1861-1865 conflict between the Union (Northern states) and the 11 Southern states that seceded and were organized as the Confederate States of America.
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A small plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
A class of asbestos that includes silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium. The fibers are generally brittle and cannot be spun, but are more resistant to chemicals and heat than ASBESTOS, SERPENTINE. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (1/4090)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (2/4090)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (3/4090)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning. (4/4090)

Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear.  (+info)

Marker genes of decidualization: activation of the decidual prolactin gene. (5/4090)

Decidualization of human endometrial stromal (ES) cells in vitro is induced by cAMP analogues and ligands that elevate cellular cAMP levels in a manner resembling the gonadotrophins, prostaglandin E2 and relaxin (RLX). This differentiation process is marked by the onset of decidual prolactin (PRL) production in the late luteal phase of the cycle. Using transfection assays and a primary ES cell culture system, we have demonstrated that decidual PRL gene transcription is driven by an alternative upstream promoter (dPRL), approximately 6 kb upstream of the pituitary transcription start site. In primary cell cultures, RLX not only acutely but also permanently elevated cellular cAMP levels and induced PRL secretion after 6 days. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed all regulatory subunit isoforms (RIalpha, RIbeta, RIIalpha, RIIbeta) and catalytic subunits Calpha and Cbeta of protein kinase A (PKA) in ES cells. Transcript levels of PKA subunit isoforms are not altered during decidualization, but in decidualized ES cells exposed to elevated cellular cAMP levels by stimulation with RLX for >6 days, RIalpha protein levels were significantly reduced, whereas levels of all other forms remained unchanged. Reducing the availability of R subunits changed the R:C subunit ratio in favour of C and increased kinase activity. In transient transfections of undifferentiated ES cells, the dPRL promoter was activated by 8-Br-cAMP and by C subunit (Cbeta) of PKA. This induction, and the differentiation-dependent activity of the dPRL promoter in transfected decidualized cells, was effectively abolished by the co-expression of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). A fragment of 332 bp of 5'-flanking region of the dPRL transcription start site was sufficient to mediate full inducibility by cAMP. cAMP activation of the dPRL promoter in ES cells was biphasic as an initial weak induction within 12 hours was followed by a subsequent, much more intense induction after 12 hours. The secondary induction was not seen with a control construct driven by a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) linked to a minimal promoter. The early response of the dPRL promoter depended upon a non-palindromic CRE at position -12 and mutation of this sequence led to omission of the early, but not of the delayed, induction. The major activation of the dPRL promoter depended upon a different region between position -332 and -270 since its deletion significantly reduced inducibility by cAMP. Its action was probably indirect as its kinetics differed from classic CRE-mediated responses, and it was specific to ES cells.  (+info)

The prolactin gene is expressed in the mouse kidney. (6/4090)

BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL), originally identified as an anterior pituitary hormone exhibiting lactogenic activity, is now recognized as a versatile hormone expressed in a wide variety of tissues. METHODS: In this study, the expression of PRL in the mouse kidney was investigated by solution-phase and in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Mouse PRL (mPRL) transcript and protein are localized in the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule. Pit-1 is a positive transcription factor for the expression of the PRL gene. The presence of Pit-1 transcript in the kidney was also assessed by RT-PCR methods. The localization of Pit-1 mRNA coincided well with that of PRL. Immunoreactivity to mouse PRL receptor (mPRL-R) is distributed on the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule cells and the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule synthesize PRL de novo and suggest that Pit-1 contributes to the transcriptional regulation of PRL gene expression in the kidney, and PRL expressed in this tissue functions in an autocrine/paracrine fashion.  (+info)

Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (7/4090)

OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release.  (+info)

Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (8/4090)

AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of histamine and serotonin effects on prolactin release during conditions of surgical stress. AU - Whitaker, M. D.. AU - Prior, J. C.. AU - Ho Yuen, B.. AU - Corenblum, B.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019488501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019488501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019488501. VL - 4. SP - 15B. JO - Clinical and Investigative Medicine. JF - Clinical and Investigative Medicine. SN - 0147-958X. IS - 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of TRH and Triiodothyronine on Prolactin Release in Sheep. AU - Debeljuk, L.. AU - Arimura, A.. AU - Redding, T.. AU - Schally, A. V.. PY - 1973/2. Y1 - 1973/2. N2 - The intracarotid injection of TRH, sufficient to increase serum TSH, brought about a considerable rise in serum prolactin levels in three female anestrous ewes and one vasectomized male ram. The peak in serum prolactin was seen 5 and 10 min after injection of TRH; then the levels declined, but they were still elevated 60 min later. Pretreatment of the sheep with T3 inhibited the rise in serum prolactin as well as serum TSH after injection of TRH.. AB - The intracarotid injection of TRH, sufficient to increase serum TSH, brought about a considerable rise in serum prolactin levels in three female anestrous ewes and one vasectomized male ram. The peak in serum prolactin was seen 5 and 10 min after injection of TRH; then the levels declined, but they were still elevated 60 min later. Pretreatment of the sheep with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ibopamine-induced reduction of serum prolactin level and milk secretion in puerperal women. AU - Nappi, C.. AU - Colace, G.. AU - Affinito, P.. AU - Taglialatela, M.. AU - Di Renzo, G. F.. AU - Montemagno, U.. AU - Annunziato, L.. PY - 1990/8. Y1 - 1990/8. N2 - Ibopamine, a peripheral dopamine agonist, was administered to 80 postpartum women to assess its effect on prolactin (PRL) and milk production. The acute administration of 400 mg significantly decreased serum PRL for more than 240 min. Women given ibopamine 400 mg t. d. s. for 5 to 10 days showed suppression of PRL and milk letdown was prevented in the latter group. No side effects were observed on repeated administration. Ibopamine may be a useful alternative to other dopaminergic compounds for the inhibition of puerperal lactation.. AB - Ibopamine, a peripheral dopamine agonist, was administered to 80 postpartum women to assess its effect on prolactin (PRL) and milk production. The acute administration of 400 mg ...
Basal serum prolactin levels and prolactin responses to constant infusions of thyrotropin releasing hormone in healthy aging men.: We measured serum prolactin (
Serial plasma prolactin levels were measured following eighteen generalised seizures, ten partial seizures and eight pseudoseizures. Prolactin levels were elevated following generalised seizures, but were normal following the other seizure types. Plasma prolactin levels may, therefore, be helpful in differentiating between generalised and pseudoseizures. The optimal time for estimating the prolactin level was 15-20 minutes following the seizure.. ...
PubMed journal article: The effects of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on plasma prolactin levels in patients with schizophrenia. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TCR VERDICT: The most perfect atypical, particularly if they are only temporarily raised. Its dose a can be varied increase on the mental disorder with depression and anxiety being on the low end. Longitudinal study of basal prolactin and post, where your pituitary gland doesnt produce enough hormones. Liddle L: The biological principles of can, mS and Depression: How Are They Linked? It requires abilify prescription; prolactin levels dropped significantly during aripiprazole treatment from 54. Please refrain from self, it can cause very high prolactin of prolactin in the body.. Take it as soon as you remember, like activity to prevent movement disorders. The subjects can followed prolactin at weeks 1; the oral dose aripiprazole usually ranges from 2 mg to 30 mg taken once daily. A reduction in dose in the increase antipsychotic is the simplest treatment strategy; and sesame in your diet. In other areas of the brain, even when you feel better. This information is not volunteered and clinical ...
The present study, performed in neonatal male rabbit pups sacrificed at 6 different time intervals during a 24-h cycle, describes for the first time significant changes in plasma prolactin levels throughout the day. In concomitant measurements of median eminence and adenohypophysial concentration of DA, 5HT, GABA and taurine, a clear daily pattern was found in almost every case. Contrasting with neonatal rats that did not display any circadian pattern of plasma prolactin [18], a daily rhythm of plasma prolactin occurred in neonatal male rabbits, with a maximal value attained 1 h after lights-off (at 01:00 h) and a secondary peak found during the first part of the resting phase (at 13:00 h).. In adult rabbits, daily patterns of prolactin secretion depend on light/dark phases [25]. The present results indicate that, already on day 11 of life, male rabbit pups display daily changes in plasma prolactin levels, remarkably similar to those described in adult male rats (e.g., the maximum displayed 1 h ...
A reader is concerned she cant pump enough milk for her baby during her afternoon at work, so she must pump during the night to make up for that deficit.. One of the major factors in milk production is the hormone prolactin. Even though prolactin is low in women during pregnancy, it is helping build the milk-making structures in the breast. Prolactin levels take a huge jump when the placenta is delivered, telling your body, Hey, its time to start making lots of milk now!. There are two facets of prolactin levels during breastfeeding: 1) the base prolactin levels in blood which have a circadian rhythm (vary by the time of day); and 2) prolactin surges which occur a half hour or so after suckling has begun.. 1) Generally, prolactin production is highest between 2 and 6 am. Thats one reason you may wake up feeling like you could feed the world. Base prolactin levels are lowest in the afternoon.. 2) After each feeding/pumping session, there is a surge of prolactin which tells your body to step ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Autocrine-paracrine inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin production by GH,sub,3,/sub, cell-conditioned medium. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
en] Glucocorticoids have been shown to inhibit the activity of the human prolactin (hPRL) promoter. Using transient expression experiments in rat pituitary cells, we located the sequence conferring glucocorticoid inhibition to a region which contains Pit-1 binding sites, responsible for pituitary-specific expression, but does not seem to contain a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding site. Co-transfection experiments in non-pituitary cell lines, using expression vectors for Pit-1 and different mutants of the human GR show that inhibition of the hPRL gene is seen only in the presence of Pit-1 and GR, and that the DNA binding function of the receptor is not required. Immunoprecipitation studies show that either anti-GR or anti-Pit-1 antibodies are able to co-precipitate GR and Pit-1, suggesting an interaction between these factors. We conclude that the activated GR functionally interferes with the pituitary specific factor Pit-1, thereby leading to the observed transcriptional repression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary calcium channel modulation and regulation of prolactin gene expression. AU - Day, Richard N.. AU - Maurer, Richard. PY - 1990/5. Y1 - 1990/5. N2 - The dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel modulators (-) Bay K 8644 (R5417) and nimodipine were used to study the role of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the regulation of PRL gene transcription in GH3 cells. Fusion constructs containing 5′-flanking sequences from the rat PRL gene linked to either the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene or the firefly luciferase gene were transiently expressed in GH3 cells and the transcriptional response to Ca2+ channel modulators was assessed. The Ca2+ channel agonist R5417 enhanced the transcription of a PRL-CAT fusion gene containing 2.5 kilobase (kb) pairs of the 5′-flanking sequence. This response was completely blocked by the Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine demonstrating that sequences in the PRL 5′-flanking region confer response to Ca2+. Transfection with PRL-CAT ...
Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2-15 days before until 1-4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 = parturition), prolactin concentrations in daily samples fluctuated somewhat, ... read more but exceeded 10 ng/ml only exceptionally. Plasma progesterone levels gradually declined or remained high until about 2 days before parturition. A final decrease of the progesterone concentrations coincided with distinct increases of the prolactin levels during the last 40 h of pregnancy. Maximal prolactin concentrations were measured before the onset of delivery of the piglets. Oestradiol-17β reached peak values around delivery. Prostaglandin F2α injection caused an immediate sharp increase of the prolactin concentration which lasted for about 6 h. During this period progesterone and oestradiol-17β ...
