A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (1/4090)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (2/4090)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (3/4090)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning. (4/4090)

Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear.  (+info)

Marker genes of decidualization: activation of the decidual prolactin gene. (5/4090)

Decidualization of human endometrial stromal (ES) cells in vitro is induced by cAMP analogues and ligands that elevate cellular cAMP levels in a manner resembling the gonadotrophins, prostaglandin E2 and relaxin (RLX). This differentiation process is marked by the onset of decidual prolactin (PRL) production in the late luteal phase of the cycle. Using transfection assays and a primary ES cell culture system, we have demonstrated that decidual PRL gene transcription is driven by an alternative upstream promoter (dPRL), approximately 6 kb upstream of the pituitary transcription start site. In primary cell cultures, RLX not only acutely but also permanently elevated cellular cAMP levels and induced PRL secretion after 6 days. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed all regulatory subunit isoforms (RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, RIIbeta) and catalytic subunits Calpha and Cbeta of protein kinase A (PKA) in ES cells. Transcript levels of PKA subunit isoforms are not altered during decidualization, but in decidualized ES cells exposed to elevated cellular cAMP levels by stimulation with RLX for >6 days, RIalpha protein levels were significantly reduced, whereas levels of all other forms remained unchanged. Reducing the availability of R subunits changed the R:C subunit ratio in favour of C and increased kinase activity. In transient transfections of undifferentiated ES cells, the dPRL promoter was activated by 8-Br-cAMP and by C subunit (Cbeta) of PKA. This induction, and the differentiation-dependent activity of the dPRL promoter in transfected decidualized cells, was effectively abolished by the co-expression of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). A fragment of 332 bp of 5'-flanking region of the dPRL transcription start site was sufficient to mediate full inducibility by cAMP. cAMP activation of the dPRL promoter in ES cells was biphasic as an initial weak induction within 12 hours was followed by a subsequent, much more intense induction after 12 hours. The secondary induction was not seen with a control construct driven by a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) linked to a minimal promoter. The early response of the dPRL promoter depended upon a non-palindromic CRE at position -12 and mutation of this sequence led to omission of the early, but not of the delayed, induction. The major activation of the dPRL promoter depended upon a different region between position -332 and -270 since its deletion significantly reduced inducibility by cAMP. Its action was probably indirect as its kinetics differed from classic CRE-mediated responses, and it was specific to ES cells.  (+info)

The prolactin gene is expressed in the mouse kidney. (6/4090)

BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL), originally identified as an anterior pituitary hormone exhibiting lactogenic activity, is now recognized as a versatile hormone expressed in a wide variety of tissues. METHODS: In this study, the expression of PRL in the mouse kidney was investigated by solution-phase and in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Mouse PRL (mPRL) transcript and protein are localized in the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule. Pit-1 is a positive transcription factor for the expression of the PRL gene. The presence of Pit-1 transcript in the kidney was also assessed by RT-PCR methods. The localization of Pit-1 mRNA coincided well with that of PRL. Immunoreactivity to mouse PRL receptor (mPRL-R) is distributed on the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule cells and the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule synthesize PRL de novo and suggest that Pit-1 contributes to the transcriptional regulation of PRL gene expression in the kidney, and PRL expressed in this tissue functions in an autocrine/paracrine fashion.  (+info)

Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (7/4090)

OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release.  (+info)

Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (8/4090)

AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy.  (+info)

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Prolactin receptors are proteins found on the surface of various cells throughout the body that bind to the hormone prolactin. Once prolactin binds to its receptor, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate diverse physiological functions, including lactation, growth and development, metabolism, immune function, and behavior.

Prolactin receptors belong to the class I cytokine receptor family and are expressed in many tissues, including the mammary gland, pituitary gland, liver, kidney, adipose tissue, brain, and immune cells. In the mammary gland, prolactin signaling through its receptor is essential for milk production and breast development during pregnancy and lactation.

Abnormalities in prolactin receptor function have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, infertility, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure, regulation, and function of prolactin receptors is crucial for developing new therapies to treat these conditions.

Bromocriptine is a dopamine receptor agonist drug, which means it works by binding to and activating dopamine receptors in the brain. It has several therapeutic uses, including:

* Treatment of Parkinson's disease: Bromocriptine can be used alone or in combination with levodopa to help manage the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.
* Suppression of lactation: Bromocriptine can be used to suppress milk production in women who are not breastfeeding or who have stopped breastfeeding but still have high levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.
* Treatment of pituitary tumors: Bromocriptine can be used to shrink certain types of pituitary tumors, such as prolactinomas, which are tumors that secrete excessive amounts of prolactin.
* Management of acromegaly: Bromocriptine can be used to manage the symptoms of acromegaly, a rare hormonal disorder characterized by abnormal growth and enlargement of body tissues, by reducing the production of growth hormone.

Bromocriptine is available in immediate-release and long-acting formulations, and it is usually taken orally. Common side effects of bromocriptine include nausea, dizziness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects are rare but can include hallucinations, confusion, and priapism (prolonged erection).

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain. Its main function is to regulate the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. TRH acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of TSH, which then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) into the bloodstream.

TRH is a tripeptide amino acid sequence with the structure of pGlu-His-Pro-NH2, and it is synthesized as a larger precursor molecule called preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone (preproTRH) in the hypothalamus. PreproTRH undergoes post-translational processing to produce TRH, which is then stored in secretory vesicles and released into the hypophyseal portal system, where it travels to the anterior pituitary gland and binds to TRH receptors on thyrotroph cells.

In addition to its role in regulating TSH release, TRH has been shown to have other physiological functions, including modulation of feeding behavior, body temperature, and neurotransmitter release. Dysregulation of the TRH-TSH axis can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

Ergolines are a group of ergot alkaloids that have been widely used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs. These compounds are known for their ability to bind to and stimulate specific receptors in the brain, particularly dopamine receptors. As a result, they have been explored for their potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, migraine, and depression.

However, ergolines can also have significant side effects, including hallucinations, nausea, and changes in blood pressure. In addition, some ergot alkaloids have been associated with a rare but serious condition called ergotism, which is characterized by symptoms such as muscle spasms, vomiting, and gangrene. Therefore, the use of ergolines must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Some specific examples of drugs that contain ergolines include:

* Dihydroergotamine (DHE): used for the treatment of migraine headaches
* Pergolide: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
* Cabergoline: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and certain types of hormonal disorders

It is important to note that while ergolines have shown promise in some therapeutic areas, they are not without their risks. As with any medication, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any drug containing ergolines to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for an individual's specific needs.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Lactation disorders are conditions or problems that affect a woman's ability to breastfeed her baby. These disorders can make it difficult for the mother to produce enough milk, or cause pain and discomfort during breastfeeding. Some common lactation disorders include:

1. Insufficient Glandular Tissue (IGT): This condition occurs when a woman has limited breast tissue, which can make it difficult for her to produce enough milk to fully breastfeed her baby.
2. Engorgement: This happens when the breasts become overly full of milk, causing them to feel hard, swollen, and painful. Engorgement can make it difficult for the baby to latch on properly, which can lead to nipple damage and mastitis.
3. Mastitis: An infection of the breast tissue that can cause pain, redness, warmth, and flu-like symptoms. Mastitis often occurs when a milk duct becomes blocked, allowing bacteria to enter and infect the tissue.
4. Plugged Ducts: This condition occurs when a milk duct becomes clogged or blocked, causing milk to back up and leading to pain, swelling, and redness in the affected area.
5. Nipple Vasospasm: This is a painful spasm of the blood vessels in the nipples, which can cause burning, stinging, or throbbing sensations during or after breastfeeding.
6. Low Milk Supply: This condition occurs when a woman is unable to produce enough milk to meet her baby's needs. Low milk supply can have various causes, including hormonal imbalances, poor latch, and infrequent feedings.
7. Oversupply: This condition occurs when a woman produces too much milk, which can lead to engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis.

