A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (1/259)

AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy.  (+info)

Increased episodic release and disorderliness of prolactin secretion in both micro- and macroprolactinomas. (2/259)

To quantify prolactin (PRL) secretion patterns, ten untreated (female) microprolactinoma patients and six (male) macroprolactinoma patients underwent repetitive blood sampling every 10 min over 24 h. PRL release activity was analyzed from plasma PRL concentration (immunofluorimetric assay) profiles via a model-independent discrete peak detection program (Cluster) and a waveform-independent deconvolution technique (Pulse). Diurnal variations were analyzed by cosinor analysis. The number of distinct PRL pulses (mean +/- S.E.M.) was increased in patients: microprolactinoma 18.6 +/- 0.6/24 h versus female controls 12.4 +/- 0.6 (P = 6.7 x 10-s), and macroprolactinoma 18.0 +/- 0.9 versus male controls 13.5 +/- 0.8/24 h (P = 0.003). In patients, PRL pulse height, amplitude, pulse area and interpeak nadir concentrations were each greatly elevated compared with gender-matched controls. By 2-component deconvolution analysis, the mean nadir PRL secretion rate in microprolactinoma patients was augmented 20-fold at 0.408 +/- 0.089 microgram/l per min versus in female controls 0.019 +/- 0.009 microgram/l per min (P < 0.001); and in macroprolactinoma by 130-fold at 2.067 +/- 0.693 micrograms/l per min versus male controls 0.016 +/- 0.001 microgram/l per min (P = 0.001). Corresponding 24 h mean PRL secretion rates were in women, 0.658 +/- 0.147 and 0.044 +/- 0.018 (P < 0.001), and in men, 3.309 +/- 1.156 and 0.035 +/- 0.010 micrograms/l per min (P = 0.001), being respectively 15- and 94-fold increased in tumors. The estimated PRL production per day was 160 +/- 15 and 187 +/- 20 micrograms in male and female controls respectively. PRL production was 2860 +/- 640 micrograms in female patients with microadenomas (P < 0.001), and 37,800 +/- 5900 micrograms in male macroadenoma patients (P = 0.001). Cosinor analysis of the plasma concentrations revealed a significant rhythm in nine of ten, patients with a microadenoma, and in five of six with a macroadenoma. The same method applied to pulse height and amplitude disclosed a significant rhythm for PRL pulse height, but not for pulse amplitude, suggesting preserved rhythmicity of baseline interpulse nadir PRL concentrations. Approximate entropy (ApEn), a scale- and model-independent regularity statistic, averaged 1.6559 +/- 0.028 in microprolactinoma patients versus 0.8128 +/- 0.079 in female controls (P = 1.7 x 10(-8)); ApEn in macroadenomas was 1.5674 +/- 0.054 versus male controls 0.8773 +/- 0.076 (P = 1.7 x 10(-5), signifying greater secretory irregularity in the patients. Compared with microadenomas, macroadenomas exhibited a higher mean plasma concentration, overall mean PRL secretion rate, nadir secretion rate and pulse area, but similar peak frequency. We conclude that PRL secretion by prolactinomas is characterized by increased plasma PRL episodicity of release, increased total (15- to 100-fold) and basal (20- to 130-fold) secretion rates, and increased disorderlines of minute-to-minute secretion. These abnormalities of secretory control are very similar to those for GH and ACTH identified earlier in acromegaly and Cushing's disease respectively, thus suggesting mechanistic generality of pituitary tumor secretory derangements, independent of the particular hormone.  (+info)

Pituitary tumours in the elderly: a 20 year experience. (3/259)

The proportion of the elderly in the population is increasing, and the appreciation and management of medical problems in this age group will therefore become more important. We therefore decided to determine the clinical features and types of pituitary tumour presenting in the elderly, and to examine the treatment and outcome in this group. We conducted a retrospective case-note review from a specialist endocrine and neurosurgical unit in a tertiary referral centre. Eighty-four patients aged 65 years and over on diagnosis of a pituitary tumour were referred to the unit between 1975 and 1996. There were 45 males and 39 females, and the mean age was 72.4 years (range 65-86). Over half of the pituitary lesions were non-functioning adenomas (NFAs) (60.7%). GH-secreting tumours were present in 11 (13.1%) and macroprolactinomas in 7 (8.1%). Four patients had microadenomas and 17 had miscellaneous pituitary-related lesions. Visual deterioration was the commonest mode of presentation in 33 (39.3%), but 54 (64.3%) had evidence of visual impairment on detailed examination. Despite the majority of patients (80.8%) having coexisting medical conditions, trans-sphenoidal surgery was performed in 60 (71.4%) and was well tolerated with a zero peri- and post-operative mortality rate, and post-operative complications in 11 (13.1%). Pituitary tumours in the elderly are most frequently NFAs that present with visual deterioration and hypopituitarism. The fact that 46.5% were pan-hypopituitary on diagnosis and that 64.3% of patients had visual impairment suggests a delay in diagnosis in this age group. Despite significant coexisting medical pathology in this large series of patients, surgery was safe and successful in the majority.  (+info)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat pituitary GH3 cells. (4/259)

We examined whether mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is activated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in GH3 cells, and whether MAP kinase activation is involved in secretion of prolactin from these cells. Protein kinase inhibitors--such as PD098059, calphostin C, and genistein--and removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited MAP kinase activation by TRH. A cAMP analogue activated MAP kinase in these cells. Effects of cAMP on MAP kinase activation were inhibited by PD098059. TRH-induced prolactin secretion was not inhibited by levels of PD098059 sufficient to i activation but was inhibited by wortmannin (1 microM) and KN93. Treatment of GH3 cells with either TRH or cAMP significantly inhibited DNA synthesis and induced morphological changes. The effects stimulated by TRH were reversed by PD098059 treatment, but the same effects stimulated by cAMP were not. Treatment of GH3 cells with TRH for 48 h significantly increased the prolactin content in GH3 cells and decreased growth hormone content. The increase in prolactin was completely abolished by PD098059, but the decrease in growth hormone was not. These results suggest that TRH-induced MAP kinase activation is involved in prolactin synthesis and differentiation of GH3 cells, but not in prolactin secretion.  (+info)

A novel germline mutation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in a Japanese MEN1 patient and her daughter. (5/259)

Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by tumors of the parathyroid, anterior pituitary and gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene has recently been cloned and its germline mutations have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of MEN1. We analyzed a Japanese MEN1 patient and her daughter for germline mutations of the MEN1 gene. The proband (60 y.o.) had primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) and gastrinoma, and her daughter (30 y.o.) had prolactinoma. Clinical examinations revealed no evidence of PHP in the daughter. We identified a novel heterozygous germline mutation (712 A del) at codon 201 in exon 3 of the MEN1 gene in the proband. Restriction digestion analysis revealed the same mutation pattern in her daughter. These findings suggest that this family has familial MEN1 including a rare case of MEN1 with a single lesion of the pituitary. Genetic examinations are useful as diagnostic tools for any rare or variant case of familial MEN1.  (+info)

Giant insulinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia-type I: a case report. (6/259)

We report a case of giant cystic insulinoma constituting part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I. A 29-year-old Japanese man presented with a history of recurrent hypoglycemic attacks. Endocrine examination showed hyperinsulinemia discordant with hypoglycemia, and a giant cystic insulinoma (11 x 10 cm) located in the pancreatic tail was detected radiologically. Hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary adenoma and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia were also present. The insulinoma, prolactinoma and hyperplastic parathyroid gland were surgically removed. Fluorescent microsatellite analysis detected loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosome 11q13 in DNA samples from all resected tissues but not from white blood cells. This is a rare case of MEN type I because of the giant cystic insulinoma and the evidence of common LOH detected in all MEN type I tissues.  (+info)

Galactorrhoea and pituitary mass: a typical prolactinoma? (7/259)

A 21 year old woman presenting with galactorrhoea, hyperprolactinaemia, and a pituitary mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described who was referred to us before planned pituitary surgery. Although a thorough history did not suggest hypothyroidism, laboratory studies revealed profound primary hypothyroidism. At that time, pituitary MRI showed homogeneous enlargement of the pituitary gland consistent with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. With thyroid hormone replacement therapy the galactorrhoea resolved, concentrations of prolactin and thyroid hormones returned to normal, and the pituitary shrunk to normal size within two months. This case illustrates that primary hypothyroidism can present only with galactorrhoea and pituitary mass, and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary enlargement.  (+info)

Proliferation, bcl-2 expression and angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas: relationship to tumour behaviour. (8/259)

The prediction of pituitary tumour behaviour, in terms of response to treatment from which can be derived optimal management strategies, is a challenge that has been approached using several different means. Angiogenesis in other tumour types has been shown to be correlated with poor response to treatment and tumour recurrence. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of measurements of cell proliferation and angiogenesis in predicting pituitary tumour behaviour. The proliferative capacity of the tumour was assessed using the Ki-67 labelling index (LI) while bcl-2 expression was used to assess anti-apoptotic pathways. The microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using antibodies to CD31 and factor VIII-related antigen, and with biotinylated ulex europaeus agglutinin I. There was no difference between Ki-67 LI and MVD of functionless tumours that recurred and those that did not, but bcl-2 expression was significantly lower in tumours that subsequently regrew. Macroprolactinomas had significantly higher LI than microprolactinomas and than all other tumours. Cell proliferation and angiogenesis were not related, showing that both processes are under different control mechanisms in pituitary tumours. In contrast there was a positive relationship between markers of angiogenesis and bcl-2 expression in prolactinomas, GH-secreting tumours and non-recurrent functionless tumours with higher levels of bcl-2 expression being found in the more vascular tumours. These findings may suggest that angiogenesis is related to the ability of tumour cells to survive rather than their proliferative activity.  (+info)

A prolactinoma is a type of pituitary tumor that produces an excess amount of the hormone prolactin, leading to various symptoms. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate different bodily functions. Prolactin is one such hormone, primarily known for its role in stimulating milk production in women during lactation (breastfeeding).

Prolactinoma tumors can be classified into two types: microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas. Microprolactinomas are smaller tumors, typically less than 10 millimeters in size, while macroprolactinomas are larger tumors, generally greater than 10 millimeters in size.

The overproduction of prolactin caused by these tumors can lead to several clinical manifestations, including:

1. Galactorrhea: Unusual and often spontaneous milk production or leakage from the nipples, which can occur in both men and women who do not have a recent history of pregnancy or breastfeeding.
2. Menstrual irregularities: In women, high prolactin levels can interfere with the normal functioning of other hormones, leading to menstrual irregularities such as infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea) or absent periods (amenorrhea), and sometimes infertility.
3. Sexual dysfunction: In both men and women, high prolactin levels can cause decreased libido and sexual desire. Men may also experience erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm production.
4. Bone loss: Over time, high prolactin levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the disruption of other hormones that regulate bone health.
5. Headaches and visual disturbances: As the tumor grows, it may put pressure on surrounding structures in the brain, leading to headaches and potential vision problems such as blurred vision or decreased peripheral vision.

Diagnosis typically involves measuring prolactin levels in the blood and performing imaging tests like an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the size of the tumor. Treatment usually consists of medication to lower prolactin levels, such as dopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine or cabergoline), which can also help shrink the tumor. In some cases, surgery may be necessary if medication is ineffective or if the tumor is large and causing severe symptoms.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

Bromocriptine is a dopamine receptor agonist drug, which means it works by binding to and activating dopamine receptors in the brain. It has several therapeutic uses, including:

* Treatment of Parkinson's disease: Bromocriptine can be used alone or in combination with levodopa to help manage the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.
* Suppression of lactation: Bromocriptine can be used to suppress milk production in women who are not breastfeeding or who have stopped breastfeeding but still have high levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.
* Treatment of pituitary tumors: Bromocriptine can be used to shrink certain types of pituitary tumors, such as prolactinomas, which are tumors that secrete excessive amounts of prolactin.
* Management of acromegaly: Bromocriptine can be used to manage the symptoms of acromegaly, a rare hormonal disorder characterized by abnormal growth and enlargement of body tissues, by reducing the production of growth hormone.

Bromocriptine is available in immediate-release and long-acting formulations, and it is usually taken orally. Common side effects of bromocriptine include nausea, dizziness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects are rare but can include hallucinations, confusion, and priapism (prolonged erection).

