No data available that match "progression combinations of alleles double strand meiotic prophase i"
2 exert their regulatory functions during meiotic prophase progression, gametogenesis, and oocyte maturation. In addition to ... RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and ... 2008). "A loss of function allele for murine Staufen1 leads to impairment of dendritic Staufen1-RNP delivery and dendritic ... These sequences are then arranged in varying combinations to fulfill the need for diversity. A specific protein's recognition ...
... that meiotic recombination is initiated by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I. The ... Recombination occurs as a programmed event that results in new combinations of parental alleles via crossover and non-crossover ... Using high throughput sequencing we revealed Set1C independent Spp1 subpopulation during meiotic progression with different ... Early scientific research considered R-loops as potential hotspots for genome instability as their single stranded part is ...
2008 Spo11 and the formation of DNA double-strand breaks in meiosis. Genome Dyn. Stab. 2: 81-123. ... 1990 The b alleles of U. maydis, whose combinations program pathogenic development, code for polypeptides containing a ... 2012 The molecular control of meiotic chromosomal behavior: events in early meiotic prophase in Drosophila oocytes. Annu. Rev. ... 2000 Progression of meiotic DNA replication is modulated by interchromosomal interaction proteins, negatively by Spo11p and ...
BuhlerC, BordeV, LichtenM (2007) Mapping meiotic single-strand DNA reveals a new landscape of DNA double-strand breaks in ... 2011) A hierarchical combination of factors shapes the genome-wide topography of yeast meiotic recombination initiation. Cell ... its application to the isolation of mutants blocked at intermediate stages of meiotic prophase and characterization of a new ... As a consequence of this gene conversion bias, an allele with a higher propensity toward DSB formation will tend to be under- ...
... an asymmetric intermediate at the double-strand break to double-holliday junction transition of meiotic recombination. Cell 106 ... Mutation of RED1 completely suppressed the meiotic progression defect of mus8. mek1 also permitted meiotic progression of mus81 ... Alleles marked with kanMX4 were disrupted by PCR using the method of Longtine et al. (1998). The mus81Δ::ARG4 allele was ... 1993 Unusual nuclear structures in meiotic prophase of fission yeast: a cytological analysis. J. Cell Biol. 121: 241-256. ...
BuhlerC, BordeV, LichtenM (2007) Mapping meiotic single-strand DNA reveals a new landscape of DNA double-strand breaks in ... E) Sporulation frequencies at 24 hours in smc5 and nse4 mutants in combination with mutants that show robust prophase I arrest ... Depletion of Smc5 or Nse4 had no effect on the meiotic progression in any of these mutants (Figure 8E). Combining the dmc1Δ ... This is in sharp contrast to the smc6-9 temperature sensitive allele, which was previously shown to cause meiotic catastrophe ...
... or different PAH mutant alleles in a strain background (SK1) that exhibits synchronous meiotic progression (see Table 1). These ... comp, 150-fold excess of unlabeled competitor URS1SPO13 double-stranded oligonucleotide added to the reaction. (B) Complex ... Sin3p is required for the execution of the first meiotic nuclear division (30), with mutants arresting in meiotic prophase I ( ... Δ alleles individually or in combination. Mid-log-phase SPO13 mRNA levels were determined in each strain background by S1 ...
Drosophila mus301/spindle-C encodes a helicase with an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair and meiotic progression ... indicating that the defects are a result of unrepaired meiotic DSBs. We also tested a double mutant genotype combination with ... exhibit an accumulation of γ-H2AV foci that persist throughout meiotic prophase, corresponding to unrepaired meiotic DSBs (Fig ... Other alleles analyzed in this study include the following: mei-41D3 (Laurençon et al., 2003), mei-W684572 (Jang et al., 2003 ...
1990) A pathway for generation and processing of double-strand breaks during meiotic recombination in S. cerevisiae. Cell 61: ... Spermatogenesis is arrested in prophase I inAtm −/− spermatocytes.The progression of the meiotic cell cycle in Atm −/− and ... 1997) Partial rescue of the prophase 1 defects of Atm-deficient mice by p53 and p21 null alleles. Nat. Genet. 17:462-466. ... SC immunostaining in combination with telomere FISH to these nuclei revealed fragmentary, strong SCP3 signals at and around the ...
Human PRDM9 zinc finger domains of alleles A (ZA) and I (ZI) interact specifically with double-stranded oligonucleotides ... 3). Analysis of Prdm9-/- mice has shown that Prdm9 is essential for progression through meiotic prophase (20). On the basis of ... 1B). Due to the low predicted specificity of some zinc fingers and the multiple combinations through which several zinc fingers ... allele A is identical to the genome sequence reference allele (allele B), which is at a frequency of 5%. Among other alleles ( ...