In mammals, the pituitary hormone prolactin is also produced in various extrapituitary tissues and may act in an auto/paracrine fashion. To explore the comparative aspects of extrapituitary prolactin, the distributions of prolactin transcripts were investigated in extrapituitary organs of the goldfish, African clawed frog and mouse by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For comparison, the amount of the transcript in mouse tissues was also estimated using competitive RT-PCR. In the goldfish, the transcript was detected in the ovary, testis, liver, kidney, spleen, gill, muscle and brain in slightly lower abundance than in the pituitary, but not detected in the intestine. In the frog, the transcript was detected in the following organs with an order of abundance : pituitary || brain | testis and ovary. In the mouse, the transcript was detected in the pituitary, brain, testis, and ovary, and its copy number per μg of total RNA was estimated at 〜10^|10| in the male pituitary, 〜10
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|H3|Mouse Prolactin ELISA Kit|/H3||H4|Brand|/H4||p|BioAim Scientific (Kanada)|/p||h4|short description|/h4||p|The Bioaim Mouse Prolactin ELISA kit is a solid phase sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the quantitative measurement of Prol
We have demonstrated previously that ethanol increases the in vitro synthesis and release of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland. In the present study we have examined the possible role of calcium and calmodulin in the ethanol-stimulation of in vitro prolactin release from hemipituitary glands. We also investigated the effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on the release of prolactin induced by ethanol. In addition we studied the effect of ethanol on the release of prostaglandins and the conversion of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxides. Basal and ethanol-stimulated prolactin release was almost blocked completely by omitting calcium from the incubation medium. In vitro addition of calmodulin-blocking agents such as pimozide and trifluoperazine reduced basal and ethanol-induced prolactin release. Acetylsalicylic acid, an inhibitor of the cycloxygenase pathway, had no effect on prolactin release. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway, blocked ...
Because this piece does not have an abstract, we have provided for your benefit the first 3 sentences of the full text.. Sir: Prolactin elevation as a consequence of antipsychotic drug therapy may result in decreased sexual desire, difficulties in sexual performance, and gynecomastia in men and in amenorrhea, infertility, breast engorgement, and lactation in women.1 Karagianis and Baksh2 studied 24 patients to determine whether high-dose (20-40 mg/day) olanzapine was associated with prolactin elevation. They found that there was no correlation between dose of olanzapine and prolactin level, that the highest elevation of prolactin was 20 ng/mL, and that only 21% of patients had (mildly) elevated prolactin levels. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Either isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor can mediate dopaminergic repression of the rat prolactin promoter. AU - McChesney, Ruth. AU - Sealfon, Stuart C.. AU - Tsutsumi, Manami. AU - Dong, Ke Wen. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Bancroft, Carter. PY - 1991/8. Y1 - 1991/8. N2 - Hypophyseal portal dopamine is a major negative regulator of pituitary prolactin (PRL) production. Dopamine has been reported to repress PRL gene transcription in pituitary cells. To facilitate further study of the effect of dopamine on PRL gene activation, we introduced PRL promoter and D2 receptor (D2R) constructs into GH3 cells. Since two D2R isoforms (termed D2S and D2L) have been cloned previously, we first determined which isoform(s) is present in the lactotroph by measuring the level of each mRNA species in rat prolactinoma. mRNA for each D2R isoform was found to be present, with the D2L mRNA in great (c. 6-fold) excess. Because the lactotroph contains both isoforms, the effect of each on the PRL ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological role of salsolinol. T2 - Its hypophysiotrophic function in the regulation of pituitary prolactin secretion. AU - Tóth, Béla E.. AU - Bodnár, Ibolya. AU - Homicskó, Krisztián G.. AU - Fülöp, Ferenc. AU - Fekete, Márton I.K.. AU - Nagy, György M.. PY - 2002/9/1. Y1 - 2002/9/1. N2 - We have recently observed that 1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) produced by hypothalamic neurons can selectively release prolactin from the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland. Moreover, high affinity binding sites for SAL have been detected in areas, like median eminence (ME) and the neuro-intermediate lobe (NIL) that are known terminal fields of the tuberoinfundibular DAergic (TIDA) and tuberohypophysial (THDA)/periventricular (PHDA) DAergic systems of the hypothalamus, respectively. However, the in situ biosynthesis and the mechanism of action of SAL are still enigmatic, these observations clearly suggest that sites other than the AL might ...
Literature published suggests that in children with coeliac disease (CD) serum prolactin concentrations are increased, and correlate with the grade of mucosal atrophy. It has been proposed that prolactin is a possible marker of disease activity.1 Other studies, however, have failed to show this correlation in children with CD.2. We studied prolactin levels in children with CD, and the correlation with the severity of intestinal mucosal atrophy.. We used samples from a serum bank obtained during a mass screening for CD in Sardinian schoolchildren, using both antiendomysial antibodies and antigliadin antibodies as screening tests, as previously described.3 The sample included 20 children with CD on a gluten containing diet (16 girls, 4 boys, mean age 12.9 years, range 11.5-14.4 years) and 40 sex and age matched normal children (32 girls, 8 boys, mean age 13.0 years, range 11.2-14.8 years). All subjects were euthyroid. Prolactin was assayed in duplicate using a commercial immunoradiometric method; ...
What Are the Best Ways to Get Pregnant With High Prolactin Levels?. Prolactin is a type of hormone in your body that is produced by the pituitary gland, which is a tiny gland found just below your brain. This hormone is found in women and men, but its primary role is to prepare a womans mammary glands for nursing and to stimulate her breast milk. Prolactin also plays a role in your menstrual cycles, ovulation and fertility.
Battin DA, Marrs RP, Fleiss PM, Mishell DR Jr. Effect of suckling on serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol during prolonged lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Jun;65(6):785-8.. Cox DB, Owens RA, Hartmann PE. Blood and milk prolactin and the rate of milk synthesis in women. Exp Physiol. 1996 Nov;81(6):1007-20.. Ellison, PT. Breastfeeding, Fertility, and Maternal Condition. In: Stuart-Macadam P, Dettwyler KA, ed. Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1995:305-345. (note Figure 11.2 on p. 313). Lawrence R, Lawrence R. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Mosby, 2005: 79-80,737-738.. Noel GL, Suh HK, Frantz AG. Prolactin release during nursing and breast stimulation in postpartum and nonpostpartum subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1974 Mar;38(3):413-23.. Riordan J. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 3rd ed. Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett, 2005: 75-77.. Serri O, Chik ...
is that I have been taking Lexapro 10 mg for 4 years. Could that be increasing my prolactin levels ? I have ... been taking 5 mg for 5 days now. If Lexapro is increasing my prolactin levels , by diminishing ...
The ability of prolactin to influence the responsiveness of the lactating rat pituitary to luteinising hormone releasing hormone has been examinedin vitro. The pituitary responsivenessin vivo to luteinising hormone releasing hormone decreased as a function of increase in the lactational stimulus. Prolactin inhibited the spontaneousin vitro release of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to a small extent, from the pituitary of lactating rats with the suckling stimulus. However, it significantly inhibited the release of these two hormones from luteinising hormone releasing hormone-stimulated pituitaries. The responsiveness of pituitaries of rats deprived of their litter 24 h earlier, to luteinising hormone releasing hormone was also inhibited by prolactin, although minimal. It was concluded that prolactin could be influencing the functioning of the pituitary of the lactating rat by (a) partially suppressing the spontaneous release of gonadotropin and (b) inhibiting the ...
High prolactin and fertility do not go on right terms. High prolactin level can create troubles in conceiving and worst - infertility.
Sheth, A. R. ; Joshi, L. R. ; Moodbidri, S. B. ; Rao, Shanta S. (1973) Serum prolactin levels in fertile and infertile men Andrologia, 5 (4). pp. 297-298. ISSN 0303-4569 Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-.... Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1973.tb00493.x ...
Prolactin is a pituitary hormone that promotes lactation. Its also involved in ovulation, orgasm, breast health, immune function, and mood. High prolactin is called hyperprolactinemia.. Symptoms of high prolactin include irregular periods or no periods, premenstrual mood symptoms, loss of libido, headaches, breast pain, vaginal dryness, acne, and hirsutism or facial hair. Its one of several causes of excess androgens that can be mistaken for polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS.. Read moreNatural Treatment to Lower Prolactin ...
Prolactin is the hormone that regulates mammary gland development in man. However, in animals it is the main functional regulator to transmit the physiological reaction to the seasons, its expression is dependent on the day length, which is measured in calendar cells close to the hypophyseal stalk, and which activate prolactin expression when the day time increases, and vice versa.. How prolactin could in turn influence different functions such as increase in mating behaviour, coat colour changes or molt, the song in birds, e.g., has been an open question. A minireview in Molecular Endocrinology by Sackmann-Sala and colleagues from the Institut Necker in Paris, France, may shed light on this issue. They show that in humans, mice, and rats prolactin acts on stem cells in a tissue specific way. The tissues in question are reproductive tissues, but apart from that also special regions of the brain, and peripheral tissues.. If each of the functions as mediated from the progeny of individual stem ...
Musto, N; Hafiez, A A.; and Bartke, A, Prolactin increases 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the testis. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2710 ...
Dynorphin peptides act preferentially at κ- as well as μ- and δ-opioid receptors. This study was conducted to determine whether dynorphin peptides act to lower dopaminergic tone in the tuberoinfundibular system, resulting in elevated serum prolactin levels and, if so, whether such an effect is mediated by the opioid receptors. Dose-related increases in serum prolactin levels were observed after dynorphin A1-13 was administered i.v. in doses of 120 and 500 μg/kg to healthy human volunteers with no history of drug or alcohol abuse. Studies were then conducted to determine whether this effect is opioid receptor mediated and, if so, whether at κ- or μ types. Pretreatment with the opioid antagonist nalmefene (30 mg i.v.), which has high affinity at both μ- and κ-opioid receptors, caused a greater attenuation in dynorphin A1-13-stimulated increases in serum prolactin levels than pretreatment with similarly high doses of naloxone, an antagonist with lower affinity for both μ- and κ-opioid ...
Radioimmunoassay for ovine, caprine and bovine prolactin in plasma and tissue extracts: 1. A radioimmunoassay for ovine prolactin is described based on the inhi
Case Reports 2012; 33(3): 298-300 PubMed PMID: 22635088 Citation Keywords: Aminoquinolines:administration & dosage, Disease Progression, Dopamine Agonists:administration & dosage, Female, Humans, Hyperprolactinemia:complications, Prolactin:blood, Thyroiditis, Autoimmune:complications, Young Adult, Zona Glomerulosa:immunology,. : Prolactin is a hormone with a multidirectional proinflammatory action. It has an anti-apoptotic effect, enhances proliferative response to antigens and mitogens, as well as enhances the production of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies. Increased prolactin levels are commonly observed in various organ and multi-organ specific autoimmune diseases. In our article, we report a case of a woman who developed progression of autoimmune thyroid disorder and developed insufficiency of the zona glomerulosa when her prolactin levels were increased. A normalization of plasma prolactin levels by quinagolide and replacement of risperidone with aripiprazole improved her clinical ...
Anyway they suspected the high prolactin might be down to a growth of hormone secreting cells on my Pituitary gland in my head - so they sent me for a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan - the waiting list was 3 months - so I had that done at the beginning of September. It confirmed that I have a benign growth on my pit gland that is secreting too much of the hormone. So in October when I went back to see the Consultant he put me on some tablets that bring down the levels. Theyre called Norprolac or the generic name is Quinagolide. Since then Ive been ovulating fine and my prolactin is down to 200 !!! Yeahy - so theres nothing to stop us getting pregnant now whohoo! So I guess it took 6 months to get sorted once they realised what was wrong ...
