Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Galactorrhea: Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Lactation Disorders: Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Lactotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.RNA Isoforms: The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Curcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.Diet Fads: Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Menu PlanningChordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Libido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Andropause: An endocrine state in men, characterized by a significant decline in the production of TESTOSTERONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and other hormones such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Andropause symptoms are related to the lack of androgens including DEPRESSION, sexual dysfunction, and OSTEOPOROSIS. Andropause may also result from hormonal ablation therapy for malignant diseases.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Pergolide: A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).

Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (1/259)

AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy.  (+info)

Increased episodic release and disorderliness of prolactin secretion in both micro- and macroprolactinomas. (2/259)

To quantify prolactin (PRL) secretion patterns, ten untreated (female) microprolactinoma patients and six (male) macroprolactinoma patients underwent repetitive blood sampling every 10 min over 24 h. PRL release activity was analyzed from plasma PRL concentration (immunofluorimetric assay) profiles via a model-independent discrete peak detection program (Cluster) and a waveform-independent deconvolution technique (Pulse). Diurnal variations were analyzed by cosinor analysis. The number of distinct PRL pulses (mean +/- S.E.M.) was increased in patients: microprolactinoma 18.6 +/- 0.6/24 h versus female controls 12.4 +/- 0.6 (P = 6.7 x 10-s), and macroprolactinoma 18.0 +/- 0.9 versus male controls 13.5 +/- 0.8/24 h (P = 0.003). In patients, PRL pulse height, amplitude, pulse area and interpeak nadir concentrations were each greatly elevated compared with gender-matched controls. By 2-component deconvolution analysis, the mean nadir PRL secretion rate in microprolactinoma patients was augmented 20-fold at 0.408 +/- 0.089 microgram/l per min versus in female controls 0.019 +/- 0.009 microgram/l per min (P < 0.001); and in macroprolactinoma by 130-fold at 2.067 +/- 0.693 micrograms/l per min versus male controls 0.016 +/- 0.001 microgram/l per min (P = 0.001). Corresponding 24 h mean PRL secretion rates were in women, 0.658 +/- 0.147 and 0.044 +/- 0.018 (P < 0.001), and in men, 3.309 +/- 1.156 and 0.035 +/- 0.010 micrograms/l per min (P = 0.001), being respectively 15- and 94-fold increased in tumors. The estimated PRL production per day was 160 +/- 15 and 187 +/- 20 micrograms in male and female controls respectively. PRL production was 2860 +/- 640 micrograms in female patients with microadenomas (P < 0.001), and 37,800 +/- 5900 micrograms in male macroadenoma patients (P = 0.001). Cosinor analysis of the plasma concentrations revealed a significant rhythm in nine of ten, patients with a microadenoma, and in five of six with a macroadenoma. The same method applied to pulse height and amplitude disclosed a significant rhythm for PRL pulse height, but not for pulse amplitude, suggesting preserved rhythmicity of baseline interpulse nadir PRL concentrations. Approximate entropy (ApEn), a scale- and model-independent regularity statistic, averaged 1.6559 +/- 0.028 in microprolactinoma patients versus 0.8128 +/- 0.079 in female controls (P = 1.7 x 10(-8)); ApEn in macroadenomas was 1.5674 +/- 0.054 versus male controls 0.8773 +/- 0.076 (P = 1.7 x 10(-5), signifying greater secretory irregularity in the patients. Compared with microadenomas, macroadenomas exhibited a higher mean plasma concentration, overall mean PRL secretion rate, nadir secretion rate and pulse area, but similar peak frequency. We conclude that PRL secretion by prolactinomas is characterized by increased plasma PRL episodicity of release, increased total (15- to 100-fold) and basal (20- to 130-fold) secretion rates, and increased disorderlines of minute-to-minute secretion. These abnormalities of secretory control are very similar to those for GH and ACTH identified earlier in acromegaly and Cushing's disease respectively, thus suggesting mechanistic generality of pituitary tumor secretory derangements, independent of the particular hormone.  (+info)