Prompt identification and management of lactation disorders are essential for ensuring the health and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Women who experience difficulty breastfeeding should consult their healthcare provider or a lactation consultant for guidance and support.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

A prolactinoma is a type of pituitary tumor that produces an excess amount of the hormone prolactin, leading to various symptoms. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate different bodily functions. Prolactin is one such hormone, primarily known for its role in stimulating milk production in women during lactation (breastfeeding).

Prolactinoma tumors can be classified into two types: microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas. Microprolactinomas are smaller tumors, typically less than 10 millimeters in size, while macroprolactinomas are larger tumors, generally greater than 10 millimeters in size.

The overproduction of prolactin caused by these tumors can lead to several clinical manifestations, including:

1. Galactorrhea: Unusual and often spontaneous milk production or leakage from the nipples, which can occur in both men and women who do not have a recent history of pregnancy or breastfeeding.
2. Menstrual irregularities: In women, high prolactin levels can interfere with the normal functioning of other hormones, leading to menstrual irregularities such as infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea) or absent periods (amenorrhea), and sometimes infertility.
3. Sexual dysfunction: In both men and women, high prolactin levels can cause decreased libido and sexual desire. Men may also experience erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm production.
4. Bone loss: Over time, high prolactin levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the disruption of other hormones that regulate bone health.
5. Headaches and visual disturbances: As the tumor grows, it may put pressure on surrounding structures in the brain, leading to headaches and potential vision problems such as blurred vision or decreased peripheral vision.

Diagnosis typically involves measuring prolactin levels in the blood and performing imaging tests like an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the size of the tumor. Treatment usually consists of medication to lower prolactin levels, such as dopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine or cabergoline), which can also help shrink the tumor. In some cases, surgery may be necessary if medication is ineffective or if the tumor is large and causing severe symptoms.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Placental lactogen is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy in humans and some other mammals. It is similar in structure to human growth hormone and prolactin, and has both growth-promoting and lactogenic (milk-producing) properties. Placental lactogen plays an important role in regulating maternal metabolism during pregnancy, promoting the growth and development of the fetus, and preparing the mother's body for lactation after birth. It helps to stimulate the growth of the mammary glands and the production of milk by increasing the availability of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the mother's bloodstream. Placental lactogen also helps to regulate the mother's insulin sensitivity, which can affect her energy levels and the growth of the fetus.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Galactorrhea is an uncommon condition where someone (typically a woman, but it can also occur in men and children) experiences abnormal or spontaneous production and secretion of milk from their breasts, not associated with childbirth or nursing. This condition can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, medications, tumors affecting the pituitary gland, or other underlying medical conditions. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience galactorrhea to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Perphenazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. Perphenazine is used to treat various mental disorders, including schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and severe agitation or aggression in people with developmental disabilities. It may also be used for the short-term treatment of severe anxiety or depression that does not respond to other treatments.

Perphenazine can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, restlessness, dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and uncontrolled muscle movements, which may indicate a condition called tardive dyskinesia. Perphenazine can also cause cardiovascular side effects such as low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and increased heart rate. It is important to monitor patients taking perphenazine for these and other potential side effects.

It's worth noting that the use of antipsychotic medications like perphenazine should be based on a thorough evaluation of the patient's symptoms, medical history, and other factors. The decision to prescribe this medication should be made carefully, taking into account its benefits and risks, as well as any alternative treatment options.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Lactotrophs, also known as mammotrophs or prolactin cells, are a type of hormone-producing cell found in the anterior pituitary gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting the hormone prolactin, which plays a crucial role in lactation (milk production) in females after childbirth. Prolactin also has other functions in the body, such as regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. Lactotrophs can be stimulated by factors like estrogen, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and stress, leading to increased prolactin secretion.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Transcription Factor Pit-1, also known as POU1F1 or pituitary-specific transcription factor 1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and function of the anterior pituitary gland. It is a member of the POU domain family of transcription factors, which are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain.

Pit-1 is essential for the differentiation and proliferation of certain types of pituitary cells, including those that produce growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Pit-1 binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of these hormone genes, thereby activating their transcription and promoting hormone production.

Mutations in the gene encoding Pit-1 can lead to a variety of pituitary disorders, such as dwarfism due to GH deficiency, delayed puberty, and hypothyroidism due to TSH deficiency. Additionally, some studies have suggested that Pit-1 may also play a role in regulating energy balance and body weight, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Stat5 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including growth, survival, and differentiation. It exists in two closely related isoforms, Stat5a and Stat5b, which are encoded by separate genes but share significant sequence homology and functional similarity.

When activated through phosphorylation by receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases, Stat5 forms homodimers or heterodimers that translocate to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, these dimers bind to specific DNA sequences called Stat-binding elements (SBEs) in the promoter regions of target genes, leading to their transcriptional activation or repression.

Stat5 is involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as hematopoiesis, lactation, immune response, and cancer progression. Dysregulation of Stat5 signaling has been implicated in several malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and breast cancer, making it an attractive therapeutic target for these diseases.

Caseins are a group of phosphoproteins found in the milk of mammals, including cows and humans. They are the major proteins in milk, making up about 80% of the total protein content. Caseins are characterized by their ability to form micelles, or tiny particles, in milk when it is mixed with calcium. This property allows caseins to help transport calcium and other minerals throughout the body.

Caseins are also known for their nutritional value, as they provide essential amino acids and are easily digestible. They are often used as ingredients in infant formula and other food products. Additionally, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving bone health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Anterior pituitary hormones are a group of six major hormones that are produced and released by the anterior portion (lobe) of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions and activities. The six main anterior pituitary hormones are:

1. Growth Hormone (GH): Also known as somatotropin, GH is essential for normal growth and development in children and adolescents. It helps regulate body composition, metabolism, and bone density in adults.
2. Prolactin (PRL): A hormone that stimulates milk production in females after childbirth and is also involved in various reproductive and immune functions in both sexes.
3. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH regulates the development, growth, and maturation of follicles in the ovaries (in females) and sperm production in the testes (in males).
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH plays a key role in triggering ovulation in females and stimulating testosterone production in males.
5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH regulates the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth.
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.

These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus, which is located above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases releasing and inhibiting factors that control the synthesis and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, creating a complex feedback system to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Pseudopregnancy, also known as pseudocyesis or phantom pregnancy, is a psychological condition where an individual (most commonly in women) believes they are pregnant when they are not. This belief is often accompanied by various physical symptoms such as weight gain, abdominal distention, and breast enlargement that mimic those of a genuine pregnancy, despite there being no actual fetal development. These symptoms are caused by the body's hormonal and physiological responses to the individual's strong belief of being pregnant. It is important to note that this condition is rare and can be resolved with proper medical evaluation, counseling, and support.

Metoclopramide is a medication that is primarily used to manage gastrointestinal disorders. It is classified as a dopamine antagonist and a prokinetic agent, which means it works by blocking the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that can slow down stomach and intestine function.

The medical definition of Metoclopramide is:
A synthetic congener of procainamide, used as an antiemetic and to increase gastrointestinal motility. It has a antidopaminergic action, binding to D2 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and stomach, and it may also block 5HT3 receptors at intrapyloric and central levels. Its actions on the gut smooth muscle are mediated via cholinergic muscarinic receptors. (Source: Dorland's Medical Dictionary)

Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, and gastroparesis, which is a condition that affects the normal movement of food through the digestive tract. It can also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Like any medication, Metoclopramide can have side effects, including drowsiness, restlessness, and muscle spasms. In some cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, a condition characterized by involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or limbs. It is important to use Metoclopramide only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

Hypophysectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal or partial removal of the pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, just above the nasal cavity, and is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

Hypophysectomy may be performed for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In some cases, it may be used to treat pituitary tumors or other conditions that affect the function of the pituitary gland. It may also be performed as a research procedure in animal models to study the effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on various physiological processes.

The surgical approach for hypophysectomy may vary depending on the specific indication and the patient's individual anatomy. In general, however, the procedure involves making an incision in the skull and exposing the pituitary gland through a small opening in the bone. The gland is then carefully dissected and removed or partially removed as necessary.