My OBGYN ran some tests on me and everything came back normal except for a slightly elevated prolactin levels. She told me not to worry and to keep on
Prolactin is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that is critical in lactation. Prolactin can also be produced by lymphocytes, and both B and T cells express prolactin receptors. These findings have suggested that prolactin has immunomodulatory functions. Studies in spontaneously autoimmune hosts have demonstrated a role for prolactin in augmenting autoreactivity. We chose to analyze prolactin effects on anti-DNA B cells in nonspontaneously autoimmune female BALB/c mice transgenic for the heavy chain of an anti-DNA antibody. Treatment with prolactin for 4 weeks induced a lupus-like phenotype with an increased number of transgene-expressing B cells, elevated serum anti-DNA antibody titers, and glomerular immunoglobulin deposits. Prolactin caused a decrease in the population of transitional B cells and an increase in mature follicular and marginal zone B cells. The DNA-reactive B cells had a follicular cell phenotype. Anti-DNA hybridomas demonstrated that prolactin alters ...
Prolactin ELISA Kit,Prolactin ELISA Kit is enzyme immunoassay kit for the quantitative determination of Human Prolactin (PRL) concentration in serum. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) permits the routine quantitative determination of many protein hormones in body fluids and provides an accurate, sensitive, reproducible, rapid,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
ABSTRACT: Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of rats in a unique pattern in response to uterine cervical stimulation (CS) during mating. Surges of PRL secretion occur in response to relief from hypothalamic dopaminergic inhibition and stimulation by hypothalamic releasing neurohormones. In this study, we characterized the role of oxytocin (OT) in this system and the involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in controlling OT and PRL secretion of CS rats. The effect of OT on PRL secretion was demonstrated in cultured lactotrophs showing simultaneous enhanced secretion rate and increased intracellular Ca(2+). Neurosecretory OT cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that express VIP receptors were identified by using immunocytochemical techniques in combination with the retrogradely transported neuronal tracer Fluoro-Gold (iv injected). OT measurements of serial blood samples obtained from ...
DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113420. Incubating eggs represents a trade-off for parent birds between spending enough time fasting to take care of the clutch and to get enough nutrients for self-maintenance. It is believed that the pituitary hormone prolactin plays an important role in such allocation processes. Incubation does not solely imply the active warming of the eggs but also the active egg-turning to facilitate absorption of albumen by the embryo, reduce malposition and prevent the embryo from adhering to the inner shell membrane. However, how prolactin secretion is related to egg-turning behaviors is presently poorly addressed. In addition, several environmental contaminants can affect parental care behaviors through their endocrine disrupting properties but the effects of such contaminants on egg-turning behaviors remain so far unexplored. Using artificial eggs equipped with miniaturized data loggers, we investigated the relationships between egg-turning behaviors, prolactin secretion and ...
Phosphorylated prolactins and growth hormones have been found in several species and the phosphorylation sites of prolactin have been identified in bovine and rat. We have isolated phosphorylated bovine prolactin (Mol. Cell. Endo. 99: 301, 1994) and have evidence that phosphorylated prolactin is the major form in the bovine pituitary. We have shown bovine prolactin is phosphorylated in vivo at serine 90 and to a lesser extent at serines 26 and 34 (Biochem. J. 296: 41, 1993). Isolated phosphorylated bovine prolactin has reduced biological activities both in vitro (Mol. Cell. Endo. 112: 223, 1995) and in vivo (Life Sciences 63:1281-1287, 1998). We have used site-directed mutagenesis to produce glutamic acid mimics of the individual phosphorylation sites and have identified serine 90 as a site where phosphorylation reduces biological activity (J. Biol. Chem. 270: 27661, 1995). We have shown that prolactin is phosphorylated in secretory vesicles and that this process is zinc-dependant (Molec. Cell. ...
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in tumourigenesis. Expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) was reported in human breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. It was suggested that PRL may act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Here, we addressed the role of locally synthesised PRL in breast cancer. We analysed the expression of PRL in human breast cancer tumours using qPCR analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). PRL mRNA expression was very low or undetectable in the majority of samples in three cDNA arrays representing samples from 144 breast cancer patients and in 13 of 14 breast cancer cell lines when analysed by qPCR. In accordance, PRL expression did not reach detectable levels in any of the 19 human breast carcinomas or 5 cell lines, which were analysed using a validated ISH protocol. Two T47D-derived breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with PRL-expressing constructs. Conditioned medium from the T47D/PRL clones promoted proliferation of ...
Author: Saravanan. P.S.L, Anu .S. Category: Physiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Introduction: Prolactin has been proved to be involved in mammary cancer development in humans, but its role in fibroadenoma breast has long been controversial with conflicting reports. Hence this study was done to find out Prolactin level in women with fibroadenoma and if its role in development of tumor is proved, then a feasible drug treatment which could reduce the anxiety and cosmetic problems associated with surgical interventions can be identified.. Objectives:. 1. To estimate serum prolactin level in patients with fibroadenoma breast.. 2. To compare serum prolactin level of fibroadenoma patients with that of the controls. 3. To consider whether prolactin level can be used as an indicator for fibroadenoma breast and has any relation to the disease progression. Materials and methods: A total of 20 female patients between the age group of 18-40 years attending Government Medical College Hospital, Madurai have ...
When prolactin is released more in the body due to the over activity of the pituitary gland or for some other undiagnosed condition, then cabegoline is advised by doctors. The medicine inhibits the syntheses of excess prolactin thus reducing symptoms due to excess production of the hormone. In females excess prolactin can bring unwanted milk in their breasts, and for men breasts may become more developed and heavy. Women may miss periods and get problem conceiving while men may feel a lack of libido or sexual ability. In all such cases the proper standard dosage of cabergoline 0.5 mg stops such symptoms and after periodic use reduces the problem. The generic name of the medicine is dostinex ...
The regulation of transcription requires complex interactions between proteins bound to DNA sequences that are often separated by hundreds of base pairs. As demonstrated by a nuclear ligation assay, the distal enhancer and the proximal promoter regions of the rat prolactin gene were found to be juxtaposed. By acting through its receptor bound to the distal enhancer, estrogen stimulated the interaction between the distal and proximal regulatory regions two- to threefold compared to control values. Thus, the chromatin structure of the prolactin gene may facilitate the occurrence of protein-protein interactions between transcription factors bound to widely separated regulatory elements. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium dynamics and chromatin remodeling underlie heterogeneity in prolactin transcription. AU - Harper, Claire V. AU - Mcnamara, Anne. AU - Spiller, David. AU - Charnock, Jayne C. AU - White, Michael. AU - Davis, Julian. PY - 2020/10/5. Y1 - 2020/10/5. N2 - Pituitary cells have been reported to show spontaneous calcium oscillations and dynamic transcription cycles. To study both processes in the same living cell in real-time, we used rat pituitary GH3 cells stably expressing human prolactin-luciferase or prolactin-EGFP reporter gene constructs loaded with a fluorescent calcium indicator and measured activity using single cell time-lapse microscopy. We observed heterogeneity between clonal cells in the calcium activity and prolactin transcription in unstimulated conditions. There was a significant correlation between cells displaying spontaneous calcium spikes and cells showing spontaneous bursts in prolactin expression. Notably, cells showing nobasal calcium activity showed low ...
Human Prolactin Antibody (OAMA00587) | Monoclonal Antibody | Clone: ME.122 | Application: IA | Species reactivity: | Alias: Monoclonal Antibody to Human Prolactin
As an add on to my recent blog, I thought you might find this other detail about prolactin levels (PRL) interesting. Several studies including a one published in 2009, have demonstrated a positive correlation between PRL and increased CVD risk in both men and menopausal women. This correlation, which is believed to be the result of PRLs vasoconstrictive effects, was evident while PRL levels remained well within range!. Women in early menopause with a PRL level just , 170 mIU/L (or 12.6 ng/mL) had 100% sensitivity in predicting a high peripheral blood pressure.. These researchers concluded that Prolactin may play a role in accelerated arteriosclerosis in early menopause by affecting central/peripheral blood pressure and arterial stiffness. Similarly an earlier study in men, again found PRL in the slightly upper end of a normal range correlated with increased blood pressure and hypertension rates.. So keeping an eye on PRL levels may also be a good inclusion in CVD risk monitoring and again, ...
The relationship between plasma prolactin and: crop growth; incubation; brooding; and feeding young in Columbiformes is reviewed. There is a good parallel between changes in crop growth and plasma prolactin fluctuations during the breeding cycle. Prolactin does not play a role in the initiation of i …
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibody, which leads to multi-organ impairment.[1] It occurs at a ratio of 9:1 in females versus males and is more commonly found during reproductive periods. The suggestion has been made that sexual hormones, including prolactin (PRL), play a role in the occurrence of SLE,[2,3] In addition, the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland and the extrapituitary tissues, including lymphocyte T and B PRL receptors, may be found in lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and thymic epithelial cells. Furthermore, it has been established that PRL is associated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression, T-cell proliferation, and the modulation of B cell proliferation.[4]. Several studies have reported significantly higher PRL levels in SLE patients, and these higher levels of PRL compared with the controls were significantly related to SLE activity.[4,5] Prolactin can be found in the ...
"Endogenous human prolactin and not exogenous human prolactin induces estrogen receptor α and prolactin receptor expression and ... Both PR and prolactin receptor (PRLR) knockout mice fail to show lobuloalveolar development, and progesterone and prolactin ... Conversely, prolactin levels remain elevated. As estrogen and progesterone block prolactin-induced lactogenesis by suppressing ... In the absence of regular, episodic suckling, which keeps prolactin concentrations high, levels of prolactin will quickly drop ...
... prolactin; ACTH and cortisol, which cause Cushings disease; TSH, which causes hyperthyroidism; and FSH and LH. Bowel ...
Some tumors secrete more than one hormone, the most common combination[citation needed] being GH and prolactin, which present ... and prolactin (PRL). Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma can be made, or at least suspected, by a constellation of related symptoms ... or prolactin secreting (prolactinoma) adenomas that are large (macroadenomas) and often occur in children, adolescents and ... producing pituitary tumors and in some instances these same tumors also secrete prolactin. There are however no isolated ...
Many cases were reported after use of prolactin elevating medications such as antipsychotics. Elevated prolactin levels have ... Prolactin-lowering medication has also been reported to reduce the risk of recurrence. In cases of drug-induced ... Steroids are known to cause elevation of prolactin levels and increase risk of several conditions such as diabetes, and other ... Shelly, S.; Boaz, M.; Orbach, H. (2012). "Prolactin and autoimmunity". Autoimmunity Reviews. 11 (6-7): A465-A470. doi:10.1016/j ...
Prolactin stimulates lactogenesis. hCG appears to be soporific during pregnancy; levels of hCG correlate with sleep changes ... In the second half of pregnancy, progesterone and prolactin prepare the mammary glands for lactation. Estrogens and ... and during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle upon which lobuloalveolar structures form under the influence of prolactin. ...
Prolactin levels increased. Prolactin is a hormone that regulates the generation of breast milk. Prolactin elevation is not as ...
Prolactin - deficiency (childhood). homocysteine - excess. Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is associated with GSE and is believed to ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates production. The milk contains fat, protein, and red and white blood cells. (Pigeons and doves- ...
STAT5 acetylation on lysines at positions 694 and 701 is important for effective STAT dimerization in prolactin signalling. ... "Acetylation modulates prolactin receptor dimerization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (45): 19314-19319 ...
Increased levels of prolactin in the paternal brain has also been correlated with a more positive response to the infant's cry ... Increased prolactin corresponds to different behavioral changes in different species. In some bird species it is shown to ... "Is prolactin the "breastfeeding hormone"? What is it doing in fathers? - fatherhood". fatherhood. 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2017-09 ... An increase in levels of oxytocin, glucocorticoids, estrogen and prolactin occur in the paternal brain. These hormonal changes ...
Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH): stimulates PRL secretion · Prolactin inhibiting hormone (dopamine): inhibits PRL secretion ... Anterior pituitary produces prolactin, GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH. 15-20% of corticotroph cells, produce ACTH. The targets are the ... These hormones are prolactin, growth hormone, TSH, adrenocorticotropic hormone, FSH and LH. They are all released by anterior ... 10-15% lactotroph, produce prolactin. Melmed S, Jameson JL (2005). "Disorders of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus". In ...
Aripiprazole and risperidone are likely to lead to weight gain and sedation or fatigue; haloperidol may increase prolactin ...
Gooren LJ, Harmsen-Louman W, van Kessel H (February 1985). "Follow-up of prolactin levels in long-term oestrogen-treated male- ... Bunck MC, Debono M, Giltay EJ, Verheijen AT, Diamant M, Gooren LJ (2009). "Autonomous prolactin secretion in two male-to-female ... Asscheman H, Gooren LJ, Assies J, Smits JP, de Slegte R (June 1988). "Prolactin levels and pituitary enlargement in hormone- ... Schiebinger, Rick J.; Chrousos, George P.; Culter, Gordon B.; Loriaux, D. Lynn (1986). "The Effect of Serum Prolactin on Plasma ...
Jordan VC, Lieberman ME (September 1984). "Estrogen-stimulated prolactin synthesis in vitro. Classification of agonist, partial ...
Without dopamine present, prolactin's production is no longer inhibited. Both prolactin and oxytocin are needed for ... The presence of oxytocin triggers the secretion of prolactin. Prolactin regulates the production of milk and delivery of that ... If there are fewer suckling events, there will be less prolactin production. If suckling ceases, prolactin levels will return ... Dopamine inhibits the production of prolactin. Because of this, prolactin is not produced during pregnancy. After childbirth, ...
Excessive prolactin secretion may also occur; this is treated with dopamine agonists such as cabergoline. Radiation therapy has ...
This is because dopamine plays a primary role in regulating prolactin release by binding to D2 receptors on prolactin-secreting ... This is likely related to its side effects on levels of the hormone prolactin, which is involved in sexual development. There ... Sanford LM, Baker SJ (January 2010). "Prolactin regulation of testosterone secretion and testes growth in DLS rams at the onset ... Tiapride has been found to cause excess prolactin levels in plasma, which can cause decreased libido, infertility and increased ...
... also decreases prolactin release in rats. Benzodiazepines are positive allosteric modulators of the GABA type A ... Grandison L (1982). "Suppression of prolactin secretion by benzodiazepines in vivo". Neuroendocrinology. 34 (5): 369-73. doi: ...
... also decreases prolactin release in rats. Benzodiazepines act via micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites as ... Grandison L (1982). "Suppression of prolactin secretion by benzodiazepines in vivo". Neuroendocrinology. 34 (5): 369-73. doi: ...
... with no elevation in prolactin. Aporphine is hydroxylated in the body to form apomorphine. Anonaine Liriodenine Magnoflorine ... "Effects of aporphine isomers on rat prolactin". Neuroscience Letters. 176 (2): 269-271. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(94)90098-1. PMID ...
... prolactin and testosterone may also be involved. As with other behaviors that affect Darwinian fitness, reward pathways in the ...
Prolactin has numerous other effects in both sexes. Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise ... Prolactin is involved in the maturation of mammary glands and their secretion of milk in association with oxytocin, estrogen, ... A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary ...
Prolactin - many neuroleptics affect hormones particularly prolactin. And, of course, red herrings - designed to trap people ...
Johnston, CA; Negro-Vilar, A (January 1988). "Role of oxytocin on prolactin secretion during proestrus and in different ... Freeman, ME; Kanyicska, B; Lerant, A; Nagy, G (October 2000). "Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion". ... which acts as the primary regulator of TSH and a regulator of prolactin Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which acts as ... correlation with luteinizing hormone and prolactin surges". Neuroendocrinology. 57 (4): 760-4. doi:10.1159/000126434. PMID ...
... l prolactin is not under dopaminergic control. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) also called ... Among its products are hormones commonly associated with other organs such as cortisol, CRF, GnRH, prolactin, and relaxin. ...
Prolactin promotes milk production in human females. Its secretion is prompted by prolactin-releasing hormone and inhibited by ... prolactin-inhibiting hormone. The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland secretes only one enzyme that is melanocyte ...
Prolactin also appears to be important for spermatogenesis. Anisogamy Evolution of sexual reproduction Folliculogenesis Germ ...
The most common type of pituitary tumour is a prolactinoma which hypersecretes prolactin. A third type of pituitary adenoma ... Breast-feeding Release of the hormone prolactin is essential for lactation. Stress Operating through the hypothalamic-pituitary ... In addition, melatonin may affect production of prolactin. Hyperpituitarism is the condition where the pituitary secretes ... Juszczak, Marlena; Monika Michalska (2006). "[The effect of melatonin on prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle- ...
It significantly increases prolactin and inconsistently increases cortisol. It causes dysphoria by stopping release of dopamine ...
ISBN 978-0-85390-013-9. Silver, Rae (1984). "Prolactin and Parenting in the Pigeon Family" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental ...
Human prolactin receptors are insensitive to mouse prolactin. Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, ... A key regulator of prolactin production is estrogens that enhance growth of prolactin-producing cells and stimulate prolactin ... Hyperprolactinaemia Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Male lactation Prolactin modulator Prolactin receptor Prolactin- ... When prolactin binds to the receptor, it causes it to dimerize with another prolactin receptor. This results in the activation ...
Prolactin modulator Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Brooks CL (August 2012). "Molecular mechanisms of prolactin and its ... Prolactin Growth hormone Human placental lactogen Placental growth hormone S179D-hPRL Prolactin receptor antagonists such as ... Ferraris J, Bernichtein S, Pisera D, Goffin V (2013). "Use of prolactin receptor antagonist to better understand prolactin ... "Characterization of a prolactin-regulated gene in reproductive tissues using the prolactin receptor knockout mouse model". ...
A prolactin test can help diagnose prolactinoma, a usually benign tumor of the pituitary gland, irregular menstrual periods, ... The prolactin test also may be used as part of a work-up for irregular menstrual periods, fertility problems, some types of ... Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, the pea-sized gland near the base of the brain that controls metabolism ... Although prolactin is produced in small amounts in both males and non-pregnant females, its main role is to stimulate lactation ...
... prolactin or prolactin fragments are found in the pituitary amyloid. This condition is often observed in elderly people and has ... In prolactin amyloid (Apro), prolactin or prolactin fragments are found in the pituitary amyloid. This condition is often ... encoded search term (What is prolactin amyloid (Apro)?) and What is prolactin amyloid (Apro)? What to Read Next on Medscape. ... What is prolactin amyloid (Apro)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD ...
During pregnancy, prolactin levels rise as rising estrogen promotes prolactin release, causing further maturing of mammary ... Prolactin has many effects, the most profound of which are to stimulate the mammary glands to produce milk (i.e. lactation). ... High prolactin levels also tend to suppress the ovulatory cycle by inhibiting both FSH and GnRH. As a contraceptive, demand ... Too much prolactin can cause galactorrhea and disturbances in the ovulatory cycle and are often the result of a prolactinoma, a ...
... men and nonpregnant women have just small traces of prolactin in their blood. when you have high levels, this could be caused ... What causes abnormal prolactin (PRL) levels?. ANSWER Normally, men and nonpregnant women have just small traces of prolactin in ... Prolactinoma (a benign tumor in your pituitary gland that produces too much prolactin) ... all can affect the bodys ability to remove prolactin. ... How is the prolactin (PRL) test done?. WAS THIS ANSWER HELPFUL ...
The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. ... Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. ... PRL; Galactorrhea - prolactin test; Infertility - prolactin test; Amenorrhea - prolactin test; Breast leakage - prolactin test ... Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. ... Prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production in women. There is no known normal function for prolactin in men. ...
The most commonly associated condition is postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome); however, prolactin deficiency can ... In the vast majority of prolactin deficiency states, the deficiency occurs secondary to general anterior pituitary dysfunction ... Prolactin receptors on human T and B lymphocytes: antagonism of prolactin binding by cyclosporine. J Immunol. 1985 May. 134(5): ... Partial isolated prolactin deficiency is rare, and case reports of total isolated prolactin deficiency are rarer still and may ...
... is enzyme immunoassay kit for the quantitative determination of Human Prolactin (PRL) concentration in ... Prolactin IRMA Test. 3. Prolactin ELISA Test. 4. Prolactin Radioimmunoassay. 5. Prolactin EIA kit. 6. Prolactin ELISA. 7. ... Prolactin. 9. Prolactin Macroadenoma. 10. Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH) Stimulation of Prolactin, 0 Minutes. 11. Thyroid ... Prolactin ELISA Kit is enzyme immunoassay kit for the quantitative determination of Human Prolactin (PRL) concentration in ...
ED - High prolactin? LCBR Im 37 and married for 11 years with a great sex life (no complain at all). I used to have morning ... I learned that prolactin varies along the day, but I dont think in that magnitude. I believe in a lab mistake. Ill repeat all ... Hi LC, How long before you had your blood test did you run or was at the gym, it seems if did either then your prolactin levels ... Can my recent ED problem be related to the prolactin or testosterone level? Can it be related to gym or running activities? Can ...
Recent Advances in Prolactin Research summarizes the current knowledge of prolactin (PRL), PRL receptor, PRL-dependent ... Prolactin is a peptide hormone that is best known for its role in lactation. Prolactin also has an influence on hematopoiesis ... Recent Advances in Prolactin Research summarizes the current knowledge of prolactin (PRL), PRL receptor, PRL-dependent ... Gives an overview of major advances in the field of prolactin signaling pathways and regulation of prolactin gene expression ...
Maria Diakonova;] -- Recent Advances in Prolactin Research summarizes the current knowledge of prolactin (PRL), PRL receptor, ... Prolactin-induced prostate tumorigenesis --. Prolactin in inflammatory response --. A positive feedback loop between prolactin ... Role of Src family kinases in prolactin signaling --. Prolactin-Induced Protein in Breast Cancer --. Modeling prolactin actions ... Prolactin-induced prostate tumorigenesis -- Prolactin in inflammatory response -- A positive feedback loop between prolactin ...
Just wondering how an elevated prolactin causes infertility or affects your ability to conceive? is it only because it affects ... Prolactin and infertility kar611 Just wondering how an elevated prolactin causes infertility or affects your ability to ... Traditionally, prolactin levels were measured in ng/ml, and normal prolactin levels in women are less than 20 ng/ml. The new ... Traditionally, prolactin levels were measured in ng/ml, and normal prolactin levels in women are less than 20 ng/ml. The new ...
Prolactin (PRL) has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, ... Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of prolactin secretion due either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of ... In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between prolactin, autoimmune diseases and motherhood. ... Prolactin has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly ...
... due to a high level of prolactin which stimulates over production of milk). My ob/gyn requested I have an MRI scan and ... After I had an early miscarriage with the IVF, I went to a separate doctor about my prolactin. At that time, I am no longer ... I had a problem with my prolactin levels a long time a ago. I had a pitutiary adenoma. My symptoms were that that I wasnt ... I was diagnosed with galactorrhea (due to a high level of prolactin which stimulates over production of milk). My ob/gyn ...
Prolactin was found to induce mammary activity in virgin... To continue reading: or Log-In ... Because it was a stimulant of milk secretion this substance was called prolactin. ...
