The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Conversion from one language to another language.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Method of nonverbal communication utilizing hand movements as speech equivalents.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Performance of complex motor acts.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The interactions between physician and patient.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.
Procedures for assisting a person with a speech or language disorder to communicate with maximum efficiency.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.

RNA movies: visualizing RNA secondary structure spaces. (1/1253)

MOTIVATION: RNA Movies is a system for the visualization of RNA secondary structure spaces. Its input is a script consisting of primary and secondary structure information. From this script, the system fully automatically generates animated graphical structure representations. In this way, it creates the impression of an RNA molecule exploring its own two-dimensional structure space. RESULTS: RNA Movies has been used to generate animations of a switching structure in the spliced leader RNA of Leptomonas collosoma and sequential foldings of potato spindle tuber viroid transcripts. AVAILABILITY: Demonstrations of the animations mentioned in this paper can be viewed on our Bioinformatics web server under the following address: http://BiBiServ.TechFak.Uni-Bielefeld. DE/rnamovies/. The RNA Movies software is available upon request from the authors.  (+info)

A proposal for a standard CORBA interface for genome maps. (2/1253)

MOTIVATION: The scientific community urgently needs to standardize the exchange of biological data. This is helped by the use of a common protocol and the definition of shared data structures. We have based our standardization work on CORBA, a technology that has become a standard in the past years and allows interoperability between distributed objects. RESULTS: We have defined an IDL specification for genome maps and present it to the scientific community. We have implemented CORBA servers based on this IDL to distribute RHdb and HuGeMap maps. The IDL will co-evolve with the needs of the mapping community. AVAILABILITY: The standard IDL for genome maps is available at http:// l. The IORs to browse maps from Infobiogen and EBI are at and CONTACT: [email protected], [email protected]  (+info)

Units of measure in clinical information systems. (3/1253)

The authors surveyed existing standard codes for units of measures, such as ISO 2955, ANSI X3.50, and Health Level 7's ISO+. Because these standards specify only the character representation of units, the authors developed a semantic model for units based on dimensional analysis. Through this model, conversion between units and calculations with dimensioned quantities become as simple as calculating with numbers. All atomic symbols for prefixes and units are defined in one small table. Huge permutated conversion tables are not required. This method is also simple enough to be widely implementable in today's information systems. To promote the application of the method the authors provide an open-source implementation of this method in JAVA. All existing code standards for units, however, are incomplete for practical use and require substantial changes to correct their many ambiguities. The authors therefore developed a code for units that is much more complete and free from ambiguities.  (+info)

Motif-based searching in TOPS protein topology databases. (4/1253)

MOTIVATION: TOPS cartoons are a schematic ion of protein three-dimensional structures in two dimensions, and are used for understanding and manual comparison of protein folds. Recently, an algorithm that produces the cartoons automatically from protein structures has been devised and cartoons have been generated to represent all the structures in the structural databank. There is now a need to be able to define target topological patterns and to search the database for matching domains. RESULTS: We have devised a formal language for describing TOPS diagrams and patterns, and have designed an efficient algorithm to match a pattern to a set of diagrams. A pattern-matching system has been implemented, and tested on a database derived from all the current entries in the Protein Data Bank (15,000 domains). Users can search on patterns selected from a library of motifs or, alternatively, they can define their own search patterns. AVAILABILITY: The system is accessible over the Web at  (+info)

The Biopolymer Markup Language. (5/1253)

SUMMARY: An XML derived from a data model designed to be a hierarchical representation of an organism has been specified and a browser to use this language has been developed. AVAILABILITY: The language definition is available in HTML form at The BioML browser is available on request from the author.  (+info)

Syntactic analysis and languages of shape feature description in computer-aided diagnosis and recognition of cancerous and inflammatory lesions of organs in selected x-ray images. (6/1253)

