Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (1/3288)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts. (2/3288)

The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by +info)

Double-strand break repair in yeast requires both leading and lagging strand DNA polymerases. (3/3288)

Mitotic double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion at MAT in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed molecularly in mutant strains thermosensitive for essential replication factors. The processivity cofactors PCNA and RFC are essential even to synthesize as little as 30 nucleotides following strand invasion. Both PCNA-associated DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are important for gene conversion, though a temperature-sensitive Pol epsilon mutant is more severe than one in Pol delta. Surprisingly, mutants of lagging strand replication, DNA polymerase alpha (pol1-17), DNA primase (pri2-1), and Rad27p (rad27 delta) also greatly inhibit completion of DSB repair, even in G1-arrested cells. We propose a novel model for DSB-induced gene conversion in which a strand invasion creates a modified replication fork, involving leading and lagging strand synthesis from the donor template. Replication is terminated by capture of the second end of the DSB.  (+info)

Studies on the interactions between human replication factor C and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (4/3288)

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a processivity factor required for DNA polymerase delta (or epsilon)-catalyzed DNA synthesis. When loaded onto primed DNA templates by replication factor C (RFC), PCNA acts to tether the polymerase to DNA, resulting in processive DNA chain elongation. In this report, we describe the identification of two separate peptide regions of human PCNA spanning amino acids 36-55 and 196-215 that bind RFC by using the surface plasmon resonance technique. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues within these regions in human PCNA identified two specific sites that affected the biological activity of PCNA. Replacement of the aspartate 41 residue by an alanine, serine, or asparagine significantly impaired the ability of PCNA to (i) support the RFC/PCNA-dependent polymerase delta-catalyzed elongation of a singly primed DNA template; (ii) stimulate RFC-catalyzed DNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP; (iii) be loaded onto DNA by RFC; and (iv) activate RFC-independent polymerase delta-catalyzed synthesis of poly dT. Introduction of an alanine at position 210 in place of an arginine also reduced the efficiency of PCNA in supporting RFC-dependent polymerase delta-catalyzed elongation of a singly primed DNA template. However, this mutation did not significantly alter the ability of PCNA to stimulate DNA polymerase delta in the absence of RFC but substantially lowered the efficiency of RFC-catalyzed reactions. These results are in keeping with a model in which surface exposed regions of PCNA interact with RFC and the subsequent loading of PCNA onto DNA orients the elongation complex in a manner essential for processive DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Replication-dependent marking of DNA by PCNA facilitates CAF-1-coupled inheritance of chromatin. (5/3288)

Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is required for inheritance of epigenetically determined chromosomal states in vivo and promotes assembly of chromatin during DNA replication in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate that after DNA replication, replicated, but not unreplicated, DNA is also competent for CAF-1-dependent chromatin assembly. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase clamp, is a component of the replication-dependent marking of DNA for chromatin assembly. The clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), can reverse this mark by unloading PCNA from the replicated DNA. PCNA binds directly to p150, the largest subunit of CAF-1, and the two proteins colocalize at sites of DNA replication in cells. We suggest that PCNA and CAF-1 connect DNA replication to chromatin assembly and the inheritance of epigenetic chromosome states.  (+info)

Effect of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing. (6/3288)

PURPOSE: To establish whether fucoidin, by blocking the adhesion of leukocytes on the limbal vascular endothelium, prevents extravasation of the cells from the blood stream into the limbal stroma and the wounded area after corneal injury. Successful leukocyte blocking enabled investigation of the influence of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation after corneal wounding. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and a standardized alkali corneal wound were used as models in two sets of experiments. In half of the injured rabbits fucoidin was used to prevent leukocytes from leaving the local vessels. The efficiency of the blocking technique was evaluated by counting the number of leukocytes in the limbal and wounded corneal areas. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used as a marker for proliferative activity. RESULTS: The infiltration of leukocytes into the limbus and the cornea after PRK and alkali injuries can be blocked by fucoidin. The healing rate of corneal epithelium after alkali burn was retarded in the absence of leukocytes. PCNA expression was enhanced in the presence of leukocytes. Fucoidin per se had no influence on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can be prevented from entering the cornea in vivo by fucoidin after PRK and after alkali burn. The corneal epithelial healing rate is delayed in the absence of PMNs in vivo, and PCNA expression increases in the presence of leukocytes.  (+info)

Protective effects of transient HO-1 overexpression on susceptibility to oxygen toxicity in lung cells. (7/3288)

Rat fetal lung cells (RFL-6) were transiently transfected with a full-length rat heme oxygenase (HO)-1 cDNA construct and then exposed to hyperoxia (95% O2-5% CO2) for 48 h. Total HO activity and HO-1 protein were measured as well as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and total glutathione to measure oxidative injury. HO-1 overexpression resulted in increased total HO activity (2-fold), increased HO-1 protein (1.5-fold), and increased cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry revealed perinuclear HO-1 localization, followed by migration to the nucleus by day 3. Decreased cell death, protein oxidation, and lipid peroxidation but increased LDH release and glutathione depletion were seen with HO-1 overexpression. Reactive iron content could not explain the apparent loss of cell membrane integrity. With the addition of tin mesoporphyrin, total HO activity was decreased and all changes in injury parameters were normalized to control values. We conclude that moderate overexpression of HO-1 is protective against oxidative injury, but we speculate that there is a beneficial threshold of HO-1 expression.  (+info)

p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in stage I cutaneous malignant melanoma: its relationship with p53, cell proliferation and survival. (8/3288)

The expression of p21, p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was analysed by immunohistochemistry in a consecutive series of 369 clinical stage I cutaneous malignant melanoma patients. Correlation of the detected expression levels with each other, with clinicopathological data and with melanoma survival were statistically evaluated. p21 expression was significantly associated with p53 and PCNA expression levels. In addition, high levels of p53 and PCNA were significantly interrelated. Tumour thickness, recurrent disease, high TNM category and older (> or = 55 years) age at diagnosis were inversely associated with p21 expression. Gender, bleeding, tumour thickness, Clark's level of invasion, TNM category and p53 index were all important predictors of both recurrence-free and overall survival of melanoma. In Cox's multivariate analysis including 164 patients with a complete set of data, only high tumour thickness and bleeding predicted poor recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0042 and 0.0087 respectively) or overall survival (P = 0.0147 and 0.0033 respectively). Even though elevated p21 expression may be associated with more favourable prognosis in clinical stage I cutaneous melanoma, our results suggest that cell cycle regulatory effects of p21 can be overcome by some other and stronger, partly yet unknown, mechanisms.  (+info)

Product information: Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - - Product info
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of Duyiwei(lamiophlomis rotate) capsule on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) in Wistar rats.METHODS:40 Wistar rats,half male half female,were randomly divided into 5 groups:model group,PTCA group,Duyiwei(Lamiophlomis rotate) capsule 0.50,1.25,2.50 g/kg,positive control group(salvia miltrorrhiza tablet 1.0 g/kg).Oral administration of drugs was performed in each group,continuously 5 days.Then all rats were treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty(PTCA) for the establishment of carotid balloon injury model.Then drug treatment continued after PTCA for 28 days.Carotid artery segment underwent routine biopsy immunohistochemistry and PCNA expression determination.RESULTS:In the normal artery,these was low level or no expression of PCNA.In the arterial intima of the model groups,33.71%was PCNA-positivewith each dose of Duyiwei capsule group showing significant differences(P0.05).CONCLUSION:Duyiwei capsule significantly inhibited the
Define Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen synonyms, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen pronunciation, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen translation, English dictionary definition of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. also an·ti·gene n. A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a versatile protein involved in all pathways of DNA metabolism. It is best known as a processivity factor for classical polymerases, which synthesize DNA on non-damaged templates during DNA replication (ex: pol δ). Non-classical polymerases, on the other hand, are those that synthesize DNA on damaged templates (ex: pol η). PCNA also functions in repair, recombination, and most other DNA-dependent cellular processes. A number of separation of function mutant PCNA proteins have been identified, suggesting that PCNA could be a valuable target to manipulate DNA metabolism. This thesis focuses on the study of PCNA mutant proteins that affect translesion synthesis (TLS) and mismatch repair (MMR). During TLS, the process by which DNA polymerases replicate through DNA lesions, PCNA recruits and stabilizes polymerases at the replication fork. TLS requires the monoubiquitylation of PCNA, and PCNA and ubiquitin-modified PCNA (Ub-PCNA) stimulate TLS by classical and
Anti-PCNA polyclonal antibody (STJ94982) was developed using a synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human PCNA at AA range: 30-110. This antibody is applicable for use in western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA protocol.
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in response to hyperglycemia is an important process in the development of arterial vessel hyperplasia. The shape change of mitochondria is dynamic and closely related to fission and fusion. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was confirmed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, little it is known about its effects on mitochondrial morphology induced by hyperglycemia. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that H2S inhibits VSMC proliferation through regulating mitochondrial fission. We observe lower H2S levels as well as higher proliferative protein expression levels for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and higher mitochondrial fusion-fission protein expression levels for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) in human kidney arteries and in db/db mouse aorta. Exogenous H2S (100 μM NaHS) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary aorta(HPASMC) proliferation and migration in response to high
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in response to hyperglycemia is an important process in the development of arterial vessel hyperplasia. The shape change of mitochondria is dynamic and closely related to fission and fusion. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was confirmed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, little it is known about its effects on mitochondrial morphology induced by hyperglycemia. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that H2S inhibits VSMC proliferation through regulating mitochondrial fission. We observe lower H2S levels as well as higher proliferative protein expression levels for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and higher mitochondrial fusion-fission protein expression levels for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) in human kidney arteries and in db/db mouse aorta. Exogenous H2S (100 μM NaHS) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary aorta(HPASMC) proliferation and migration in response to high
1VYJ: Structural and biochemical studies of human PCNA complexes provide the basis for association with CDK/cyclin and rationale for inhibitor design
The major transcription initiation site (cap site) of PCNA is localized 89 bp upstream from the ATG codon. Neither a TATA box nor a CAAT box is found within the 600-bp region upstream of the cap site. Clusters of 10 bp of sequence, similar to the binding sites for Drosophila proteins containing homeodomains, were found in the region from -127 to -413. DNase I footprint analysis reveals that the Drosophila homeodomain proteins coded by even-skipped and zerknullt genes can specifically bind to these sites. There are two sequences, starting at -52 and -39, of which 8 and 7 (respectively) of 10 nucleotides match the consensus sequence for HeLa cell transcription factor Sp 1 binding. These results suggest that the expression of the PCNA gene is under the control of genes coding for homeodomain proteins (Yamaguchi, 1990). The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter function resides within a 192-bp region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site). Cotransfection with a ...