My son has been told that he has a high level of prolactin in his blood. He also has been diagnosed as having erectile ... My son has a high level of prolactin. My son has been told that he has a high level of prolactin in his blood. He also has been ... There are certain drugs that are known to sometimes lead to an increase in the level of prolactin in the blood stream, but ... It is likely therefore that his blood test result is explained by an overproduction of prolactin from the pituitary gland. ...
... low levels of prolactin mean that a person has hypoprolactinaemia, which can lead to low breastmilk production and possibly to ... Prolactin is responsible for metabolic and reproductive functions, as well as the regulation of fluids and the immune system. ... The two main regulators of the production of prolactin by the pituitary gland are dopamine and estrogen. Dopamine, which is ... According to the Society for Endocrinology, low levels of prolactin mean that a person has hypoprolactinaemia, which can lead ...
... whereas high titers of prolactin (PRL) inhibit it. Recent evidence, however, s... ... Prolactin and testosterone affect seasonal differences in male meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus, odor preferences for ... Leonard, S. T., & Ferkin, M. H. (1999). Prolactin and testosterone affect seasonal differences in male meadow vole, Microtus ... whereas high titers of prolactin (PRL) inhibit it. Recent evidence, however, suggests that for seasonally breeding males high ...
Serum Total Prolactin and Monomeric Prolactin Reference Intervals Determined by Precipitation with Polyethylene Glycol: ... The Beckman DxI 800 prolactin assay demonstrates superior specificity for monomeric prolactin ... Effects of photoperiod during the dry period on prolactin, prolactin receptor and milk production of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. ... Introduction Prolactin (PRL), which consists of 199 amino acid residues, is a kind of peptide hormone secreted by pituitary ...
A 35 year old woman suffering from ACTH and prolactin (Prl) deficiency is described. Her symptoms of adrenal insufficiency ... A 35 year old woman suffering from ACTH and prolactin (Prl) deficiency is described. Her symptoms of adrenal insufficiency ... 0/Autoantibodies; 24305-27-9/Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-60-2/Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4/Prolactin; 9002-67 ...
Aripiprazole and Prolactin Study (APS). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Prolactin and sex hormones will be measured on addition of aripiprazole to current antipsychotic treatment. Aripiprazole will ... Reducing prolactin by changing antipsychotic or adding a dopamine agonist often worsens psychosis. Adding aripiprazole to ... Antipsychotics often induce hyperprolactinemia (high prolactin level) and in almost all women, and some men, this causes ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, plays a critical role in pregnancy by increasing the size of a womans ... Women with high prolactin levels may develop irregular cycles, find their breasts leak and become infertile. High prolactin ... Dont self-medicate with herbs, without first finding out why your prolactin levels are elevated. High prolactin may be caused ... a condition thought to be caused by high levels of prolactin, and found that vitex both lowered subjects prolactin levels and ...
Prolactin (PRL), synthesized by the anterior pituitary and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues, affects more ... Mammary gland development and the prolactin receptor Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;480:85-92. doi: 10.1007/0-306-46832-8_10. ... Prolactin (PRL), synthesized by the anterior pituitary and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues, affects more ...
... ,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product ... Prolactin IRMA Test. 2. Prolactin ELISA Test. 3. Prolactin ELISA Kit. 4. Prolactin Radioimmunoassay. 5. Prolactin EIA kit. 6. ... Prolactin ELISA. 7. BioCheck Prolactin Enzyme Immunoassay. 8. Prolactin. 9. Prolactin Macroadenoma. 10. Thyroid Releasing ... Prolactin EIA Reproductive Markers 025-BC-1037. Info. ALPCO Diagnostics. Call ALPCO Diagnostics to buy products (US and Canada ...
Archive by Tag , elevated prolactin. Infertility 101: The basic information all couples should know. Posted on January 31, 2018 ... Filed Under: pregnancy Tagged With: diagnosis, disorders, elevated prolactin, endometriosis, fallopian blockage, fallopian tube ...
Prolactin. Skip to the navigation Test Overview. A prolactin test measures the level of the hormone prolactin, which is made by ... A prolactin test measures the level of the hormone prolactin, which is made by the pituitary gland, in your blood. Prolactin ... The higher the prolactin level, the more likely a pituitary gland tumor is present. If a prolactin level is over 200 ng/mL, a ... During pregnancy, prolactin levels increase by 10 to 20 times. After the baby is born, prolactin stays high if you are ...
Question: Husbands Prolactin. copswife - Mon Dec 04, 2006 1:42 am. Share , ... If they are not elevated then this calls for checking the prolactin and TSH levels. If they are also reduced this could ...
Prolactin is a hormone involved in producing breast milk during pregnancy and after birth. High levels of prolactin in ... This test measures the level of prolactin (PRL) in the blood. ... What is a prolactin levels test?. A prolactin (PRL) test ... Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain. Prolactin causes the breasts to ... This tumor makes the gland produce too much prolactin. Excess prolactin can cause the production of breast milk in men and in ...
  • All these conditions can be associated with altered prolactin levels. (kidshealth.org)
  • Pituitary prolactin secretion is regulated by endocrine neurons in the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important of these are the neurosecretory tuberoinfundibulum (TIDA) neurons of the arcuate nucleus that secrete dopamine (aka Prolactin Inhibitory Hormone) to act on the D2 receptors of lactotrophs, causing inhibition of prolactin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin within the normal reference ranges can act as a weak gonadotropin, but at the same time suppresses GnRH secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiologic levels of prolactin in males enhance luteinizing hormone-receptors in Leydig cells, resulting in testosterone secretion, which leads to spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the South American discus, prolactin may also regulate the production of a skin secretion that provides food for larval fry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin enhances dopamine secretion and thus exhibits feedback inhibition of its own secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Because it was a stimulant of milk secretion this substance was called prolactin. (time.com)
  • A prolactinoma is a pituitary tumour that causes excess secretion of the hormone prolactin, which is a protein hormone stimulating the production of milk in females. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Disociation of prolactin secretion from tuberoinfundibular dopamine activity in late pregnant rats. (degruyter.com)
  • Role of estrogen in the dopaminergic control of prolactin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • The study reported that this fragment is enzymatically generated by the cleavage of full-length prolactin with the lysosomal aspartyl protease cathepsin D. Upon excessive generation, possibly due to high pituitary prolactin secretion near term or postpartum and an enhanced oxidative microenvironment, this prolactin fragment would impair myocardial microvascularization and thereby contribute to myocardial dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The concept underlying this putative therapy is the inhibition of the generation of the prolactin fragment by substrate depletion, i.e., the inhibition of pituitary prolactin secretion by activation of dopamine D2 receptors in lactotropes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone: actions on thyrotrophin and prolactin secretion after thyrotrophinreleasing hormone. (bmj.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Hypothalamic-pituitary control of perinatal prolactin secretion in Macaca mulatta. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cin85-deficient mother mice had reduced pituitary hormone prolactin secretion as a result of excessive dopamine signaling in the brain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Falashi P, Rocco A, Marini S, Delitala G, Melis GB (1985) The implication of serotoninergic system in the control of prolactin secretion. (springer.com)
  • We proposed that this might occur because obesity alters the 24-hour spontaneous release of prolactin and also because prolactin secretion is blunted in response to various stimuli among obese subjects. (aappublications.org)
  • The fall in progesterone concentration that occurs immediately postpartum is the trigger for the onset of copious milk secretion, but maintenance of prolactin and cortisol concentrations is necessary for this trigger to be effective. (aappublications.org)
  • These findings are important because, during our observation period (just before and after lactogenesis II, the time of onset of copious milk secretion), the prolactin response to suckling is more important for milk production than it is later in lactation. (aappublications.org)
  • Antepartum prolactin was an independent determinant of postpartum, insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2 on multiple linear regression analyses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • High prolactin levels inhibit secretion of FSH. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production in women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation): increased serum concentrations of prolactin during pregnancy cause enlargement of the mammary glands and prepare for milk production, which normally starts when levels of progesterone fall by the end of pregnancy and a suckling stimulus is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin also stimulates proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • I was diagnosed with galactorrhea (due to a high level of prolactin which stimulates over production of milk). (dailystrength.org)
  • New molecular evidence of the role of prolactin hormone in breast cancer points out that a pituitary hormone that normally stimulates breast development and milk production, initiates a new "signaling pathway" that may regulate the growth and survival of breast cancer cells. (medindia.net)
  • In breast cancer cells, we found that Jak1 not only stimulates conventional prolactin signaling via proteins such as Stat5, but also that Jak1 recruited new signals, especially Stat3 and ERK," says Hallgeir Rui, M.D., Ph.D., professor of Cancer Biology at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University and principal investigator of the study. (medindia.net)
  • Although this was a first for prolactin, another hormone oxytocin that stimulates childbirth was previously linked to a range of pleasurable emotions. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Recombinant Human Prolactin (Catalog # 682-PL) stimulates proliferation in the Nb2‑11 rat lymphoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). (novusbio.com)
  • Stimulates prolactin (PRL) release and regulates the expression of prolactin through its receptor GPR10. (uniprot.org)
  • In breastfeeding, the act of an infant suckling the nipple stimulates the production of prolactin, which fills the breast with milk via a process called lactogenesis, in preparation for the next feed. (thermofisher.com)
  • Stefanoska I, Jovanovic Krivokuca M, Vasilijic S, Cujic D, Vicovac L. Prolactin stimulates cell migration and invasion by human trophoblast in vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • Prolactin is what stimulates the mammary glands right before lactation. (weightlosssurgerychannel.com)
  • The hormone acts in endocrine, autocrine and paracrine manner through the prolactin receptor and numerous cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although expression of prolactin receptors (PRL-R) have been demonstrated in rat hypothalamus, the same has not been observed in GnRH neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin receptors have been found on human T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and some data support T-lymphocyte dependence on prolactin for maintenance of immune competence. (medscape.com)
  • Receptors for prolactin, have previously been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth, survival, and differentiation, Dr. Rui explains, through signaling pathways that involve activation of such proteins as Stat5, ERK, and Akt. (medindia.net)
  • This organ has the highest number of prolactin receptors in the body, ports that allow this hormone to enter liver cells. (medindia.net)
  • As a contrast to these prolactin overproducers, the researchers also studied mice that were genetically engineered to not have prolactin receptors. (medindia.net)
  • This study delineates the roles of prolactin receptors (PRLR) and long-term prolactin and dexamethasone (P-D)-mediation of [Ca 2+ ] i and Cl − transport in HC-11 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Chicken Prolactin was tested for its biological functionality in-vitro by inducing proliferation of Nb2 cells or Baf/3 cells that were stably transfected with Chicken Prolactin receptors. (prospecbio.com)
  • After targeted deletion of prolactin receptors in the preoptic area of adult female mice, mice were able to get pregnant and give birth normally. (pnas.org)
  • However, mothers lacking prolactin receptors in the medial preoptic area abandoned their litters soon after birth, establishing a critical role for prolactin/placental lactogen action in this area for establishment and maintenance of normal parental care. (pnas.org)
  • We found that MPOA neurons expressing prolactin receptors (Prlr) form the nexus of a complex prolactin-responsive neural circuit, indicating that changing prolactin levels can act at multiple sites and thus, impinge on the overall activity of a distributed network of neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Receptors, Prolactin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Prolactin" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Receptors, Prolactin" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Prolactin" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Charig EM, Anderson IM, Robinson JM, Nutt DJ, Cowen PJ (1986) l -Tryptophan and prolactin release: evidence for interaction between 5-HT 1 and 5-HT 2 receptors. (springer.com)
  • 2 3 Activation of serotonergic receptors in the hypothalamus in turn promotes the pituitary release of prolactin into the circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, the rise in plasma prolactin concentration after fenfluramine administration reflects "net" serotonergic responsivity, as influenced by variability in presynaptic events (ie, synthesis, storage, release, and reuptake) and activation of hypothalamic 5-HT receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • The initial step in its action is the binding to a specific membrane receptor (prolactin receptor), which belongs to the superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. (novusbio.com)
