Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.AnguillaPacific OceanCalcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Mediterranean SeaFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Alteromonadaceae: A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Tenacibaculum: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Tenacibaculum adheres to surfaces of marine organisms and is pathogenic to fish.SvalbardBacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.HapMap Project: A coordinated international effort to identify and catalog patterns of linked variations (HAPLOTYPES) found in the human genome across the entire human population.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Atlantic OceanOceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)JapanAnimal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Arbacia: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Arbaciidae. They have only one spheridium (stalked body) per ambulacral area (contains tube feet); most sea urchins have several spheridia per area.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)HydrocarbonsAtmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
  • In seawater (SW)-acclimated larvae, outward Cl - gradients (20-80 mM higher than the background) were measured at the surface, indicating a secretion of Cl - from the skin. (elsevier.com)
  • Today's methods are energy intensive and expensive because the magnesium concentration in seawater is so low that significant energy is needed to evaporate off water and precipitate magnesium chloride salt. (energy.gov)
  • The marine geochemical utility of /sup 232/Th, whose concentration in seawater is extremely low, warrants the development of these sensitive techniques. (unt.edu)
  • This assumption can be made from the range of natural ambient manganese concentration in seawater, toxicity values and the fact that manganese is unlikely to biomagnify in the food chain. (lu.se)
  • SeaWater Air Conditioning (SWAC) takes advantage of available deep cold seawater to replace energy-intensive central refrigeration systems that cool chilled water to provide air conditioning in one or more buildings. (curacaochronicle.com)
  • A SWAC system consists of a cold seawater supply pipe (intake), a pumping unit and heat exchanger (at the shoreline), and a closed loop with fresh water distribution to cover cooling needs of each building connected through a secondary heat exchanger. (slideshare.net)
  • The overall process could be significantly less expensive and more efficient than any conventional magnesium extraction method available today and uses seawater as an abundant, free resource. (energy.gov)
  • Two California seaports are testing a technology that uses seawater to scrub emissions from the exhaust of ships, an innovation researchers say could reduce a vessel's sulfur emissions by 99.9 percent and particulate matter by as much as 85 percent. (cleantechies.com)
  • As of 2016, 167 investment projects and contracts with German capital worth $540 million and about 555 million euros were registered in Turkmenistan. (azernews.az)
  • A new report predicts that global investment in water desalination projects will triple over a five-year period from 2011 to 2016 , driven by improvements in technology and a surge in companies entering the sector. (cleantechies.com)
  • The Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) projected that global ethanol production will increase from about 120 billion L in 2016 to nearly 137 billion L by 2026 4 . (nature.com)
  • Wed 21 Jan 2015 - A consortium of aviation, biofuel and research interests have awarded a contract to construct the world's first bioenergy pilot project that will use desert land and seawater to produce sustainable aviation fuel in the United Arab Emirates. (greenaironline.com)
  • The project, which is expected to be operational by late summer, is based on research carried out at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology into using coastal seawater to raise fish and shrimp for food, whose nutrient-rich wastewater then fertilises oil-rich halophyte plants that can be harvested for aviation biofuel production. (greenaironline.com)
  • UOP LLC, a Honeywell company, the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Abu Dhabi, Boeing and Etihad Airways are establishing a research institute in Abu Dhabi-the Sustainable Bioenergy Research Project (SBRP)-that will use integrated saltwater agricultural systems (ISAS) to support the development and commercialization of biofuel sources for aviation and co-products. (greencarcongress.com)
  • This is not a trivial matter when you consider that seawater temperatures at 10 metres depth are not likely to change quickly, depending on the exact character of tidal streams at a specific locality. (duino4projects.com)
  • This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different temperatures (293.15 to 318.15 K), and its effect on physical properties (density, viscosity, and solubility). (scielo.br)
  • In a statement, the water development board said the funding would help the city continue development conducting planning tasks related to seawater desalination, such as plant site selection, source water characterization, and economic impact and cost modeling. (rgj.com)
  • building a brackish water desalination plant is usually cheaper than a seawater desalination plant because brackish water is generally cleaner and contains less total dissolved salts. (rgj.com)