The effects of 20 μg/mL exogenous prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) were determined on Bax, Bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels in MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a pronounced increase in the S phase and a decrease in the G1 phase, whereas a significant increase in the DNA content preceding the G0/G1 peak was also observed after 48 h of exposure to PGA2. Confirmation of apoptosis was determined after 12 h, 36 h and 48 h of PGA2 exposure employing the mitosensor reagent that detects potential changes in the mitochondrial membrane. Twenty-eight percent of PGA2-exposed cells were in apoptosis when compared to the 7.1% vehicle-treated cells after 48 h. PGA2 exposure led to statistically significant increase (1.25-fold) over vehicle-treated controls in Bax expression levels. Decreases in Bcl-2 (0.79-fold), as well as PCNA (0.69-fold) expression levels over vehicle-treated controls were observed. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio for PGA2-exposed cells was 2.7. The present ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p 53 protein correlate with prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.. AU - Kurokawa, H.. AU - Yamashita, Yoshihisa. AU - Takeda, S.. AU - Miura, K.. AU - Murata, T.. AU - Kajiyama, M.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - Few Data are available regarding expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) versus overexpression of p 53 protein and prognosis for oral squamous cell carcinoma (O-SCC). This study evaluated the relationship between expression of PCNA and p 53 protein and certain clinical and pathologic parameters to prognosis in O-SCC. Scattered PCNA immunoreactive cells were found in 50 of 51 (98.0%) tumors. The mean PCNA-labelling index (PCNA-LI) of O-SCC was 34.7 +/- 12.0% (n = 50). The PCNA-LI was significantly high in O-SCC when compared to normal squamous epithelium (3.9 +/- 2.1%, n = 10). Altogether, 28 of 51 (54.9%) tumors showed nuclear immunoreactive for the p 53 protein. p ...
A cDNA encoding a protein of 36 kDa, polymerase delta-interacting protein 1 (PDIP1), that interacts with the small subunit (p50) of DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) was identified in a two-hybrid screen of a HepG2 cDNA library by using p50 as bait. The interaction of PDIP1 with p50 was confirmed by pull-down assays, and a similar assay was used to demonstrate that PDIP1 interacts directly with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA and p50 bound to PDIP1 simultaneously, and PDIP1 stimulated pol δ activity in vitro in the presence, but not the absence, of PCNA, suggesting that PDIP1 also interacts functionally with both p50 and PCNA. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated that PDIP1 is a nuclear protein that colocalizes with PCNA at replication foci. A putative PCNA-binding motif was identified within the C terminus of PDIP1, and a synthetic peptide containing this PCNA-binding motif was shown to bind PCNA by far-Western analysis. Northern analysis demonstrated that PDIP1 mRNA is present
Author Summary DNA damage can block replication and lead to mutations, genomic instability, and cancer. In cases when the removal of DNA damage and restoration of the original sequence prior to replication is impossible, cells utilize DNA damage tolerance mechanisms, which help replication to bypass the lesions. A major universal tolerance mechanism is translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases elongate the DNA across the lesion. This is a double-edged sword because the price of completing replication is an increased risk of point mutations opposite the lesion. Thus, TLS regulation is critical for preventing an escalation in mutation rates. A key element in TLS regulation is the attachment of a small protein called ubiquitin to the PCNA protein, a sliding DNA clamp that tethers the DNA polymerases to DNA, which functions to recruit the TLS DNA polymerase to the damaged site in DNA. While in yeast this modification of PCNA is crucial for TLS, there is a debate
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In humans, at least a dozen proteins are known to dock with PCNA. Each of them docks with PCNA by inserting a kind of key known as a PCNA-interacting protein, or PIP-box, which binds chemically to the PCNA and holds the docked protein on the DNA strand. Each protein that binds with PCNA has its own version of the key, but all the keys fit into the same lock, said Shamoo. There is a hierarchy among the PIP-box proteins, with some winning out and trumping others before they get a chance to bind. By deciphering the structure of two of these keys, while they were in the lock, we were able to determine their binding energies and find out how the strongest key -- the trump card -- blocks the others and shuts down DNA replication ...
Background: Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is an isoform of actin, positive in myofibroblasts and is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. EMT is a process by which tumor cells develop to be more hostile and able to metastasize. Progression of tumor cells is always followed by cell composition and extracellular matrix component alteration. Increased α-SMA expression and collagen alteration may predict the progressivity of ovarian neoplasms. Objective: The aim of this research was to analyse the characteristic of α-SMA and collagen in tumor cells and stroma of ovarian neoplasms. In this study, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression was also investigated. Methods: Thirty samples were collected including serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell subtypes. The expression of α-SMA and PCNA were calculated in cells and stroma of ovarian tumors. Collagen was detected using Sirius Red staining and presented as area fraction. Results: The overexpressions of α-SMA in
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Replicative DNA polymerases cannot insert efficiently nucleotides at sites of base lesions. This function is taken over by specialized translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases to allow DNA replication completion in the presence of DNA damage. In eukaryotes, Rad6- and Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitination at lysine 164 promotes recruitment of TLS polymerases, allowing cells to efficiently cope with DNA damage. However, several studies showed that TLS polymerases can be recruited also in the absence of PCNA ubiquitination. We hypothesized that the stability of the interactions between DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) subunits and/or between Pol δ and PCNA at the primer/template junction is a crucial factor to determine the requirement of PCNA ubiquitination. To test this hypothesis, we used a structural mutant of Pol δ in which the interaction between Pol3 and Pol31 is inhibited. We found that in yeast, rad18Δ-associated UV hypersensitivity is suppressed by pol3-ct, a mutant allele of the POL3 gene ...
PCNA ubiquitination in response to DNA damage leads to the recruitment of specialized translesion polymerases to the damage locus. This constitutes one of the initial steps in translesion synthesis (TLS)-a critical pathway for cell survival and for maintenance of genome stability. The recent crystal structure of ubiquitinated PCNA (Ub-PCNA) sheds light on the mode of association between the two proteins but also revealed that paradoxically, the ubiquitin surface engaged in PCNA interactions was the same as the surface implicated in translesion polymerase binding. This finding implied a degree of flexibility inherent in the Ub-PCNA complex that would allow it to transition into a conformation competent to bind the TLS polymerase. To address the issue of segmental flexibility, we combined multiscale computational modeling and small angle X-ray scattering. This combined strategy revealed alternative positions for ubiquitin to reside on the surface of the PCNA homotrimer, distinct from the position ...
CRP (C-reactive protein) is regarded as an inflammatory biomarker in AKI (acute kidney injury), but its exact role in AKI remains unclear. Thus we sought to investigate the role of CRP in AKI. Clinically, elevated serum CRP levels were found to associate closely with increased serum creatinine and urea levels ( P ,0.01) in patients with AKI, which then fell after recovery from AKI. To determine the role of CRP in AKI, an ischaemia/reperfusion mouse model of AKI was developed using Tg (transgenic) mice that express human CRP. Compared with the WT (wild-type) mice, CRP Tg mice developed more severe renal injury at 24 h after ischaemia as determined by significantly increased serum creatinine and tubular necrosis. This was associated with an impaired TEC (tubular epithelium cell) regeneration as shown by an over 60% reduction in PCNA + (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) and BrdU + (bromodeoxyuridine) TECs in CRP Tg mice with AKI. In vitro , the addition of CRP to a human TEC line (HK-2) also ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Looking for nuclear antigen? Find out information about nuclear antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of nuclear antigen
DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) reestablishes methylation of hemimethylated CpG sites generated during DNA replication in mammalian cells. Two subdomains, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding domain (PBD) and the targeting sequence (TS) domain, target Dnmt1 to the replication sites in S phase. We aimed to dissect the details of the cell cycle-dependent coordinated activity of both domains. To that end, we combined super-resolution 3D-structured illumination microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments of GFP-Dnmt1 wild type and mutant constructs in somatic mouse cells. To interpret the differences in FRAP kinetics, we refined existing data analysis and modeling approaches to (i) account for the heterogeneous and variable distribution of Dnmt1-binding sites in different cell cycle stages; (ii) allow diffusion-coupled dynamics; (iii) accommodate multiple binding classes. We find that transient PBD-dependent interaction directly at replication sites ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab15497 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC/IF…PCNA抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
The hMPBD motif resembles a sequence in the tumor suppressor p21WAF1. This sequence (KRRQTSMTDFYHSKRRLIFS, corresponding to codons 141 to 160 of p21WAF1) binds tightly to PCNA and inhibits the in vitro replication of SV40 DNA (8). We therefore compared the ability of the synthetic peptides corresponding to wtWPBD (wild-type p21WAF1-PCNA binding domain), wtMPBD, and a chimeric MPBD-WPBD (Fig. 4B) to disrupt the MPBD-PCNA interaction. Less rPCNA bound to immobilized GST-MPBD after pretreatment of rPCNA with wtWPBD relative to pretreatment with wtMPBD (Fig. 4B). Similar results were observed when the wtWPBD and wtMPBD peptides were added to preformed GST-MPBD and PCNA complex (Fig. 4B). Because the chimeric peptide failed to compete, this result suggests that residues within the NH2- and COOH-termini of WPBD and MPBD are noninterchangeable and may contain unique PCNA-binding determinants.. What is the relation among MCMT, PCNA, and p21WAF1 in intact cells? Surprisingly, analysis of asynchronous ...
RNase H2B is a non-catalytic subunit of RNase H2, which removes both misincorporated ribonucleotides and R-loops from DNA. RNase H2B contains a PIP-box PCNA interaction motif and is responsible for nuclear localisation and interaction of RNase H2 with the DNA replication and repair machinery. We show that RNase H2 subunits are differentially expressed in several cancers. In colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and cell lines, about 20% of cases have high RNase H2B expression, which correlates with decreased disease-free survival. We have generated RNase H2B- overexpressing CRC cells lines and show that RNase H2B overexpression reduces replication fork stalling and increases cell survival in response to replication stress ...
Rectal mucosal proliferation has been promoted as an intermediate marker for risk of colorectal neoplasia. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry has become a standard method to measure cell proliferation. Whole-crypt dissection may provide a technically simpler method for determining proliferation within an entire crypt. We conducted a study to assess the reliability (reproducibility) of whole-crypt dissection in 10 subjects. Reliability of whole-crypt dissection with the subject as the unit of observation was excellent. The intraclass correlation coefficient for subjects was 0.93. Biopsy-to-biopsy reliability was lower (r=0.86) and crypt-to-crypt reliability lower still (r = 0.35). There was poor correlation between measures of proliferation index using the two techniques (Kendalls tau = 0.13; P = 0.08). Compartment analysis based on the percentage of the total number of labeled cells appearing in each crypt quartile also did not demonstrate a significant correlation ...
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Proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibody to detect human Proliferating cell nuclear antigen . Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; This protein is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and is involved in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication by increasing the polymerases processibility during elongation of the leading strand (266 aa ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PCNA Antibody (3A9). Proliferation Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Crystal Structure of the Shrimp Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Structural Complementarity with WSSV DNA Polymerase PIP-Box Jesus S. Carrasco-Miranda, Alonso A. Lopez-Zavala, Aldo A. Arvizu-Flores, Karina D. Garcia-Orozco, Vivian Stojanoff, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Luis G. Brieba ,Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo PLoS ONE 9(4): e94369. ...