Potential complications of hypophysectomy include damage to surrounding structures such as the optic nerves, which can lead to vision loss, and cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Additionally, removal of the pituitary gland can result in hormonal imbalances that may require long-term management with hormone replacement therapy.

Proestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, specifically referring to the phase preceding estrus (heat) during which follicle development and estrogen production occur. It is characterized by the swelling of the vulva and the onset of behaviors indicating readiness to mate, although the animal is not yet receptive to males. This stage typically lasts around 2-13 days, depending on the species. In humans, this equivalent phase does not exist due to menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles.

Milk proteins are a complex mixture of proteins that are naturally present in milk, consisting of casein and whey proteins. Casein makes up about 80% of the total milk protein and is divided into several types including alpha-, beta-, gamma- and kappa-casein. Whey proteins account for the remaining 20% and include beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, and immunoglobulins. These proteins are important sources of essential amino acids and play a crucial role in the nutrition of infants and young children. Additionally, milk proteins have various functional properties that are widely used in the food industry for their gelling, emulsifying, and foaming abilities.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Domperidone is a medication that belongs to the class of dopamine antagonists. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that can cause nausea and vomiting. Domperidone is primarily used to treat symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric motility disorders, including bloating, fullness, and regurgitation. It works by increasing the contractions of the stomach muscles, which helps to move food and digestive juices through the stomach more quickly.

Domperidone is available in various forms, such as tablets, suspension, and injection. The medication is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as dry mouth, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. In rare cases, domperidone may cause more serious side effects, including irregular heart rhythms, tremors, or muscle stiffness.

It is important to note that domperidone has a risk of causing cardiac arrhythmias, particularly at higher doses and in patients with pre-existing heart conditions. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Sulpiride is an antipsychotic drug that belongs to the chemical class of benzamides. It primarily acts as a selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist. Sulpiride is used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, anxiety, and depression. In addition, it has been found to be effective in managing gastrointestinal disorders like gastroparesis due to its prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

The medical definition of Sulpiride is as follows:

Sulpiride (INN, BAN), also known as Sultopride (USAN) or SP, is a selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, anxiety, and depression. It has been found to be effective in managing gastrointestinal disorders like gastroparesis due to its prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Sulpiride is available under various brand names worldwide, including Dogmatil, Sulpitac, and Espirid."

Please note that this definition includes information about the drug's therapeutic uses, which are essential aspects of understanding a medication in its entirety.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is often referred to as the "hormone of darkness" because its production is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light. Melatonin plays a key role in synchronizing the circadian rhythm, the body's internal clock that regulates various biological processes over a 24-hour period.

Melatonin is primarily released at night, and its levels in the blood can rise and fall in response to changes in light and darkness in an individual's environment. Supplementing with melatonin has been found to be helpful in treating sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It may also have other benefits, including antioxidant properties and potential uses in the treatment of certain neurological conditions.

It is important to note that while melatonin supplements are available over-the-counter in many countries, they should still be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as their use can have potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Diestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, which is similar to the menstrual cycle in humans. It follows the phase of estrus (or heat), during which the animal is receptive to mating. Diestrus is the period of relative sexual quiescence and hormonal stability between cycles. In this phase, the corpus luteum in the ovary produces progesterone, preparing the uterus for potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a drop in progesterone levels and the onset of the next estrous cycle. The duration of diestrus varies among species.

In humans, this phase is analogous to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, since humans do not exhibit estrous behavior, the term 'diestrus' is typically not used in human reproductive physiology discussions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tilapia" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of freshwater fish that belong to the cichlid family. They are often farmed and consumed as a food source due to their mild flavor and high protein content. If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I'd be happy to help with those!

The median eminence is a small, elevated region located at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the endocrine system by controlling the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. The median eminence contains numerous specialized blood vessels called portal capillaries that carry hormones and neurotransmitters from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland.

The median eminence is also the site where several releasing and inhibiting hormones produced in the hypothalamus are secreted into the portal blood vessels, which then transport them to the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, prolactin-inhibiting hormone, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, among others.

Once these hormones reach the anterior pituitary gland, they bind to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signals that ultimately lead to the synthesis and release of various pituitary hormones. In this way, the median eminence serves as an essential link between the nervous system and the endocrine system, allowing for precise regulation of hormone secretion and overall homeostasis in the body.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

20-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone is a weak endogenous progestin, a form of progesterone, naturally occurring in the body. It is a metabolite of progesterone and has only about 1% of the activity of its parent compound. It is formed by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone.

Medical Definition:
20-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone (20-α-DHP): An endogenous progestin, a weak metabolite of progesterone, formed by the action of 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone. It has only about 1% of the activity of its parent compound, progesterone.

