGS-resistant Gα i2 or Gα o in mice reduced pacemaker cell automaticity. (ahajournals.org)
  • given the absence of a cell wall, surface proteins including lipoproteins and transmembrane polypeptides are expected to play key roles in spiroplasma/host interactions. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • With an interest in compartmentation as a way of controlling glycosyltransferase activity, as well as a general interest in how proteins are localized in the Golgi, several investigators have been studying the signals and mechanisms that direct glycosyltransferase Golgi localization. (go.jp)
  • SUMOylation, a posttranslational modification of proteins, has been recently described as vital in eukaryotic cells. (chemweb.com)
  • Production of Th2 cytokines increased in the infected Arg1 −/flox ;LysMcre mice, and unlike alternatively activated wild-type macrophages, Arg1 −/flox ;LysMcre macrophages failed to inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro , providing an underlying mechanism for the exacerbated Th2 pathology. (plos.org)
  • However, when exogenous L-arginine was provided, T cell proliferation was restored, suggesting that Arg1-expressing macrophages deplete arginine, which is required to sustain CD4 + T cell responses. (plos.org)
  • Results: This study reports AK2 promotion of cell proliferation using the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera and its epidermal cell line HaEpi as models. (docplayer.net)
  • Conclusion: These results show that AK2 regulates cell growth, viability, and proliferation in insect growth and development. (docplayer.net)
  • We demonstrated that HXK1 regulates cell proliferation and expansion early during leaf development, and that HXK1 is involved in sucrose-induced leaf growth stimulation independent of GPT2 . (springer.com)
  • Here, we used a hxk1 mutant in the Col-0 background to investigate the role of HXK1 during leaf growth in more detail and show that it is affected in both cell proliferation and cell expansion early during leaf development. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the hxk1 mutant is less sensitive to sucrose-induced cell proliferation with no significant increase in final leaf growth after transfer to sucrose. (springer.com)
  • Statins inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence neointima formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we report that spontaneous filamentation of IMPDH is correlated with rapid cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using IMPDH2 CBS domain mutant cell models, which are unable to form the cytoophidium, we have determined that the cytoophidium is of the utmost importance for maintaining the GTP pool and normal cell proliferation in the condition that higher IMPDH activity is required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis of frozen, hydrated leaf tissues showed greatly enhanced Zn accumulation in the epidermis compared with the mesophyll cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The relative Zn concentration in the epidermal cells correlated linearly with cell length in both young and mature leaves, suggesting that vacuolation of epidermal cells may promote the preferential Zn accumulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • CTLA-4 engagement inhibits IL-2 accumulation and cell cycle progression upon activation of resting T cells. (rupress.org)
  • In both species, expression of SEIPIN1 promoted accumulation of large-sized lipid droplets, while expression of SEIPIN2 and especially SEIPIN3 promoted small LDs . (plantcell.org)
  • In addition to silencing ( 38 ), SIR2 suppresses recombination between tandem copies of rRNA genes ( 10 ) and thus reduces the formation of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) circles and their accumulation in mother cells, a function critical for maintenance of mother-cell life span ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • If one bathes cells in a catecholamine, such as epinephrine, β -adrenergic receptors are activated and a cAMP signal is generated in the cytosol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, the pharmacological reality is that at least 20-30 of these receptors couple G α s , stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, and promote cAMP production. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Epithelial cells, and the tight junctions between them, form a polarized barrier between luminal and serosal fluid compartments and segregate luminal growth factors from their basal-lateral receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Breakdown of this barrier should allow access of growth factors in the luminal fluid to their receptors on the basal-lateral cell membranes, as recently demonstrated for heregulin and erbB receptors in airway epithelia. (sciencemag.org)
  • He has a special interest in the manner in which cells 'sense' nutrients in their external environment and the role of nutrient-sensing receptors in the metabolic basis of health and disease. (edu.au)
  • These studies demonstrate that a PDE3B-based signaling complex allows integration of both cAMP and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-γ (PI3Kγ) signals resulting in increased cell adhesion and cell spreading. (queensu.ca)
  • Constitutively active but not kinase-inactive PKCθ activated IKKβ in Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • but not calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKKβ)] in cell-free assays was markedly promoted by AMP and, to a smaller extent and less potently, by ADP. (portlandpress.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a key regulator of phosphoinositide-dependent signaling in mammalian cells and its dysfunction is related to multiple syndromes, including cancer. (microbialcell.com)
  • Caveolae are enriched in sphingolipid and cholesterol, making these lipid domains more buoyant than other portions of the cell and facilitating their isolation using sucrose density centrifugation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both B1 and B2 had characteristics of lipid rafts, i.e. high galactosylceramide and cholesterol content and enrichment in GPI-linked 120-kDa neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)120, as found by others for the single low-density DIG fraction obtained by procedure 2. (wiley.com)
  • Since metabolic features of breast tumour cells are critical in cancer progression and drug resistance, we hypothesized that the lipid content of malignant cells might be a useful indirect measure of cancer progression. (chemweb.com)