Differential posttranslational modification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by ubiquitin or SUMO plays an important role in coordinating the processes of DNA replication and DNA damage tolerance. Previously it was shown that the loss of
Characterization of a large form of DNA polymerase delta from HeLa cells that is insensitive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant PCNA. Recombinant protein corresponding to human PCNA. (PAB12722) - Products - Abnova
1W60: Structural and Biochemical Studies of Human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Complexes Provide a Rationale for Cyclin Association and Inhibitor Design
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Cerberus291957d ago Frank doesnt really go into detail about the large scale battles. He just mentions that there are some in the campaign. He also talks about Spartan Ops a little bit and there being a little less emphasis on vehicles in MP due to the addition of sprint. ...
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The post-operative recovery period varies based on the particular surgery. Generally, it is recommended patients take two weeks off work to recover from any surgery and to resume light duty following resumption of work. Your surgeon will give you specific instructions to follow for a successful recovery.. ...
In mammalian cells, DNA damage increases the levels of the nuclear tumour-suppressor p53, resulting in elevated synthesis of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). p21 may also directly block DNA replication by inhibiting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential DNA replication protein. However, PCNA is also required for nucleotide-excision repair of DNA, an intrinsic part of the cellular response to ultraviolet irradiation. Using an in vitro system, we now show that p21 does not block PCNA-dependent nucleotide-excision repair, in contrast to its inhibition of simian virus 40 DNA replication. Furthermore, the short gap-filling DNA synthesis by PCNA dependent DNA polymerases δ and ε is less sensitive to inhibition by p21 than is long primer-extension synthesis. The ability of p21 to inhibit the role of PCNA in DNA replication but not in DNA repair rationalizes in vivo data showing that genetic damage leads to inactivation of chromosomal replication while ...
Bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation is a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia; however, little is known if its therapeutic efficacy may be improved by co-administration of potential modulatory factors in vivo. To explore this possibility, the present study examined the effect of BMMCs and G-CSF on cell proliferation, early neuronal development and neurological function recovery in experimental cerebral ischemia relative to controls that received neither treatment. Ischemia/infarct area was significantly reduced in BMMCs+G-CSF group relative to animal groups treated with BMMCs only, G-CSF only or saline. Transplanted BMMCs were found to colocalize with the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX). The BMMCs+G-CSF group showed increased numerical density of cells expressing PCNA and DCX, improved performance in adhesive sticker removal test and reduced neurological function severity scores relative to other groups in a time-dependent
Bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation is a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia; however, little is known if its therapeutic efficacy may be improved by co-administration of potential modulatory factors in vivo. To explore this possibility, the present study examined the effect of BMMCs and G-CSF on cell proliferation, early neuronal development and neurological function recovery in experimental cerebral ischemia relative to controls that received neither treatment. Ischemia/infarct area was significantly reduced in BMMCs+G-CSF group relative to animal groups treated with BMMCs only, G-CSF only or saline. Transplanted BMMCs were found to colocalize with the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX). The BMMCs+G-CSF group showed increased numerical density of cells expressing PCNA and DCX, improved performance in adhesive sticker removal test and reduced neurological function severity scores relative to other groups in a time-dependent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic role of cyclin d1 in lung cancer relationship to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Caputi, Mario. AU - Groeger, Angela M.. AU - Esposito, Vincenzo. AU - Dean, Charity. AU - De Luca, Antonio. AU - Pacilio, Carmen. AU - Muller, Michael R.. AU - Giordano, Giovan G.. AU - Baldi, Feliciano. AU - Wolner, Ernst. AU - Giordano, Antonio. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - We developed an immunohistochemical assay specific for cyclin D1 and suitable for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections, to evaluate cyclin D1 expression in a group of 135 surgically resected lung-cancer patients for the purpose of investigating the prognostic role of this protein in lung cancer. In addition, we compared cyclin D1 expression with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), considered to be a reliable index of the proliferation rate. We found cyclin D1 expressed in more than 60% of the neoplastic cells in 26.5% of our specimens. A total of 24.5% of the specimens showed ...
p21CDKN1A does not interfere with loading of PCNA at DNA replication sites, but inhibits subsequent binding of DNA polymerase delta at the G1/S phase transition.
Granulocytes of the epigonal and Leydig organs of Rhizoprionodon lalandii were identified and classified into three different cell types, type I and type II eosinophils and neutrophils. the development of these cells in the haematopoietic tissues was dynamic, demonstrated by nuclear immunopositivity for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins and was regulated by various cytokines, including the transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta(1)). the expression pattern of these cells was heterogeneous among individual cells and TGFbeta(1)-immunostaining was found principally in the cytoplasm of immature granulocytes. the presence of TGFbeta(1) in cells about to divide was demonstrated suggesting that modulation of differentiation and proliferation occurs in the haematopoietic tissues of this species of elasmobranch. (C) 2002 the Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Dive into the research topics of Low power laser irradiation stimulates cell proliferation via proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 expression during tissue repair. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chromosome cohesion factor involved in sister chromatid cohesion and fidelity of chromosome transmission. Component of one of the cell nuclear antigen loader complexes, CTF18-replication factor C (CTF18-RFC), which consists of CTF18, CTF8, DCC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4 and RFC5. The CTF18-RFC complex binds to single-stranded and primed DNAs and has weak ATPase activity that is stimulated by the presence of primed DNA, replication protein A (RPA) and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The CTF18-RFC complex catalyzes the ATP-dependent loading of PCNA onto primed and gapped DNA. It also interacts with and stimulates DNA polymerase POLH ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mammalian bromodomain protein, Brd4, interacts with replication factor C and inhibits progression to S phase. AU - Maruyama, Tetsuo. AU - Farina, Andrea. AU - Dey, Anup. AU - Cheong, JaeHun. AU - Bermudez, Vladimir P.. AU - Tamura, Tomohiko. AU - Sciortino, Selvaggia. AU - Shuman, Jon. AU - Hurwitz, Jerard. AU - Ozato, Keiko. PY - 2002/9. Y1 - 2002/9. N2 - Brd4 belongs to the BET family of nuclear proteins that carry two bromodomains implicated in the interaction with chromatin. Expression of Brd4 correlates with cell growth and is induced during early G1 upon mitogenic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of Brd4 in cell growth regulation. We found that ectopic expression of Brd4 in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells inhibits cell cycle progression from G1 to S. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous and transfected Brd4 interacts with replication factor C (RFC), the conserved five-subunit complex essential for DNA replication. In vitro analysis showed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel protein, PDIP38, that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase δ and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Rodriguez-Belmonte, Esther M.. AU - Mazloum, Nayef. AU - Xie, Bin. AU - Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.. PY - 2003/3/21. Y1 - 2003/3/21. N2 - The yeast two-hybrid screening method was used to identify novel proteins that associate with human DNA polymerase δ (pol δ). Two baits were used in this study. These were the large (p125) and small (p50) subunits of the core pol δ heterodimer. p50 was the only positive isolated with p125 as the bait. Two novel protein partners, named PDIP38 and PDIP46, were identified from the p50 screen. In this study, the interaction of PDIP38 with pol δ was further characterized. PDIP38 encodes a protein of 368 amino acids whose C terminus is conserved with the bacterial APAG protein and with the F box A protein. It was found that PDIP38 also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The ...
Following publication of the original article [1], it was reported that Figs. 4 and 5 were not updated during the production process.
Our laboratory previously reported the identification of an acidic isoform of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (caPCNA) in various cancer cells, which appears to be associated, at least in part, with malignant transformation of cells. The current studies show the expression of caPCNA in BXPC-3, Paca-2 and Capan-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Since Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is involved in DNA replication and repair in prokaryote and eukaryote cells, we hypothesize that caPCNA is likely to perform similar functions specifically in cancer cells. Antibodies developed against caPCNA showed growth inhibition activity in cancer cells suggesting caPCNA is related to the proliferation of malignant cells. In order to begin to understand the function of caPCNA in cellular malignant transformation, we have investigated the interaction of caPCNA with its binding partners including flap structure-specific endonuclease 1(Fen-1) and xeroderma pimentosum complementation group G (XPG). We have ...
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, making it a major public health issue. Due to increased efficiency in detecting and treating cancer, primary tumors account for only 10% of cancer mortalities. Today, the majority of cancer related deaths are due to metastasis and relapse after therapy, which current cancer treatments fail to prevent. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have emerged as being responsible for metastasis and relapse. CSCs are cancerous cells with stem cell characteristics including self renewal and the ability to evade chemotherapy and elimination by the immune system. A part of the innate immune system, Natural Killer (NK) cells provide the first line of defense against cancerous cells. NK cells kill cancerous cells through release of cytotoxic granules, a process regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors at the NK cell surface recognizing specific surface molecules on a tumor. Of the NK cell receptors, signaling via NKp44 is pivotal in determining
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Ohta S, Shiomi Y, Sugimoto K, et al. (2002). A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (43): 40362-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206194200. PMID 12171929 ...
Competition of bacteriophage polypeptides with native replicase proteins for binding to the DNA sliding clamp reveals a novel mechanism for DNA replication arrest in Staphylococcus aureus (page 1764). Adam Belley, Mario Callejo, Francis Arhin, Mohammed Dehbi, Ibtihal Fadhil, Jing Liu, Geoffrey McKay, Ramakrishnan Srikumar, Pascale Bauda, Dominique Bergeron, Nhuan Ha, Michael DuBow, Philippe Gros, Jerry Pelletier and Greg Moeck. Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2006 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05476.x ...
Estrogen receptors (ER), including ER-α and ER-β, are known to regulate multiple biologic responses in various cell types. The expression of ER-β is lost in various cancers. ER-β agonists were shown to modulate inflammation, cancer cell proliferation, and differentiation. Here, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of Erb-041, an ER-β agonist, using a model of UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Erb-041 significantly reduced UVB-induced carcinogenesis. Tumor numbers and volume were reduced by 60% and 84%, respectively, in the Erb-041-treated group as compared with UVB (alone) control. This inhibition in tumorigenesis was accompanied by the decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, VEGF, and CD31, and an increase in apoptosis. The lost ER-β expression in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) was significantly recovered by Erb-041 treatment. In addition, the UVB-induced inflammatory responses were remarkably reduced. Myeloperoxidase activity, ...
J Endocrinol. 2017 Sep;234(3):269-278.. TNFRp55 deficiency promotes the development of ectopic endometriotic-like lesions in mice.. Vallcaneras S1, Ghersa F1, Bastón J2, Delsouc MB1, Meresman G2, Casais M3.. Abstract. Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease depending on estradiol, with TNF-α being one of the most representative cytokines involved in its pathogenesis. TNF-α acts through its bond to the TNFRp55 and TNFRp75 membrane receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the TNFRp55 deficiency on the development of ectopic endometriotic-like lesions. Endometriosis was induced surgically in mice of the C57BL/6 strain, wild type (WT) and TNFRp55-/- (KO). After four weeks, the peritoneal fluid was collected and the lesions were counted, measured with a caliper, removed, weighed, fixed or kept at -80°C. We evaluated the cell proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL technique in the ectopic lesions. MMP-2 and MMP-9 ...