Human prolactin receptors are insensitive to mouse prolactin. Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, ... Hyperprolactinaemia Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Male lactation Prolactin modulator Prolactin receptor Prolactin- ... Prolactin plays an important role in maternal behavior. It has been shown in rats and sheep that prolactin affects lipid ... When prolactin binds to the receptor, it causes it to dimerize with another prolactin receptor. This results in the activation ...
Prolactin modulator Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Brooks CL (August 2012). "Molecular mechanisms of prolactin and its ... form of prolactin which exerts its antagonist effect by competing with prolactin to bind with prolactin receptors; thereby, ... Prolactin Growth hormone Human placental lactogen Placental growth hormone S179D-hPRL Prolactin receptor antagonists such as ... Abramicheva PA, Smirnova OV (April 2019). "Prolactin Receptor Isoforms as the Basis of Tissue-Specific Action of Prolactin in ...
Prolactin inhibitors suppress and prolactin releasers induce the secretion of prolactin, respectively. Prolactin inhibitors are ... A prolactin modulator is a drug which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis (HPP axis) by modulating the secretion ... When such drugs are used not for the purpose of inducing prolactin secretion, increased prolactin levels may be unwanted, and ... Indirect dopaminergic agents such as levodopa can also suppress prolactin levels. Other prolactin releasers besides D2 receptor ...
Prolactin induced protein (called GCDFP-15 in this context) in breast cyst fluid or breast tissue serves as marker of both ... Prolactin-induced protein has also been used for identification and detection of disseminated breast cancer cells. The PIP gene ... Prolactin-inducible protein also known as gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15), extra-parotid glycoprotein (EP-GP ... Murphy LC, Tsuyuki D, Myal Y, Shiu RP (1987). "Isolation and sequencing of a cDNA clone for a prolactin-inducible protein (PIP ...
PrRP stimulates prolactin (PRL) release and regulates the expression of prolactin through binding to the prolactin-releasing ... "Entrez Gene: PRLH prolactin releasing hormonel". Langmead CJ, Szekeres PG, Chambers JK, Ratcliffe SJ, Jones DN, Hirst WD, Price ... 2003). "Expression of prolactin-releasing peptide and its receptor in the human adrenal glands and tumor tissues of ... Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the PRLH gene. ...
Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Lin, S. H. (2008). "Prolactin-Releasing Peptide". Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors and ... Its secretion is mediated by estrogen from placenta during pregnancy to elevate blood level of prolactin . While many prolactin ... The prolactin-releasing peptide identified in 1998 was a candidate for this function, however as of 2008 it appears its ... Prolactin-releasing hormone, also known as PRLH, is a hypothetical human hormone or hormone releasing factor. Existence of this ...
Hormones that control the secretion of prolactin from the pituitary gland include dopamine ("prolactin-inhibiting factor", or " ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis (HPP axis), also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-mammary axis or hypothalamic- ... 479-. ISBN 978-0-12-397769-4. v t e (Breastfeeding, Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis, Neuroendocrinology, ... from the lactotrophs of the pituitary gland into the circulation and the subsequent action of prolactin on tissues such as, ...
The prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PrRPR) also known as G-protein coupled receptor 10 (GPR10) is a protein that in ... "Entrez Gene: PRLHR prolactin releasing hormone receptor". Hinuma S, Onda H, Fujino M (1999). "The quest for novel bioactive ... 2003). "Expression of prolactin-releasing peptide and its receptor in the human adrenal glands and tumor tissues of ... "Prolactin-Releasing Peptide Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
"Endogenous human prolactin and not exogenous human prolactin induces estrogen receptor α and prolactin receptor expression and ... Both PR and prolactin receptor (PRLR) knockout mice fail to show lobuloalveolar development, and progesterone and prolactin ... Conversely, prolactin levels remain elevated. As estrogen and progesterone block prolactin-induced lactogenesis by suppressing ... In the absence of regular, episodic suckling, which keeps prolactin concentrations high, levels of prolactin will quickly drop ...
... prolactin; ACTH and cortisol, which cause Cushing's disease; TSH, which causes hyperthyroidism; and FSH and LH. Bowel ...
Some tumors secrete more than one hormone, the most common combination being GH and prolactin, which present as unexpected bone ... and prolactin (PRL). Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma can be made, or at least suspected, by a constellation of related symptoms ... or prolactin-secreting (prolactinoma) adenomas that are large (macroadenomas) and often occur in children, adolescents and ... producing pituitary tumors and in some instances these same tumors also secrete prolactin. There are however no isolated ...
"Prolactin". You and Your Hormones. Society for Endocrinology. Retrieved 7 November 2018. "SSTR2 somatostatin receptor 2 [Homo ... prolactin, and growth hormones. Researchers studied the activity of the receptors by conducting an assay with Ligand binding ...
Prolactin has numerous other effects in both sexes.[citation needed] Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin ... A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... Other regulators include oxytocin and progesterone.[citation needed] Prolactin is involved in the maturation of mammary glands ... If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary ...
In addition his work with prolactin helped to develop the drug bromocriptine, used for the treatment of infertility. From 1991 ... Friesen, H; Hwang, P (February 1973). "Human Prolactin". Annual Review of Medicine. 24 (1): 251-270. doi:10.1146/annurev.me. ... for the identification of human prolactin." His research on growth hormones in dwarf children helped in developing a therapy ... a distinguished professor emeritus of the University of Manitoba and the discoverer of human prolactin, a hormone which ...
Many cases were reported after use of prolactin elevating medications such as antipsychotics. Elevated prolactin levels have ... Prolactin-lowering medication has also been reported to reduce the risk of recurrence. In cases of drug-induced ... Steroids are known to cause elevation of prolactin levels and increase risk of several conditions such as diabetes, and other ... Shelly, S.; Boaz, M.; Orbach, H. (2012). "Prolactin and autoimmunity". Autoimmunity Reviews. 11 (6-7): A465-A470. doi:10.1016/j ...
Prolactin stimulates lactogenesis. hCG appears to be soporific during pregnancy; levels of hCG correlate with sleep changes ... In the second half of pregnancy, progesterone and prolactin prepare the mammary glands for lactation. Estrogens and ... and during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle upon which lobuloalveolar structures form under the influence of prolactin. ...
Prolactin levels increased. Prolactin is a hormone that regulates the generation of breast milk. Prolactin elevation is not as ...
Prolactin - Deficiency (childhood). homocysteine - Excess. Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is associated with GSE and is believed to ...
The release of prolactin triggers the cells in the alveoli to make milk. Prolactin also transfers to the breast milk. Some ... prolactin and growth hormone production, are essential. Growth hormone (GH) is structurally very similar to prolactin and ... This stage requires prolactin. Oxytocin is critical for the milk let-down reflex in response to suckling. Galactorrhea is milk ... At birth, prolactin levels remain high, while the delivery of the placenta results in a sudden drop in progesterone, estrogen, ...
... prolactin (PRL; MIM 176760), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; MIM 188540). See combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD ...
... prolactin-secreting; 600634; AIP Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 1; 613038; POU1F1 Pituitary hormone deficiency, ...
... and prolactin (PRL; MIM 176760). PIT1 is also important for regulation of the genes encoding prolactin and thyroid-stimulating ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates production. Crop milk contains both fat and protein, as with mammalian milk, but unlike ...
STAT5 acetylation on lysines at positions 694 and 701 is important for effective STAT dimerization in prolactin signalling. ... "Acetylation modulates prolactin receptor dimerization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (45): 19314-19319 ... "Dynamic Regulation of JAK-STAT Signaling Through the Prolactin Receptor Predicted by Computational Modeling". Cellular and ...
... and elevation of prolactin levels. Mirtazapine is reported to have fewer sexual side effects, most likely because it ...
Increased levels of prolactin in the paternal brain has also been correlated with a more positive response to the infant's cry ... Increased prolactin corresponds to different behavioral changes in different species. In some bird species it is shown to ... "Is prolactin the "breastfeeding hormone"? What is it doing in fathers? - fatherhood". fatherhood. 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2017-09 ... An increase in levels of oxytocin, glucocorticoids, estrogen and prolactin occur in the paternal brain. These hormonal changes ...
... and prolactin (HPPTooltip hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis) axes are branches. It is possible for the function of these ... Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH): stimulates PRL secretion · Prolactin inhibiting hormone (dopamine): inhibits PRL secretion ... Anterior pituitary produces prolactin, GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH. 15-20% of corticotroph cells, produce ACTH. The targets are the ... These hormones are prolactin, growth hormone, TSH, adrenocorticotropic hormone, FSH and LH. They are all released by anterior ...
Gooren LJ, Harmsen-Louman W, van Kessel H (February 1985). "Follow-up of prolactin levels in long-term oestrogen-treated male- ... Bunck MC, Debono M, Giltay EJ, Verheijen AT, Diamant M, Gooren LJ (2009). "Autonomous prolactin secretion in two male-to-female ... Asscheman H, Gooren LJ, Assies J, Smits JP, de Slegte R (June 1988). "Prolactin levels and pituitary enlargement in hormone- ... Schiebinger, Rick J.; Chrousos, George P.; Culter, Gordon B.; Loriaux, D. Lynn (1986). "The Effect of Serum Prolactin on Plasma ...
Jordan VC, Lieberman ME (September 1984). "Estrogen-stimulated prolactin synthesis in vitro. Classification of agonist, partial ...
Prolactin influences social bonding in rats. Oxytocin plays a similar role in non-human primates as it does in humans. Grooming ... Kennett, J.E.; McKee, D.T. (2012). "Oxytocin: An emerging regulator of prolactin secretion in the female rat". Journal of ...