We propose that this function of Cdc28 helps to coordinate the events of meiotic prophase with each other and with progression ... Diaz RL, Alcid AD, Berger JM, Keeney S. Identification of residues in yeast Spo11p critical for meiotic DNA double-strand break ... Tagged and untagged MER2 alleles were integrated at mer2δ::kanMX4 by linearization of vectors with EcoRI and yeast ... Combinations of orientations used here were as follows: LexA-cMer2/cMer2-Gal4AD; LexA-Mei4/cMer2-Gal4AD; Gal4AD-Rec114/LexA- ...
Proper repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is key to ensure proper chromosome segregation. In this study, we found that the ... Mek1 kinase in budding yeast regulates interhomolog recombination and coordinates meiotic progression with double-strand break ... Schild D (1995) Suppression of a new allele of the yeast RAD52 gene by overexpression of RAD51, mutations in srs2 and ccr4, or ... Klein HL (2001) Mutations in recombinational repair and in checkpoint control genes suppress the lethal combination of ...
2016) MEIOTIC F-BOX is essential for male meiotic DNA double-strand break repair in rice. Plant Cell 28: 1879-1893. ... 2006) Reduced meiotic crossovers and delayed prophase I progression in AtMLH3-deficient Arabidopsis. EMBO J 25: 1315-1323. ... Both alleles produced sterile plants with similar meiotic defects (Supplemental Fig. S4, B and C). The osptd-1 mutant allele ... Different antibody combinations were diluted (1:50-1:500, depending on the antibody titer) in TNB buffer (0.1 m Tris-HCl, pH ...
2 exert their regulatory functions during meiotic prophase progression, gametogenesis, and oocyte maturation. In addition to ... RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and ... 2008). "A loss of function allele for murine Staufen1 leads to impairment of dendritic Staufen1-RNP delivery and dendritic ... These sequences are then arranged in varying combinations to fulfill the need for diversity. A specific proteins recognition ...
C. elegans germ cells switch between distinct modes of double-strand break repair during meiotic prophase progression PLOS ... Our data suggest that the CO landscape is shaped by a combination of three attributes of the SC central region: a CO-promoting ... Our characterization of new him-3 alleles reveals previously unknown functions for the protein. HIM-3 is required for the ... Finally, we have exploited S-phase labeling to monitor the timing of progression through meiotic prophase. Meiotic prophase for ...
3A). In the germline, GFP::KDP-1 was NE-enriched in the distal mitotic zone and all stages of meiotic prophase, but most ... Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 391, 806-811. ... unc-84(n369), a null allele (Malone et al., 1999), and unc-84(RNAi) larvae and embryos did not have noticeably different GFP:: ... The major phenotype seen in kdp-1(RNAi) gonads was a combination of large chromatin masses and extra chromatin bodies in ...
... a germ cell-specific gene activated during meiotic commitment. Over a 21-day ablation phase induced by the HSVtk pro-drug, ... 3g), which is known to localize to DNA double-strand breaks in germ cells during the early stages of meiotic prophase76. This ... Notably, our assessment of meiotic activation and progression during the post-GCV recovery phase (Fig. 3e-g) in turn ... We then introduced two additional alleles into pStra8-rtTA mice: 1) a tetracycline responsive element (TRE)-driven Cre ...
Cells lacking RAD50 do not form meiotic double-strand breaks (6), yet they still arrested in G2 with low levels of Clb3 protein ... meiotic prophase) separates premeiotic DNA replication from the first meiotic division. During meiotic prophase, homologous ... we analyzed the consequences on meiotic progression when benomyl was added to a meiotic culture at the time of meiotic ... Pairing was then lost as cells completed the first meiotic division. The nonhomologous LEU2/URA3 combination, on the other hand ...
... a specific isoform of the meiotic double-strand break catalyst SPO11 (Baudat et al., 2000; Keeney et al., 1997) is needed ( ... Prophase I progression. To evaluate prophase I progression in Spo11β-onlymb (both Mad2+/+ and Mad2+/−), Mad2+/− and control ... The combination of these two antibodies allows identification of prophase I sub-stages (leptonema, zygonema, pachynema, ... To examine whether disruption of one Mad2 allele affects sex chromosome pairing in Spo11β-onlymb mice, we scored X-Y pairing ...
In contrast, expression of double-stranded hairpin RNA from a 1.688X repeat generated abundant siRNA and dramatically increased ... Study of the phenotype of different polo allele combinations compared to the effect of chemical inhibition revealed significant ... suggest that DMRT6 represses genes involved in spermatogonial differentiation and activates genes required for meiotic prophase ... Histone H3.3 is required to maintain replication fork progression after UV damage. Curr Biol 24: 2195-2201. PubMed ID: 25201682 ...