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Triglycerides (TG) are fats found in the blood, but high triglycerides may increase your risk for heart disease-see how PCNA can help today.
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Differential role of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (50): 39458-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006626200. PMID ... B cell-committed progenitors, T cell-committed progenitors, antibody-secreting plasma cells, cardiac muscle cells, and neurons ... Conditional deletion of Mcl-1 depletes a wide variety of cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, ... induces cell death in multiple myeloma cells by inhibition of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and down-regulation of ...
PCNA - Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, expressed during the DNA synthesis. Immunofluorescent antibody staining against ... "Cell cycle dependent expression and stability of the nuclear protein detected by Ki-67 antibody in HL-60 cells". Cell ... Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component ... "Production of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with a human nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation". Int. J. ...
The encoded protein also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Some transcripts of this gene overlap in a tail-to- ... that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". The Journal of Biological ... September 2007). "The cell adhesion receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 regulates ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T ...
Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A (April 1994). "D-type cyclin-binding regions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". The ... Baldin V, Lukas J, Marcote MJ, Pagano M, Draetta G (May 1993). "Cyclin D1 is a nuclear protein required for cell cycle ... Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both ... Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30- ...
"Human SHPRH suppresses genomic instability through proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". The Journal of Cell ... "Human SHPRH is a ubiquitin ligase for Mms2-Ubc13-dependent polyubiquitylation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ... Skaar JR, Pagano M (December 2009). "Control of cell growth by the SCF and APC/C ubiquitin ligases". Current Opinion in Cell ... The loss of p53 and Rb in cells allows limitless cell proliferation to occur. Gene amplification often occur in various tumor ...
2004). "Human NTH1 physically interacts with p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 321 (1 ... 2004). "AP endonuclease-independent DNA base excision repair in human cells". Mol. Cell. 15 (2): 209-20. doi:10.1016/j.molcel. ... Cell. Biol. 31 (22): 4623-32. doi:10.1128/MCB.05715-11. PMC 3209256. PMID 21930793. Jiang Z, Hu J, Li X, Jiang Y, Zhou W, Lu D ... 2000). "Cell-cycle regulation, intracellular sorting and induced overexpression of the human NTH1 DNA glycosylase involved in ...
PCNA stimulates both polymerases (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; red ring). The RFC (replication factor C) complex with ... required for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) binding and recruitment of accessory subunits respectively.[45] CysB ... Depletion of POLD1 can halt cell cycle at G1 and G2/M phases in human cells.[96] Cell cycle block in these phases typically ... cell nucleus. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • delta DNA polymerase complex. • cytosol. Biological process. • ...
"Human HLTF functions as a ubiquitin ligase for proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". Proceedings of the ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573.. ...
It exhibits increased processivity when interacting with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). As well, the ... Lujan SA, Williams JS, Kunkel TA (September 2016). "DNA Polymerases Divide the Labor of Genome Replication". Trends in Cell ... Molecular Cell. 59 (2): 163-175. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.038. PMC 4517859. PMID 26145172. ...
"Polyubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen by HLTF and SHPRH prevents genomic instability from stalled ... "Human HLTF functions as a ubiquitin ligase for proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". Proceedings of the ... Cell. 134 (4): 668-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.039. PMID 18724939. S2CID 3955385. Conze DB, Wu CJ, Thomas JA, Landstrom A, ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. Stolfi ...
2002). "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in post-replication MMR. It has been shown that PCNA binds to ... 2001). "Functional interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with MSH2-MSH6 and MSH2-MSH3 complexes". J. Biol. Chem. ... Cell. Biol. 18 (11): 6616-23. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.11.6616. PMC 109246. PMID 9774676. Ceccotti S, Ciotta C, Fronza G, et al. ( ...
"Human HLTF functions as a ubiquitin ligase for proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Cell. 15 (6): 853-65. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.09.016. PMID 15383276. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Fukuoka T, Hibi K, Nakao A (2006). "Aberrant methylation is ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. ...
"Human HLTF functions as a ubiquitin ligase for proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Cell. 14 (3): 289-301. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(04)00236-9. PMID 15125833. Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C ... Cell. 96 (5): 645-53. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80575-9. PMID 10089880. S2CID 17117789. Deng L, Wang C, Spencer E, Yang L, ... Cell. 103 (2): 351-61. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00126-4. PMID 11057907. S2CID 18154645. Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997 ...
"Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase is negatively regulated by direct interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen". ... lambda polymerase and terminal transferase activities are differentially coordinated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and ... which possess the antigen, while mature lymphoid cells are always TdT-negative. While TdT-positive cells are found in small ... pre-T lymphoid cells, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cells. TdT adds N-nucleotides to the V, D, and J exons of the ...
"Esophagin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are biomarkers of human esophageal neoplastic progression". ... Katou F, Shirai N, Kamakura S, Tagami H, Nagura H, Motegi K (May 2003). "Differential expression of cornified cell envelope ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 6 (9): 916-30. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400568. PMID 10510474. Dias Neto E, Correa RG, Verjovski- ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 7 (7): 855-60. PMID 8809402. Steinert PM, Marekov LN (January 1997). "Direct evidence that ...
Ghosal G, Leung JW, Nair BC, Fong KW, Chen J (October 2012). "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding protein ... In order for cancer cells to retain their ability to proliferate without limitations, they can regulate the telomeres of their ... When SLX4IP was depleted from treated cells, they were found to accumulate in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle where the ... Cell. 138 (1): 78-89. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.06.029. PMC 2861413. PMID 19596236. Panier S, Maric M, Hewitt G, Mason-Osann E, ...
"A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... Clark AB, Valle F, Drotschmann K, Gary RK, Kunkel TA (Nov 2000). "Functional interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... Clark AB, Valle F, Drotschmann K, Gary RK, Kunkel TA (Nov 2000). "Functional interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... Christmann M, Kaina B (Nov 2000). "Nuclear translocation of mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH6 as a response of cells to ...
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). PCNA forms typical patterns in the nucleus of the cell through which the current cell ... In a diploid cell in G1 phase of the cell cycle, such a molecule is present in the form of the homologous chromosome. However, ... This protein error may cause processes in the cell to fail. For example, a receptor of the cell that can receive a signal to ... The HDR mechanism can only be used by the cell when there is a homologous piece of DNA present in the nucleus, mostly in G2 and ...
"A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... "Replication factor C interacts with the C-terminal side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". The Journal of Biological ... "Replication factor C interacts with the C-terminal side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". The Journal of Biological ...
July 2009). "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen is protected from degradation by forming a complex with MutT Homolog2". The ...
"Replication factor C interacts with the C-terminal side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 272 (3): ... a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This protein ... Cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD17 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... Post S, Weng YC, Cimprich K, Chen LB, Xu Y, Lee EY (2001). "Phosphorylation of serines 635 and 645 of human Rad17 is cell cycle ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen readings were established to have no role in the differentiation process. The TGF-beta ... The basal cells of the GOC usually has no association to a cancerous origin. Tissue cells can be faced with an abnormal ... The occurrence of GOC may be from a mutated cell from "the oral mucosa and the dental follicle" origin. Another probable cause ... The protein is capable of disrupting normal cell death function at the odontogenic region. The analysis of PTCH, a gene that ...
Replication factor C (RFC) loads the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) onto the DNA strand. This allows DNA polymerases ... The basic excision process is very similar in higher cells, but these cells usually involve many more proteins - E.coli is a ... As reviewed by Gorbunova et al., studies of NER in different cells and tissues from young and old individuals frequently have ... Cell. 10 (6): 1391-1401. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00732-3. PMID 12504014. Mellon I (September 2005). "Transcription-coupled ...
"A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also called activator 1, is a protein complex ... "Studies on the interactions between human replication factor C and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Proceedings of ...
2002). "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... 2002). "Direct interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with the small subunit of DNA polymerase delta". J. Biol. Chem ... "Direct interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with the small subunit of DNA polymerase delta". J. Biol. Chem. United ... that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (12): ...
"A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... "Studies on the interactions between human replication factor C and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Proceedings of ... Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-replication factor C complex required for sister chromatid cohesion loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
Milutinovic S, Zhuang Q, Szyf M (June 2002). "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen associates with histone deacetylase activity, ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... Zhong H, May MJ, Jimi E, Ghosh S (March 2002). "The phosphorylation status of nuclear NF-kappa B determines its association ... Zhang J, Kalkum M, Chait BT, Roeder RG (March 2002). "The N-CoR-HDAC3 nuclear receptor corepressor complex inhibits the JNK ...
"Proliferating cell nuclear antigen is protected from degradation by forming a complex with MutT Homolog2". J. Biol. Chem. 284 ( ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843. ... "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin ... "Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". ... clamp in eukaryotes is assembled from a specific subunit of DNA polymerase delta called the proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
Comparison with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. *. Josef Rüschoff, Adolfo Bittinger, Andrea Gogolok, ...
... using Tumor Markers such as Calretinin and Prognostic Indicators such as Ki-67 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), ...
Mesenchymal stem cell; PCNA: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor. Competing interests ... CD41 antigen acts as a receptor for fibrinogen FAXF fibrinectin and vitronectin and mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation ... You will find limited data within the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in models of extensive hepatic resection. ... Nevertheless, these data suggest that hypoxic preconditioning of cells for a short period (24 hours) may markedly improve their ...
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Medicine & Life Sciences 96% * Ubiquitin Medicine & Life Sciences 89% ... Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with DNA-damaging agents elicits lysine 164-linked PCNA monoubiquitination by Rad6- ... N2 - Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with DNA-damaging agents elicits lysine 164-linked PCNA monoubiquitination by ... AB - Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with DNA-damaging agents elicits lysine 164-linked PCNA monoubiquitination by ...
N2 - Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) RNA levels are regulated by transcription as well as changes in stability, in ... AB - Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) RNA levels are regulated by transcription as well as changes in stability, in ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) RNA levels are regulated by transcription as well as changes in stability, in growing ... abstract = "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) RNA levels are regulated by transcription as well as changes in stability ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a proliferative marker during embryonic and adult zebrafish hematopoiesis. Journal ...
Direct interaction between SET8 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen couples H4-K20 methylation with DNA replication. Journal ...
Anti-Dugesia Japonica Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. *Anti-Duhring. *Anti-Dühring. *Anti-dumping ...
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is modified by lys-63-linked polyubiquitylation, which requires MMS2, UBE2N and RAD5 ... Cell 96, 645-53.. Matsuzawa A, Tseng PH, Vallabhapurapu S, Luo JL, Zhang W, Wang H, Vignali DA, Gallagher E, Karin M (2008) ...
... of transcription.putative transcription regulator Encodes putative proliferating cell nuclear antigen involved in cell cycle ... proliferating cellular nuclear antigen 1. 0.02. Gene family. Cpa,evm.model.tig00021319.67. No alias. 27.3.67 RNA.regulation of ... proliferating cellular nuclear antigen 1 (PCNA1). Gene families : OG_01_0005010 (Gene family) Phylogenetic Tree(s): OG0005010_ ...