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Galactorrhea is an uncommon condition where someone (typically a woman, but it can also occur in men and children) experiences abnormal or spontaneous production and secretion of milk from their breasts, not associated with childbirth or nursing. This condition can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, medications, tumors affecting the pituitary gland, or other underlying medical conditions. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience galactorrhea to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Ergolines are a group of ergot alkaloids that have been widely used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs. These compounds are known for their ability to bind to and stimulate specific receptors in the brain, particularly dopamine receptors. As a result, they have been explored for their potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, migraine, and depression.

However, ergolines can also have significant side effects, including hallucinations, nausea, and changes in blood pressure. In addition, some ergot alkaloids have been associated with a rare but serious condition called ergotism, which is characterized by symptoms such as muscle spasms, vomiting, and gangrene. Therefore, the use of ergolines must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Some specific examples of drugs that contain ergolines include:

* Dihydroergotamine (DHE): used for the treatment of migraine headaches
* Pergolide: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
* Cabergoline: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and certain types of hormonal disorders

It is important to note that while ergolines have shown promise in some therapeutic areas, they are not without their risks. As with any medication, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any drug containing ergolines to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for an individual's specific needs.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Lactation disorders are conditions or problems that affect a woman's ability to breastfeed her baby. These disorders can make it difficult for the mother to produce enough milk, or cause pain and discomfort during breastfeeding. Some common lactation disorders include:

1. Insufficient Glandular Tissue (IGT): This condition occurs when a woman has limited breast tissue, which can make it difficult for her to produce enough milk to fully breastfeed her baby.
2. Engorgement: This happens when the breasts become overly full of milk, causing them to feel hard, swollen, and painful. Engorgement can make it difficult for the baby to latch on properly, which can lead to nipple damage and mastitis.
3. Mastitis: An infection of the breast tissue that can cause pain, redness, warmth, and flu-like symptoms. Mastitis often occurs when a milk duct becomes blocked, allowing bacteria to enter and infect the tissue.
4. Plugged Ducts: This condition occurs when a milk duct becomes clogged or blocked, causing milk to back up and leading to pain, swelling, and redness in the affected area.
5. Nipple Vasospasm: This is a painful spasm of the blood vessels in the nipples, which can cause burning, stinging, or throbbing sensations during or after breastfeeding.
6. Low Milk Supply: This condition occurs when a woman is unable to produce enough milk to meet her baby's needs. Low milk supply can have various causes, including hormonal imbalances, poor latch, and infrequent feedings.
7. Oversupply: This condition occurs when a woman produces too much milk, which can lead to engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis.

Prompt identification and management of lactation disorders are essential for ensuring the health and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Women who experience difficulty breastfeeding should consult their healthcare provider or a lactation consultant for guidance and support.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Lactotrophs, also known as mammotrophs or prolactin cells, are a type of hormone-producing cell found in the anterior pituitary gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting the hormone prolactin, which plays a crucial role in lactation (milk production) in females after childbirth. Prolactin also has other functions in the body, such as regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. Lactotrophs can be stimulated by factors like estrogen, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and stress, leading to increased prolactin secretion.

A chromophobe adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically arises in the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The term "chromophobe" refers to the appearance of the cells under a microscope - they lack pigment and have a characteristic appearance with abundant clear or lightly stained cytoplasm.

Chromophobe adenomas are slow-growing tumors that can vary in size, and they may cause symptoms due to pressure on surrounding structures or by producing excess hormones. The most common hormone produced by chromophobe adenomas is prolactin, leading to symptoms such as menstrual irregularities, milk production (galactorrhea), and decreased sexual function in women, and decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men.

Treatment for chromophobe adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often through a transsphenoidal approach (through the nose and sphenoid sinus). In some cases, radiation therapy or medical management with hormone-blocking drugs may also be necessary. Regular follow-up with an endocrinologist is important to monitor for any recurrence or hormonal imbalances.

The Sella Turcica, also known as the Turkish saddle, is a depression or fossa in the sphenoid bone located at the base of the skull. It forms a housing for the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes several essential hormones. The Sella Turcica has a saddle-like shape, with its anterior and posterior clinoids forming the front and back of the saddle, respectively. This region is of significant interest in neuroimaging and clinical settings, as various conditions such as pituitary tumors or other abnormalities may affect the size, shape, and integrity of the Sella Turcica.

RNA isoforms, also known as alternative splicing isoforms or splice variants, refer to different forms of RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules that are generated from a single gene through the process of RNA splicing. During this process, introns (non-coding sequences) are removed and exons (coding sequences) are joined together in various combinations to form mature RNA molecules.

In eukaryotic cells, many genes undergo alternative splicing, which results in the production of multiple RNA isoforms with distinct exon compositions from a single gene. These RNA isoforms can then be translated into different protein products or perform regulatory functions, contributing to proteome diversity and functional complexity in biological systems.

The existence of RNA isoforms has significant implications for genetics, molecular biology, and biomedical research, as they can influence phenotypic traits, disease susceptibility, and therapeutic responses. Identifying and characterizing RNA isoforms are essential for understanding gene function and regulation, as well as for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the development of tumors in various endocrine glands. These tumors can be benign or malignant and may lead to overproduction of hormones, causing a variety of symptoms. The three main endocrine glands affected in MEN1 are:

1. Parathyroid glands: Over 90% of individuals with MEN1 develop multiple parathyroid tumors (parathyroid hyperplasia), leading to primary hyperparathyroidism, which results in high levels of calcium in the blood.
2. Pancreas: Up to 80% of individuals with MEN1 develop pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), leading to specific clinical syndromes like Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypoglycemia, or watery diarrhea.
3. Pituitary gland: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with MEN1 develop pituitary tumors, most commonly prolactinomas, which can cause menstrual irregularities, galactorrhea (milk production), and visual field defects.

MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, located on chromosome 11, and it is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease-causing mutation from an affected parent. The diagnosis of MEN1 typically requires meeting specific clinical criteria or having a positive genetic test for a pathogenic MEN1 gene variant. Regular monitoring and early intervention are crucial in managing this condition to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

A Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma (GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, or GHoma) is a type of benign tumor that develops in the pituitary gland and results in excessive production of growth hormone (GH). This leads to a condition known as acromegaly if it occurs in adults, or gigantism if it occurs in children before the closure of the growth plates.