Human prolactin receptors are insensitive to mouse prolactin. Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, ... Hyperprolactinaemia Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Male lactation Prolactin modulator Prolactin receptor Prolactin- ... Prolactin plays an important role in maternal behavior. It has been shown in rats and sheep that prolactin affects lipid ... When prolactin binds to the receptor, it causes it to dimerize with another prolactin receptor. This results in the activation ...
The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. ... Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. ... PRL; Galactorrhea - prolactin test; Infertility - prolactin test; Amenorrhea - prolactin test; Breast leakage - prolactin test ... Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. ... Prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production in women. There is no known normal function for prolactin in men. ...
A prolactin level test looks for health conditions relating to the hormone prolactin. Results may indicate pituitary disorders ... High prolactin levels, or hyperprolactinemia, are more common and can have many causes. A prolactin level test is simple and ... Prolactin may also affect a persons fertility. A prolactin level test can help doctors identify the cause and suggest ... High prolactin levels are normal during pregnancy, and while someone is breastfeeding - they can be as high as 600 ng/ml.. ...
The most commonly associated condition is postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome); however, prolactin deficiency can ... In the vast majority of prolactin deficiency states, the deficiency occurs secondary to general anterior pituitary dysfunction ... Prolactin receptors on human T and B lymphocytes: antagonism of prolactin binding by cyclosporine. J Immunol. 1985 May. 134(5): ... Partial isolated prolactin deficiency is rare, and case reports of total isolated prolactin deficiency are rarer still and may ...
Sometimes this gland can overproduce and the rise in prolactin levels can spell infertility for couples. Read more here. ... A tiny gland the size of a pea is responsible for secreting an important hormone called prolactin. ... What Prolactin Does in Normal Situations. Normal levels of prolactin in a womans body do not inhibit the release and function ... Some of the Results of High Prolactin Levels. There are some results of high prolactin levels that are the same for both men ...
Ectopic prolactin secretion should be suspected in patients with a prolactin ,200 … ... We present the first example of massive and symptomatic hyperprolactinemia due to ectopic prolactin production by a solid ... RT-PCR detected prolactin mRNA in the tumor cell extract, confirming the diagnosis of ectopic prolactin synthesis and secretion ... Ectopic prolactin secretion should be suspected in patients with a prolactin ,200 ng/mL and negative sellar MRI. ...
... by Victor (London uk) Hi Wray. I got referred here by David mills cos of amazing result I got ... Friend 1 is 32 years of age her prolactin levels was so high up to 9000 with tumour growing. Her weight rocketed from size uk ...
Prolactin testing is done to check the reason for a woman not able to produce breast milk after giving birth. Find out the ... Prolactin is one such hormone that is produced by this gland, the levels of which are controlled by dopamine. Prolactin is ... Elevated prolactin levels indicate that there is a tumor and it is known as prolactinoma. However, low levels of prolactin ... Reasons For Conducting a Prolactin Test Prolactin testing is done to check the reason for a woman not able to produce breast ...
Another study showed no effect of light therapy on prolactin. ... Another study showed no effect of light therapy on prolactin, ... In one study of SAD patients, light therapy did slightly lower plasma prolactin levels. However, there was no significant ...
Prolactin Human Recombinant Pegylated produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 199 aa and ... Prolactin is secreted when eating, nursing, mating, estrogen treatment and during ovulation. Prolactins primary role is to ... Pegylated Human Prolactin was tested for its biological functionality in-vitro by inducing proliferation of Nb2 cells or Baf/3 ... Prolactin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pituitary gland but also a variety of other cell types ...
Adult combined GH, prolactin, and TSH deficiency associated with circulating PIT-1 antibody in humans. ... Adult combined GH, prolactin, and TSH deficiency associated with circulating PIT-1 antibody in humans. ... A genetic defect in the PIT-1 gene results in congenital growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
However, an increase in circulating prolactin levels has also been shown in patients without previous treatment. Our objective ... was to compare prolactin levels between antipsychotic-naive fi … ... This, together with the association of higher prolactin with a lower severity of the disease, suggests that prolactin might ... Plasma prolactin levels are associated with the severity of illness in drug-naive first-episode psychosis female patients Arch ...
... can lexapro cause high prolactin levels.51 billion can lexapro cause high prolactin levels. Pharmacie online can lexapro cause ... Cialis works faster than other ED . Pharmacie Discount Paris Cialis can lexapro cause high prolactin levels. Ma vie a chang. ... Farmacias Médicor Precursores de la Homeopatía en México con 123 años de can lexapro cause high prolactin levels. de fin ... Cheapest Rates, Order Pharmacie Ligne Cialis can lexapro cause high prolactin levels. Pharmacie Online Viagra. Vous pouvez ...
... serum prolactin/ or prolactin.mp. or serum prolactin level/di) AND (generalised tonic clonic seizure or seizure disorder or ... PHYSIOLOGY OF PROLACTIN SECRETION. Human prolactin is synthesised by the anterior pituitary, secreted in an episodic manner, ... also raise serum prolactin. Dopamine agonists lower serum prolactin (bromocriptine, L-dopa, and apomorphine). Baseline adult ... Clemens JA, Shaar CJ, Kleber JW, et al. Reciprocal control by the preoptic area of LH and prolactin. Exp Brain Res1971;12:250-3 ...
rate of prolactin input and output from the central compartment, respectively. PRL. prolactin. NADPH. nicotinamide adenine ... Metabolite Involvement in Bromocriptine-Induced Prolactin Inhibition in Rats. Delphine Valente, Marcel Delaforge, Saik Urien, ... Metabolite Involvement in Bromocriptine-Induced Prolactin Inhibition in Rats. Delphine Valente, Marcel Delaforge, Saik Urien, ... Metabolite Involvement in Bromocriptine-Induced Prolactin Inhibition in Rats. Delphine Valente, Marcel Delaforge, Saik Urien, ...
Prolactin and teleost ionocytes: new insights into cellular and molecular targets of prolactin in vertebrate epithelia. Gen ... Prolactin prevents hepatocellular carcinoma by restricting innate immune activation of c-Myc in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... Song X, Fan X, Zhang J, Zheng H, Li X, Pang L, Chen X, Zhang W, Harrington A, Ziedonis D, Lv L. Prolactin serum levels ... Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill. Mol Cell Endocrinol. ...
... Test Overview. A prolactin test measures the level of the hormone prolactin, which is made by the ... During pregnancy, prolactin levels increase by 10 to 20 times. After the baby is born, prolactin stays high if you are ... High levels of prolactin may mean a pituitary gland tumour (prolactinoma) is present. The higher the prolactin level, the more ... High levels of prolactin may mean that the pituitary gland is making excess prolactin for unknown reasons (idiopathic ...
What are symptoms of low or high prolactin? Are they typically obvious symptons? ... Prolactin...someone explain? What are symptoms of low or high prolactin? Are they typically obvious symptons? ...
Ricaurte GA Altered prolactin response to M-chlorophenylpiperazine in monkeys previously treated with 3,4- ... "Altered prolactin response to M-chlorophenylpiperazine in monkeys previously treated with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( ... Animals treated 2 weeks previously with MDMA exhibited a nonsignificant reduction in the prolactin response to m-CPP. In ... "Altered prolactin response to M-chlorophenylpiperazine in monkeys previously treated with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( ...
How would you address the recent literature about prolactin as an immunomodulator for COVID-19? Questions from social media, ... COVID-19 Rapid Resource Center > How would you address the recent literature about prolactin as an immunomodulator for COVID-19 ...
Postmortem prolactin as a marker of antemortem stress. Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
... family history-negative for alcohol dependence Breastfeeding and Prolactin Levels in Lactating Women With a Family History of ... FHP women exhibited blunted prolactin to breast stimulation after drinking the control and ... Breastfeeding and Prolactin Levels in Lactating Women With a Family History of Alcoholism. A small but interesting study… ... Breastfeeding and Prolactin Levels in Lactating Women With a Family History of Alcoholism ...
Prolactin (PRL) has recently been demonstrated to elicit female-selective nociceptor sensitization and increase pain-like ... Discovery and characterization of prolactin neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of female-prevalent pain ... Discovery and characterization of prolactin neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of female-prevalent pain ...
Aripiprazole should not be used to lower prolactin levels in patients with chronic schizophrenia with co-T2DM. ... and metformin or aripiprazole co-prescription is regarded as an effective therapy option for reducing prolactin (PRL) levels. ... and metformin or aripiprazole co-prescription is regarded as an effective therapy option for reducing prolactin (PRL) levels. ... Association between prolactin and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Heart Assoc. ( ...
Product No.: P299. [product_table name="All Top" skus="P299"] ...
The MSDS of Human for Prolactin is available from Karlan upon request. ... Human Prolactin Inducible Protein(PIP)ELISA Kit - 96T x 6 - 1 kit is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. ... The MSDS of Human for Prolactin is available from Karlan upon request. ... The MSDS of Human for Prolactin is available from Karlan upon request. ...
Evidence of a role for prolactin as regulators of ovarian follicular development in goose ... Evidence of a role for prolactin as regulators of ovarian follicular development in goose ... Evidence of a role for prolactin as regulators of ovarian follicular development in goose ... Background: Prolactin (PRL) regulates development and reproduction, and its effects are mediated by the prolactin receptor ( ...
In particular, it has been shown that prolactin (PRL) is a growth factor for breast cancer, and abnormally high blood levels of ... Efficacy of monochemotherapy with docetaxel (taxotere) in relation to prolactin secretion in heavily pretreated metastatic ... in relation to prolactin secretion in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2001 Jan; 22(1): 27- ...