Pituitary tumours in the elderly: a 20 year experience. (3/259)

The proportion of the elderly in the population is increasing, and the appreciation and management of medical problems in this age group will therefore become more important. We therefore decided to determine the clinical features and types of pituitary tumour presenting in the elderly, and to examine the treatment and outcome in this group. We conducted a retrospective case-note review from a specialist endocrine and neurosurgical unit in a tertiary referral centre. Eighty-four patients aged 65 years and over on diagnosis of a pituitary tumour were referred to the unit between 1975 and 1996. There were 45 males and 39 females, and the mean age was 72.4 years (range 65-86). Over half of the pituitary lesions were non-functioning adenomas (NFAs) (60.7%). GH-secreting tumours were present in 11 (13.1%) and macroprolactinomas in 7 (8.1%). Four patients had microadenomas and 17 had miscellaneous pituitary-related lesions. Visual deterioration was the commonest mode of presentation in 33 (39.3%), but 54 (64.3%) had evidence of visual impairment on detailed examination. Despite the majority of patients (80.8%) having coexisting medical conditions, trans-sphenoidal surgery was performed in 60 (71.4%) and was well tolerated with a zero peri- and post-operative mortality rate, and post-operative complications in 11 (13.1%). Pituitary tumours in the elderly are most frequently NFAs that present with visual deterioration and hypopituitarism. The fact that 46.5% were pan-hypopituitary on diagnosis and that 64.3% of patients had visual impairment suggests a delay in diagnosis in this age group. Despite significant coexisting medical pathology in this large series of patients, surgery was safe and successful in the majority.  (+info)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat pituitary GH3 cells. (4/259)

We examined whether mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is activated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in GH3 cells, and whether MAP kinase activation is involved in secretion of prolactin from these cells. Protein kinase inhibitors--such as PD098059, calphostin C, and genistein--and removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited MAP kinase activation by TRH. A cAMP analogue activated MAP kinase in these cells. Effects of cAMP on MAP kinase activation were inhibited by PD098059. TRH-induced prolactin secretion was not inhibited by levels of PD098059 sufficient to i activation but was inhibited by wortmannin (1 microM) and KN93. Treatment of GH3 cells with either TRH or cAMP significantly inhibited DNA synthesis and induced morphological changes. The effects stimulated by TRH were reversed by PD098059 treatment, but the same effects stimulated by cAMP were not. Treatment of GH3 cells with TRH for 48 h significantly increased the prolactin content in GH3 cells and decreased growth hormone content. The increase in prolactin was completely abolished by PD098059, but the decrease in growth hormone was not. These results suggest that TRH-induced MAP kinase activation is involved in prolactin synthesis and differentiation of GH3 cells, but not in prolactin secretion.  (+info)

A novel germline mutation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in a Japanese MEN1 patient and her daughter. (5/259)

Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by tumors of the parathyroid, anterior pituitary and gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene has recently been cloned and its germline mutations have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of MEN1. We analyzed a Japanese MEN1 patient and her daughter for germline mutations of the MEN1 gene. The proband (60 y.o.) had primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) and gastrinoma, and her daughter (30 y.o.) had prolactinoma. Clinical examinations revealed no evidence of PHP in the daughter. We identified a novel heterozygous germline mutation (712 A del) at codon 201 in exon 3 of the MEN1 gene in the proband. Restriction digestion analysis revealed the same mutation pattern in her daughter. These findings suggest that this family has familial MEN1 including a rare case of MEN1 with a single lesion of the pituitary. Genetic examinations are useful as diagnostic tools for any rare or variant case of familial MEN1.  (+info)

Giant insulinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia-type I: a case report. (6/259)

We report a case of giant cystic insulinoma constituting part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I. A 29-year-old Japanese man presented with a history of recurrent hypoglycemic attacks. Endocrine examination showed hyperinsulinemia discordant with hypoglycemia, and a giant cystic insulinoma (11 x 10 cm) located in the pancreatic tail was detected radiologically. Hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary adenoma and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia were also present. The insulinoma, prolactinoma and hyperplastic parathyroid gland were surgically removed. Fluorescent microsatellite analysis detected loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosome 11q13 in DNA samples from all resected tissues but not from white blood cells. This is a rare case of MEN type I because of the giant cystic insulinoma and the evidence of common LOH detected in all MEN type I tissues.  (+info)