  • Multivariate Curve Resolution analysis led to the conclusion that this transition affects the lipid profile of cells, increasing tryptophan but maintaining a low fatty acid content in comparison with highly metastatic cells. (chemweb.com)
  • In the presence of hydrophobic BS such as TDCA, the exposure to ethanol promotes a marked inhibition of bile secretion and vesicular exocytosis as well as prominent mitochondrial damage. (wiley.com)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • Mandatory criteria include confirmed mature B-cell nature of the tumor, CD20 expression, and if needing additional markers (bcl-2, bcl-6, MUM- 1), B-cell clonality and other criteria are used. (scirp.org)
  • As a whole the tumor content is polymorphous with T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) found within malignant germinal centers besides B-cells. (scirp.org)
  • At the beginning of the 21st century the investigators paid attention to the fact that this hemopoietic tissue tumor was in many respects regulated by cells of so called non-tumor environment, i.e. (scirp.org)
  • Infiltration of tumor tissue by immune cells was reflected by gene expression profiles in the tumor tissue. (scirp.org)
  • Two types of immune response were defined accordingly that were associated with microenvironment cells infiltrating the tumor. (scirp.org)
  • ROS overproduction is a feature of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • In noninfected cells, phenylephrine (PE) and endothelin-1 (ET) increased cell size and [ 3 H]leucine incorporation, along with the induction of sarcomeric reorganization and the reexpression of β-myosin heavy chain, indicating myocyte hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ad.Cav-3 prevented the PE- and ET-induced increases in cell size, leucine incorporation, sarcomeric reorganization, and reexpression of β-myosin heavy chain. (ahajournals.org)
  • These filamentous structures have been referred to as cytoplasmic rods and rings, cytoophidia (from the Greek "cyto" meaning cell and "ophidium" meaning serpent, due to the structures morphology) or simply CTP synthase filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjunction with the damage-associated alarmin molecule HMGB1, CXCL12 mediates immune effector and stem/progenitor cell migration towards damaged tissues for subsequent repair. (chemweb.com)
  • Non-canonical NF-κB pathway subunits RelB and p52 are also both essential for cell migration towards CXCL12, suggesting that IKKα is required to drive non-canonical NF-κB signaling. (chemweb.com)
  • Gilger BC, Yang P, Salmon JH, Jaffe GJ, Allen JB (2002) Asseveration of a chemokine close cili- ary main part epithelium in horses with by character occurring cyclical uveitis and in cultured ciliary main part epithelial cells. (autoportal.ru)
  • We are just now gaining the knowledge and expertise to study the morphology and structural mechanisms by which cells compartment signaling components to begin to assess how the localization and translocation of a receptor and its effectors can influence its signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These residues are phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner in vivo, being phosphorylated when SWI5 is in the cytoplasm and dephosphorylated when it is in the nucleus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • found that roots of T. caerulescens and the nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense had similar apparent K m values for Zn 2+ , but that the V max in the former was 4.5-fold higher than that in the latter species, indicating that the hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens possessed more Zn 2+ -transport sites in the plasma membranes of root cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 9 During preclinical RA, when autoreactive T cells expand and immunological tolerance is broken, the main sites of disease are the secondary lymphoid tissues. (emjreviews.com)
  • Astiz M, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA (2009b) Effect of pesticides on cell survival in liver and brain rat tissues. (springer.com)
  • This property may have adaptive value for epithelial tissues in general, as an elegant response to injury, but may also promote cancer formation in premalignant epithelial tissues in which the tight junctions have become chronically leaky to growth factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • 11 However, the role of caveolin-3 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy still remains unknown: it might promote hypertrophy, might inhibit hypertrophy, or might simply be a consequence of hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. (jove.com)
  • Macrophage-specific expression of Arginase-1 is commonly believed to promote inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing by enhancing L-proline, polyamine, and Th2 cytokine production. (plos.org)
  • Stem cell development involves divergent thyroid hormone receptor subtype expression and epigenetic modifications in the Xenopus metamorphosing intestine. (genefrontier.com)
  • Constitutive expression of bcl-2 in B cells causes a lethal form of lupuslike autoimmune disease after induction of neonatal tolerance to H-2b alloantigens. (rupress.org)
  • Here we summarize some technical and theoretical aspects of synthetic cells based on gene expression and other enzymatic reactions inside liposomes, and comment on the most recent trends. (mdpi.com)
  • The resulting SCs will function by enzyme catalysis and/or by gene expression, closely mimicking biological cells with respect to structure and function. (mdpi.com)
  • Functional cloning of candidate genes that regulate purkinje cell-specific gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Whereas increased expression of Bcl-2 promotes malignancies such as human follicular lymphoma , the precise role of the EBV encoded Bcl-2 homolog BHRF1 in EBV-associated malignancies is less well defined. (prolekare.cz)
  • Of note, the constitutive expression of BHRF1 permits lymphoblastoid immortalization by EBV and their prolonged survival , and together with expression of BHRF1 during normal B cells transformation suggests a role for BHRF1 in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, although expression of -arrestin favored wild-type CCR5-mediated chemotaxis, it failed to promote migration of cells expressing R126N-CCR5. (39kf.com)