Release of prolactin as well as adrenocorticotropin after administration of arginine-vasopressin to healthy men. *Mark ... Blood samples were taken at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min for analyses of serum or plasma levels of ACTH, prolactin, TSH, GH, ... Blood samples were taken at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min for analyses of serum or plasma levels of ACTH, prolactin, TSH, GH, ... Blood samples were taken at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min for analyses of serum or plasma levels of ACTH, prolactin, TSH, GH, ...
Pregnancy loss can happen to any woman. It is not uncommon for a woman to have two or more pregnancy losses in their lifetime, even if theyve previously had normal pregnancies. Often, a woman is concerned if having a miscarriage(s) will affect her future fertility. Although miscarriage is different than infertility in the sense that pregnancy is occurring, both issues... read more » ...
  • However, an increase in circulating prolactin levels has also been shown in patients without previous treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Antidepressant use and circulating prolactin levels. (umassmed.edu)
  • Discovered in non-human animals around 1930 by Oscar Riddle and confirmed in humans in 1970 by Henry Friesen, prolactin is a peptide hormone, encoded by the PRL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone acts in endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine manners through the prolactin receptor and numerous cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin Inhibitory Hormone) to act on the D2 receptors of lactotrophs, causing inhibition of prolactin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone has a stimulatory effect on prolactin release, although prolactin is the only anterior pituitary hormone whose principal control is inhibitory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin within the normal reference ranges can act as a weak gonadotropin, but at the same time suppresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although expression of prolactin receptors have been demonstrated in rat hypothalamus, the same has not been observed in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiologic levels of prolactin in males enhance luteinizing hormone-receptors in Leydig cells, resulting in testosterone secretion, which leads to spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In music psychology, it is conjectured that prolactin may play a role in the pleasurable perception of sad music, as the levels of the hormone increase when a person feels sad, producing a consoling psychological effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Both males and females produce the hormone prolactin, but it is known for telling the body to make breast milk when someone is pregnant or breastfeeding . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A prolactin level test is simple and measures the amount of the hormone in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Though private insurance companies are not legally required to provide coverage for hormone testing, many may cover a prolactin level test. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Based on the person's symptoms, a doctor will usually order a prolactin test if they suspect a problem with the hormone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some data support the idea that prolactin is also an immunoregulating hormone. (medscape.com)
  • This gland secretes a hormone called prolactin, a hormone that is necessary for both men and women in terms of sexual function. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Often, the cause of raised levels of this hormone is due to a small prolactin-producing tumor sitting on the pituitary gland called a prolactinoma. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Prolactin is one such hormone that is produced by this gland, the levels of which are controlled by dopamine. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Prolactin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pituitary gland but also a variety of other cell types including the placenta, brain and uterus. (prospecbio.com)
  • A genetic defect in the PIT-1 gene results in congenital growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency. (jci.org)
  • A prolactin test measures the level of the hormone prolactin, which is made by the pituitary gland , in your blood. (alberta.ca)
  • Journal of Neuroendocrinology's latest Special Issue features research presented at the 4th FASEB Growth Hormone (GH)/Prolactin (PRL) Family in Biology & Disease Conference held 7-12 July 2019 in Florida, USA. (neuroendo.org.uk)
  • Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone made by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. (walkinlab.com)
  • Prolactin is an essential hormone for developing certain female physical features and reproductive functions, such as growing breast and breast milk production in women or anyone with ovaries. (walkinlab.com)
  • Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland and various other sites elsewhere in the body, including the brain, placenta, uterus, mammary gland, and lymphocytes of the immune system. (genetrack.ca)
  • Reduction in hypophyseal growth hormone and prolactin expression due to deficiency in ghrelin receptor signaling is associated with Pit-1 suppression: relevance to the immune system. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin (luteotropic hormone) is a hormone best known in females for its role in supporting milk production in the body. (priceplow.com)
  • Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. (icliniq.com)
  • Prolactin, also known as the lactogenic hormone, is produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. (icliniq.com)
  • Dopamine, a hormone produced by the hypothalamus, is responsible for prolactin regulation in the body. (icliniq.com)
  • Human growth hormone (hGH) is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin. (carbootie-biz.com)
  • Prolactin inhibitors are agents that inhibit the production of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production after childbirth. (storiesforzena.com)
  • Prolactin is a hormone that is secreted from the pituitary gland of females. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • When the prolactin test shows an unusually high level of the hormone, it can mean a tumor or disease onset. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Nipple discharge - if your breasts are not producing milk but you are seeing some nipple discharge, then you should get a prolactin test to monitor the hormone levels. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • The prolactin test can also show high levels for PCOS patients and can be used to monitor their hormone levels. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Prolactin is an important hormone involved in the interaction between maternal, extraembryonic, and fetal tissues that remains in high levels during the entire duration of pregnancy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and prolactin were measured in serum collected from subjects during the same clinic visit. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, IGSF1 mutations are also commonly associated with other clinical phenotypes, including prolactin and growth hormone dysregulation, and macroorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Pituitary prolactin secretion is regulated by endocrine neurons in the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin enhances dopamine secretion and thus exhibits feedback inhibition of its own secretion. (medscape.com)
  • RT-PCR detected prolactin mRNA in the tumor cell extract, confirming the diagnosis of ectopic prolactin synthesis and secretion. (nih.gov)
  • To study how these metabolites influence parent drug pharmacodynamics, we administered BCT to rats intravenously (1 mg/kg i.v.) and orally (10 mg/kg p.o.) and measured the inhibition of prolactin secretion. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We found that monohydroxylated BCT was able to lower prolactin secretion like BCT. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dihydroxylated metabolites, as well as monohydroxylated metabolites, were effective in reducing in vitro prolactin secretion. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Efficacy of monochemotherapy with docetaxel (taxotere) in relation to prolactin secretion in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. (nel.edu)
  • Since prolactin secretion is under vigorous dopaminergic inhibition, neuroleptic drugs can, because of their capacity to block dopamine receptors, produce large increases in plasma prolactin levels in man and laboratory animals. (northwestern.edu)
  • Leng L, Zhang Y. Effects of an estrogen receptor antagonist on proliferation, prolactin secretion and growth factor expression in the MMQ pituitary prolactinoma cell line. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin interferes with the secretion of testosterone. (storiesforzena.com)
  • Prolactin levels increase during pregnancy and stimulate the growth of breasts and the secretion of milk for the baby. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Moreover, high levels of prolactin can also cause milk secretion in men and non-pregnant women. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Part of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine may be mediated through a competitive antagonistic action at the prolactin receptor site. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin (PRL) regulates development and reproduction, and its effects are mediated by the prolactin receptor (PRLR). (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Prolactin Receptor Bovine Extra Celleular Domain Recombinant ?produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 213 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 24.4 kDa. (neobiolab.com)
  • Cytoplasmatic Prolactin Receptor Human Recombinant ?produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, Polypeptide chain amino acids 432-623 and having a molecular mass of 45 kDa, the PRLR is fused with a GST tag. (neobiolab.com)
  • Prolactin stimulates ubiquitination, initial internalization, and degradation of its receptor via catalytic activation of Janus kinase 2. (medscape.com)
  • Much like how Finasteride can cause gyno by preventing Testosterone from converting in to DHT, MK-2866 can have a similar outcome where there are less vacant receptor sites, thus more Testosterone is left circulating that can then be aromatized into Estrogen than normal, mk677 prolactin. (herdingkids.net)
  • Prolactin receptor and osteogenic induction of prolactin in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. (bvsalud.org)
  • High prolactin levels, or hyperprolactinemia, are more common and can have many causes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We present the first example of massive and symptomatic hyperprolactinemia due to ectopic prolactin production by a solid extrapituitary mesenchymal tumor confirmed with both mRNA analysis and immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • High levels of prolactin may mean that the pituitary gland is making excess prolactin for unknown reasons (idiopathic hyperprolactinemia). (alberta.ca)