  • PWM/ PDAM - Nusa Ceningan Seawater Desalination Plant - Indonesia - Project Profile" contains information on the scope of the project including project overview and location. (marketresearch.com)
  • The "PWM/ PDAM - Nusa Ceningan Seawater Desalination Plant - Indonesia - Project Profile" is part of Timetric's database of 82,000+ construction projects. (marketresearch.com)
  • Public Works Ministry (PWM) and PDAM Klungkung (PDAM), a City Tap Water company, are jointly planning to undertake the seawater desalination plant project in Bali, Indonesia. (marketresearch.com)
  • The project envisions a 180-kilometer (111-mile) pipeline that will channel some 200 million cubic feet of water each year to be desalinated in a new plant on Jordan's coast at Aqaba. (dw.com)
  • Plant Operations Plant Operations The treated seawater supply system is depicted in Fig. 1. (onepetro.org)
  • The water quality standards for the seawater treatment plant were derived from either pilot studies or observation of other seawater flood projects. (onepetro.org)
  • The Bid Price of US¢ 58.5/m 3 (as of October 1st 2009) offered by Sorek Desalination Ltd. (SDL), the consortium led by IDE Technologies Ltd. developing and constructing the Sorek Plant, is one of the lowest prices ever offered in a BOT project for seawater desalination. (ide-tech.com)
  • Completed some three months ahead of schedule, Singapore's first desalination plant - the largest of its kind in Asia - ranks among the most energy efficient ever constructed, enabling it to achieve the lowest desalinated seawater price in the world. (water-technology.net)
  • Opened in September 2005, within its first year of operation the plant has won a distinction in the 2006 Global Water Awards and two of the companies involved have gained industry honours for their work on the project. (water-technology.net)
  • Japan used seawater to cool nuclear fuel at the stricken Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant after the tsunami in March 2011 -- and that was probably the best action to take at the time, says Professor Alexandra Navrotsky of the University of California, Davis. (eponline.com)
  • Japan used seawater to avoid a much more serious accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi plant, and Navrotsky said, to her knowledge, there is no evidence of long-distance uranium contamination from the plant. (eponline.com)
  • Construction works were carried out by Indian company IVRCL and the Spanish Abengoa under the direction of the Project Manager Fernando Portillo Vallés and the Construction Manager Juan Ignacio Jiménez-Velasco, who returned to Europe after the inauguration of the plant to work on Renewable Energy Projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chennai Water Desalination Ltd. (CWDL) is a special purpose vehicle of IVRCL Infrastructure & Projects Ltd. and Befesa Agua of Spain created in 2005 to design, build, own and operate the seawater desalination plant for the Chennai Metro Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB). (wikipedia.org)
  • The project also included infrastructure for the collection of seawater, including a 110 kV/22 kV sub-station built by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board for uninterrupted power supply to the desalination plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant is a pilot project for the state's $150 million, full-scale sea water desalination plant slated for construction in 2010. (enn.com)
  • Fichtner´s project team will first review and evaluate the various technological approaches before then developing two concepts for each plant location. (fichtner.de)
  • Built at a cost of ₹ 5,333.8 million, the plant is the second desalination plant in the city after the 100-MLD plant at Minjur and has a capacity to treat 100 million litres of seawater a day (MLD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant, owned by Chennai Metrowater, was constructed by VA Tech Wabag, in consortium with IDE Technologies in Israel, and Larsen and Toubro (L&T) Limited laid the 65-km-long pipeline from the plant to various parts of the city and built underground sumps en route. (wikipedia.org)
  • of India Enterprises, carried out the project management consultancy services for plant construction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hawkins represented California American Water as special contract counsel in the development and evaluation of the RFQ and RFP solicitation documents, and in drafting and negotiating a design-build agreement for a 9.6 mgd seawater desalination plant in the County of Monterey, California. (hawkins.com)
  • The agreement includes an option to reduce the capacity of the plant to 6.4 mgd if an independent groundwater replenishment project is completed. (hawkins.com)
  • The site of a seawater desalination plant that could provide up to one-third of the water consumed by Beijing's households lies about 200 kilometers southeast of the parched Chinese capital. (technologyreview.com)
  • The choice of the right pump and of the right stainless-steel materials suitable for seawater has a crucial impact on the plant availability and, of course, also on its economic viability. (duechting.com)
  • Adding nitrogen-based fertiliser to the seawater appears to increase the rate of growth and the eventual height of the plant, and it has been suggested that the effluent from marine aquaculture (e.g. shrimp farming) could be used for this purpose. (greencarcongress.com)
  • At full capacity, the plant will produce 50 million gallons a day of drought-proof supplies as the largest project of its kind in the country. (sdcwa.org)