Rapamycin disrupts cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase/p21/proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes and cyclin D1 reverses ... Cell size reduction induced by inhibition of the mTOR/S6K-signaling pathway protects Jurkat cells from apoptosis. ... The Drosophila tuberous sclerosis complex gene homologs restrict cell growth and cell proliferation. ... G1 cell cycle progression and the expression of G1 cyclins are regulated by PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling in human ovarian ...
enhanced polymer one-step staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. *Engineering and Project management Oriented Support ...
... proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and augmenter of liver regeneration in APAP-injured livers. This study demonstrated that WZ ... Cell Transplant.2019 Dec;28(12):1614-1623.doi: 10.1177/0963689719875409 * Med Sci Monit . 2019 Dec 12;25:9471-9482. doi: ... The protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 target genes including Gclc, Gclm, Ho-1, and Nqo1 was ... Cell Transplant. 2019 Dec;28(12):1614-1623. doi: 10.1177/0963689719875409. Epub 2019 Sep 11. ...
Assessments of leukocyte common antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining were also performed in the damaged ... thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4- ... Ecdysterone Accelerates Healing of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Rats by Increasing Matrix Cell Proliferation. ... and also increased proliferation of matrix cells, since the Ras-Raf-ERK signal pathway was found to be activated by its use. It ...
... and proliferating cell nuclear antigen also propagate these immature cells resulting to a hemangioma. Tissue inhibitors of ... This process also triggers the involution of the enodothelial cells through programmed cell death or senescence [7]. ... with the interferon from the mast cells causesthe cessation of the endothelial cell proliferation. ... It has been hypothesized that during the third trimester of fetal life, the immature endothelial cells along with the immature ...
... with a significant decrease in cell proliferation measured by the number of cells expressing proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... This effect was correlated with a significant accumulation of fat cells, specifically at sites of bone regeneration. The ... formation in both BDR and DO models of bone repair by mechanisms which include both intrinsic changes in mesenchymal stem cell ... and neovascularization measured by both the number of vascular sinusoids and the number of cells producing proangiogenic ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promotes the change to a specific DNA polymerase with a more substantial energetic ... Further mutations that give rise to gain/loss of function of genes then grant tumor cells the ability to resist growth control ... Usually, depletion of NAD because of extreme PARP activity will additional deplete the ATP pool and result in cell Tyrphostin ... Further gain/loss of function continues to drive malignancy progression enabling tumor cells to escape layers of control and ...
Different Effect of Handle Region Peptide on β-Cell Function in Different Sexes of Rats Neonatally Treated with Sodium L- ... Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen - metabolism, Rats, Sex Characteristics, Sodium Glutamate - pharmacology ... Islets α-cell and β-cell were marked with insulin antibody and glucagon antibody respectively. The proliferation of islet cells ... RESULTS: HRP improved the glucose status tolerance with decreasing α-cell mass, islets PCNA-positive cells, expression of ...
This challenges the conventional interpretation of nuclear RFi as replication factories, that is, the complex entities that ... Here, we combine conventional and super-resolution microscopy of replication sites in live and fixed cells with computational ... preserved somatic mammalian cells can be optically resolved down to single replicons throughout S-phase. ... analysis of S-phase dynamics and quantification of replication fork speed and replicon size in human and mouse cells. These ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) staining in a kidney of a control rat (a) and of a rat that received 0.75% eg for 8 d ...
types of tumor cells, reduced after NnV treatment. The representative proteins included proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( ... Earlier research has reported that the sea anemone can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in lung cancer cell lines [15]. A ... types of tumor cells, reduced after NnV treatment. The. Posted on June 1, 2019 by Natalie Reid ... It was previously reported that scorpion venom can inhibit the proliferation Rabbit polyclonal to Smad7 of cancer cells and ...
S4, these running mice displayed an increase of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)+ proliferating cells, indicating that ... cells such as for example neurons or glial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Np95 can be indicated in type 2a cells ... Furthermore, DCX+ cells were more loaded in Np95-/Ki67+ cells (64%) than in every Ki67+ cells (55%), and therefore Np95 can be ... 3A, D, E). We found that Nestin+ cells were enriched more in Amprolium HCl Np95+/Ki67+ cells (80%) than in all Ki67+ cells (69 ...
... and epsilon in the presence of the three auxiliary proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RF ...
The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the buccal pouch and the concentration of lipid peroxides, ... expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the buccal pouch / concentration of lipid peroxides, protein ... We suggest that Polyphenon-B exerts its chemopreventive effects by inhibiting cell proliferation in the target tissue and ...
... parts ERK and AKT and profiles were correlated with the gefitinib-mediated alteration in Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ( ... Relative cell viability was normalized against cells transfected having a non-targeting siRNA ... In todays study we demonstrated that tumor cells attained Lincomycin hydrochloride (U-10149A) by endoscopic biopsy ahead of ... Such transient polarization is necessary for providing the cell directionality and guiding the forming of protrusions ...
... more proteins such as DNA polymerases as well as a sliding clamp called proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are loaded at ... inside the nuclear periphery for the duration of G phase (Heun et al Does this nuclear ... Printable blank calendars on Ion (Hayashi et al Metazoan cells also lack any DNA consensus sequence for replication origins ... Ion (Hayashi et al Metazoan cells also lack any DNA consensus sequence for replication origins (Robinson and Bell,but ...
To correlate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) with various clinicopathological features of papillary ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma ... PCNA immunoreactivity was based on the PCNA labelling index (LI) following evaluation of at least 1000 tumour cells, and ...
... and proliferating cell nuclear antigen have been significantly elevated, and transcription of regulated genes, retinoblastoma ... At the cellular stage, cell division was sustained in tissues that were in any other case already differentiated, and cell ... These results counsel that phytocalpain is a key regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during plant organogenesis ...
... proliferating cell nuclear antigen, loricrin and HF stem cell markers, including keratin 15, and CD34 more effectively than ...
... inhibited the cell proliferation of both cell lines by regulating Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins. ... 2 3 4 6 a 180-220 kDa leukocyte common antigen LCA). CD45 antigen is expressed at high levels on all hematopoietic cells ... Slicing of NEDD8 inhibited cell proliferation of BC cell LY3009104 inhibitor database lines Appearance of NEDD8 in the shRNA ... Knocking down NEDD8 induced cell cycle arrest at G2 phase and advertised apoptosis of BC cells Circulation cytometry was ...
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication. (
  • PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. (
  • PCNA is pivotal to the activation of these pathways and the choice as to which pathway is utilised by the cell. (
  • Antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or monoclonal antibody termed Ki-67 can be used for grading of different neoplasms, e.g. astrocytoma. (
  • Imaging of the nuclear distribution of PCNA (via antibody labeling) can be used to distinguish between early, mid and late S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • On the other hand, the study of the dynamics of replication and repair in living cells can be done introducing translational fusions of PCNA. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), or cyclin, is a non-histone acidic nuclear protein [ PMID: 2884104 ] that plays a key role in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication [ PMID: 1346518 ]. (
  • Homologues of PCNA have also been identified in the archaea (known as DNA polymerase sliding clamp) [ PMID: 10542158 , PMID: 10438605 ] and in Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) and in nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. (
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for rat proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin. (
  • Recurrence of meningiomas versus proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity and AgNOR counting. (
  • This study attempts to correlate the silver nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) with clinicopathological features of biological activity. (
  • DNA ploidy data were then compared with immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • A surprising finding was that S-phase percentage in adenocarcinomas was not parallel with PCNA-positive tumor cell numbers. (
  • In adenocarcinomas, the Dukes classification paralleled well the DNA ploidy status from stage A diploid to stage D aneuploid, but was not accompanied by increasing PCNA-positive cell numbers. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): ringmaster of the genome. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein is one of the central molecules responsible for decisions of life and death of the cell. (
  • The PCNA gene is induced by p53, while PCNA protein interacts with p53-controlled proteins Gadd45, MyD118, CR6 and, most importantly, p21, in the process of deciding cell fate. (
  • If PCNA protein is present in abundance in the cell in the absence of p53, DNA replication occurs. (
  • On the other hand, if PCNA protein levels are high in the cell in the presence of p53, DNA repair takes place. (
  • If PCNA is rendered non-functional or is absent or present in low quantities in the cell, apoptosis occurs. (
  • The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter function resides within a 192-bp region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site). (
  • The regulatory region of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene consists of a promoter region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site) and an upstream region containing three homeodomain protein binding sites (HDB) (-357 to -165). (
  • In transgenic experiments the PCNA gene promoter seems to function in a manner independent of cell cycle progression or of functions of the string gene (Yamaguchi, 1995c). (
  • Sequences similar to the transcription factor E2F recognition site have been found within the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter. (
  • PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant Cell types. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a homotrimeric protein that functions as a sliding clamp during DNA replication. (
  • Recently, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which in mammalian cells is an auxiliary subunit of DNA polymerase delta and is essential for in vitro leading strand SV40 DNA replication, was purified from yeast. (
  • Cell cycle expression studies, using synchronized cells, show that expression of both the PCNA (POL30) and the DNA polymerase delta (POL3, or CDC2) genes of yeast are regulated in an identical fashion to that of the DNA polymerase alpha (POL1) gene. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for the G1-S transition in the cell cycle and hence mitogenesis, was detected primarily in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule, with maximal expression at 2 d postischemia. (
  • In the S3 segments in the outer stripe of the medulla cells that stained positively for PCNA also stained positively for vimentin. (
  • None of the cells that stained with clusterin antibodies were positively stained with PCNA or vimentin antibodies. (
  • Likewise, none of the PCNA or vimentin-positive cells expressed clusterin at detectable levels. (
  • Studies have shown that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are highly expressed in cancers. (
  • This research aimed to study the expression of HDAC4 and PCNA and their relation to cell proliferation and invasion in human OS. (
  • The overexpression and knockdown of HDAC4 in OS cell lines were used to determine the effect of HDAC4 on the expression and degradation of PCNA. (
  • Our findings suggest that HDAC4 could promote OS cell proliferation and invasion by regulating the expression of PCNA. (
  • The Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative is manufactured for Research Use Only or for diagnostics purposes. (
  • These results demonstrate that PCNA LI is a possible parameter for differentiating malignant COC from benign COC and, whatever the subtypes, the proliferative features in the lining are the main factor influencing the proliferating activity of COC. (
  • Comparison of rectal mucosal proliferation measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and whole crypt dissection. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry has become a standard method to measure cell proliferation. (
  • Like another p53-regulated gene, p21WAF1/CIP1, whose product binds to cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), GADD45 has been associated with growth suppression. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was originally characterised as a DNA sliding clamp for replicative DNA polymerases and as an essential component of the eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replisome. (
  • PCNA in mammalian cells thus appears to play a key role in controlling several reactions through the coordination and organisation of different partners. (