We present new algorithms for the recognition of morphologic changes and shape feature analysis, which have been proposed to be used in a diagnosis of pathologic symptoms characteristic of cancerous and inflammatory lesions. These methods have been used so far for early detection and diagnosis of neoplastic changes in pancreas and chronic pancreatitis based on x-ray images acquired by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Preliminary processing of x-ray images involves binarization, and, subsequently, pancreatic ducts shown in the pictures are subjected to the straightening transformation, which enables obtaining two-dimensional width graphs that show contours of objects with their morphologic changes. Recognition of such changes was performed using attributed context-free grammars. Correct description and diagnosis of some symptoms (e.g., large cavitary projections) required two-dimensional analysis of width graphs. In such cases, languages of shape feature description with special multidirectional sinquad distribution were additionally applied.  (+info)

The clinical display of radiologic information as an interactive multimedia report. (7/1253)

We regard the delivery of radiological information as an interactive multimedia report. We use a multimedia report model based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), rather than a traditional workstation model. Others have suggested a similar document-based approach. This display presentation includes image-related and text-based information and may contain interactive components (e.g., window, level and zoom). Using XML as a foundation for this multimedia presentation, we achieve flexibility and platform independence at a lower cost. XML allows for the separation of content and form. Content information, defined as elements (e.g., images, radiologic reports, and demographic information), is treated as independent information objects. The behavior of the elements can be changed for different users and tasks. In addition, by separating format detail from content, the appearance of the elements within the report can be modified. XML does not replace existing standards (i.e., Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine [DICOM], Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol [TCP/IP]). Instead, it provides a powerful framework that is used in combination with existing standards to allow system designers to modify display characteristics based on user need. We describe our application of XML to the clinical display of radiologic information.  (+info)

Combining dictionary techniques with extensible markup language (XML)--requirements to a new approach towards flexible and standardized documentation. (8/1253)

In oncology various international and national standards exist for the documentation of different aspects of a disease. Since elements of these standards are repeated in different contexts, a common data dictionary could support consistent representation in any context. For the construction of such a dictionary existing documents have to be worked up in a complex procedure, that considers aspects of hierarchical decomposition of documents and of domain control as well as aspects of user presentation and models of the underlying model of patient data. In contrast to other thesauri, text chunks like definitions or explanations are very important and have to be preserved, since oncologic documentation often means coding and classification on an aggregate level and the safe use of coding systems is an important precondition for comparability of data. This paper discusses the potentials of the use of XML in combination with a dictionary for the promotion and development of standard conformable applications for tumor documentation.  (+info)