  • One of the most frequent side effects of atypical antipsychotics is hyperprolactinemia (HPRL), and metformin or aripiprazole co-prescription is regarded as an effective therapy option for reducing prolactin (PRL) levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hyperprolactinemia can be caused by the presence of a high-molecular-mass complex of prolactin called macroprolactin. (metropolisindia.com)
  • Macroprolactin should be considered if, in the presence of elevated prolactin levels, signs and symptoms of hyperprolactinemia are absent, or pituitary imaging studies are not informative. (metropolisindia.com)
  • If an elevated prolactin level is detected, it is recommended that a second blood sample is collected and analyzed before diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. (genetrack.ca)
  • Hyperprolactinemia is associated primarily with prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors (prolactinoma). (medscape.com)
  • Cabergoline is a prescription medication used to treat hyperprolactinemia (high levels of prolactin). (storiesforzena.com)
  • Pregnant women have high levels of prolactin, which helps make breast milk. (alberta.ca)
  • High levels of prolactin may mean a pituitary gland tumour (prolactinoma) is present. (alberta.ca)
  • High levels of prolactin can happen because of many reasons. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Constant high levels of prolactin cause hormonal imbalance in women. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • High levels of prolactin may indicate several things. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • High levels of prolactin can be a preliminary diagnosis for various diseases. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • High levels of prolactin in men can also be signs of infertility and impotence. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • In one study of SAD patients, light therapy did slightly lower plasma prolactin levels. (cet.org)
  • Moreover, plasma prolactin levels showed a negative correlation with the SAPS scores in AN-FEP female patients. (nih.gov)
  • The capacity of intramuscular (i.m.) chlorpromazine and 6 of its metabolites to increase plasma prolactin levels in male rats was compared. (northwestern.edu)
  • It stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation): increased serum concentrations of prolactin during pregnancy cause enlargement of the mammary glands and prepare for milk production, which normally starts when levels of progesterone fall by the end of pregnancy and a suckling stimulus is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • A partial prolactin deficiency may result in inadequate lactation . (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin is normally low in level in men and women and plays a primary role in the production of breast milk also known as lactation. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Overproduction of prolactin can cause lactation in men and women who are nonpregnant or not breastfeeding. (walkinlab.com)
  • Prolactin was named based on its function of promoting milk production (lactation), but it is now known to also have over 300 other functions in the body. (genetrack.ca)
  • Prolactin inhibition in dams during lactation programs for overweight and leptin resistance in adult offspring. (medscape.com)
  • Apart from lactation, prolactin has almost three hundred roles in our body. (icliniq.com)
  • Usually, an elevated prolactin level is seen during pregnancy and just after childbirth (during lactation). (icliniq.com)
  • Elevated prolactin levels indicate that there is a tumor and it is known as prolactinoma. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • To see whether a tumour in the pituitary gland (called a prolactinoma) is making large amounts of prolactin. (alberta.ca)
  • The Prolactin Serum Test measures the level of prolactin in the blood and helps screen for prolactinoma. (walkinlab.com)
  • Order this Prolactin Serum Test to measure the level of prolactin in the blood and to help screen for a pituitary tumor (prolactinoma). (walkinlab.com)
  • Abnormally high prolactin levels may indicate an underlying health condition, such as a tumor of the pituitary gland tumor known as prolactinoma. (walkinlab.com)
  • Individuals may order this Prolactin Serum Test if they have experienced symptoms associated with a prolactinoma. (walkinlab.com)
  • Prolactinoma is a benign pituitary gland tumor that causes over production of prolactin. (icliniq.com)
  • Apart from prolactinoma, women's prolactin levels are tested for other medical conditions like infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, etc. (icliniq.com)
  • A prolactin test is generally advised for men when a case of prolactinoma is suspected. (icliniq.com)
  • Apart from prolactinoma, men are also advised to take a prolactin test to investigate testicular dysfunction that causes erectile dysfunction and other problems related to the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. (icliniq.com)
  • An increased quantity of prolactin can be a sign of prolactinoma. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Chest injuries and anger can also cause an increase in the level of prolactin production, for example, scars, shingles, very tight undergarments, etc. (icliniq.com)
  • A high level of prolactin can indicate a tumour near the pituitary gland for non-pregnant women. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • For example, a high level of prolactin can be a sign of low sex drive and erectile dysfunction. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Production of milk - If you are not pregnant and your breasts are secreting milk, then you might have a high level of prolactin in your blood. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • The increased level of prolactin can also show that you are suffering from hypothyroidism. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • So, neural and hormonal complications can show up with a high level of prolactin. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • The primary function of prolactin in fish is osmoregulation, i.e., controlling the movement of water and salts between the tissues of the fish and the surrounding water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only physiological function of prolactin is the stimulation of milk production. (metropolisindia.com)
  • Human Prolactin Inducible Protein(PIP)ELISA Kit - 96T x 6 - 1 kit is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (dnamethsoc.com)
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  • Mouse Total Prolactin ELISA Kit from Innovative Research is intended for the quantitative determination of prolactin antigen in mouse plasma. (innov-research.com)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Prolactin from Mouse in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (agctsequencing.com)
  • Prolactin receptors have been found on human T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and some data support T-lymphocyte dependence on prolactin for maintenance of immune competence. (medscape.com)
  • Pegylated Human Prolactin was tested for its biological functionality in-vitro by inducing proliferation of Nb2 cells or Baf/3 cells that were stably transfected with Human Prolactin receptors, though its activity is lower than human Prolactin. (prospecbio.com)
  • Prolactin receptors on human T and B lymphocytes: antagonism of prolactin binding by cyclosporine. (medscape.com)
  • Blockade of dopamine receptors by administration of pimozide produced a six-fold rise in serum prolactin levels by 2 and 4 hr after injection. (researchwithrutgers.com)
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  • Other conditions that can cause high prolactin levels include pregnancy, liver disease ( cirrhosis ), kidney disease, and hypothyroidism . (alberta.ca)
  • The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prolactin test is a laboratory test that measures the amount of prolactin present in the blood. (icliniq.com)
  • Also, a prolactin test may be done to check levels if a man lacks sexual desire or if he has trouble getting an erection (erectile dysfunction). (alberta.ca)
  • However, prolactin levels can increase in other conditions that can indicate some kind of medical condition like pituitary gland tumors, infertility in women, erectile dysfunction in men, etc. (icliniq.com)
  • Prolactin is principally regulated by tonic inhibition rather than by intermittent stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] In research using a mouse model, inhibition of prolactin release impaired lymphocyte function and depressed macrophage activation. (medscape.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Competitive Inhibition method for detection of Rat Prolactin (PRL) in samples from serum and plasma with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (ibiomagazine.org)
  • Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation and nursing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of prolactin decrease the levels of sex hormones-estrogen in women and testosterone in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of mildly elevated levels of prolactin are much more variable, in women, substantially increasing or decreasing estrogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • would you guys say im a estrogen and prolactin insensitive person? (isarms.com)
  • Emotional stress or strenuous exercise just before the test can raise prolactin levels. (alberta.ca)
  • Stimulation of the nipples can raise prolactin levels. (alberta.ca)
  • so it seems like nandrolone based gears (deca and tren) raise prolactin levels. (isarms.com)
  • Serum prolactin levels that were suppressed by bromocriptine resulted in decreased spermatogenesis and decreased testosterone production in healthy male volunteers. (medscape.com)
  • Serum prolactin levels were measured by an automated immunochemiluminescent assay. (nih.gov)
  • Smoking also decreases maternal milk supply, likely through the effect of nicotine, which lowers serum prolactin levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors will measure prolactin levels to obtain more information about someone's health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To measure prolactin levels in a blood sample for the diagnosis of abnormal prolactin levels, which can affect fertility, bone mass, and libido. (genetrack.ca)
  • Partial isolated prolactin deficiency is rare, and case reports of total isolated prolactin deficiency are rarer still and may have a genetic component (ie, familial puerperal alactogenesis). (medscape.com)
  • Familial puerperal alactogenesis: possibility of a genetically transmitted isolated prolactin deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Isolated prolactin deficiency: a case report. (medscape.com)
  • Isolated prolactin deficiency in a woman with puerperal alactogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin levels steadily increase during pregnancy and remain elevated postpartum in people who are breastfeeding. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is quite normal for a woman to have high prolactin levels during pregnancy and breastfeeding. (sharedjourney.com)