Galactorrhoea and pituitary mass: a typical prolactinoma? (7/259)

A 21 year old woman presenting with galactorrhoea, hyperprolactinaemia, and a pituitary mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described who was referred to us before planned pituitary surgery. Although a thorough history did not suggest hypothyroidism, laboratory studies revealed profound primary hypothyroidism. At that time, pituitary MRI showed homogeneous enlargement of the pituitary gland consistent with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. With thyroid hormone replacement therapy the galactorrhoea resolved, concentrations of prolactin and thyroid hormones returned to normal, and the pituitary shrunk to normal size within two months. This case illustrates that primary hypothyroidism can present only with galactorrhoea and pituitary mass, and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary enlargement.  (+info)

Proliferation, bcl-2 expression and angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas: relationship to tumour behaviour. (8/259)

The prediction of pituitary tumour behaviour, in terms of response to treatment from which can be derived optimal management strategies, is a challenge that has been approached using several different means. Angiogenesis in other tumour types has been shown to be correlated with poor response to treatment and tumour recurrence. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of measurements of cell proliferation and angiogenesis in predicting pituitary tumour behaviour. The proliferative capacity of the tumour was assessed using the Ki-67 labelling index (LI) while bcl-2 expression was used to assess anti-apoptotic pathways. The microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using antibodies to CD31 and factor VIII-related antigen, and with biotinylated ulex europaeus agglutinin I. There was no difference between Ki-67 LI and MVD of functionless tumours that recurred and those that did not, but bcl-2 expression was significantly lower in tumours that subsequently regrew. Macroprolactinomas had significantly higher LI than microprolactinomas and than all other tumours. Cell proliferation and angiogenesis were not related, showing that both processes are under different control mechanisms in pituitary tumours. In contrast there was a positive relationship between markers of angiogenesis and bcl-2 expression in prolactinomas, GH-secreting tumours and non-recurrent functionless tumours with higher levels of bcl-2 expression being found in the more vascular tumours. These findings may suggest that angiogenesis is related to the ability of tumour cells to survive rather than their proliferative activity.  (+info)

  • Although prolactinoma isn't life-threatening, it can impair your vision, cause infertility and produce other effects. (
  • Valvular heart disease and the use of cabergoline for the treatment of prolactinoma. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of increased mitral valve tenting area/height, valvular thickening or significant regurgitation with the long-term administration of the commonly used doses of cabergoline to treat prolactinoma. (
  • Cabergoline, also known as Cabaser and CG-101, is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist used for prolactinoma treatment. (
  • The need for annual echocardiography to detect cabergoline-associated valvulopathy in patients with prolactinoma: a systematic review and additional clinical data. (
  • 4: Hu J, Zheng X, Zhang W, Yang H. Current drug withdrawal strategy in prolactinoma patients treated with cabergoline: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • 7: Akman L, Sahin G, Erbas O, Aktug H, Akdogan A, Goker EN, Taskiran D, Tavmergen E. Comparison of montelukast and cabergoline for prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: in an experimental rat model. (
  • Thus, our results identify an association between a gain-of-function PRLR variant and prolactinomas and reveal a new etiology and potential therapeutic approach for these neoplasms. (
  • Rarely, the prolactinoma may press on the rest of the pituitary gland, stopping it from producing other hormones. (
  • RESULTS: No significant valvular thickening or regurgitation of any valve was detected in the prolactinoma group and the prevalence of mild valvular regurgitation was not higher than in the case-control group. (
  • Left untreated, a prolactinoma may grow large enough to compress your optic nerve. (
  • Prolactinomas which are large may press on the brain or nearby nerves (the nearest nerves are the optic nerves which go to the eye). (