  • Tables 1 and 2 summarise PCNA-interacting proteins and indicate their functions in the cell. (
  • We semiquantitatively analyzed expression of PCNA and LeY in seborrheic keratosis (SK), actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), using immunocytochemically stained tissue sections. (
  • The PCNA expression pattern shifted from expression limited to the basal and suprabasal cell layers (in normal skin and SK) to expression extending to the upper squamous and granular layers (in AK, BD, and SCC). (
  • These findings suggest that PCNA expression is related to the degree of cell proliferation and that LeY expression is related to the degree of differentiation or keratinization of tumor cells. (
  • PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. (
  • The purpose of this research was to evaluate the clinical significance of p16INK4A, p14ARF, p53, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in tumor progression of cervical cancer. (
  • We have previously defined the promoter elements, sites IIa and IIb, in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene that are essential for meristematic tissue-specific expression. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a versatile protein involved in all pathways of DNA metabolism. (
  • Two mutant forms of yeast PCNA, one with an E113G substitution and one with a G178S substitution, support normal cell growth but inhibit TLS. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is required for completion of the DNA synthesis step of DNA replication as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA. (
  • Following normothermic ischemia, nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity was largely abolished during reperfusion in the vulnerable CA1 neurons, prior to cell death. (
  • In the CA3 region, a transient decrease in nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity was observed. (
  • In the dentate gyrus region, no down-regulation of nuclear or total PCNA protein was observed during reperfusion. (
  • Our findings indicate an altered functional state of PCNA protein in the ischemia-sensitive CA1 neurons suggesting that DNA repair processes are affected in these post-mitotic cells following ischemia. (
  • The binding of the PIP-box peptide of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 to PCNA is consistent with the crystal structure of the complex. (
  • This suggests that they do not bind directly to PCNA, or they do but very weakly, with additional unidentified factors stabilizing the interactions in the cell. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) belongs to the DNA sliding clamp family. (
  • Western blot of PCNA antibody M-990-100 at 2 μg/ml in MCF7 whole cell lysate (lane 1), Hela whole cell lysate (lane 2), HT1080 whole cell lysate (lane 3) and Colo320 whole cell lysate (lane 4). (
  • Human seminoma: immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen using NCL-PCNA. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a 36 kD protein which is highly conserved between species. (
  • The PCNA molecule has a half-life in excess of 20 hours, and therefore, may be detected in non-cycling cells eg those in G0 phase. (
  • You need info about Canine Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? (
  • Among the markers used for cell proliferation measurement, PCNA has recently gained much attention and holds much promise as it is intricately involved in the cell replication processes. (
  • Finally, knowledge of the function of PCNA in the cell cycle and its regulation by other factors may help us understand the advantages and limitations of PCNA as a cell proliferation marker in its application in toxicology and as a prognostic marker in human tumors. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ, was identified as an interaction partner. (
  • The interaction between agnoprotein and PCNA is direct and occurs also in human cells. (
  • Agnoprotein exerts an inhibitory effect on PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis in vitro and reduces cell proliferation when ectopically expressed. (
  • Overexpression of PCNA restores agnoprotein-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. (
  • In addition, we compared cyclin D1 expression with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), considered to be a reliable index of the proliferation rate. (
  • Should the Rat Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (
  • CytoSelect Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) ELISA Kit is an enzyme immunoassay developed for the detection and quantitation of PCNA from nuclear and whole cell extracts. (
  • The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene encodes an auxiliary factor of DNA polymerase delta and functions in DNA replication during S phase. (
  • We have studied the regulatory role of the 5'-flanking sequence of the murine PCNA gene in interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive cloned T cells (L2). (
  • While many elements contribute to PCNA promoter strength in IL-2-stimulated cells, the largest decrease in activity occurred with deletion of the tandem CRE (cyclic AMP response element) binding sites located at nucleotides -37 to -52. (
  • The non-canonical protein binding site at the monomer-monomer interface of yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulates the Rev1-PCNA interaction and Pol? (
  • The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the auxiliary factor of nuclear DNA polymerases, plays an important role in regulating the access of TLS polymerases to the primer terminus. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining--a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer? (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolocalisation can be used as an index of cell proliferation and may define the extent of departure from normal growth control. (
  • In this study, we found that small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) resulted in the reduction of the chromatin-bound SMCX fraction. (
  • In this study, we found that SMCX-mediated H3K4 demethylation is regulated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • In vivo cell cycle quiescent (G 0 phase) stem cell keratinocytes in primary culture sequentially express de novo cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), prior to S phase entry, and upregulate β1 integrin. (
  • Cells treated with rapamycin exhibited decreased PCNA expression while cyclin D1 expression, which precedes PCNA expression in the cell cycle, was not affected. (
  • Because PCNA is required for cell cycle progression from G 1 to S phase, our data indicate that inhibition of PCNA protein synthesis may be an important regulatory element in the ability of rapamycin to exert a G 1 block. (
  • To gain a glimpse into dinoflagellate genome evolution, I analyzed two essential genes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene ( pcna ) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA), from representative species of major dinoflagellate lineages. (
  • An anti-PCNA antibody, PC10(Dako), was applied for the detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in paraffin embedded tissue sections. (
  • In this study, expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), an inhibitory ligand of NKp44, is identified on the surface of a Diffuse B Cell Lymphoma, Prostate, and Breast cancer cell lines in novel association with Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I molecules. (
  • By blocking interactions between NKp44 and the PCNA/HLA I complex, NK cell mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion is enhanced. (
  • Finally, prostate and breast cancer cells expressing PCNA at the cell surface express several molecular signatures of cancer stem cells which increase the ability of these cells to survive the metastatic process. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in both mismatch-recognition and resynthesis stages of MMR. (
  • Proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA damage-inducible protein that performs an essential function in DNA replication and repair as an auxiliary factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon. (
  • PCNA promoter fragments with this site intact bound p53 in vitro and were transcriptionally activated by wild-type p53 in transient expression assays in SAOS-2 cells. (
  • In different cell types, activation of the PCNA promoter by the p53-binding sequence correlated with the status of p53. (
  • This concentration dependence and cell type specificity reconciles the observations presented here with prior results indicating that wild-type p53 represses the PCNA promoter. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a central factor in DNA replication and repair pathways that plays an essential role in genome stability. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of carotenoids on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D 1 expression in betel (Areca catechu) quid extract (BQE)-induced hamster oral cancer and human KB cell models, respectively. (
  • Cyclin D 1 and PCNA were evaluated in terms of cell differentiation. (
  • Although lycopene suppressed KB cell proliferation at the G 0 /G 1 phase with a significant decrease in PCNA expression, β-carotene and lutein possessed less of an inhibitory effect and even exhibited elevated cell proliferation at the G 2 /M phase. (
  • These results indicate that different carotenoids present various suppressive abilities against PCNA and cyclin D 1 expressions in cell proliferation. (
  • In conclusion, carotenoids suppressed the carcinogenesis of induced hamster oral cancer and a cancer cell line by acting as a suppressor which inhibited the expressions of PCNA and cyclin D 1 . (
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate, with laser scanning cytometry (LSC), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression during the cell cycle in renal cell carcinoma. (
  • STUDY DESIGN: DNA ploidy and intracellular localization of PCNA in renal cell carcinoma were determined using LSC and immunohistochemistry. (
  • LSC allowed direct observation of PCNA localization during the cell cycle because we could obtain immunohistochemical staining of PCNA as a function of cell cycle phase for individual cells. (
  • RESULTS: PCNA was not demonstrated in the nuclei of G0/G1 cells. (
  • PCNA expression increased from the S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • CONCLUSION: LSC allows morphologic observation of the intracellular distribution of PCNA during the cell cycle in renal cell carcinoma. (
  • In an attempt to elucidate the role of p53 mutations in cervical neoplasias, 65 cervical lesions, ranging from normal to malignant, were examined for overexpression of p53 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue, and correlated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • More than 50% of tumor cells showed nuclear staining for PCNA protein in 61.17% of invasive squamous carcinomas, in 21.66% of CIS, in 39% CIN III, in 32.5% CIN II and in 7.64% of wart. (
  • The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is now recognized as one of the key proteins in DNA metabolic events because of its direct interactions with many proteins involved in important cellular processes. (
  • Using this system, a cellular protein of relative molecular mass 36,000 (Mr = 36K) that is required for the elongation stage of SV40 DNA replication in vitro has been purified and identified as a known cell-cycle regulated protein, alternatively called the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or cyclin. (
  • Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved with DNA replication, continues to be described as a vital aspect in survival of older neutrophil granulocytes, that are non-proliferating cells. (
  • Nuclear PCNA includes a well-documented function in cancers and through its capability to control the replication fork is normally central in identifying both tumor development aswell as anticancer treatment final results4. (
  • Being a corollary, nuclear PCNA continues to be proposed being a potential focus on for inhibiting cell proliferation in cancers. (
  • However, the need for PCNA in managing cell fate expands considerably beyond DNA-related procedures since we previously discovered an urgent anti-apoptotic function for PCNA in neutrophils, that are differentiated cells that are without proliferative capacities5 highly. (
  • It really is worthy of noting in this respect which the relocation of PCNA in the nucleus in to the cytoplasm takes place by the end of granulocytic differentiation and consists of chromosome area maintenance 1 (CRM1)-reliant nuclear export seen as a the current presence of a nuclear export series (NES) which is normally surface-exposed only once PCNA is normally monomeric14,15. (
  • Conversely, we've noticed that regular hematopoietic progenitor cells on the promyelocytic stage harbor mainly nuclear PCNA as these cells preserve a proliferative capability. (
  • It isn't known if the export of PCNA could possibly be dysregulated in myeloid precursors and whether this may effect on the success from the cells. (
  • In today's study, we initial examine PCNA localization in the HL-60 promyelocytic cell series and whether PCNA could participate towards the success mechanisms involved with level of resistance to chemotherapy. (
  • Outcomes Elevated cytoplasmic PCNA is normally seen in HL-60R level of resistance to chemotherapy and it is connected with a success benefit in daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells We analyzed the partnership between PCNA subcellular localization and daunorubicin level of resistance. (
  • MutLα endonuclease can be activated on covalently continuous DNA that contains a MutSα- or MutSβ-recognizable lesion and a helix perturbation that supports proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) loading by replication factor C, providing a potential mechanism for triggering mismatch repair on nonreplicating DNA. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential component of the DNA replication and repair machinery in the domain Eucarya. (
  • Specificity: Recognizes a non-histone protein of 36kDa, which is identified as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays essential roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and chromatin metabolism. (