2011). Double-strand breaks in heterochromatin move outside of a dynamic HP1a domain to complete recombinational repair. Cell ... NSE4A-VENUS accumulated strongly in female meiocytes initiating meiotic prophase I (Figure 2E, flower stage 11, arrowhead). The ... This allele alleviates the problem of homozygous lethality encountered in the loss-of-function allele nse4a-1, thereby enabling ... G) G2/M cell cycle progression in nse4a-2 and nse4b-2 analyzed by ProCycB1;1:CycB1;1:GUS (CycB1;1-GUS) after exposure to 10 µM ...
γ-HIS2AV foci persist into late stages of meiotic prophase in okr and spnB mutants. Following region 3 in the germarium, each ... Hall, J. C. (1972). Chromosome segregation influenced by two alleles of the meiotic mutant c(3)G in Drosophila melanogaster. ... Chromosome synapsis defects and sexually dimorphic meiotic progression in mice lacking Spo11. Mol. Cell 6, 989-998. ... A combination of two Orb antibodies (4H8 and 6H4) (Lantz et al., 1994) was used at 1:150 and a FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse ...
Moreover, myt1/Df(3L)64D-F hemizygotes display identical phenotypes as transheterozygous combinations of the original alleles, ... or double-Bar eye (two copies of the B allele), yellow females (from FM7,y,B/FM7,y,B eggs) or females with normal eyes and ... To determine at which meiotic division(s) the X chromosome NDJ occurred in myt1 mutant females, FM7, y, B/y; myt11/myt12 ... Jackman, M., Lindon, C., Nigg, E. A. and Pines, J. (2003). Active cyclin B1-Cdk1 first appears on centrosomes in prophase. Nat ...
The stages of meiotic progression are indicated. fancd2-1 atm-2 and mus81-2 atm-2 double mutants are similarly affected with ... 2011). Meiotic double-strand breaks occur once per pair of (sister) chromatids and, via Mec1/ATR and Tel1/ATM, once per quartet ... Thus, fancd2-1 exhibits an additive effect in combination with both msh4 and mus81-2. It has been shown before that msh4 and ... To investigate this further, we generated a triple mutant line combining the msh4, mus81-2, and fancd2-1 mutant alleles. The ...
During meiotic recombination, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deliberately induced, and a subset of the breaks are repaired ... elegans early meiotic prophase. Subsequently, the clustered chromosomes are redispersed into aligned homologs upon SC assembly ... Using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and methyl-specific antibodies, I find that Set9 methylates FoxO3 at a single ... were probed by monitoring the repair outcome of a DSB induced at a defined site at different stages of meiotic progression, in ...
Geneticists for several decades knew that meiotic crossover and recombination is absent in Drosophila males and some female ... Geneticists for several decades knew that meiotic crossover and recombination is absent in Drosophila males and some female ... of the chromosomal copy number over generations and recombination between homologous chromosomes is a hallmark of meiotic cell ... of the chromosomal copy number over generations and recombination between homologous chromosomes is a hallmark of meiotic cell ...
ChromosomesDSBsHomologous recombinationChromosome segregationInvolved in meiotic recombinationSingle strandedRole in meiotic recombinationRequired for cell-cycle progressionMitoticSpo11Budding yeastEarly prophaseRecombination eventsDrosophilaPremeioticMammalianGenesGeneRAD51SaccharomycesSpermatogenesisSynapsisOrganismsTemporally coordinatedMechanismCrossoversFormationMutantsAneuploidyMolecular basisCell cycleNoncrossoversSuggestsReplicationMechanismsCheckpointChiasmataMutantOocyteOrderlyInitiatesMissegregationIonizing radiationElegansDefects1997Genetic variabilityAbsenceInactivationMaternal
- During the first one, the reductional division, which is unique to meiotic cells, homologous chromosomes segregate. (sciencemag.org)
- Proper separation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division requires the production of physical connections (chiasmata) between homologs through recombinational exchange of chromosome arms after sister-chromatid cohesion is established but before chromosome segregation takes place. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- During the first meiotic division, homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes are segregated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To directly test whether MAD2 levels impact the meiotic response to mis-segregating chromosomes, we used Spo11 β - only mb mice that are prone to non-exchange X-Y chromosomes. (biologists.org)
- In preparation for the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes (homologs) pair and recombine, align at the metaphase plate and then segregate into two daughter cells. (biologists.org)
- During meiotic prophase, homologous chromosomes align, and meiotic recombination creates the links between homologs that are necessary for proper meiosis I chromosome segregation. (asm.org)
- After completion of prophase, homologous chromosomes are segregated first during meiosis I, followed by the segregation of sister chromatids during meiosis II. (asm.org)
- Another hallmark of meiotic prophase is the synaptonemal complex (SC), a specialized protein-chromosome structure that physically connects aligned homologous chromosomes. (biologists.org)
- Maintenance of the chromosomal copy number over generations and recombination between homologous chromosomes are hallmarks of meiotic cell division. (frontiersin.org)
- Meiotic cell division, an essential step in sexual reproduction, helps in the segregation of homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids. (frontiersin.org)