  • The region's water leaders gathered in Carlsbad on June 6 to mark an important early milestone in construction of Poseidon Water's seawater desalination plant. (sdcwa.org)
  • If approved and built, the Carlsbad plant would produce up to 56,000 acre-feet of desalinated seawater per year, enough to serve 112,000 households of four people. (sdcwa.org)
  • This article describes a technique for optimizing the flocculant dosing rate in the water treatment process by using machine learning, which requires experienced staff, and also a system that improves the recovery rate of seawater desalination to produce more fresh water from a given size of plant. (hitachi.com)
  • To resolve these challenges, Hitachi is using information technology to deskill plant operation and is improving its design techniques for seawater desalination plants. (hitachi.com)
  • Simultaneously, California American Water is seeking approval for a test slant well at the sand plant site in Marina that will also provide further data for the project. (businesswire.com)
  • To have the support of the Orange County League of Cities, which fights for good public policy on behalf of all Orange County cities, is a significant step toward the inevitable completion of this water purification project. (hbfreshwater.com)
  • This paper summarises our recent investigations undertaken as part of the EURODESAL project on nuclear desalination, which were carried out by a consortium of four EU and one Canadian, Industrials and two leading EU R&D organisations. (environmental-expert.com)
  • But Navrotsky and others have since discovered a new way in which seawater can corrode nuclear fuel, forming uranium compounds that could potentially travel long distances, either in solution or as very small particles. (eponline.com)
  • Seawater Air Conditioning (SWAC) takes advantage of available deep cold water from the ocean, a river, or lake, to replace conventional AC systems. (makai.com)
  • The growth performance of different batches of saline-tolerant tilapia in full strength seawater culture conditions was evaluated and fast growing individuals were identified and selected for development of future broodstock. (ava.gov.sg)
  • For decades, California's coastal aquifers have been plagued by invading seawater, turning pristine wells into salty ruins. (watereducation.org)
  • Government statistics show that by 2030, the water shortage in China's coastal areas will reach 21.4 billion cubic meters, despite water conservation efforts and the massive South-North Water Diversion Project, which pumps 25 billion cubic meters of water per year from the Yangtze River in southern China to the north China plain via two routes that are each more than 1,000 kilometers long. (technologyreview.com)
  • It calls for promoting the construction and upgrading of seawater desalination projects in about 100 islands in the coastal provinces of Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Fujian and Hainan within a period of three to five years with a total scale of about 600,000 tons per day. (yicaiglobal.com)
  • If successful, PNNL would enable a low-cost, low-energy metal-organic process for producing magnesium from seawater without the energy intensive steps associated with conventional processes. (energy.gov)
  • Shortages are projected to become increasingly severe in Africa and the Middle East, with growing shortages also forecast for Asia, South America, and North America. (hitachi.com)
  • This seawater farming concept has been successfully implemented in Mexico and Northern Africa by Global Seawater Inc., which will provide advice and insight to support the SBRP in Abu Dhabi. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Every year a variety of accidents to oil tanker ships and other oil related facilities in the sea contaminates seawater with billions of gallons of crude oil. (scienceproject.com)
  • The company responsible for the Sonora trials (Global Seawater) claims that between 225 and 250 gallons of BQ-9000 biodiesel can be produced per hectare (approximately 2.5 acres) of salicornia, and is promoting a $35 million scheme to create a 12,000-acre (49 km2) salicornia farm in Bahia de Kino. (greencarcongress.com)
  • So what would be more obvious than using the large quantities of seawater available for the provision of high-quality drinking water? (duechting.com)
  • Desalinated seawater will increase the region's water security by reducing dependence on imported supplies that are vulnerable to droughts, disasters and regulatory restrictions. (sdcwa.org)
  • For the evaporation chambers in the Fisia Italimpianti projects, Outokumpu delivered 4,000 tonnes of hot rolled plate , much of it Outokumpu's proprietary Forta LDX 2101duplex stainless steel. (outokumpu.com)
  • The project, which is expected to take three years to complete, comes after 11 years of negotiations and as the United States pushes fresh efforts to forge a peace deal between the Israelis and Palestinians. (dw.com)
  • One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. (scielo.br)
  • Although much is known about the surface tension of fresh water, very little has been known about the surface tension of seawater - until recently. (mit.edu)
  • The project proposes the conveyance of water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea to solve the alarming declining water levels of the Dead Sea and provides fresh water to Jordanians 3 through desalination to solve the water shortage crisis. (arabdevelopmentportal.com)