  • Because transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway is involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of cells, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (BCL-2) and BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX) that all play indispensable roles in the normal development of the uterus, it is hypothesized that ZEA induces reproductive disorders is closely related to the expression of these genes. (
  • Although the use of p16INK4a (p16) staining has been proven to improve diagnostic accuracy for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the clinical evidence for use of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( PCNA ) is insufficient to make an independent recommendation for use, alone or in combination. (
  • The expressions of p16, Ki-67, and PCNA were evaluated by immunohistochemical methods in 149 cervical tissues encompassing 17 negative lesion, 31 CIN 1, 25 CIN 2, 41 CIN 3, and 35 invasive squamous cell carcinoma . (
  • However, this modification abolished the interaction of pol beta with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA/ cyclin) is described as a nuclear protein and plays a key role in the initiation of cellular DNA synthesis and regulation of cell cycle progression. (
  • Rao, VVNG , Schnittger, S & Hansmann, I 1991, ' Chromosomal localization of the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene to or close to 20p12 by in situ hybridization ', Cytogenetic and Genome Research , vol. 56, no. 3-4, pp. 169-170. (
  • The percentages of Ki-67 or PCNA positive cells were determined by counting positive nuclei (Ki-67/PCNA) and total nuclei in five random fields per tissue sections. (
  • Aim of this study is to determine the expression of apoptosis and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in the cardiac conduction system in crib death and explained death (ED) cases. (
  • Although ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is not required for the localization of poleta in foci, it results in an increased residence time in foci. (
  • Measurement of proliferation rates by the more Standard in vitro uptake techniques of [3H]thymidine and 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labeling indices (LIs) were compared to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rectal mucosal biopsies from 16 subjects with resected colorectal cancer and 14 normal age-matched Controls. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its posttranslational modifications regulate DNA metabolic reactions, including DNA replication and repair, at replication forks. (
  • Cells expressing phosphorylation-mimicking PCNA, PCNA-Y211D, show elevated hallmarks specific to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including the up-regulation of the EMT-promoting factor Snail and the down-regulation of EMT-inhibitory factors E-cadherin and GSK3β. (
  • The PCNA-Y211D-expressing cells also exhibited active cell migration and underwent G 2 /M arrest. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an accessory protein of DNA polymerase delta. (
  • PCNA was detected only in basal cells in areas of histologically normal epithelium that were also negative for HPV DNA. (
  • HPV DNA was detected only in differentiated epithelial cells in implants removed at all five time points, but in HPV DNA-positive regions, PCNA was detected with equal intensity in differentiated and undifferentiated cells. (
  • The foci of PCNA-positive cells were well demarcated and were larger than, but included, the foci of HPV DNA-positive cells. (
  • We found that this cell-cycle-dependent staining pattern was identical to that of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). (
  • The HPV genome has been found to interact with host cell proteins disrupting some of the biological functions and causing imbalance in the expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. (
  • Clonal evolution (i.e., generation of TA cells from precursor stem cells) is promoted by the sigma isoform of the 14-3-3 family of proteins. (
  • Sletta H et al (2007) The presence of N-terminal secretion signal sequences leads to strong stimulation of the total expression levels of three tested medically important proteins during high-cell-density cultivations of Escherichia coli . (
  • For instance, if neutrophils cannot proliferate also, their success is normally managed by cell routine proteins such as buy A66 for example survivin7 and cyclin-dependent kinases6, the inhibition which by roscovitine can cause apoptosis8. (
  • Retroviral labeling of newborn cells with green fluorescent proteins has revealed that newborn neurons can form synaptic contact with its target cells by the third week of neuronal maturation [ 14 ]. (
  • [30] Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (
  • Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (
  • The effect of HDAC4 on cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis was also detected. (
  • We found that overexpression of HDAC4 promoted cell proliferation and invasion and inhibited apoptosis. (
  • Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of epigenetics plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. (
  • Once the balance is broken, the activity of HDACs is significantly increased, which could result in an imbalance in the expression of molecules and affect cell proliferation and lead to cell carcinogenesis. (
  • According to some reports, HDAC4 can regulate the growth and proliferation of cloned cancer cells and is associated with the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Lee JH, Hanaoka M, Kitaguchi Y, Kraskauskas D, Shapiro L, Voelkel NF, Taraseviciene-Stewart L. Imbalance of apoptosis and cell proliferation contributes to the development and persistence of emphysema. (
  • A major stimulus to study cell proliferation, particularly in rodent carcinogenicity assays and human tumors, has been the belief that the quantification of this fundamental biological process will provide the toxicologist and pathologist with objective data allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the toxicity and/or carcinogenicity of certain compounds as well as guiding more effective management of patients afflicted with neoplasia. (
  • The measurement of tumour cell proliferation is becoming increasingly recognised in defining prognostic groups. (
  • Because the immunosuppressant rapamycin (sirolimus) blocks T cell proliferation in G 1 phase, it has been proposed as a potential treatment for psoriasis, a skin disease characterized by T cell activation and keratinocyte stem cell hyperproliferation. (
  • To determine another potentially important mechanism through which rapamycin can act as an antipsoriatic agent, we tested its direct effect on keratinocyte stem cell proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. (
  • abstract = "Because the immunosuppressant rapamycin (sirolimus) blocks T cell proliferation in G1 phase, it has been proposed as a potential treatment for psoriasis, a skin disease characterized by T cell activation and keratinocyte stem cell hyperproliferation. (
  • Objective- Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis are key events involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. (
  • The primary event in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is thought to involve injury to the endothelium, leading to a response that may be similar to wound healing requiring migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima and subsequent proliferation. (
  • 1, 2 It promotes chondrocyte proliferation and inhibits terminal differentiation and apoptosis in both perichondral and endochondral cells. (
  • In the in vitro cell experiment, KB cells were cultured, and the inhibitory effect of carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene and lutein) on cell proliferation was evaluated. (
  • In the cell study, all carotenoids exerted a significant inhibitory effect on KB cell proliferation. (
  • In vivo proliferation and cell cycle marker studies suggest that these mice have a progenitor cell proliferation defect mediated in part by reduced Cyclin E1 expression. (
  • Here we show that the p63 transcription factor, a p53 homologue essential for regenerative proliferation in epithelial development, distinguishes human keratinocyte stem cells from their TA progeny. (
  • The results showed that uterine cells in the ZEA (0.5-1.5 mg/kg) treatments were in a high proliferation state, indicating that ZEA could accelerate the proliferation of uteri and promote the development of the uteri. (
  • Condylomata acuminata are benign epithelial tumors caused by infection with human papillomaviruses and are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal staining for cell proliferation in paraffin embedded sections of rabbit and pig ileum. (
  • However, an important limitation of antibodies is that cells need to be fixed leading to potential artifacts. (
  • Bacus SS, Goldschmit R, Chin D, Moran G, Weinberg D, Bacus J: Biological grading breast cancer using antibodies to proliferating cells and other markers. (
  • Antibodies are synthesized by the plasma cells formed when antigen-specific groups ( clones ) of B lymphocytes respond to the presence of antigen. (
  • Staining of nuclei in rabbit ileum was optimal after 4-8 hr in zinc formalin with the PC10, 19A2, and MAB424 antibodies, without antigen retrieval. (
  • All 3 antibodies produced optimal staining of nuclei in pig ileum fixed in zinc formalin 4-8 hr without antigen retrieval. (
  • Cell surface antigens can stimulate the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and cytotoxic responses by white blood cells, e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. (
  • The recombinant rice XRCC1 (OsXRCC1) protein binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as well as double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and also interacts with rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (OsPCNA) in a pull-down assay. (
  • PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. (
  • Background - Sensitivity to apoptotic signals, the clearance rate of apoptosis, and the apoptotic ultrastructure have not been studied in cells of the in vivo adult heart. (
  • This process takes 4-7 days, during which progenitor cells proliferate and progressively differentiate while migrating toward the top of the crypts where many of the cells undergo apoptosis ( 2 ). (
  • The longer gene product (isoform 1) enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis while the alternatively spliced shorter gene product (isoform 2) promotes apoptosis and is death-inducing. (
  • Identification of carrot cDNA clones encoding a second putative proliferating cell-nuclear antigen, DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein. (
  • Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants. (
  • This antibody can be antigen purified or protein A or G purified. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen can interact with DNA polymerase epsilon on linear DNA templates, even in the absence of other auxiliary factors (replication factor C, replication protein A), and thereby stimulate its primer recognition and DNA synthesis. (
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (
  • Roflumilast increases Clara cell secretory protein in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. (
  • 11 Curcumin has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of the oxidant stress-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-κB, 12 activator protein-1, 13 and the Janus kinase-signal transduction activating transcription pathway (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway. (
  • Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum to the N-terminal domain of PTHrP was used to detect this protein in two different rabbit models sharing progressive cartilage damage: antigen induced arthritis (AIA) and osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to partial medial meniscectomy. (
  • 6 The N-terminal region of both PTH and PTHrP binds to the PTH/PTHrP type 1 receptor, leading to activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C/protein kinase C. 7, 8 In addition, the ligand-receptor complex can be internalised into the nucleus, at least in bone cells. (
  • More than 50% of neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for p53 protein in 10% of well-differentiated squamous carcinomas. (
  • The consequence of HPV infection is a loss of functional wild-type p53 protein within the cells. (
  • Matsumiya, S , Ishino, Y & Morikawa, K 2001, ' Crystal structure of an archaeal dna sliding clamp: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from pyrococcus furiosus ', Protein Science , vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17-23. (
  • Hagen L et al (2008) Cell cycle-specific UNG2 phosphorylations regulate protein turnover, activity and association with RPA. (
  • We found that protein kinase C ε (PKCε), a member of the phospholipid-dependent threonine/serine kinase family, is an endogenous photosensitizer, the overexpression of which in the epidermis increases the susceptibility of mice to UVR-induced cutaneous damage and development of squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • The PKCε transgenic mouse (FVB/N) lines 224 and 215 overexpressed 8- and 18-fold PKCε protein, respectively, over endogenous levels in basal epidermal cells. (
  • Reference: Methylation of DNA polymerase beta by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates its binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • Overall, 34% of gastric carcinomas had nuclear-staining for p53 protein, 34% of carcinomas membrane staining for the c-erbB-2 and 74% of carcinomas membrane and cytoplasmic staining for EGFr, showing distribution in a heterogeneous fashion. (
  • Interestingly, all of these EMT-associated activities required the activation of ATM and Akt kinases, as inactivating these protein kinases by gene knockdown or inhibitors blocked EMT-associated signaling and cell migration. (
  • This protein is associated with cell cycle progression and can be detected in the replicating cells of normal tissues. (
  • ABBR: BTA A protein released into the urine by malignant cells in the bladder, studied as a possible marker of cancer of the urinary bladder. (
  • ABBR: CA A protein or carbohydrate that is either expressed by cancerous cells but not by healthy cells or is expressed by cancerous cells in much greater concentrations than by healthy cells. (
  • The protein marker in the Rh group of antigens that stimulates the greatest immune response. (
  • Induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCL1 gene. (