- An added advantage of meiotic recombination is that the chiasmata formation during crossover helps in proper alignment and segregation of chromosomes ( Carpenter, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Because small chromosomes would be at risk of missegregation if recombination were randomly distributed, the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate recombination are not located arbitrarily2. (bvsalud.org)
- The engagement of homologous chromosomes with each other regulates the dissociation of Rec114 and Mer2 later in prophase I, whereas the timing of replication and the proximity to centromeres or telomeres influence the accumulation of Rec114 and Mer2 early in prophase I. Another early mechanism enhances the binding of Rec114 and Mer2 specifically on the shortest chromosomes, and is subject to selection pressure to maintain the hyperrecombinogenic properties of these chromosomes. (bvsalud.org)
- During the first meiotic division (meiosis I), recombination among homologous chromosomes generates novel genetic combinations that play an important role in evolution and breeding. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The entire process of meiotic recombination occurs in the context of (and relies on) linear multiprotein structures that form along the chromosomes in meiosis I: the axes, which help unite sister chromatids, and the synaptonemal complex (SC), which subsequently forms between the axes of homologous chromosomes and maintains their tight association as recombination events mature [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- BRCA2 appears to play an important role in meiotic recombination in mammalian cells, as it is highly expressed during spermatogenesis in mice ( Connor et al , 1997 ), and localises to meiotic chromosomes during early prophase I when homologous chromosomes undergo pairing ( Chen et al , 1998a ). (embopress.org)
- To study diverse meiotic outcomes and how they covary across chromosomes, gametes and humans, we developed Sperm-seq, a way of simultaneously analysing the genomes of thousands of individual sperm. (bvsalud.org)
- Our results can be incorporated with earlier observations into a unified model in which a core mechanism, the variable physical compaction of meiotic chromosomes, generates interindividual and cell-to-cell variation in diverse meiotic phenotypes. (bvsalud.org)
- All had a meiotic formula of 2n = 10II+X+y and an X+y sex determination system with giant, fully asynaptic sex chromosomes, concordant characteristics observed in the subtribe Oedionychina. (bvsalud.org)
- During mitosis, DNA is condensed into visible chromosomes (prophase) that arrange at the cell midplane (metaphase), separate (anaphase), and decondense into the interphase. (thefullwiki.org)
- Analysis of meiotic diakinesis chromosomes revealed a distinct phenotype in these double mutants. (prolekarniky.cz)
- Homologous recombination (HR) repairs cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with high fidelity. (genetics.org)
- DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are extremely cytotoxic lesions that threaten genome integrity. (genetics.org)
- In many organisms, homolog pairing and segregation depends upon the developmental induction of hundreds of double-strand breaks (DSBs) throughout the genome (150-300 DSBs in yeasts and mammals) . (prolekare.cz)
- Meiotic recombination is initiated by large numbers of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), ranging from dozens to hundreds per cell depending on the organism. (prolekare.cz)
- Given high strain-to-strain variability in Ty location and the high aggregate burden of Ty-proximal DSBs, we propose that meiotic recombination is an important component of host-Ty interactions and that Tys play critical roles in genome instability and evolution in both inbred and outcrossed sexual cycles. (prolekare.cz)
- During meiosis, homologous recombination is induced by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by the topoisomerase-like Spo11 protein in a reaction in which Spo11 attaches covalently to 5′ strand termini of the DSB . (prolekare.cz)
- The molecular process of CO formation involve a highly regulated pathway of induction of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), followed by their repair on the homolog ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia-related (ATR) kinases are conserved regulators of cellular responses to double strand breaks (DSBs). (rupress.org)
- In this paper, we show that ATM and ATR have unique roles in the repair of meiotic DSBs in Drosophila melanogaster . (rupress.org)
- Thus, we conclude that ATM is primarily required for the meiotic DSB repair response, which includes functions in DNA damage repair and negative feedback control over the level of programmed DSBs during meiosis. (rupress.org)
- During meiosis, programmed DSBs initiate meiotic recombination. (rupress.org)
- Our findings suggest that ATM has unique roles in promoting DSB repair as well as negatively regulating the number of DSBs that are induced during meiotic prophase. (rupress.org)
- Proper repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is key to ensure proper chromosome segregation. (springer.com)
- Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) are dangerous to genomic integrity. (stanford.edu)
- Furthermore, Spo11 homologs have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, leading to the hypothesis that the creation of DSBs is a conserved mechanism for initiating meiotic recombination ( Keeney, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
- Meiotic DSBs are generated by Spo11 and accessory DSB proteins, including Rec114 and Mer2, which assemble on chromosomes3-7 and are nearly universal in eukaryotes8-11. (bvsalud.org)