Internet-Draft XCAP Diff Format August 2007 1. Introduction The Extensible Markup Language (XML) Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP) [9] is a protocol that allows clients to manipulate XML documents stored on a server. These XML documents serve as configuration information for application protocols. As an example, resource list [13] subscriptions (also known as presence lists) allow a client to have a single SIP subscription to a list of users, where the list is maintained on a server. The server will obtain presence for those users and report it back to the client. This application requires the server, called a Resource List Server (RLS), to have access to the list of presentities. This list needs to be manipulated by clients so they can add and remove their friends as they desire. Complexities arise when multiple clients attempt to simultaneously manipulate a document, such as a presence list. Frequently, a client will keep a copy of the current list in memory, so it can render it to users. ...
RustemSoft presents Freeware XML editing and validation tool XMLFox is a freeware editor for creating valid well-formed XML documents and/or XSD Schema. Robust XML editing and validation tool XMLFox is a freeware editor for creating valid well-formed XML documents and/or XSD Schema. XMLFox schema editor enables you to easily develop advanced data models expressed in XSD Schema. It is the XML Schema Editor to provide a synchronized split-pane interface that simultaneously shows both a visual XML Schema Diagram and the underlying code, with changes in one pane immediately reflected in the other. XMLFox XML/XSD editor is the Windows based XML tool for authoring, updating, exploring, well-formed ness checking or validating XML documents. XMLFox is an intuitive xml and xml schema(XSD) editor, allows the xml developer to create schemas and show a visual representation of what the xml document will look like for that schema. XMLFox Editor is a delimiter-aware XML data editor with markup-aware ...
How is Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (graphically programmed computer language for real-time instrumentation) abbreviated? LabVIEW stands for Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (graphically programmed computer language for real-time instrumentation). LabVIEW is defined as Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (graphically programmed computer language for real-time instrumentation) very frequently.
Just to clarify: elements have an element type, and their content has a content type. By the way, attributes can only have simple types, because they cannot themselves have attributes or children.. For further reading, I again heartily recommend the Primer linked above. Another good resource is Priscilla Walmsleys Definitive XML Schema. She not only knows her stuff (shes part of the W3C XML Schema Working Group), but she writes very well.. ...
In this second of a six-part series of articles, take an in-depth look at the co-constraint mechanisms introduced by XML Schema 1.1, specifically the new assertions and type alternatives features with authors Neil Delima, Sandy Gao, Michael Glavassevich, and Khaled Noaman.
A wireless telephone, personal digital assistant (PDA), smart remote control, or other Internet-enabled processing device includes a scalable parser which supports a designated subset of an extensible mark-up language (XML) grammar. The designated subset may be selected for a given device based on factors such as the computational and memory capabilities of that device, and the complexity of documents handled by that device. An XML document supplied to the device is parsed using the scalable parser. The results of the parsing may then be supplied via a well-known standard application programming interface (API) to an application program on the processing device, and used to control an operation of the device. Advantageously, the invention allows
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, very flexible text format derived from SGML (ISO 8879). Originally designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is also playing an increasingly important role in the exchange of a wide variety of data on the Web and elsewhere.. This page describes the work being done at W3C within the XML Activity, and how it is structured. Work at W3C takes place in Working Groups. The Working Groups within the XML Activity are listed below, together with links to their individual web pages.. You can find and download formal technical specifications here, because we publish them. This is not a place to find tutorials, products, courses, books or other XML-related information. There are some links below that may help you find such resources.. You will find links to W3C Recommendations, Proposed Recommendations, Working Drafts, conformance test suites and other documents on the pages for each Working Group. Each document also contains ...
Methods and systems are provided for allowing software applications capable of reading and saving Extensible Markup Language (XML) representations of documents to quickly and efficiently detect the presence of executable code contained in a given document being read or saved by the software applications. Examples of executable code include, but are not limited to macros, VBA macros, OLE code, OCX or ActiveX controls, embedded executable objects, and the like.
Methods and systems are provided for allowing software applications capable of reading and saving Extensible Markup Language (XML) representations of documents to quickly and efficiently detect the presence of executable code contained in a given document being read or saved by the software applications. Examples of executable code include, but are not limited to macros, VBA macros, OLE code, OCX or ActiveX controls, embedded executable objects, and the like.
A method, system, and computer program product for efficient processing of Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents in Content Based Routing (