Symptoms of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma may include:

1. Coarsening of facial features
2. Enlargement of hands and feet
3. Deepened voice due to thickening of vocal cords
4. Increased sweating and body odor
5. Joint pain and stiffness
6. Sleep apnea
7. Fatigue, weakness, or muscle wasting
8. Headaches
9. Vision problems
10. Irregular menstrual periods in women
11. Erectile dysfunction in men

Diagnosis typically involves measuring the levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the blood, along with imaging tests like MRI or CT scans to locate and characterize the tumor. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and medication to control GH production. Regular follow-ups are necessary to monitor for potential recurrence.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that typically occurs in middle-aged adults. It results from the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone (GH) during adulthood. The excessive production of GH leads to abnormal growth of body tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The term "acromegaly" is derived from two Greek words: "akros," meaning extremities, and "megaly," meaning enlargement. In most cases, acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, which results in overproduction of GH.

Common symptoms include enlarged hands and feet, coarse facial features, deepened voice, joint pain, and sweating. If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or medication to control GH production.

Substance-induced psychosis is a type of psychosis that is caused by the use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder as follows:

A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms:

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).

B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a combination of substances.

C. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium and is not better explained by a psychotic disorder that is not substance/medication-induced. The symptoms in Criterion A developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal, or after exposure to a medication.

D. The disturbance causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

E. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder).