- Meiotic crossovers (and noncrossovers) are initiated in S. cerevisiae by 150-170 programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) formed by an evolutionarily conserved topoisomerase-like protein Spo11 and other accessory proteins (reviewed in Neale and Keeney 2006 ). (g3journal.org)
- This monograph discusses DNA repair mechanisms activated after DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), i.e. non-homologous end joining, homologous recombination and single strand annealing and the role of ATM in the above types of repair. (biodiscoveryjournal.co.uk)
- For example, ionizing radiation can induce single or double stranded DNA breaks (SSBs or DSBs respectively), UV light can cause the formation of pyrimidine dimers or depurination, chemical carcinogens can cause DNA cross links, enzyme-mediated base removal may produce abasic sites, and spontaneous cytosine deamination can result in non-native DNA base, uracil. (biodiscoveryjournal.co.uk)
- Ironically, the intricate biology of the U. maydis life cycle has impeded establishment of some of the most basic features of homologous recombination in the meiotic process, so there is a need for greater elucidation in this system. (genetics.org)
- Here we identify specific, essential meiotic functions for the Smc5/6 complex in homologous recombination and the regulation of cohesin. (prolekare.cz)
- Here, we provide evidence that At FANCD2 is required for meiotic homologous recombination. (plantcell.org)
- RecA is a key factor in bacterial homologous recombination mechanism and can promote invasion of a duplex DNA by a homologous single‐stranded molecule. (embopress.org)
- Homologous recombination is important for error-free DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and for meiotic crossover (CO) formation. (prolekarniky.cz)
- Diagram the process of homologous recombination during meiosis and explain how it can lead to new combinations of linked alleles. (docplayer.net)
- Explain the role of homologous recombination in ensuring proper segregation of homologs in meiosis I Explain how a specific combination of linked alleles (haplotype) can persist through many generations (linkage disequilibrium). (docplayer.net)
- This abnormal chromosome segregation in srs2 cells accompanies the formation of a novel DNA damage induced during late meiotic prophase I. The damage may contain long stretches of single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs), which lead to aggregate formation of a ssDNA binding protein, RPA, and a RecA homolog, Rad51, as well as other recombination proteins inside of the nuclei, but not that of a meiosis-specific Dmc1. (springer.com)
- The Rad51 aggregate formation in the srs2 mutant depends on the initiation of meiotic recombination and occurs in the absence of chromosome segregation. (springer.com)
- Stage-specific expression of crucial meiotic regulators controls most meiotic processes, including meiotic recombination, formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC), meiosis I chromosome segregation, and spore wall formation. (asm.org)
- Here we show that preventing microtubule-kinetochore interactions during premeiotic S phase and prophase I is essential for establishing the meiosis I chromosome segregation pattern. (elifesciences.org)
- We propose that inhibition of microtubule-kinetochore interactions during premeiotic S phase and prophase I is central to establishing the unique meiosis I chromosome segregation pattern. (elifesciences.org)
- Crossovers are critical for chromosome segregation in most eukaryotes, but are also an important factor in evolution, as they generate novel genetic combinations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The molecular mechanisms that underpin meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation are well conserved across kingdoms, but are also sensitive to perturbation by environment, especially temperature. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Thus the evolutionarily important effects of recombination and allele shuffling are intimately tied to the physical workings of meiotic chromosome segregation and the maintenance of genome integrity over generations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The protein shows similarity to several yeast and mammalian proteins involved in meiotic recombination and cell cycle progression, e.g., the products of MEC1 in budding yeast and rad3 + in fission yeast and the TOR proteins of yeast and mammals ( 35 , 70 , 71 ). (asm.org)
- R-loops form when an RNA molecule anneals to a homologous DNA molecule, creating an RNA-DNA hybrid and a displaced single stranded DNA. (unideb.hu)
- A key early step in HR is the search for and invasion of a homologous DNA template by a single-stranded RAD-51 nucleoprotein filament. (genetics.org)
- Initial processing of DSB ends by resection forms 3′ single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that are coated with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA. (genetics.org)
- Subsequent resection of DSB 5′ strand ends generates 3′ single-stranded tails, which are substrates for proteins that search for a homologous DNA duplex and effect the templated repair of the break . (prolekare.cz)
- RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and participate in forming ribonucleoprotein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
- Recombinases belonging to the RecA/RadA/RAD51 family play a key role in HR by binding to single‐stranded DNA generated at the site of a DSB, to form helical nucleoprotein filaments that interact with homologous DNA and promote strand exchange ( West, 2003 ). (embopress.org)
- This report examines the roles of the PAH domains in mediating EMG repression during mitotic cell division and following meiotic induction. (asm.org)