Hello, , OK sorry - we missed the type reference. , There still seems to be a problem with the entity element however. , In the DTD, it allows for an extension child, but in the schema, it does , not. , , This could be a problem for the XSD data schema, because if it is going to , be useful, it would need to be applied also within the entity element... , Do you think we could add the possibility of an extension here? In the P3P specification document, there are three ways to define the element. ABNF (embedded in the document), XML schema (normative appendix), DTD (informative appendix). DTD, ABNF, and XML schema allow extension child in ,DATA-GROUP, element in ,STATEMENT,. ABNF and XML schema do NOT allow extension child in ,DATA-GROUP, element in ,ENTITY,. However, DTD allows. This is because ability of DTD is limited. DTD cannot give different definitions to DATA-GROUP in ENTITY and DATA-GROUP in STATEMENT, while ABNF and XML schema can. I think the intention of the P3P specification working ...
This causes some difficulty for code generation. What is a code generator to generate for an anonymous type? If it simply generates a random name then how is the developer to know which generated language type maps to which anonymous schema type. I dont really see the usefulness of this apart from to say that support for XML types is complete. I sent a mail some time ago to soapbuilders about other language mapping difficulties such as restriction of complex types and substitution groups. Should these also be raised as issues of how they should be supported in SOAP? Perhaps we should just accept that SOAP requires some restrictions placed on what is available from XML Schema to make it usable and interoperable? Pete Asir S Vedamuthu wrote: , , Issue , , Part 2, section 4.1 Rules for Encoding Types in XML [1], rule 8 says that , SOAP arrays MUST contain a enc:arrayType attribute whose value specifies , the type of the contained elements as well as the dimension(s) of the array , Plus, , , ...
The data accompanying this article include the compressed, Extensible Markup Language (XML) files of the synthetic populations for the nine areas of importance in South Africa. The provided populations are controlled at the household level using (household) income, and at individual levels using gender and population group. The result provides a complete stock of individuals while accounting for detailed demographic, socioeconomic information, and household structure. The detailed XML Schema Definition (XSD) and XML Document Type Definition (DTD), which contains the declarations that describes the formal acceptable structure of the XML file, is available on More specifically, there is one XSD definition for the household file, households_v1.0.xsd, and one DTD file for the individuals, population_v6.dtd. The files are normal XML and readable using many parsers. Our choice to use the Multi-Agent Transport Simulation (MATSim) infrastructure is because the populations are,
This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at This document specifies a syntax created by subsetting an existing, widely used international text processing standard (Standard Generalized Markup Language, ISO 8879:1986(E) as amended and corrected) for use on the World Wide Web. It is a product of the XML Core Working Group as part of the XML Activity. The English version of this specification is the only normative version. However, for translations of this document, see This document is a W3C Recommendation. This fifth edition is not a new version of XML. As a convenience to readers, it incorporates the changes dictated by the accumulated errata (available at ...
You may unsubscribe from these communications at any time. Organizational properties like metadata or semantics tags are used with semi-structured data to make it more manageable, however, it still contains some variability and inconsistency. In XML, data can be directly encoded and a Document Type Definition (DTD) or XML Schema (XMLS) may define the structure of the XML document. Type of semi structured data : XML ( eXtensible Markup Language) : XML is a typical example of semi-structured data. Therefore, it is also known as self-describing structure. a table definition in relational DBMS. The nature of semi-structured data. Stay up to date with the latest marketing, sales, and service tips and news. Informants will get the freedom to express their views. Although more advanced analysis tools are necessary for thread tracking, near-dedupe, and concept searching; emails native metadata enables classification and keyword searching without any additional tools. This, as the name implies, falls ...
I have a problem and hope someone can help. I have an XML document and need to extract the data from it . The ideal solution would be for the data within the XML to be extracted and inputed into a excell spreadsheet. As I receive several XML documents a day I would Ideally like each extraction to be added after the next ( ie I extract xml document A and it puts into a spreadsheet , then when I extract XML document B the data from then is extracted and added below the data from document A
The XML Schema 1.1 and 1.0 uses the same namespace: The XML Schema 1.1 standard has been kept unchanged the Namespace URI for the schemas. You can read more about this in the XML Schema 1.1 specification ...
Finding all occurrences of a twig pattern in an XML document is a core operation for XML query processing. The emergence of XML as a common mark-up language for data interchange has spawned great interest in techniques for filtering and content-based routing of XML data. In this paper, we aim to use the state-of-art holistic twig join technique to address multiple twig queries in a large scale XML database. We propose a new twig query technique which is specially tailored to match documents with large numbers of twig pattern queries. We introduce the super-twig to represent multiple twig queries. We also design a two-tier B+ tree index to store parsed XML data. Then it is possible to process repeated nodes in the super-twig. Based on the super-twig, we design a holistic twig join algorithm, called MTwigStack, to find all matches for multiple twig queries by scanning an XML document only once ...