It's important to note that the diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis requires a thorough medical and psychiatric evaluation to determine if the symptoms are caused by substance use or another underlying mental health condition.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Based on size, a prolactinoma can be classified as a microprolactinoma (. 10 mm diameter). The symptoms due to a prolactinoma ... "Prolactinoma". National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases. Retrieved 24 July 2021. "Prolactinoma". ... A prolactinoma is a tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces the hormone prolactin. It is the most common type of ... Symptoms of prolactinoma are due to abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia), or due to pressure ...
Prolactinomas may respond to dopamine agonist treatment-medication that mimics the action of dopamine on the lactrotrope cells ... Very high prolactin levels, though, point more strongly towards a prolactinoma (prolactin-secreting tumor). The diagnosis of ... Schlechte JA (November 2003). "Prolactinoma". N. Engl. J. Med. 349 (21): 2035-41. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp025334. PMID 14627789. ...
"Prolactinoma". MedlinePlus. NIH. Retrieved 26 August 2015. Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson; Aster, Jon C. (2014-08 ... "Prolactinoma". NIH. NIH. 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2015. Gigantism and Acromegaly at eMedicine Aguirre, Alfredo (2014). ... The four most common types of hyperpituitarism are caused by 4 types of pituitary adenoma, as follows: prolactinoma, ... Treatment (for hyperpituitarism) in the case of prolactinoma consists of long-term medical management. Dopamine agonists are ...
Prolactinoma or other tumors arising in or near the pituitary - such as those that cause acromegaly may block the flow of ... If the prolactinoma does not initially respond to dopamine agonist therapy, such that prolactin levels are still high or the ... It is possible for the prolactinoma to be resistant to bromocriptine but respond well to cabergoline and vice versa. Surgical ... The most common cause of hyperprolactinemia is prolactinoma (a type of pituitary adenoma). A blood serum prolactin level of ...
Gooren LJ, Assies J, Asscheman H, de Slegte R, van Kessel H (February 1988). "Estrogen-induced prolactinoma in a man". J. Clin ... Cunha FS, Domenice S, Câmara VL, Sircili MH, Gooren LJ, Mendonça BB, Costa EM (August 2015). "Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two ... García-Malpartida K, Martín-Gorgojo A, Rocha M, Gómez-Balaguer M, Hernández-Mijares A (August 2010). "Prolactinoma induced by ... Rarely, CPA can produce blood clots, liver damage, excessively high prolactin levels, prolactinomas, and meningiomas. Upon ...
The most common type of pituitary tumour is a prolactinoma which hypersecretes prolactin. A third type of pituitary adenoma ... Ciccarelli, E; F Camanni (June 1996). "Diagnosis and drug therapy of prolactinoma". Drugs. 51 (6): 954-965. doi:10.2165/ ...
Angyal, E. A.; Lee, H. J.; Wolansky, L. J.; Koenigsberger, M. R.; Nathanson, D.; Zimmer, A. E. (1993). "Prolactinoma Invasion ...
Research shows that these agents reduce the size of prolactinomas by suppressing the hypersecretion of prolactin resulting in ... Mancini, Tatiana; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Giustina, Andrea (2008-03-01). "Hyperprolactinemia and Prolactinomas". Endocrinology ...
Hyperprolactinemia is the most frequent abnormality of the anterior pituitary tumors, termed prolactinomas. Prolactinomas may ... Prolactinoma-Mayo Clinic Hoehn K, Marieb EN (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. p. ... Ali M, Mirza L (1 May 2021). "Morbid Obesity Due to Prolactinoma and Significant Weight Loss After Dopamine Agonist Treatment ... Inappropriate lactation (galactorrhoea) is another important clinical sign of prolactinomas. The structure of prolactin is ...
Chen YX, Li Q, Wang CD, Su ZP, Li WQ, Chen XB, Wu ZB (February 2012). "[Differential expression analysis of prolactinoma- ...
A Brazilian case report of a prolactinoma in a transgender woman treated with 10 mg estradiol enantate every 2 weeks exists. ... Camara VL (July 2010). "Estradiol enantate First report of prolactinoma, in a transsexual". Reactions. 24 (1311): 24. doi: ... "Estrogen as a Presumed Risk Factor for Prolactinoma in a Male-to-Female Transsexual Patient" (PDF). Endocrine Reviews. 31 (3, ...
From 25 to 90% are prolactinomas. About 25% of pituitary tumors secrete growth hormone or growth hormone and prolactin. Excess ...
She had confirmed that she suffered from Prolactinoma and Rheumatoid arthritis. Gadkari started her career as Assistant ...
Prolactinomas are non-malignant, and treatment was successful. She also had ANCA Associated Vasculitis. On 8 February 2017, ... In January 2016, Palmer-Tomkinson was diagnosed with a prolactinoma, a benign tumour (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, and ...
Adenomas of the anterior pituitary are most often prolactinomas. Overproduction of prolactin leads to cessation of menstrual ...
The most common subtype, prolactinoma, is seen more often in women, and is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy as the hormone ... Medical therapy with cabergoline or bromocriptine generally suppresses prolactinomas; progesterone antagonist therapy has not ...
It has also been investigated as a therapy for Parkinson's disease and prolactinoma. Roxindole acts as an agonist at the ... Jaspers C, Benker G, Reinwein D (June 1994). "Treatment of prolactinoma patients with the new non-ergot dopamine agonist ...
... may be required to resect and shrink a prolactinoma if greater than 10 mm in size. Importantly, individuals should be able to ... prolactinoma) if present. In rare cases, endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery and radiotherapy, ... "Guidelines of the Pituitary Society for the diagnosis and management of prolactinomas". Clinical Endocrinology. 65 (2): 265-273 ...
... can be a result of prolactinomas (adenomas of the anterior pituitary). It may be caused by thyrotoxicosis, ...
... "microRNA expression profile and differentially-expressed genes in prolactinomas following bromocriptine treatment". Oncology ...
Lactation suppression Hyperprolactinemia Adjunctive therapy of prolactin-producing pituitary gland tumors (prolactinomas); ... prolactinomas, Parkinson's disease, and for other indications. It is taken by mouth. Cabergoline is an ergot derivative and a ... Cabergoline is frequently used as a first-line agent in the management of prolactinomas due to its higher affinity for D2 ...
The prognosis for patients with prolactinomas is good: most remain stable or regress. In pregnant women, prolactinomas must be ... Relatively common etiologies include prolactinoma, medication effect, kidney failure, granulomatous diseases of the pituitary ...
"Aromatase cytochrome P450 enzyme expression in prolactinomas and its relationship to tumor behavior". Pituitary. 16 (3): 386- ...
Prolactinomas often start to give symptoms especially during pregnancy, when the increased hormone level estrogen can increase ... There are however no isolated prolactinomas or any other type of pituitary tumor. In some patients with CNC, the pituitary ... prolactinoma) adenomas that are large (macroadenomas) and often occur in children, adolescents and young adults. Daly and ... only prolactinoma, etc.), while heterogeneous FIPA families can have different pituitary adenomas in affected family members. ...
Usually, the prolactin levels are higher in case of a true prolactinoma, but the concentration ranges overlap.[citation needed ... as both suprasellar hormone-inactive adenomas and prolactinomas may be associated with increased prolactin levels, central ...
... pituitary tumours are adenomas of anterior cells, typically prolactinomas or growth hormone-secreting. Pancreatic tumours ...
February 2003). "Involvement of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in pituitary prolactinoma pathogenesis through a Smad/ ...
If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary ...
... sometimes associated with prolactinomas, are present in most AIP mutated patients. AIP has been shown to interact with the aryl ...
If prolactin levels remain high, an MRI scan of the pituitary gland to check for the presence of a prolactinoma should be ... If a prolactinoma becomes large enough, it can cause visual changes (especially decreased peripheral vision), headaches, ... The risks of certain types of benign brain tumors including meningioma and prolactinoma are increased with hormone therapy in ... High-dose progestogens increase the risk of benign brain tumors including prolactinomas and meningiomas as well. Because of ...
Based on size, a prolactinoma can be classified as a microprolactinoma (. 10 mm diameter). The symptoms due to a prolactinoma ... "Prolactinoma". National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases. Retrieved 24 July 2021. "Prolactinoma". ... A prolactinoma is a tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces the hormone prolactin. It is the most common type of ... Symptoms of prolactinoma are due to abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia), or due to pressure ...