  • Prolactin (human prolactin, HPRL) - serum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serum prolactin levels that were suppressed by bromocriptine resulted in decreased spermatogenesis and decreased testosterone production in healthy male volunteers. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin ELISA Kit is enzyme immunoassay kit for the quantitative determination of Human Prolactin (PRL) concentration in serum. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This enzyme immunoassay method makes it possible to measure low concentration of hPRL (human prolactin) in small volumes of serum (0.1 mL per assay). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bicarbonate reduces serum prolactin increase induced by exercise to exhaustion. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to examine the effect of acid-base status on serum prolactin (PRL) concentration postexercise. (nih.gov)
  • The Prolactin Chemiluminescence Immunoassay kit is intended for the measurement of Prolactin hormone concentration in human serum. (mpbio.com)
  • The Prolactin ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of Prolactin in serum. (mpbio.com)
  • In 6 patients with epilepsy, a twofold increase in serum prolactin levels followed true epileptic seizures, but no significant change followed pseudoepileptic attacks in 6 other patients. (nih.gov)
  • Serum prolactin concentration is a useful biochemical marker to distinguish between epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures. (nih.gov)
  • The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) recommends serum prolactin assays, measured in the appropriate clinical setting at 10-20 minutes after a suspected event as a useful adjunct for differentiating generalized tonic-clonic or complex partial seizure from psychogenic nonepileptic seizure in adults and older children. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin, a pituitary hormone with increased serum levels during pregnancy and puerperium, as well as its high molecular weight isoform, the macroprolactin, has been shown to be ele (mais) vated in SLE, with correlation to disease activity. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Prolactin levels "rise with suckling: the more feedings, the higher the level of serum prolactin. (kellymom.com)
  • Battin DA, Marrs RP, Fleiss PM, Mishell DR Jr. Effect of suckling on serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol during prolonged lactation . (kellymom.com)
  • We measured serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay before and 30 minutes after the beginning of a suckling episode at 48 hours and 7 days after delivery. (aappublications.org)
  • HealthDay)-Serum prolactin in pregnancy predicts the risk of postpartum prediabetes/diabetes, according to a study published online April 26 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Ravi Retnakaran, M.D., from Mount Sinai Hospital in Canada, and colleagues measured fasting serum prolactin, human placental lactogen (HPL), and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) in 367 women in the late second/early third trimester. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Independent prediction of a reduced risk of postpartum prediabetes/diabetes was possible with higher serum prolactin (odds ratio, 0.5). (medicalxpress.com)
  • It thus emerges that serum prolactin in pregnancy is a previously unrecognized factor that can provide novel insight into postpartum diabetes risk in young women. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin? (rug.nl)
  • abstract = "Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels.Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing antipsychotics was assessed for changes in sexual performance in terms of libido, arousal and orgasm using the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. (rug.nl)
  • For erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in men, the attributable fraction due to prolactin-raising medication was 32% before, and 11% after adjustment for serum prolactin.Conclusions: Around 40% of emerging SSE in schizophrenia are attributable to the prolactin-raising properties of antipsychotic medication. (rug.nl)
  • Of this attributable fraction, around one-third to two-thirds is directly reducible to the effects of serum prolactin. (rug.nl)
  • Prolactin (PRL) is a neuroendocrine pituitary hormone. (novusbio.com)
  • Prolactin is a pituitary hormone involved in the stimulation of milk production, salt and water regulation, growth, development and reproduction. (novusbio.com)
  • Although prolactin is produced in small amounts in both males and non-pregnant females, its main role is to stimulate lactation (milk production) in females during pregnancy and maintain milk supply during breastfeeding. (kidshealth.org)
  • Prolactin has many effects, the most profound of which are to stimulate the mammary glands to produce milk (i.e. lactation ). (everything2.com)
  • During pregnancy , prolactin levels rise as rising estrogen promotes prolactin release, causing further maturing of mammary glands, preparing them for lactation. (everything2.com)
  • A partial prolactin deficiency may result in inadequate lactation . (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin is a peptide hormone that is best known for its role in lactation. (springer.com)
  • The resposiveness of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons to prolactin feedback is diminished between early lactation and midlactation in the rat. (degruyter.com)
  • Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation. (rcsb.org)
  • Prolactin is secreted by the pituitary gland, and important for milk production during lactation. (medindia.net)
  • Prolactin, as its name implies, is a hormone that promotes lactation (breast milk production) in mammals and is responsible for a number of other functions and systems. (hormone.org)
  • High prolactin levels also can cause unwanted lactation. (hormone.org)
  • As its name implies, the principal function of prolactin is to initiate and maintain lactation or milk production. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Mammary gland ion transport is essential for lactation and is regulated by prolactin and glucocorticoids. (hindawi.com)
  • Prolactin is critical for the development of the mammary gland into a secretory type gland during lactation. (hindawi.com)
  • Either acting alone or in concert with other hormones, prolactin has a plethora of effects on mammary epithelial function during lactation. (hindawi.com)
  • Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and metabolism, brain and behavior, and immunomodulation. (genome.jp)
  • progesterone typically lowers prolactin (and when progesterone is low prolactin is high - that's how lactation occurs). (anabolicminds.com)
  • Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. (harvard.edu)
  • Prolactin (PRL) or Luteotropic hormone (LTH) is a peptide hormone discovered by Dr. Henry Friesen, primarily associated with lactation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Prolactin levels "decline slowly over the course of lactation (Battin et al. (kellymom.com)
  • We tested the hypotheses that a reduced prolactin response to suckling and higher-than-normal progesterone concentration in the first week after delivery might be among the means by which maternal overweight could compromise early lactation. (aappublications.org)
  • The hormone prolactin is necessary for the production of breast milk, but it also affects adipose (fatty) tissue and the body's metabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A prolactin test measures the level of the hormone prolactin, which is made by the pituitary gland , in your blood. (uwhealth.org)
  • The hormone prolactin is probably best known for its role in stimulating milk production in mothers after giving birth. (medindia.net)
  • A recent doctoral thesis by Louise Nilsson of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden explores the function of the hormone Prolactin, which is naturally high in women who are pregnant or breast feeding. (weightlosssurgerychannel.com)
  • A prolactin test measures the amount of the hormone prolactin in your blood. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, the pea-sized gland near the base of the brain that controls metabolism, growth, and sexual development. (kidshealth.org)
  • Prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, plays a critical role in pregnancy by increasing the size of a woman's breasts and triggering milk production. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Prolactin is one of several hormones that is produced by the pituitary gland. (ivf1.com)
  • In recent years scientists have also recognised the role of prolactin in the development of obesity , but little research has been done into the precise mechanism by which prolactin regulates metabolism,' says Louise Nilsson. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Defining the role of prolactin as an invasion suppressor hormone in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we evaluated the role of prolactin action in the MPOA using complementary genetic strategies in mice. (pnas.org)
  • Perhaps the most important role of prolactin is to stimulate milk production in women after the delivery of a baby. (ivf1.com)
  • The primary function of prolactin in fish is osmoregulation, i.e., controlling the movement of water and salts between the tissues of the fish and the surrounding water. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no known normal function of prolactin in males. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A possible autocrine function of prolactin (Prl) in human breast cancer was explored by the addition of a panel of anti-human Pri mAbs to T47Dco and MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Testing for prolactin deficiency is not clinically useful, because the primary function of prolactin is its role in lactogenesis and there is no treatment for women who cannot lactate due to pituitary hypofunction. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • In general, dopamine inhibits prolactin but this process has feedback mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because prolactin release is inversely related to dopamine levels in the anterior pituitary, critically ill patients on prolonged dopamine infusion have resultant prolactin deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin is a 23-kD peptide hormone secreted in the pituitary gland, through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, under tonic inhibition of dopamine. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two main regulators of the production of prolactin by the pituitary gland are dopamine and estrogen. (reference.com)
  • Dopamine, which is produced by the hypothalamus, inhibits the production of prolactin. (reference.com)
  • Therefore, a high level of dopamine leads to low levels of prolactin secreted. (reference.com)
  • Reducing prolactin by changing antipsychotic or adding a dopamine agonist often worsens psychosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Production of prolactin is controlled by two main hormones: dopamine and oestrogen. (hormone.org)
  • Dopamine restrains the production of prolactin, while oestrogen increases it. (hormone.org)
  • Pituitary tumors, known as prolactinomas, and medications that reduce dopamine can also lead to increased prolactin levels. (hormone.org)
  • Since the initial discovery, several research, case report, and review articles have been published ( 5 - 10 ) describing signaling mechanisms mediating the deleterious action of the 16-kDa prolactin fragment and supporting the beneficial effects of treatment with dopamine D2 agonists in patients with PPCM. (frontiersin.org)
  • A lack of the amino acid tyrosine decreases dopamine levels, dopamine suppresses prolactin. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Prolactin and its receptor are expressed in the skin, specifically in the hair follicles, where they regulate hair growth and moulting in an autocrine fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Part of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine may be mediated through a competitive antagonistic action at the prolactin receptor site. (medscape.com)
  • The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is a type I cytokine receptor encoded in humans by the PRLR gene on chromosome 5p13-14. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the receptor for prolactin (PRL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin Growth hormone Human placental lactogen Placental growth hormone S179D-hPRL Prolactin receptor antagonists such as Del1-9-G129R-hPRL have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Insight: prolactin-receptor antagonists, a novel approach to treatment of unresolved systemic and local hyperprolactinemia? (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent Advances in Prolactin Research summarizes the current knowledge of prolactin (PRL), PRL receptor, PRL-dependent signaling pathways, the role of PRL in oncogenesis and PRL crosstalk with other oncogenic factors. (springer.com)
  • Prolactin exerts its pleiotropic effects by acting via the transmembrane receptor, PRLR, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus From Inactivation of Prolactin Receptor and MafB in Islet ß-Cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Antagonism of tumoral prolactin receptor promotes autophagy-related cell death. (harvard.edu)
  • Characterization of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas using novel prolactin receptor isoform specific antibodies. (harvard.edu)
  • Paul S, Biswas A, Sasmal K, Mukherjee S, Biswas T, Biswas R. IL-10 alters prolactin receptor activity emulating that during breast cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • Piazza TM, Lu JC, Carver KC, Schuler LA. SRC family kinases accelerate prolactin receptor internalization, modulating trafficking and signaling in breast cancer cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 50 Prolactin Receptor (PRLR) Proteine von 10 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Prolactin Receptor Antikörper (239) und Prolactin Receptor Kits (11) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 310 Prolactin Receptor Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Two markers for the PRL (zeige PRL Proteine ) peptide gene and three markers for the prolactin receptor (PRLR ) gene were genotyped. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The prolactin receptor is constitutively expressed on regulatory T and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and this expression is higher than in healthy individuals. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The presence and localization of prolactin receptor are consistent with expression data reported for other species, and the presence of PIP (zeige PIP Proteine ) and prolactin (zeige PRL Proteine ) in seminal fluid is consistent with data generated in humans. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The effects of prolactin receptor and beta-casein (zeige CSN2 Proteine ) genotype on the nutritive value of sow milk are reported. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Associations between genotypes of the prolactin receptor (PRLR ) gene and swine reproductive, growth and meat traits were determined. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The effect of pretreatment with ritanserin, a potent and selective serotonin-S 2 (5-HT 2 ) receptor antagonist, on the prolactin (PRL) response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was studied in seven female patients suffering from major depressive disorder. (springer.com)