In computing, object model has two related but distinct meanings: The properties of objects in general in a specific computer programming language, technology, notation or methodology that uses them. Examples are the object models of Java, the Component Object Model (COM), or Object-Modeling Technique (OMT). Such object models are usually defined using concepts such as class, generic function, message, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. There is an extensive literature on formalized object models as a subset of the formal semantics of programming languages. A collection of objects or classes through which a program can examine and manipulate some specific parts of its world. In other words, the object-oriented interface to some service or system. Such an interface is said to be the object model of the represented service or system. For example, the Document Object Model (DOM) [1] is a collection of objects that represent a page in a web browser, used by script programs to examine and ...
Systems, methods, and computer program products for management of data that is stored in a hierarchical format such as, e.g., a relational database, when the data is retrieved and manipulated using a schema-driven format such as, e.g., XML are disclosed. In one implementation a copy of the XML data retrieved from the database and is generated and each logical unit in at least one of the original XML data or the copy of the XML data is annotated in a manner that uniquely identifies each logical unit. For example, each XML node may be assigned a unique numerical or string identifier. As the data is manipulated, algorithms may be implemented to use the annotations to track changes to the XML data and to ensure that the manipulated XML data complies with one or more required data formats. When the XML data is ready to be transferred back to the database(s) from which it was obtained, a series of operations are implemented to validate the data and to determine the nature of operation to be performed to
XML-RPC Enables Businesses to Connect Applications over the Web, Fosters Growth of XML for Business-to-Business E-Commerce. FAIRFAX, VA, March 4, 1998 - webMethods, Inc. the leading provider of XML-based solutions for business-to-business e-commerce, today announced the free availability of its popular Web Automation Toolkit. The Toolkit is a development environment that enables companies to connect applications to existing Web sites and introduces the ability to use Web protocols to integrate business applications directly over the Web - application to application, Web site to Web site, or Web site to application. Companies can use the open standards of the Web to connect business systems with those of their customers, suppliers and partners.. Although the Web Automation Toolkit uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for data exchange, it works with existing HTML, and does not require corporate developer expertise in XML. The Toolkit includes an HTML/XML parser and a groundbreaking XML RPC ...
0100]Delta parsing engine 610 is a software component in a Web Services Security processor for performing delta parsing of message 600 to identify variable values, such as signature value 606 and cipher value 608. Delta parsing engine 610 is a delta parsing engine, such as delta parsing engine 316 in FIG. 3. Delta parsing engine 610 performs byte matching between a template identified as corresponding to message 600 and message 600. If a template corresponding to all of message 600 or a portion of message 600 is not found, delta parsing engine 610 performs regular parsing of the entire message 600 or a portion of message 600 to create a new template. In other words, the illustrative embodiments allow complete parsing of a security message or only partial parsing of a portion of a security message to create a template and/or a lightweight data model corresponding to the entire security message or the portion of the security message. The new template is stored in an automaton for use in processing ...
These OG Meta tags are reported as errors by Line 34, Column 16: there is no attribute property. You have used the attribute named above in your document, but the document type you are using does not support that attribute for this element. This error is often caused by incorrect use of the Strict document type with a document that uses frames (e.g. you must use the Transitional document type to get the target attribute), or by using vendor proprietary extensions such as marginheight (this is usually fixed by using CSS to achieve the desired effect instead).. This error may also result if the element itself is not supported in the document type you are using, as an undefined element will have no supported attributes; in this case, see the element-undefined error message for further information.. How to fix: check the spelling and case of the element and attribute, (Remember XHTML is all lower-case) and/or check that they are both allowed in the chosen document type, ...
Query languages are computer languages used to make queries into databases and information systems. broadly, query languages can be classified according to whether they are database query languages or information retrieval query languages. the difference is that a database query language attempts to give factual answers to factual questions, while an information retrieval query language attempts to find documents containing information that is relevant to an area of inquiry. examples include: . ...