A prolactinoma is a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor that produces a hormone called prolactin. This results in too much ... A prolactinoma is a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor that produces a hormone called prolactin. This results in too much ... See your provider if you have any symptoms of prolactinoma.. If you have had a prolactinoma in the past, contact your provider ... High levels of estrogen or testosterone may be involved in the growth of a prolactinoma. Women with prolactinomas should be ...
Based on its size, a prolactinoma can be classified as a microprolactinoma (< 10 mm diameter) or a macroprolactinoma (>10 mm ... Prolactinomas are the most common hormone-secreting pituitary tumors. ... encoded search term (Prolactinoma) and Prolactinoma What to Read Next on Medscape ... A study by Sala et al indicated that in patients with prolactinomas undergoing cabergoline treatment, the prolactinoma ...
Learn more about Prolactinoma from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics Tool. ... prolactinoma of pituitary gland, prolactinoma (disorder), prolactinoma, familial, familial prolactinoma, pituitary adenoma. ... Prolactinoma is also known as prolactinoma, pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting, prolactinoma (morphologic abnormality), ... Submit your video on Prolactinoma to be featured!. Submit a Video. Charities. Submit your charity on Prolactinoma to be ...
In considering whether to stop treatment of a prolactinoma it is helpful to take into account the size of the prolactinoma ... Many patients taking medical therapy for a prolactinoma may assume that they need treatment for life. In reality it is often ... In principle patients should be treated for a prolactinoma for as long as they are deriving a clinical benefit from treatment. ... In considering whether to stop treatment of a prolactinoma, it is helpful first to review the diagnosis and clarify whether the ...
Prolactinoma - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Etiology of Prolactinoma Prolactinomas are noncancerous tumors composed of lactotrophs, which are prolactin-secreting adenomas ... The most common symptom of a prolactinoma is galactorrhea. Diagnosis is by measurement of prolactin levels... read more ) ... Prolactinomas are noncancerous tumors made up from lactotrophs in the pituitary gland. The most common symptom of a ...
We present a case of prolactinoma in a 54-year old male patient who presented with pressure effects because of the tumor, as ... Prolactinomas are the most common benign pituitary neoplasms and the common cause of hyperprolactinemia. Most of them arise in ... Prolactinomas are the most common benign pituitary neoplasms and the common cause of hyper- prolactinemia. Most of them arise ... We present a case of prolactinoma in a 54-year old male patient who presented with pressure effects because of the tumor, as ...
PS: We have moderated comments to reduce spam. ALL comments that are not spam will be published on the website.. ...
Prolactinoma has not been reported before in patients with PTPS deficiency. The diagnosis of prolactinoma in these patients ... Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas which account for 50-60% of all pituitary tumors9. They are largely ... Diagnosis of prolactinoma is based on the presence of hyperprolactinemia with radiological evidence of pituitary adenoma. The ... Update on prolactinomas. Part 1: Clinical manifestations and Diagnostic Challenges. J Clin Neurosci. 2015; 22: 1562-1567. ...
N2 - BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumours. The objective of this study was to ... AB - BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumours. The objective of this study was to ... BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumours. The objective of this study was to ... abstract = "BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumours. The objective of this study was ...
Prolactinomas usually remain small, but sometimes they can be large. Small prolactinomas often do not cause other health ... Large prolactinomas can apply pressure on the nerves between the brain and the eye. This can cause problems with vision and ... www.pituitarysociety.org/patient-education/pituitary-disorders/prolactinoma/what-is-prolactinoma. ... An untreated prolactinoma can also lead to brittle bones and increase. the risk of fractures over time. ...
Prolactinomas are the most commonly encountered pituitary adenomas in the clinical setting. While most can be controlled by ... N2 - Prolactinomas are the most commonly encountered pituitary adenomas in the clinical setting. While most can be controlled ... AB - Prolactinomas are the most commonly encountered pituitary adenomas in the clinical setting. While most can be controlled ... abstract = "Prolactinomas are the most commonly encountered pituitary adenomas in the clinical setting. While most can be ...
Whether lower doses commonly used in the treatment of prolactinomas (0.25-3 mg/week) are also associated with significant ... RESULTS: No significant valvular thickening or regurgitation of any valve was detected in the prolactinoma group and the ... DESIGN/PATIENTS/MEASUREMENTS: We performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) on 50 prolactinoma patients (48% ... or significant regurgitation with the long-term administration of the commonly used doses of cabergoline to treat prolactinoma. ...
Dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinomas: do we need to rethink the place of surgery in prolactinoma management? Endocr Oncol ... Dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinomas: do we need to rethink the place of surgery in prolactinoma management? Endocr Oncol ... Dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinomas. J Neurosurg 2011;114:1369-79.. *22. Han YL, Chen DM, Zhang C, Pan M, Yang XP, Wu YG. ... Dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinomas. J Neurosurg 2011;114:1369-79.. *22. Han YL, Chen DM, Zhang C, Pan M, Yang XP, Wu YG. ...
Giant prolactinoma: case report and review of literature ,.... link.springer.com. reza Mohajeri-TehraniEmail author. Masoud ... Giant prolactinoma: case report and review of literature / by Masoud Rahmanian, Hamidreza Aghaei Meybodi, Bagher Larijani, ... Giant prolactinoma: case report and review of literature , SpringerLinklink.springer.com › article. link.springer.com ...
Six years later, he was evaluated and diagnosed with a prolactinoma and resultant osteoporosis. Prolactinoma in old people may ... Treatment of the prolactinoma led to a reduction in his serum prolactin with a rise in his haemoglobin to normal levels. This ... scan of the head demonstrated a pituitary mass consistent with a prolactinoma. Dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed osteoporosis ... suggested that the prolactinoma was present during the initial presentation and was the cause of his anaemia. This case ...
... and managing prolactinomas in nonpregnant and pregnant subjects. I … ... Indications and side effects of therapeutic agents for treating prolactinomas are also presented. ... and managing prolactinomas in nonpregnant and pregnant subjects. ...
Prolactinomas are the most frequently observed pituitary adenomas and most of. Prolactinomas are the most frequently observed ... Prolactinoma treatment The major goals of treatment in patients with prolactinomas are to normalize serum PRL levels to restore ... Prolactinomas Among functioning pituitary tumors prolactinomas are the most frequently observed in the clinic (40%) (Ciccarelli ... The prevalence of prolactinomas is higher in women during the fertile period (20-50 years) while the frequency is similar ...
Prolactinoma: Persistent disease after surgery Your patient underwent surgery for a prolactinoma. This document aims to provide ... Prolactinoma: Successful surgery Your patient underwent successful surgery for a prolactinoma. This document aims to provide ... It is important to remember that estrogens may promote the growth of prolactinomas, so prolactin levels should always be ... Most patients can be controlled with under 1.5 mg twice weekly, but occasional patients with invasive prolactinomas require ...
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, prolactinoma, treatment duration. How to cite this article:. Imani M, Abbasi R, Golgiri F, ... Conclusions: We found a significant reduction in Met.S after normalization of PRL level in patients with prolactinoma. We ... The diagnosis of prolactinoma requires both radiographic evidence of pituitary adenoma and laboratory analyses, documenting the ... Because hypogonadism could be a possible pathological mechanism involved in weight gain in patients with prolactinoma,[13] we ...
PROLACTINOMA. A rare but important cause of HSDD is a functioning prolactin-secreting tumor of the pituitary gland, a ... Although prolactinomas are benign tumors, they can cause visual disturbances by enlarging and causing pressure on the optic ... In the female, prolactinomas are associated with galactorrhea (lactation in the absence of pregnancy), amenorrhea, symptoms of ... prolactinoma, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, genetic disorder, or is familial in nature, the patient will manifest ...