  • To eliminate the need for transfection and bypass the problem of difficult to transfect and/or short lived cells, cell permeable replication and/or repair markers can be used. (
  • These peptides offer the distinct advantage that can be used in situ in living tissue and even distinguish cells undergoing replication from cells undergoing repair. (
  • After replication, the appropriate chromatin structure has to be restored in order to maintain the passage of information from mother to daughter cells. (
  • Only one viral gene product, the large tumour antigen (large-T antigen), is required for viral replication, so the majority of replication enzymes must be cellular. (
  • Indeed, a number of enzymatic activities associated with replication and the S phase of the cell cycle are induced upon SV40 infection. (
  • Cell-free extracts derived from human cells, when supplemented with immunopurified SV40 large-T antigen support efficient replication of plasmids that contain the SV40 origin of DNA replication. (
  • The POLD1 gene promoter is regulated via the cell cycle machinery and mRNA expression of POLD1 reaches a peak in late G1/S phase during DNA replication. (
  • A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune response. (
  • In single antibody ELISAs the antigen is coated and only a detector antibody is used. (
  • Traditional competition antigen ELISAs are coated with a captor antibody and a competitive antigen is labelled with the chromogen. (
  • The IgG antibody has 2 antigen binding sites. (
  • the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. (
  • A supershift assay using an anti-PCF2 antibody showed the involvement of PCF2 in site IIa (site IIb) binding activities in rice nuclear extracts, particularly in meristematic tissues. (
  • The specificity of this antibody has been confirmed by WB and IHC against the antigen. (
  • an immunoglobulin molecule having a specific amino acid sequence that gives each antibody the ability to adhere to and interact only with the antigen that induced its synthesis. (
  • This antigen-specific property of the antibody is the basis of the antigen-antibody reaction that is essential to an immune response . (
  • The antigen-antibody reaction begins as soon as substances interpreted as foreign invaders gain entrance into the body. (
  • This activity is assisted by complement , which interacts with the antigen-antibody complex in such a way that the cell ruptures and there is dissolution ( lysis ) of the cell body. (
  • blocking antibody any antibody that by combining with an antigen blocks another immunologic reaction with the antigen. (
  • complement-fixing antibody antibody (primarily IgM and the IgG subclasses 1, 2, and 3) that activates complement when reacted with antigen. (
  • complete antibody antibody capable of agglutinating cells in physiologic saline solution. (
  • cross-reacting antibody one that combines with an antigen other than the one that induced its production. (
  • cytotoxic antibody any specific antibody directed against cellular antigens, which when bound to the antigen, activates the complement pathway or activates killer cells, resulting in cell lysis. (
  • An antigen having the ability to react with more than one specific antibody. (
  • Conditional deletion of Mcl-1 depletes a wide variety of cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, B cell-committed progenitors, T cell-committed progenitors, antibody-secreting plasma cells, cardiac muscle cells, and neurons. (
  • Structure of the human gene for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • Analysis of a set of deletion constructs in transient transfection assays measuring heterologous reporter gene (luciferase) activity demonstrated that the 182-bp 5'-flanking region provides full promoter activity in IL-2-stimulated L2 cells. (
  • Thus, understanding these apparently simple structural features affords the opportunity to identify defects in progenitor cell replacement and turnover and has been used in numerous examples of mutant and gene-knockout mouse lines. (
  • 1995 ) The Polycomb group gene, extra sex combs , encodes a nuclear member of the WD40 repeat family. (
  • Schiff WM, Hwang JC, Ober MD, Olson JL, Dhrami-Gavazi E, Barile GR, Chang S, Mandava N. Safety and efficacy assessment of chimeric ribozyme to proliferating cell nuclear antigen to prevent recurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. (
  • Under steady-state conditions, the distal colonic crypt harbors a single stem cell at its base that gives rise to highly proliferative progenitor cells that differentiate into columnar, goblet, and endocrine cells. (
  • TA keratinocytes, immediately after their withdrawal from the stem cell compartment (meroclones), have greatly reduced p63, even though they possess very appreciable proliferative capacity. (
  • The proliferative compartment of squamous epithelia also contains a third type of cell, the meroclone ( 9 ), which is considered a "young" TA cell endowed with a greater proliferative capacity than the paraclone ( 11 ). (
  • This misplaced proliferative zone may contribute cells to both the normotopic and heterotopic cortical plates. (
  • In the DG of the hippocampus, newborn neurons migrate just a short distance (approximately 20 to 25 μ m, two cell nuclei wide) from the SGZ to the granule cell layer (GCL), where they integrate into the existing circuitry [ 12 ]. (
  • This nuclear localization appears to be restricted to S-phase nuclei, as CRM immunostaining disappears at mitosis. (
  • Cancer antigens are used in clinical medicine to screen body fluids for tumors or to follow the response of tumors to treatment. (
  • Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical Study," Analytical Cellular Pathology , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 185-192, 1998. (
  • 2 To clarify this issue further, we performed an immunohistochemical study to detect PTHrP in two well established experimental models for inflammatory and degenerative arthritis-namely, antigen induced arthritis (AIA) and post-meniscectomy OA. (
  • Note nuclear staining of proliferating tumor cells. (
  • Of the NK cell receptors, signaling via NKp44 is pivotal in determining the fate of tumor cells because it possesses both activating and inhibitory functions and is only expressed on activated NK cells. (
  • 24% of tumor cells. (
  • A binding factor(s) to these sequences with similar binding specificity to that of E2F has been detected in nuclear extracts of Drosophila Kc cells. (
  • 1989 ) Mitotic domains reveal early commitment of cells in Drosophila embryos. (
  • Nuclear Antigen with a Role in DNA synthesis, DNA Repair , and Cell Cycle progression. (
  • Structure of a mutant form of proliferating cell nuclear antigen that blocks translesion DNA synthesis. (
  • Subsequent studies, however, have revealed its striking ability to interact with multiple partners, which are involved in several metabolic pathways, including Okazaki fragment processing, DNA repair, translesion DNA synthesis, DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and cell cycle regulation. (
  • Dual mode of interaction of DNA polymerase epsilon with proliferating cell nuclear antigen in primer binding and DNA synthesis. (
  • These results implicate a novel animal cell DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase-delta, in the elongation stage of replicative DNA synthesis in vitro. (
  • Vimentin, normally present in mesenchymal cells but not epithelial cells, and hence a marker for the state of differentiation, was prominently expressed in the S3 segment 2-5 d postischemia. (
  • Clusterin, a marker for cell injury, was expressed primarily in the S3 segment and in the distal tubule with distinct staining patterns in each segment. (
  • Extracellular Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as a Marker and Therapeutic Target for Cancer Stem Cells. (
  • The identification of p63 as a keratinocyte stem cell marker will be of practical importance for the clinical application of epithelial cultures in cell therapy as well as for studies on epithelial tumorigenesis. (
  • Here we investigate the expression of p63 in epithelial stem and TA cells and show that p63 is a specific marker of human corneal and epidermal stem cells. (
  • ABBR: CEA A molecular marker found on normal fetal cells and in the bloodstream of patients with cancers of the colon, breast, lung, and other organs. (
  • In contrast with what has been found in interaction studies between DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, our data suggested that stimulation of DNA polymerase epsilon primer binding involves interactions with both the C-terminal side and the back side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • The significance of this dual interaction is discussed with reference to the physiological roles of DNA polymerase epsilon and its interaction with the clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • Using four characterized mutants of proliferating cell nuclear antigen containing three or four alanine residue substitutions on the C-terminal side and the back side of the trimer, we have tested the kinetics of primer binding and nucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerase epsilon in different assays. (
  • discovered a third DNA polymerase activity in mammalian cells that was called polymerase delta (δ). (
  • Reference: Tobacco proliferating cell nuclear antigen binds directly and stimulates both activity and processivity of ddNTP-sensitive mungbean DNA polymerase. (
  • DNA-damaging treatments result in an increase in S phase cells containing polymerase foci. (
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the proliferating activity of ameloblastomas and its correlation to the biological behaviour according to each histological type. (
  • There is increasing evidence that genes involved in normal cell growth and differentiation (oncogenes) or genes that encode for growth factors are important in determining the development and biologic aggressiveness of gastric carcinoma. (
  • In this study immunohistochemistry was used to detect progesterone, progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor-α, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Caspase-3 and P-glycoprotein in the canine endometrium. (
  • Although β1 integrin(bright) expression was not affected, the number of β1 integrin(bright) cells entering SG/ 2 /M was significantly lowered by rapamycin. (
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (
  • However, little is known about how the SMCX-mediated demethylase activity is regulated during the cell cycle and other crucial cellular processes. (
  • Ramirez AM, Wongtrakool C, Welch T, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Roman J. Vitamin D inhibition of pro-fibrotic effects of transforming growth factor beta1 in lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells. (
  • Barberis, M & Harari, S 1992, ' Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining of the endothelial cells in lung transplantation ', Transplantation Proceedings , vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2667-2669. (
  • Localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin, c-Fos, and clusterin in the postischemic kidney. (
  • Monoclonals of this antigen are available in different clones. (
  • In contrast, at late OA stages, distinct PTHrP positivity was detected in proliferating cell clones, as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining around cartilage damaged areas. (
  • PTHrP staining of hyaline articular cartilage shows a different pattern during progression of each type of arthritis: an overall decrease associated with the inflammatory disease, and an increase in the proliferating chondrocyte clones with degenerative arthritis. (
  • Functional interactions of a homolog of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with DNA polymerases in Archaea. (
  • Effect of proliferating cell nuclear antigen ubiquitination and chromatin structure on the dynamic properties of the Y-family DNA polymerases. (
  • Treatment of cells with DRAQ5, which results in temporary opening of the chromatin structure, causes a dramatic immobilization of poleta but not poliota. (
  • For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency. (
  • Freeze thaw will destroy a percentage in every cycle and should be avoided.Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method.For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency. (
  • Relaxed heteroduplex DNA containing a two or three-repeat unit extrusion also triggers MutSβ- and MutLα-endonuclease-dependent mismatch repair in nuclear extracts of human cells. (
  • NK cells kill cancerous cells through release of cytotoxic granules, a process regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors at the NK cell surface recognizing specific surface molecules on a tumor. (
  • Any of the major histocompatibility molecules present on almost all cells except human red blood cells. (
  • Any of the major histocompatibility molecules present on immunocompetent cells. (
  • Recombinant human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, was expressed in E.coli and purified by conventional chromatography techniques. (
  • Identification of a second proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the human malarial pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Human keratinocyte stem and TA cells when isolated in culture give rise to holoclones and paraclones, respectively. (
  • Examples are the human blood group antigens. (
  • However, the PKCε transgenic mouse line 224, when exposed to UVR (2 kJ/m 2 three times weekly), exhibited minimum cutaneous damage but increased squamous cell carcinoma multiplicity by 3-fold and decreased tumor latency by 12 weeks. (
  • 1-3 Intimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the intima assume a synthetic phenotype vis-à-vis the normal contractile phenotype, resulting in the deposition of extracellular matrix within the neointimal tissue. (
  • Subsequently, tissue regeneration potential of these laser doses under study were evaluated by monitoring proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 following the laser treatment and comparing it with the un-illuminated controls. (
  • Matching certain types of tissue antigens is important for the success of an organ transplant. (
  • Inflammation occurs when neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages encounter an antigen from any source during bodily injury. (
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent growth factor produced by platelets, VSMCs, and endothelial cells in the injured vascular wall. (