- Unlike mitotic repression, reestablishing EMG repression following transient meiotic induction requires PAH3 and PAH4. (asm.org)
- Using a CRISPR-induced nonsense allele of sws-1 , we show that sws-1 promotes HR in mitotic and meiotic nuclei. (genetics.org)
- Many aspects of cell cycle regulation are similar during proliferative mitotic growth and meiosis, but the different division pattern of meiosis requires modification of the mitotic cell cycle machinery to fit the needs of the meiotic differentiation program. (asm.org)
- In addition, male myt1 germline cells occasionally undergo an extra mitotic division, resulting in meiotic cysts with twice the normal numbers of cells. (biologists.org)
- Teliospores obtained from a spo11Δ cross were still able to germinate but the process was highly disturbed and the meiotic products were imbalanced in chromosomal complement. (genetics.org)
- Meiotic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster requires mei-W68 ( McKim and Hayashi-Hagihara, 1998 ), a Spo11 homolog. (biologists.org)
- Meiotic genes in budding yeast are repressed during vegetative growth but are transiently induced during specific stages of meiosis. (asm.org)
- A prior study in budding yeast demonstrated that insertion of a Ty retrotransposon into a DSB hotspot can suppress meiotic break formation, but properties of Ty elements in their most common physiological contexts have not been addressed. (prolekare.cz)
- Here we demonstrate that the budding yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 directly regulates the formation of the DNA double-strand breaks that initiate recombination by phosphorylating the Mer2/Rec107 protein and thereby modulating interactions of Mer2 with other proteins required for break formation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Here, we show that under microtubule-destabilizing conditions, such as low temperature or the presence of the spindle-depolymerizing drug benomyl, meiotic budding yeast cells arrest in G 1 or G 2 , instead of metaphase. (asm.org)
- We propose that the severe disruption of spermatogenesis during early prophase I in the absence of functional Atm may be partly due to altered interactions of telomeres with the nuclear matrix and distorted meiotic telomere clustering. (asm.org)
- These mice, which exhibit low levels of expression of human BRCA2 protein in the gonads, are infertile because spermatocytes fail to progress beyond the early prophase I stage of meiosis. (embopress.org)
- Meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow segments of the genome, defined as hotspots. (sciencemag.org)
- We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3 Δ, pch2 Δ, and mlh3 Δ pch2 Δ mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers. (g3journal.org)
- Although double-strand break creation is required for normal synapsis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the mouse, it is not necessary for synapsis in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans . (biologists.org)
- To investigate the timing of and requirements for double-strand break formation during Drosophila meiosis, we used an antibody that recognizes a histone modification at double-strand break sites, phosphorylation of HIS2AV (γ-HIS2AV). (biologists.org)
- Furthermore, mutations in Drosophila Rad54 ( okr ) and Rad51 ( spnB ) homologs cause delayed and prolonged γ-HIS2AV staining, suggesting that double-strand break repair is delayed but not eliminated in these mutants. (biologists.org)
- Drosophila mei-W68 1 and mei-W68 4572 are strong alleles that eliminate meiotic recombination ( McKim and Hayashi-Hagihara, 1998 ) (R.B. and K.M., unpublished). (biologists.org)
- Geneticists for several decades knew that meiotic crossover and recombination is absent in Drosophila males and some female lepidopterans, a condition termed achiasmy. (frontiersin.org)
- The adverse effects of the absence of meiotic recombination is clear from Steinmann's analysis of genes in Drosophila miranda "neo-Y chromosome," which resulted from the fusion of an autosome to the Y-chromosome estimated to have happened a million years ago ( Bachtrog, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
- This implies that teliospores have already undergone premeiotic DNA synthesis and suggests that meiotic recombination initiates at a stage of infection before teliospores mature. (genetics.org)
- Here we performed targeted and reversible ablation of premeiotic germ cells undergoing differentiation into oocytes in transgenic mice expressing the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase ( HSVtk ), driven by the promoter of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 ( Stra8 ), a germ cell-specific gene activated during meiotic commitment. (nature.com)
- Cells arrest in G 1 if microtubule perturbation occurs as they enter the meiotic cell cycle and in G 2 if cells are already undergoing premeiotic S phase. (asm.org)
- In addition, a prolonged G 2 phase (meiotic prophase) separates premeiotic DNA replication from the first meiotic division. (asm.org)
- The vegetative repression of a group of genes designated "early meiotic genes" (EMG) requires the recruitment of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Rpd3p ( 13 ) and the chromatin-remodeling factor Isw2p ( 10 ) by the Ume6p DNA binding protein ( 31 ). (asm.org)
- Ume6p binds an element termed upstream repressor sequence 1 (URS1) that is responsible for the full repression and activation of several early meiotic genes ( 3 , 5 , 37 ). (asm.org)
- Decreased expression of these genes is likely to be responsible for halting both cell cycle progression and meiotic development. (asm.org)
- find that EZH2 overexpression silences genes for the primary cilium, causing deciliation, Wnt pathway activation, and progression of BrafV600E- or NrasQ61N-driven melanomas, thus defining a tumor-suppressor role for cilia in cancer. (stanford.edu)