Prolactinoma (Prolactin Hormone Secreting Tumors). * Pituitary Gland Anatomy, Location, Hormones and Pictures. ...
A man who has galactorrhea is found to have a prolactinoma. His physician treats him with bromocriptine, which eliminates the ... You will also be responsible for knowing what the parathyroid hormone is, decreased urinary phosphate excretion, prolactinoma, ...
Prolactinomas *Reproductive disorders (hypogonadism). More information Diabetes Center. Dana Clinic Building. 789 Howard Ave.. ...
Prolactinoma. *Cushings Disease. *Acromegaly. *Non-Functioning Pituitary Tumors. *Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Producing Tumors ...
Lactotroph adenoma (prolactinoma) typically exhibits strong cytoplasmic prolactin immunoreactivity. Prolactinomas can also ... In prolactinomas, for instance, endocrinologists can utilize dopamine agonists to treat any residual adenoma that might persist ...
Menstrual Cycle Abnormalities in Patients with Prolactinoma and Drug-induced Hyperprolactinemia. Indian journal of ...
Prolactinoma-associated headache and dopamine agonist treatment. Cephalalgia (2013) 34(7):493-502. doi:10.1177/0333102413515343 ...
Very few pituitary prolactinoma need surgery as they often can be shrunk using medication. Drugs called dopamine agonists are ... Pituitary tumours (Taras is a prolactinoma) are abnormal growths that develop in the brains pituitary gland, which produces ... Pituitary tumours (Taras is a prolactinoma) are abnormal growths that develop in the brains pituitary gland, which produces ... The type Tara has is a prolactinoma, a benign (non-cancerous), slow-growing tumour. ...
  • A prolactinoma is a tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces the hormone prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of prolactinoma are due to abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia), or due to pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prolactinoma is a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor that produces a hormone called prolactin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We present a case of prolactinoma in a 54-year old male patient who presented with pressure effects because of the tumor, as head ache and bi-temporal hemianopsia. (scirp.org)
  • Here, we report a patient with an highly aggressive, dopamine-resistant prolactinoma, who only achieved biochemical and tumor control during pasireotide long-acting release (PAS-LAR) therapy, a second-generation somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL). (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • In addition, PAS-LAR therapy may induce cystic degeneration, tumor cell necrosis or both in prolactinomas. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Differences in prolactinoma incidence tumor size and behavior have been described among genders. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Prolactinoma treatment The major goals of treatment in patients with prolactinomas are to normalize serum PRL levels to restore gonadal function to reduce tumor size and to preserve or improve residual pituitary function. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • A rare but important cause of HSDD is a functioning prolactin-secreting tumor of the pituitary gland, a prolactinoma. (minddisorders.com)
  • The most common pituitary tumor, a prolactinoma, causes an overproduction of the hormone that helps control sexual function. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Often, the cause of raised levels of this hormone is due to a small prolactin-producing tumor sitting on the pituitary gland called a prolactinoma. (sharedjourney.com)
  • In prolactinomas, for instance, endocrinologists can utilize dopamine agonists to treat any residual adenoma that might persist after resection. (cap.org)
  • Lactotroph adenoma (prolactinoma) typically exhibits strong cytoplasmic prolactin immunoreactivity. (cap.org)
  • The most frequently encountered adenoma in children is the prolactinoma, followed by corticotropinoma and somatotropinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, prolactinoma is the most common pituitary adenoma encountered in childhood. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactinomas, benign lesions that produce the hormone prolactin, are the most common hormone-secreting pituitary tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactinomas are noncancerous tumors made up from lactotrophs in the pituitary gland. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Prolactinomas are noncancerous tumors composed of lactotrophs, which are prolactin-secreting adenomas. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Male prolactinoma patients tend to have more invasive and larger tumors. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Prolactinomas Among functioning pituitary tumors prolactinomas are the most frequently observed in the clinic (40%) (Ciccarelli 2005). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Prolactinomas are usually benign and although some tumors show invasion into the parasellar compartment and/or sphenoid sinuses malignant transformation and metastatic spread are extremely rare. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Hyperprolactinemia is associated primarily with prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors (prolactinoma). (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Causing hyperprolactinemia, prolactinomas can reduce estrogen levels in women and testosterone concentrations in men and may result in infertility. (medscape.com)
  • In those patients with DA agonist-resistant prolactinomas (DARPs) having persistent hyperprolactinemia despite surgical debulking, with or without radiotherapy, temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent, has been recommended. (medscape.com)
  • This report emphasizes the need to exclude other causes of hyperprolactinemia including prolactinoma, in patients who are compliant with optimized L-Dopa treatment and their prolactin levels remain significantly high. (rarediseasesjournal.com)
  • These include evidence-based approaches to assessing the cause of hyperprolactinemia, treating drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, and managing prolactinomas in nonpregnant and pregnant subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Prolactinomas are the most common benign pituitary neoplasms and the common cause of hyper- prolactinemia. (scirp.org)
  • A recap of long-term follow-up practices for pituitary diseases including acromegaly, Cushing's, prolactinoma, Rathke's Cleft Cyst, and nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. (pituitaryworldnews.org)
  • Dopamine is the chemical that normally inhibits prolactin secretion, so clinicians may treat prolactinoma with drugs that act like dopamine such as bromocriptine and cabergoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most can be controlled by dopamine agonists, a subset of prolactinomas are dopamine-resistant and very aggressive. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • This case shows that PAS-LAR therapy holds clinical potential in selective aggressive, dopamine-resistant prolactinomas that express somatostatin (SST) receptor subtype 5 and appears to be a potential new treatment option before starting temozolomide. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinomas: do we need to rethink the place of surgery in prolactinoma management? (dergipark.org.tr)
  • The combination of dopamine agonist treatment and surgery may be the best option in challenging prolactinoma cases: a single-centre experience. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Prolactinomas are the most frequently observed pituitary adenomas and most of them respond well to conventional treatment with dopamine agonists. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • The majority of prolactinomas retain an intact response to dopamine inhibition therefore medical treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) such. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine demographic profile of patients with prolactinomas, and to compare the outcomes in patients treated with Cabergoline versus those receiving Bromocriptine treatment. (aku.edu)
  • Valvular heart disease and the use of cabergoline for the treatment of prolactinoma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of increased mitral valve tenting area/height, valvular thickening or significant regurgitation with the long-term administration of the commonly used doses of cabergoline to treat prolactinoma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rapid improvement in visual loss with cabergoline treatment in a giant prolactinoma case: 5 years survey. (nel.edu)
  • Our findings suggest that, cabergoline can be used as a first-line therapy in giant prolactinomas because tumoral shrinkage without a surgical procedure and rapid improvement in visual field defect is achieved with this medical treatment. (nel.edu)
  • Tasan E, Hanimoglu H, Turgut S, Ilhan M, Evran S, Kaynar M. Rapid improvement in visual loss with cabergoline treatment in a giant prolactinoma case: 5 years survey. (nel.edu)