  • O'Hara L, Curley M, Tedim Ferreira M, Cruickshanks L, Milne L, Smith LB (2015) Pituitary Androgen Receptor Signalling Regulates Prolactin but Not Gonadotrophins in the Male Mouse. (plos.org)
  • It recognizes a protein of 70kDa, identified as prolactin receptor. (novusbio.com)
  • The function of the prolactin receptor is mediated, at least in part, by two families of signaling molecules: Janus kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription. (novusbio.com)
  • Elevated levels of prolactin outside of pregnancy, however, can wreak havoc on a woman's fertility by suppressing the hormones that cause a woman to ovulate. (ehow.co.uk)
  • High prolactin may be caused by pregnancy, breastfeeding, taking certain medications, low thyroid, polycystic ovarian syndrome, kidney or liver disease or even stress. (ehow.co.uk)
  • During pregnancy, prolactin levels increase by 10 to 20 times. (uwhealth.org)
  • Prolactin causes the breasts to grow and make milk during pregnancy and after birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pregnancy, Prolactin and White Matter Regeneration. (rainbow.coop)
  • It is quite normal for a woman to have high prolactin levels during pregnancy and breastfeeding. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. (pnas.org)
  • Prolactin levels increase during pregnancy causing the mammary glands in a woman's breast to enlarge in preparation for breastfeeding. (ivf1.com)
  • Higher prolactin in pregnancy is an independent predictor of both better β-cell function and a lower likelihood of prediabetes/ diabetes after complete adjustment for type 2 diabetes risk factors," the authors write. (medicalxpress.com)
  • I am very nervous about stopping it as I know if your levels get too high you can miscarry (even though prolactin increases in pregnancy)! (rollercoaster.ie)
  • I don't know what level is bad because my consultant said there's little point in even checking prolactin levels now that I'm pregnant because they rise in pregnancy. (rollercoaster.ie)
  • If elevated prolactin levels are brought down, the chances of pregnancy are usually excellent. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Did I have to check my prolactin level throughout my pregnancy. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Elevated levels of prolactin decrease the levels of sex hormones-estrogen in women and testosterone in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin is sometimes classified as a gonadotropin although in humans it has only a weak luteotropic effect while the effect of suppressing classical gonadotropic hormones is more important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormones, anti-diuretic hormones and oxytocin can also increase or decrease the levels of prolactin. (reference.com)
  • Prolactin and sex hormones will be measured on addition of aripiprazole to current antipsychotic treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A 2008 study in "Hormones and Behavior" reports that Ginkgo biloba significantly reduced prolactin levels in male rats and increased their ejaculation frequency within 14 days. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Prolactin (PRL), synthesized by the anterior pituitary and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues, affects more physiological processes than all other pituitary hormones combined. (nih.gov)
  • The idea that prolactin and oxytocin may supply rewards was reinforced by a German study that found a burst of both hormones when men and women reached orgasm while making love. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Prolactin is a hormone that affects many different hormones in the body. (hormone.org)
  • These hormones send a message to the pituitary gland primarily indicating whether to begin or cease the production of prolactin. (hormone.org)
  • Normal levels of prolactin in a woman's body do not inhibit the release and function of other important hormones. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Flavonoid Intake and Plasma Sex Steroid Hormones, Prolactin, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Premenopausal Women. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, we aimed to find a difference in prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ), and cortisol levels between patients with psoriasis and normal controls. (hindawi.com)
  • I think I read online that after week 7 or 8 the other hormones grow stronger so high prolactin levels wouldn't have an impact but you can't believe everything online. (rollercoaster.ie)
  • Prolactin is a hormone that plays a role in fertility by inhibiting follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the hormones that trigger ovulation and allow eggs to develop and mature. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • In the vast majority of prolactin deficiency states, the deficiency occurs secondary to general anterior pituitary dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • In association with other anterior pituitary dysfunction, prolactin deficiency is uncommon except with pituitary infarction (Sheehan syndrome). (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin is a growth factor secreted by the anterior pituitary that is necessary for the proliferation and differentiation of the mammary glands. (abcam.com)
  • Methodology The researchers made rats overproduce prolactin by implanting two extra anterior pituitary glands the gland that produces prolactin in the animals' backs. (medindia.net)
  • Prolactin deficiency is extremely rare and is typically encountered only after the anterior pituitary gland is destroyed by infarction. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • The most common cause is a prolactinoma, a usually benign (not cancerous) prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. (kidshealth.org)
  • This condition is often observed in elderly people and has also been reported in an amyloidoma in a patient with a prolactin-producing pituitary tumor. (medscape.com)
  • To see whether a tumor in the pituitary gland (called a prolactinoma) is making large amounts of prolactin. (uwhealth.org)
  • High levels of prolactin (usually higher than 200 ng/mL) may mean a pituitary gland tumor (prolactinoma) is present. (uwhealth.org)
  • The higher the prolactin level, the more likely a pituitary gland tumor is present. (uwhealth.org)
  • If a prolactin level is over 200 ng/mL, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test may be done to confirm a pituitary tumor is present. (uwhealth.org)
  • A normal or low prolactin level does not always mean there is no pituitary tumor. (uwhealth.org)
  • If prolactin levels are higher than normal, it often means there is a type of tumor of the pituitary gland, known as a prolactinoma . (medlineplus.gov)
  • This tumor makes the gland produce too much prolactin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • New Rochelle, NY, October 28, 2016--Researchers describe the first evidence linking prolactin inducible protein (PIP) to the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy foreign cells, such as tumor cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The unexpected finding that prolactin also activates Jak1 in breast cancer points to a mechanism in cancer cells that further promotes tumor cell growth. (medindia.net)
  • The authors report a patient who came to a women's clinic with signs of a prolactin producing brain tumor of the pituitary. (rainbow.coop)
  • Of greatest concern when prolactin levels are elevated is a prolactin-secreting tumor (prolactinoma) of the pituitary. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Often, the cause of raised levels of this hormone is due to a small prolactin-producing tumor sitting on the pituitary gland called a prolactinoma. (sharedjourney.com)
  • COX-2 mediates tumor-stromal prolactin signaling to initiate tumorigenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • The antiangiogenic 16K prolactin impairs functional tumor neovascularization by inhibiting vessel maturation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 16K hPRL, the antiangiogenic 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin was shown to prevent tumor growth and metastasis by modifying tumor vessel morphology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These high prolactin levels are often caused by prolactinoma, which causes a tumor to grow on your pituitary gland. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • This tumor then excretes excess prolactin in your body. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Prolactin (PRL), also known as lactotropin, is a protein best known for its role in enabling mammals (and birds), usually females, to produce milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is prolactin inducible protein (PIP) protective against breast cancer? (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers review their recent studies of PIP, known as a biomarker of mammary differentiation, in the article entitled " Prolactin-Inducible Protein: From Breast Cancer Biomarker to Immune Modulator--Novel Insights from Knockout Mice . (eurekalert.org)
  • The work, which appears this month in the journal Molecular Endocrinology, identifies the protein Jak1 as playing a key part in prolactin signaling in breast cancer. (medindia.net)
  • In the current study, when Jak1 protein expression was experimentally disrupted in breast cancer cells, prolactin signaling through Stat3 and ERK was completely blocked. (medindia.net)
  • Recombinant full length protein (His-tag) corresponding to Human Prolactin/PRL aa 29-227. (abcam.com)
  • The Chicken Prolactin protein is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (prospecbio.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Prolactin Kits (167) and Prolactin Proteins (137) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a main protein component of benign breast gross cysts. (prospecbio.com)
  • Traditionally, prolactin levels were measured in ng/ml, and normal prolactin levels in women are less than 20 ng/ml. (medhelp.org)
  • Results The researchers found that rats that overproduced prolactin had larger livers in proportion to their body weight compared to rats that had normal prolactin levels and those that overproduced prolactin but received the nullifying drug. (medindia.net)
  • Just wondering how an elevated prolactin causes infertility or affects your ability to conceive? (medhelp.org)
  • In women, too much prolactin can also cause menstrual problems and infertility (the inability to get pregnant). (medlineplus.gov)
  • High prolactin levels in men may lead to impotence, loss of libido and infertility. (baltimoresun.com)
  • There are some results of high prolactin levels that are the same for both men and women, including infertility, low sex drive and bone loss. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Prolactin may cause infertility in several different ways. (ivf1.com)
  • It is unclear what role prolactin plays in men, but it is clearly linked to infertility. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Doctors may order prolactin tests to help diagnose, or monitor treatment of, prolactinoma. (kidshealth.org)
  • Too much prolactin can cause galactorrhea and disturbances in the ovulatory cycle and are often the result of a prolactinoma , a pituitary gland tumour . (everything2.com)
  • When a baby sucks at the breast, the woman's pituitary gland releases more prolactin into her blood, increasing her milk production. (kidshealth.org)
  • Pregnant women have high levels of prolactin, which helps make breast milk. (uwhealth.org)
  • Excess prolactin can cause the production of breast milk in men and in women who are not pregnant or breastfeeding . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prolactin is released when a newborn baby suckles at his/her mother's breast, causing the production of milk. (hormone.org)
  • Is prolactin affecting my ability to produce milk? (hormone.org)
  • Prolactin is released at various times throughout the day and night and its main function is to stimulate breast milk production after childbirth. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Prolactin does a few different things, including stimulate milk production. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Prolactin also helps with the release of milk when the baby is nursing. (ivf1.com)
  • The discharge is the result of prolactin trying to stimulate the breast to produce milk. (ivf1.com)
  • Prolactin (also called luteotropic hormone) is also associated with the production of breast milk. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • On the other hand, the Society for Endocrinology notes that estrogen increases the production of prolactin. (reference.com)
  • Prolactin concentration in follicular fluid during in vitro fertilization (IVF) correlates with the oocyte maturation level and fertilization rate. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin concentration in blood doubles in response to suckling and peaks approximately 45 minutes after the beginning of a breastfeeding session (Noel, Suh, and Frantz, 1974). (kellymom.com)
  • Each subject received 0.55 to 0.65 mg/kg d,l -fenfluramine hydrochloride, and the plasma prolactin concentration was measured over 3.5 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • Selective inhibition of prolactin by ergot drugs in intact animals did not prevent full mammary development, suggesting that there may be pituitary mammogens other than prolactin, or that very low or unmeasurable concentrations of prolactin were sufficient to synergize with E2 to cause full acinar development. (jci.org)
  • We evaluated the effect of growth hormone on mammary development by treating three hypophysectomized animals with pure 22,000 mol wt human growth hormone (hGH) (Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA). We found that physiological or slightly supraphysiological concentrations of hGH in animals with unmeasurable prolactin were incapable of restoring the capacity of E2 to induce full mammary growth. (jci.org)
  • Circulating prolactin concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes in US women. (harvard.edu)
  • Sequential changes in maternal and fetal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) were examined after these intravascular administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or L-dopa alone or combined directly to the near-term Rhesus fetus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Plasma prolactin concentrations following epileptic and pseudoseizures. (bmj.com)
  • The prolactin test also may be used as part of a work-up for irregular menstrual periods, fertility problems, some types of thyroid or adrenal gland dysfunction, anorexia, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. (kidshealth.org)
  • The most common cause of high prolactin levels is thyroid dysfunction. (doctorslounge.com)
  • My prolactin is 62 ng/ml and i am not married My thyroid is 2.401 uIU/ml kindly inform what to do? (fertilityauthority.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Prolactin Monoclonal Antibody (P5C8A4) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MIP0202, RRID AB_11152016. (thermofisher.com)