  • During pregnancy, prolactin levels increase by 10 to 20 times. (alberta.ca)
  • Prolactin plays an important role in pregnancy and fertility. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Prolactin also stimulates proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production in women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Subjects' sex and having an AN-FEP diagnosis both had an effect on prolactin levels, with higher levels in women than in men, and in AN-FEP patients than in HC. (nih.gov)
  • Prolactin is sometimes classified as a gonadotropin although in humans it has only a weak luteotropic effect while the effect of suppressing classical gonadotropic hormones is more important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal levels of prolactin in a woman's body do not inhibit the release and function of other important hormones. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Strenuous exercise and lack of sleep, foods, and certain medications can be the reason behind fluctuations in prolactin hormones. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Other hormones, such as thyroid hormones and prolactin (produced by the pituitary gland), can affect the menstrual cycle. (msdmanuals.com)
  • After the tumor was excised, her galactorrhea resolved, menstrual periodicity resumed within the first month, and serum prolactin fell to 5 ng/mL. (nih.gov)
  • In women, too much prolactin can also cause menstrual irregularities and infertility. (walkinlab.com)
  • As a consequence, prolactin levels can cause irregularities in periods and menstrual problems. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Prolactin is released at various times throughout the day and night and its main function is to stimulate breast milk production after childbirth. (sharedjourney.com)
  • prolactin storage increased as cells passed from G1 to S to G2 + M. We have shown previously that insulin and 17 beta-estradiol act synergistically to increase intracellular prolactin three- to sevenfold and slow the rate of cell growth to approximately 70% of control cells. (rupress.org)
  • In this study we observed that insulin and estradiol increased prolactin storage at each stage of the cell cycle but did not affect the cell-cycle distribution of the population even though cell growth was slowed. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that insulin and estradiol did not increase prolactin storage by affecting the cell-cycle distribution of the population. (rupress.org)
  • Prolactin (human prolactin, HPRL) - serum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, it is anticipated that its biological activity in vivo will be higher than human Prolactin due to prolonged persistence in circulation. (prospecbio.com)
  • A blood prolactin test is usually done about 3 hours after you wake up, sometime between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. (alberta.ca)
  • The prolactin test measures the blood prolactin level. (icliniq.com)
  • Avoid nipple stimulation for 24 hours prior to prolactin testing. (alberta.ca)
  • Although no group differences in alcohol pharmacokinetics were detected, FHP women exhibited blunted prolactin to breast stimulation after drinking the control and alcohol beverage and felt more of the stimulant-like effects of alcohol than did FHN women. (kellymom.com)
  • This is the first evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a blunted magnitude, rapidity, and duration of the prolactin response to breast stimulation and an alcohol challenge in lactating women. (kellymom.com)
  • s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000aucorp\";s:0:\"\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000isbn\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000coden\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000genre\";s:7:\"article\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000part\";s:0:\"\";s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000btitle\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000title\";s:77:\"OESTRADIOL STIMULATION OF PROLACTIN RELEASE FROM CANINE PITUITARY IN CULTURE. (inist.fr)
  • DOHERTY, P. C. Prolactin stimulation of maternal behavior in female rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • The AUC:s for both ACTH and prolactin levels were significantly increased after AVP in comparison with saline (p = 0.008 and p = 0.038, respectively). (lu.se)
  • It is concluded that AVP has the potency to release not only ACTH but also prolactin in healthy men. (lu.se)
  • Acth (adrenocorticotropic) and prolactin levels, however most of the time this. (storiesforzena.com)
  • Prolactin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland under negative control by dopamine, which is secreted by the hypothalamus. (metropolisindia.com)
  • This part of the brain controls the pituitary gland, and any disorder in the hypothalamus may cause increased prolactin production. (icliniq.com)
  • For evaluation of pituitary tumors, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, infertility, and hypogonadism Monitoring therapy of prolactin-producing tumors Monomeric prolactin is bioactive, whereas macroprolactin is considered biologically inactive. (metropolisindia.com)
  • It has been shown in rats and sheep that prolactin affects lipid synthesis differentially in mammary and adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • No case of a malignant solid tumor producing prolactin has been documented thus far. (nih.gov)
  • Between 5 and 10% of the tumor cells were strongly positive for prolactin on immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • However, low levels of prolactin levels do not mean that there is no tumor. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Hence, it is essential to constantly monitor prolactin levels and to undergo a MRI test if you even slightly suspect a tumor. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Prolactin storage in a clonal strain of rat pituitary tumor cells is cell-cycle dependent. (rupress.org)
  • GH4C1 cells (CH cells) are a clonal strain of rat pituitary tumor cells which secrete prolactin. (rupress.org)
  • This benign (noncancerous) tumor causes the pituitary gland to produce too much prolactin. (walkinlab.com)
  • In the vast majority of prolactin deficiency states, the deficiency occurs secondary to general anterior pituitary dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • The Pegylated Prolactin protein is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (prospecbio.com)
  • Prolactin Ovine Antagonist Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 199 amino acids and an additional Ala at N-terminus and having a molecular mass of 23kDa.The mutant R129G is DES 9 amino acids truncated form from its N-terminus which has higher inhibitory activity.Ovine Prolactin Antagonist is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (neobiolab.com)
  • There are some results of high prolactin levels that are the same for both men and women, including infertility, low sex drive and bone loss. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Hyperprolactinaemia (elevated prolactin) is a common cause of amenorrhoea (absence of menstruation) and is one of the most prevalent endocrine causes of female infertility. (genetrack.ca)
  • In extreme cases, high prolactin levels can be reasons for infertility in women. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • In men, high prolactin levels can cause sexual dysfunction and infertility. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Therefore, the Prolactin test can diagnose infertility in both men and women. (theonlinevoyage.com)
  • Prolactin levels may be checked when a man's testosterone levels are really low. (alberta.ca)
  • In men , though, high prolactin levels can impair testicular function, which negatively affects the production of testosterone and sperm. (priceplow.com)
  • So when prolactin levels rise, the testosterone levels fall. (storiesforzena.com)
  • Prolactin deficiency is characterized by the inability of pituitary lactotrophs to secrete prolactin and by the resulting lack of puerperal lactogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Pressure from other tumors might also cause an increase in prolactin production. (sharedjourney.com)
  • A prolactin test may be ordered for men incase they are not able to arouse themselves sexually and also to detect the presence of any tumors that are being produced by the pituitary gland. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Prolactin deficiency induced by bromocriptine increased lipogenesis and insulin responsiveness in adipocytes while decreasing them in the mammary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery and characterization of prolactin neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of female-prevalent pain disorders. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Characterization of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins of the bovine prolactin matrix. (rupress.org)
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  • Specific symptoms affecting males can indicate a problem with prolactin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The reference range for prolactin in males is 2-18 ng/mL. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill. (umassmed.edu)
  • Prolactin plays an important role in maternal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because prolactin release is inversely related to dopamine levels in the anterior pituitary, critically ill patients on prolonged dopamine infusion have resultant prolactin deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Of electronic dopamine levels and citric prolactin levels This means you can easily go online, search for a good vendor (we review many of them here), and easily buy S23 or another SARM within a matter of 15 minutes, prolactin sarms. (storiesforzena.com)
  • [ 15 ] The precise pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown, but it is speculated to be associated with the effects of prolactin on surfactant synthesis, whole-body water regulation, or gastrointestinal maturation. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation of the immune system and pancreatic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin is very important after a child is born as it helps in supply of breast milk and also maintains the same. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Prolactin testing is done to check the reason for a woman not able to produce breast milk after giving birth, to find out the cause of any unusual discharge that is coming out of the nipples or in case a woman is suffering from amenorrhea where in she is not getting her periods or to find out why she is not able to conceive. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • In particular, it has been shown that prolactin (PRL) is a growth factor for breast cancer, and abnormally high blood levels of PRL have been described in metastatic breast cancer patients. (nel.edu)