  • These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This microenvironment is rich in metabolic intermediates that are released into the extracellular space to shape cell-cell communication and the functional activity of tissue-resident cells. (emjreviews.com)
  • In clinical RA, immune cells coexist with stromal cells in the acidic milieu of the inflamed joint. (emjreviews.com)
  • T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, endogenous PKCθ physically associates with activated IKK complexes in CD3/CD28-costimulated primary CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the mechanism of NF-κB activation by the TCR/CD28 is unclear, we have recently shown that CD28 synergizes with TCR in the activation of homo- and heterodimeric IKK complexes in primary human T cells ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We addressed whether complexes containing different γ isoforms display different responses to adenine nucleotides by generating cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged versions of the γ1, γ2 or γ3 isoform. (portlandpress.com)
  • We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity) - a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3-5 The activation of T cells, which produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17, is involved in the pathogenesis of RA. (emjreviews.com)
  • Simple torpedo cells also are contrived nearby HIV infection, as they are dependent on cytokines secreted via the CD4 cells in behalf of unfolding of functionality. (kavalerist.ru)
  • In cholesterol-loaded cells, lovastatin reduced the cholesteryl esters of unsaturated but not those of saturated fatty acids. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo) E mRNA levels increased but apoE secretion into the medium decreased with lovastatin treatment in both cholesterol-loaded and nonloaded cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cytotoxicity of high doses of vitamin C in cancer cells appears to be related to excessive reactive oxygen species generation and the resulting suppression of the energy production via glycolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • A hallmark of cancer cells is a strongly upregulated aerobic glycolysis, which elevates its relative importance as a source of ATP (Adenosine 5′-triphosphate). (mdpi.com)
  • Using cultured cell lines, we tested the ability of BHRF1 to confer resistance against a range of apoptotic stimuli, especially those used for cancer chemotherapy. (prolekare.cz)
  • In breast cancer the presence of cells undergoing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is indicative of metastasis progression. (chemweb.com)
  • Supporting those results, a Partial Least Square-Discriminant analysis was performed to test the ability of Raman spectroscopy to discriminate the initial steps of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells. (chemweb.com)
  • Here, we will refer to all these cell-like systems shortly as synthetic cells (SCs), but most of the discussion will be focused on SCs built from biomolecules as DNA, RNA, ribosomes, enzymes, etc. encapsulated within liposomes. (mdpi.com)
  • To avoid carbon dioxide being captured by both enzymes, C 4 plants evolved to relocate RuBisCO from the mesophyll to a second set of cells in an airtight structure known as the bundle sheath. (elifesciences.org)
  • Finally, studies in VSMCs demonstrate that PDE5 localization in cells allows cAMP/cGMP cross talk through PDE5 and PDE3A. (queensu.ca)
  • Adding another layer of complexity, localization of lipids within the cell appears to influence the relationship between these lipids and insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By expressing deletion mutants of LAP2 in cultured cells, we have identified multiple regions in its nucleoplasmic domain that promote localization at the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • No other retinal cell types were affected by GDF-11 knockout, but a slight reduction in photoreceptor cells was observed by GDF-15 knockout in the developing retina in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • Application of plant growth promoting substances and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for phytostabilisation of mine tailings. (sun.ac.za)
  • associated cAMP signaling by isoform-specific displacement of bound phosphodiesterase is demonstrated to increase retinal ganglion cell survival in vivo in mice of both sexes following optic nerve crush injury. (stanford.edu)
  • that is necessary and sufficient for the induction of neurite outgrowth in vitro and for the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vivo following optic nerve injury. (stanford.edu)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the osteogenic precursor cells are transfected ex vivo. (google.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the osteogenic precursor cells are transfected in vivo by direct injection of the isolated nucleic acid molecule. (google.com)
  • Putative roles for this heterodimeric interaction have been proposed for both the hepatocyte and pancreatic β-cells, which express different isoforms of PFK2 ( 8 , 31 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • It is widely accepted that cAMP signaling is compartmentalized within cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This review will focus on what is known about how cells organize cAMP signaling components as well as identify the unknowns. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results are discussed in the context of further understanding the role of PDEs in mediating cAMP and cGMP signaling and modulation of cell function in cells of the cardiovascular system. (queensu.ca)
  • The compartmentation of glycosyltransferases in specific cisternae of the Golgi apparatus can control their access to glycoconjugate substrates and sugar nucleotide donors and thus the types of oligosaccharide structures made by the cell. (go.jp)
  • The invention further provides vectors comprising nucleotide sequences that encode LMP, as well as host cells comprising those vectors. (google.com)
  • Moreover, overexpression of PAG in Jurkat cells downregulates T cell receptor-mediated activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Following ocular trauma or in diseases such as glaucoma, irreversible vision loss is due to the death of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • However, increased or reduced NADPH availability by knock-out or overexpression of GRE3 , the NADPH-dependent aldose reductase gene, eliminated or exacerbated the cold-growth defect observed in YEpGDH1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)