  • There are currently no images for Prolactin R Antibody (NBP2-34554H). (novusbio.com)
  • Antipsychotics often induce hyperprolactinemia (high prolactin level) and in almost all women, and some men, this causes hypogonadism (impaired ovarian or testicular function)often with osteoporosis, partly explaining psychiatric patients' high fracture risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Excessive blood levels of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) may cause menstrual irregularities or cessation of menstrual periods. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Another term for high prolactin levels is hyperprolactinemia. (ivf1.com)
  • Elevated levels of prolactin can inhibit hair growth, and knock-out mutations in the prolactin gene cause increased hair length in cattle and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on nonseasonally breeding males have demonstrated that high titers of testosterone (T) stimulate reproduction, whereas high titers of prolactin (PRL) inhibit it. (mendeley.com)
  • Should I take something like Inhibit-P to bring my progesterone and estrogen in balance along with lowering my prolactin? (anabolicminds.com)
  • During the first several months that a woman is breastfeeding, the high prolactin levels also serve to inhibit ovulation. (ivf1.com)
  • According to the Society for Endocrinology, low levels of prolactin mean that a person has hypoprolactinaemia, which can lead to low breastmilk production and possibly to a weaker immune system. (reference.com)
  • The Society for Endocrinology states that low prolactin levels normally result from underactivity of the pituitary gland. (reference.com)
  • The selection of prolactin as the subject of the Midwest Con- ference on Endocrinology was not only dictated by the recent ad- vances in prolactin research but also by the long tradition in that particular area of Endocrinology in the laboratory of C.W. Turner at the University of Missouri. (powells.com)
  • Therefore, it seems only appropri- ate that these proceedings of the Tenth Midwest Conference on En- docrinology are dedicated to the memory of this scientist, deceased in August 1975 before completion of this volume, whose pioneer in- vestigations have contributed substantially to the advancement of our knowledge in many areas of Endocrinology and who played a major role in the early phases of prolactin research. (powells.com)
  • We designed a study to assess the association of the severity of psoriasis with changes in the plasma levels of prolactin, TSH, T 3 , T 4 , and cortisol in patients admitted to our university hospital from March 2011 through March 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • A number of medications and drugs can also stimulate the pituitary gland to release more prolactin into the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/897810239 Title: Recent advances in prolactin research Author: Maria Diakonova Publisher: Cham : Springer, 2015. (worldcat.org)
  • If you are concerned about prolactin levels, use our form to find a doctor who can help. (hormone.org)
  • Effects of hypophysectomy, prolactin inhibition, and growth hormone administration. (jci.org)
  • Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation and nursing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of mildly elevated levels of prolactin are much more variable, in women, substantially increasing or decreasing estrogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that more prolactin is present in the blood during times when estrogen levels are high. (reference.com)
  • Microinfusions of rat prolactin into the dorsal midbrain of estrogen-treated, ovariectomized rats increased lordosis behavior. (sciencemag.org)
  • The results suggest that a hypothalamic neuronal system projecting to the midbrain contains a prolactin-like substance that plays a role in facilitating this behavior and therefore may mediate some of the effects of estrogen on the brain. (sciencemag.org)
  • While, not much is known about how prolactin acts via the PRLR-S, it is clear that it is a pathway distinct from that used by the long form of PRLR [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Conditional KO of Prlr from neuronal subpopulations expressing the neurotransmitters GABA or glutamate within this circuit markedly reduced the capacity for prolactin action both in the MPOA and throughout the network. (pnas.org)
  • Discovered in non-human animals around 1930 by Oscar Riddle and confirmed in humans in 1970 by Henry Friesen, prolactin is a peptide hormone, encoded by the PRL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data, together with others from studies of the prolactin gene and its regulation, indicate that it may be possible to analyze a sequence of molecular events in the brain that facilitate a behavioral response. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gourdji, Laverrière: The rat prolactin gene: a target for tissue-specific and hormone-dependent transcription factors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Preliminary findings suggest that gene expression of hundreds of genes in the pituitary mirrors that of circulating prolactin levels in the blood. (speakerdeck.com)
  • Does anyone have any experiences with having a high level of prolactin and related conditions? (dailystrength.org)
  • What were your symptoms of a high level of prolactin? (dailystrength.org)
  • My son has been told that he has a high level of prolactin in his blood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What does this high level of prolactin mean? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Prolactin is principally regulated by tonic inhibition rather than by intermittent stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] In research using a mouse model, inhibition of prolactin release impaired lymphocyte function and depressed macrophage activation. (medscape.com)
  • Can my recent ED problem be related to the prolactin or testosterone level? (medhelp.org)
  • Prolactin and testosterone affect. (mendeley.com)
  • Aripiprazole will be started at 5 mg and uptitrated in a treat-to-target fashion by 5 mg at monthly intervals until prolactin has normalized or decreased sufficiently to restore menses in the women and a normal testosterone in the men. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prolactin levels may be checked when a man's testosterone levels are really low. (uwhealth.org)
  • Too much prolactin in the blood causes hyperprolactinaemia , a condition that can lead to menstrual disturbances, oestrogen deficiency and testosterone deficiency. (hormone.org)
  • As I keep looking into the effects of prolactin on testosterone production, I came across this. (cancer.org)
  • Studies have found that by supplementing a single 300mg dose of pyridoxine - vitamin B6 , not only will you boost testosterone, you will also decrease your Prolactin levels [2]. (cancer.org)
  • Also, higher prolactin levels would compliment the action of the ADT in testosterone/androgen suppression. (cancer.org)
  • I am wondering if this is another interaction between ADT meds and B6 and prolactin and testosterone levels. (cancer.org)
  • If your prolactin levels are too high, that can cause an anovulatory menstrual cycle or just plain prevent a period altogether. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Prolactin should also be drawn early in the menstrual cycle - before ovulation. (ivf1.com)
  • You can have your prolactin levels checked at any point in your menstrual cycle . (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Emotional stress or strenuous exercise just before the test can raise prolactin levels. (uwhealth.org)
  • Stimulation of the nipples can raise prolactin levels. (uwhealth.org)
  • Certain medicines can raise prolactin levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Strenuous exercise, lack of sleep, and some foods and medications (especially some anti-depressants and painkillers) can raise prolactin levels. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Medications can also affect prolactin levels and your cycle so there are several possible causes for this. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Several common problems may also affect prolactin levels. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Interpretation of an abnormally high prolactin blood test is complicated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Galactorrhea is sometimes associated with abnormally high prolactin levels. (kellymom.com)
  • Prolactin Chicken Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 199 amino acids + an additional Ala at n-terminal and having a molecular mass of ~ 23 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • In sandwich ELISAs, less than 0.05% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse Prolactin and recombinant human Prolactin R. (novusbio.com)
  • Sometimes, though, prolactin levels are elevated even if a woman isn't pregnant or breastfeeding, or in a male. (kidshealth.org)
  • Raised prolactin levels in a woman who is not pregnant or breast feeding reduces lipid (fat) metabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Women who are pregnant or breast feeding have naturally raised levels of prolactin, but stress , some medicines and benign brain tumours can also lead to raised levels of the hormone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prolactin levels are normally high for pregnant women and new mothers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women who are not pregnant and are not breastfeeding should have low levels of prolactin. (ivf1.com)
  • If a non-pregnant woman has abnormally high levels of prolactin, it may cause her difficulty in becoming pregnant. (ivf1.com)
  • I also had tests done to see if I was ovulating and I hadnt been ovulating at all becasue high prolactin suppresses the growth of the follicle before ovulation - so no wonder I hadnt got pregnant that whole time! (madeformums.com)
  • Just wondering if anyone else that is pregnant has high prolactin & if you have been told to cease medication or not! (rollercoaster.ie)
  • You would have your prolactin levels checked if you or your partner is having trouble becoming pregnant. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • This is why women who are breastfeeding (and thus have high levels of prolactin) usually don't become pregnant. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Detects human Prolactin in ELISAs and Western blots. (novusbio.com)
  • In the immune system, prolactin has been shown to be secreted by human PBMC and to act as a proliferative growth factor. (novusbio.com)
  • Additionally, prolactin treatment of human PBMC has been shown to enhance IFN-gamma production. (novusbio.com)
  • Human prolactin secreting adenoma cells maintained on extracellular matrix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In vitro maintenance of human prolactin secreting adenoma cells on a extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by bovine corneal endothelial cells is associated with the adoption of morphological properties that are not expressed when the cells are seeded on plastic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MIP0202 targets Prolactin in ELISA, IP, and RIA applications and shows reactivity with Human samples. (thermofisher.com)
  • The MIP0202 immunogen is human Prolactin. (thermofisher.com)
  • Staindl, Berger, Kofler, Wick: Monoclonal antibodies against human, bovine and rat prolactin: epitope mapping of human prolactin and development of a two-site immunoradiometric assay. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Prolactin can also reduce the ability that human fatty tissue has to store sugar and fat, thus causing the tissue to release those elements into the bloodstream. (weightlosssurgerychannel.com)
  • Dr. Rice tested whether increasing the level of zinc in the culture fluid and adding prolactin will affect the growth and vitality of human prostate cancer cells, and possibly lead to death of the cancer cells. (aicr.org)
  • Excess prolactin after menopause often causes hypothyroidism . (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the new thesis proposes that prolactin levels can be raised too high by some prescription drugs, by stress or by hypothyroidism. (weightlosssurgerychannel.com)
  • Rarely, liver disease, kidney disease, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) , shingles or hypothyroidism may cause high levels of prolactin. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Prolactin also acts in a cytokine-like manner and as an important regulator of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin (PRL) has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prolactin plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation of the immune system and pancreatic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 13 ] The precise pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown, but it is speculated to be associated with the effects of prolactin on surfactant synthesis, whole-body water regulation, or gastrointestinal maturation. (medscape.com)
  • Prolactin also has an influence on hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, and is involved in the regulation of blood clotting through several pathways. (springer.com)
  • Prolactin is responsible for metabolic and reproductive functions, as well as the regulation of fluids and the immune system. (reference.com)
  • A 1998 study in "Physiology & Behavior" found that taking American ginseng for as little as two weeks, decreased prolactin levels in male rats at all doses the researchers studied. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The Prolactin RIA Kit for Rats is intended for the measurement of prolactin in a rat sample. (mpbio.com)
  • To confirm that prolactin itself was responsible for the effects they saw in the overproducers, the researchers injected some of the rats that had the real surgery with a drug that deactivated extra prolactin, bringing the overproducers' prolactin down to baseline levels. (medindia.net)
  • Midbrain microinfusions of antiserum to prolactin into rats displaying maximum lordosis had the opposite effect. (sciencemag.org)
  • DOI 10.1515/CCLM.2010.038 2010/383 Article in press - uncorrected proof Short Communication The Beckman DxI 800 prolactin assay demonstrates superior specificity for monomeric prolactin Brendan Byrne*, Paula O'Shea, Patricia Barrett and William Tormey Department of Chemical Pathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland Abstract Background: Commercially available prolactin immunoas- says detect macroprolactin to variable degrees. (degruyter.com)
  • The conversion of preprolactin to prolactin has been much used as an assay for membrane insertion . (biology-online.org)
  • Some data support the idea that prolactin is also an immunoregulating hormone. (medscape.com)
  • Pressure from other tumors might also cause an increase in prolactin production. (sharedjourney.com)
  • The Prolactin Coated Tube RIA Kit is designed for the quantitative determination of prolactin in a sample. (mpbio.com)
  • van Peer A, Woestenborghs R, Heykants J, de Coster R, Gelders Y, Hoppenbrouwers M-L, Reyntjens A (1984) Oral bioavailability of R 55 667 in healthy volunteers - preliminary results and determination of prolactin plasma levels. (springer.com)