  • Impressive shrinkage of a giant prolactinoma treated with cabergoline in a prepubescent girl. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results of the tumour size on initial MRI showed macroprolactinomas 52.9% (36), microprolactinomas in 33.8% (23), and giant prolactinomas in 13.3 % (9) patients. (aku.edu)
  • 10. Akin S, Isikay I, Soylemezoglu F, Yucel T, Gurlek A, Berker M. Reasons and results of endoscopic surgery for prolactinomas: 142 surgical cases. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Cho D-Y, Liau W-R. Comparison of endonasal endoscopic surgery and sublabial microsurgery for prolactinomas. (scielo.br)
  • já os adenomas hipofisários funcionantes (por exemplo, acromegalia, síndrome de Cushing, prolactinoma) são tratados separadamente. (bmj.com)
  • Os adenomas hipofisários funcionantes (por exemplo, acromegalia, síndrome de Cushing e prolactinoma) não são abordados. (bmj.com)
  • In principle patients should be treated for a prolactinoma for as long as they are deriving a clinical benefit from treatment. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Prolactinomas are the most commonly encountered pituitary adenomas in the clinical setting. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • 15. Delgrange E, Trouillas J, Maiter D, Donckier J, Tourniaire J. Sex-related difference in the growth of prolactinomas: a clinical and proliferation marker study. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • 18. Delgrange E, Sassolas G, Perrin G, Jan M, Trouillas J. Clinical and histological correlations in prolactinomas, with special reference to bromocriptine resistance. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • In the presence of prolactinoma, serum prolactin is an unreliable tool for treatment monitoring in these patients. (rarediseasesjournal.com)
  • However, in some cases it is possible to reduce or stop treatment without a new threat to vision, for example after an episode of pituitary apoplexy causing infarction of the prolactinoma. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Prolactinoma patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Neurosurgery clinics between 2013-2023 were included in this study. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • As mentioned above, the impact of stress should be ruled out before the diagnosis of prolactinoma is given. (wikipedia.org)
  • In considering whether to stop treatment of a prolactinoma, it is helpful first to review the diagnosis and clarify whether the patient has a prolactinoma. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Hyperprolactinaemia has many causes, and some patients are treated without a secure diagnosis of prolactinoma. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Giant prolactinoma is a rare subset of macroadenomas. (nel.edu)
  • RESULTS: No significant valvular thickening or regurgitation of any valve was detected in the prolactinoma group and the prevalence of mild valvular regurgitation was not higher than in the case-control group. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The symptoms due to a prolactinoma are broadly divided into those that are caused by increased prolactin levels or mass effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment for prolactinoma may change the levels of other hormones in the body, especially if surgery or radiation is performed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bromocriptine (BEC) is generally considered to be the agent of choice in the treatment of prolactinoma. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 ] Bromocriptine (BEC) is generally considered to be the agent of choice in the treatment of prolactinomas because of its long track record and safety. (medscape.com)
  • Many patients taking medical therapy for a prolactinoma may assume that they need treatment for life. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • In considering whether to stop treatment of a prolactinoma it is helpful to take into account the size of the prolactinoma before treatment and the response to treatment, as these factors help predict the likely outcome of stopping treatment. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Whether lower doses commonly used in the treatment of prolactinomas (0.25-3 mg/week) are also associated with significant valvulopathy is controversial. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To investigate the differences between the characteristics of disease presentation and treatment outcomes on the basis of gender in patients with operated prolactinoma. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Surgery as a viable alternative first-line treatment for prolactinoma patients. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • as well to provide recent evidence of the restoration of TGFβ1 activity as an effective treatment in experimental prolactinomas. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • The present study was designed to determine the effect of treatment duration on metabolism as well as metabolic alterations after treatment in comparison with baseline in patients with prolactinoma in Iranian individuals. (jdeponline.com)
  • Other medical treatments for prolactinomas are available for patients who do not respond to BEC or for those who cannot tolerate the drug. (medscape.com)
  • We reviewed the medical record of 68 patients with prolactinoma. (aku.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the prolactinoma patients were females and the common the most frequent presenting complaint was headache. (aku.edu)
  • Comparison of male and female prolactinoma patients requiring surgical intervention. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • In a prospective and longitudinal study, 27 consecutive patients with prolactinoma were assessed during 6 months. (jdeponline.com)
  • We found a significant reduction in Met.S after normalization of PRL level in patients with prolactinoma. (jdeponline.com)
  • We suggest that it is important to consider the metabolic profile of patients with prolactinoma. (jdeponline.com)
  • Dès le début de la pandémie, l'établissement hospitalier et universitaire d'Oran (EHUO), centre de soins de première ligne, d'une capacité 780 lits desservant environ 2 millions d'habitants s'est complètement réorganisé, en aménageant principalement des circuits pour le tri des patients « suspects Covid 19 ¼. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prolactinomas can also occasionally exhibit psammomatous calcifications and amyloid derived from prolactin. (cap.org)
  • Limited studies demonstrated which therapy could be successfully used in the first-line therapy of giant prolactinoma. (nel.edu)
  • A large prolactinoma can sometimes get larger during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women with prolactinomas should be followed closely during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prolactinomas occur most commonly in people under age 40. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ALK7 expression in prolactinoma is associated with reduced prolactin and increased proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • They are relatively common in prolactinomas and less common, but can occur in growth hormone (GH)―and corticotrophin (ACTH)―secreting or nonfunctional adenomas. (scirp.org)
  • Thus somatotropinomas secrete growth hormone (GH) prolactinomas secrete prolactin (PRL) thyrotropinomas secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and corticotropinomas secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • You will also be responsible for knowing what the parathyroid hormone is, decreased urinary phosphate excretion, prolactinoma, and cortisol. (proprofs.com)
  • Schaller B. Gender-related differences in prolactinomas. (nel.edu)
  • Prolactinomas (animal models and humans) present reduced TGFβ1 activity as well as reduced expression of several components of the TGFβ1 system. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • The most common symptom of a prolactinoma is galactorrhea. (msdmanuals.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumours. (aku.edu)
  • Prolactinoma may occur as part of an inherited condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The increasing and prolonged exposure of Bisphenol-A from childhood on, may contribute to the growth of a Prolactinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of estrogen or testosterone may be involved in the growth of a prolactinoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Radiation is usually only used in people with a prolactinoma that continues to grow or gets worse after both medicine and surgery have been tried. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your patient underwent successful surgery for a prolactinoma. (pituitaryworldnews.org)
  • The study of Prolactinoma has been mentioned in research publications which can be found using our bioinformatics tool below. (novusbio.com)
  • These pathways complement our catalog of research reagents for the study of Prolactinoma including antibodies and ELISA kits against PRL, PBX1, GH1, GGH, POMC. (novusbio.com)
  • We have 2143 products for the study of Prolactinoma that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits. (novusbio.com)
  • Linkage to aryl hydrocarbon-interacting protein gene (AIP) mutation has been identified in some families with prolactinoma and in childhood-onset pituitary adenomas. (medscape.com)