- Differentiate between a gene and an allele, including the recognition that genes may have many alleles. (docplayer.net)
- Contrast the mechanisms of inheritance of nuclear and organellar genetic information Explain how independent assortment of alleles during meiosis can lead to new combinations of alleles of unlinked genes. (docplayer.net)
- Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance How can one deduce information about genes, alleles, and gene functions from analysis of genetic crosses and patterns of inheritance? (docplayer.net)
- Design genetic crosses to provide information about genes, alleles, and gene functions. (docplayer.net)
- Interpret the results of experiments comparing the phenotypes that result from single mutations in two different genes with the phenotype of the double mutant, contrasting epistatic and additive interactions. (docplayer.net)
- Sin3p represses the early meiotic gene (EMG) by bridging the DNA binding protein Ume6p to the histone deacetylase Rpd3p. (asm.org)
- Indeed, Abf1p helps stimulate transcription of the URS1-regulated meiotic gene HOP1 ( 37 ). (asm.org)
- Lethal allele A mutant form of a gene that, in the homozygous state, is fatal. (bioscreening.net)
- Lethal gene See: lethal allele. (bioscreening.net)
- Partial or complete reactivation of the inactive X in females may be a step in breast and ovarian cancer progression, leading to overexpression of some tumour enhancing gene. (ubc.ca)
- Draw a simple line diagram showing a segment of DNA from a gene and its RNA transcript, indicating which DNA strand is the template, the direction of transcription and the polarities of all DNA and RNA strands. (docplayer.net)
- Explain how continuous traits are the result of many different gene combinations that can each contribute a varying amount to a phenotype. (docplayer.net)
- The exchange of RPA for the recombinase enzyme RAD51 facilitates the homology search and strand invasion of homologous DNA templates to form displacement loop structures. (genetics.org)
- Subsequent stabilization of HR intermediates then requires removal of RAD51 from the double-stranded DNA to allow access to the DNA polymerization machinery. (genetics.org)
- Bishop DK (1994) RecA homologs Dmc1 and Rad51 interact to form multiple nuclear complexes prior to meiotic chromosome synapsis. (springer.com)
- We utilized "bottom-up" nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) to identify histone PTMs and to determine their relative abundance in distinct stages of mouse spermatogenesis (meiotic, round spermatids, elongating/condensing spermatids, and mature sperm) and in human sperm. (biomedcentral.com)
- Alani E, Padmore R, Kleckner N (1990) Analysis of wild-type and rad50 mutants of yeast suggests an intimate relationship between meiotic chromosome synapsis and recombination. (springer.com)
- We demonstrated that disruption of OsSHOC1 caused a reduction of CO numbers to ∼83% of wild-type CO numbers, whereas synapsis and early meiotic recombination steps were not affected. (plantphysiol.org)
- The relationship between synaptonemal complex formation (synapsis) and double-strand break formation (recombination initiation) differs between organisms. (biologists.org)
- Our results support the hypothesis that double-strand break formation occurs after synapsis. (biologists.org)
- Our results point towards the existence of a novel surveillance mechanism of microtubule integrity that may be particularly important during specialized cell cycles when coordination of cell cycle progression with a developmental program is necessary. (asm.org)
- At FANCD2 promotes noninterfering COs in a MUS81-independent manner and is therefore part of an uncharted meiotic CO-promoting mechanism, in addition to those described previously. (plantcell.org)
- pch2 Δ showed ∼50% genome-wide increase in crossover frequency (137 crossovers per meiosis), elevated noncrossovers as well as loss of chromosome size dependent double-strand break formation. (g3journal.org)
- Crossovers were restored to wild-type frequency in the double mutant mlh3 Δ pch2 Δ (100 crossovers per meiosis), but obligate crossovers were compromised. (g3journal.org)
- We propose that Srs2 helicase resolves early protein-DNA recombination intermediates to suppress the formation of aberrant lethal DNA damage during late prophase I. (springer.com)
- a meiosis-specific yeast homolog of E. coli recA required for recombination, synaptonemal complex formation, and cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
- How is their formation and repair coordinated with other features of the meiotic program? (stanford.edu)
- For gamete formation to occur successfully, it is essential that the meiotic cell cycle and the developmental program are tightly coupled via molecular interactions that we are only beginning to understand. (asm.org)
- Mutations that uncouple meiotic cell cycle progression from spore formation emphasize how important these interactions are. (asm.org)
- For example, cells that fail to decrease cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity cannot disassemble the meiosis I spindle, but other aspects of the meiotic cell cycle and the developmental program (spore production) continue, leading to the formation of defective gametes ( 5 , 36 ). (asm.org)
- Here we provide evidence that HIS2AV is phosphorylated in response to meiotic DSB formation. (biologists.org)
- Recombination is essentially a DNA repair process that relies on initial programmed double strand break (DSB) formation, followed by repair via numerous recombinases [ 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- This initiates with meiotic division of diploid male spermatogonia to produce four haploid round spermatids, which then undergo spermiogenesis, comprising compaction and condensation, cytoplasmic shedding, acrosome formation, and nuclear elongation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interestingly, we detected a low (10-25% of wildtype) number of γ-HIS2AV foci in c(3)G mutants, which fail to assemble synaptonemal complex, suggesting that there may be both synaptonemal complex-dependent and synaptonemal complex-independent mechanisms for generating double-strand breaks. (biologists.org)
- double mutants showed a similar reduction in survival rates as slx-4 . (prolekarniky.cz)
- In all double mutants crossover (CO) recombination is reduced but not abolished, indicative of further redundancy in meiotic HJ resolution. (prolekarniky.cz)
- Real time imaging revealed extensive chromatin bridges during the first meiotic division that appear to be eventually resolved in meiosis II, suggesting back-up resolution activities acting at or after anaphase I. We also show that in HJ resolution mutants, the restructuring of chromosome arms distal and proximal to the CO still occurs, suggesting that CO initiation but not resolution is likely to be required for this process. (prolekarniky.cz)
- The ATM protein exhibits the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase signature of a growing family of proteins involved in the control of cell cycle progression, processing of DNA damage, and maintenance of genomic stability ( 32 ). (asm.org)
- The data suggest that KDP-1 is a novel KASH protein that functions to ensure the timely progression of the cell cycle between the end of S phase and the entry into mitosis. (biologists.org)
- During the meiotic cell cycle, DNA is replicated once and then separated twice during meiosis I and meiosis II without an intervening S phase. (asm.org)
- The complex transcriptional program that underlies gametogenesis appears to be one key level of control that couples the meiotic cell cycle to gamete development. (asm.org)
- Based on these observations, we propose that Myt1 serves unique Cdk1 regulatory functions required for efficient coupling of cell differentiation with cell cycle progression. (biologists.org)
- To ensure the high fidelity of these processes, checkpoint mechanisms have evolved to delay cell cycle progression when DNA damage is sensed or chromosome alignment is incomplete. (g3journal.org)
- Deregulation of the cell cycle is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation and plays a central role in the initiation and progression of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- More recently, the NimA related kinase (Nek) family protein kinases begun to emerge as important players in regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle both during normal cell cycle progression and in response to genotoxic stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- The critical role for NimA in promoting cell cycle progression in A.nidulans raised the possibility that homologues of NimA existed in higher eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lagging strand The strand of DNA that is synthesized discontinuously during replication (because DNA synthesis can proceed only in the 5′?3′ direction). (bioscreening.net)
- Leading strand The strand of DNA that is synthesized continuously during replication. (bioscreening.net)
- During meiotic cell division, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two consecutive rounds of nuclear division called meiosis I and meiosis II. (elifesciences.org)
- Interestingly, dve Dll double mutant clones could also induce ectopic antennae lacking the distal structures, suggesting that the Dve activity is crucial for repressing inappropriate antenna-forming potential in the vertex region. (sdbonline.org)
- Double mutant analysis revealed that bub-3 does not act within any of the three major pathways involved in the repair of double-strand breaks. (g3journal.org)
- The prophase I arrest in the follicle-enclosed oocyte is the result of low maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, and resumption of meiosis upon the arrival of hormonal signals is mediated by activation of MPF. (diva-portal.org)
- Thus the second aim of the thesis was to identify the specific Cdk that is essential for mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. (diva-portal.org)
- We found that only Cdk1 is essential and sufficient for the oocyte meiotic maturation. (diva-portal.org)
- A role for BRCA2 in meiotic recombination has also been demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana where siRNA against BRCA2 leads to meiotic defects and partial sterility ( Siaud et al , 2004 ). (embopress.org)
- Meiotic defects associated with pch2 ∆ did not cause significant increase in nonexchange chromosome frequency. (g3journal.org)
- In addition, a crucial task for meiotic cell division is the maintenance of recombination mediated genetic variability ( Hunter, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
- HR has a dual cellular function: while it maintains the integrity of DNA in somatic cells, it creates genetic variability by directing DNA exchanges in meiotic cells that result in random combinations of alleles and traits. (embopress.org)
- Our data suggest that the Smc5/6 complex is required for specific recombination and chromosomal processes throughout meiosis and that in its absence, attempts at cell division with unresolved joint molecules and residual cohesin lead to severe recombination-induced meiotic catastrophe. (prolekare.cz)
- The parasitoid was attracted by a combination of host plant and host volatiles in both the absence and presence of non-host plant volatiles in a Y-tube olfactometer. (uni-wuerzburg.de)