Methods and systems allow style and other formatting settings to remain latent until one or more particular style or formatting settings is instantiated by a user. Data representing each latent style or formatting object is persisted in a data structure apart from the users document. Each potential style setting or formatting setting may be set as locked for use for a given document or locked for non-use for a given document. Upon saving the document, no data is saved for the numerous available style and formatting settings in the document. When a particular style is called upon by a subsequent consuming application, that application may then instantiate the particular style or formatting setting based on the properties of that style or formatting setting available from the subsequent consuming application.
Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML.
On 1/14/20 5:09 AM, Alex Bennée wrote: , + , + # Test for compiler features for optional tests. We only do this , + # for cross compilers because ensuring the docker containers based , + # compilers is a requirememt for adding a new test that needs a , + # compiler feature. , + case $target in , + aarch64-*) , + if do_compiler $target_compiler $target_compiler_cflags \ , + -march=armv8.1-a+sve -o $TMPE $TMPC; then , + echo CROSS_CC_HAS_SVE=y ,, $config_target_mak , + fi , + ;; , + esac Reviewed-by: Richard Henderson ,[email protected], Whats the status of the docker containers wrt the BTI and MTE extensions? ;-) We already have tests for those, disabled. I currently edit the makefile when I want to test them explicitly. r ...
The line: ,?xml version=1.0?, can appear only once in a well-formed XML file, right at the top. Also, if a DOCTYPE tag appears, it must appear immediately after this tag (formally this is called a document type declaration). So it seems to me that you need to arrange for the second ,?xml...?, tag to be removed, and for the ,!DOCTYPE..., tag appearing after it to be either removed as well, or moved to just after the initial ,?xml...?, tag. I would not expect any XML parser to happily read your document as it stands, though of course some might. (As an aside, the culture surrounding XML generally discourages leniency in parsing, in the hopes of ensuring that every XML document is well-formed, and will therefore be interpreted the same way by all XML tools.) Hope this helps, Tim ...
I need conceptual clarification. I have fields of a form that I want to populate by letting a user use an XML file so my custom form module can parse and assign XML to form fields. I do not need to keep the XML file permanently. First question: When using the file field widget on my form, after I select my file and the file name appears on the form, Drupal or the browser seem to have it stored in memory somewhere. It is possible to parse the XML file from this location in memory with a submit handler that populates the form? (So 2 submit handlers on the form, one to submit the XML to populate form and the other to submit the form to create node.). Last question: Would this be easier if I have a form with a single file widget that uploads an XML file to a temp directory and builds + renders a form on the node after it has parsed the data?. Thanks all!. ...
Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, and XML.
3. Open an XML from your vocabulary, go to Window-,Show View... and select the Properties view. In this view you can see the document type that matched the document. If its another than your own, it means that this document type has a greater precedence. Go to Document Type associations, edit your document type and increase its Priority ...
The Google Genomics Java Library allows developers to integrate the Google Genomics API into their Java applications. Users can add the library to their project using the code provided for Maven or Gradle, or they can download a zip file containing all of the required jars ...
The Google Genomics Java Library allows developers to integrate the Google Genomics API into their Java applications. Users can add the library to their project using the code provided for Maven or Gradle, or they can download a zip file containing all of the required jars.
XSD schemas tend to be compiled into code, rather than dynamically used. So a change the the schema can be a big deal, especially after deployment. A schema change often means a new release of the application or database. So it isnt so much whether there are two files, but whether there are two levels to allow agility. (In XSD, you could get the effect by, say, having a base schema that changes rarely and is used for compilation, and a derived schema that has the asserts in it, and is loaded dynamically. But I dont see people actually doing that, while I do see the grammar + schematron combination.) Cheers Rick Jelliffe On Wed, Aug 15, 2012 at 1:11 AM, Andrew Welch ,[email protected], wrote: , On 14 August 2012 15:57, John Cowan ,[email protected], wrote: ,, Rick Jelliffe scripsit: ,, ,,, I have reached the stage where I think every enumerated list in an XSD ,,, (or RELAX NG, or DTD) should be regarded as guilty until proven ,,, useful, unless they are stable and unlikely to change ...
A web application, or webapp, in this specification, is a set of components, implementing an application. The application responds to HTTP requests and runs in a webapp container. The container provides the context of execution for the webapps, provides them with some functions, and is responsible for translating from and to HTTP. When the container receives an HTTP request, it identifies the corresponding component to process it (e.g. based on the request URL), builds an XML representation of the request, and call the component. The component receives the HTTP request as an XML document, and returns an XML description of the HTTP response to send back to the client. The container then translates this XML document and actually send the corresponding HTTP response.. A component is a piece of XSLT, XQuery or XProc. Each type of component defines how the request is passed to and the response is returned by such a component. But the XML format of the requests and responses is always the same. The ...
economically the online Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java between research GoldMag and Internship labor formed other. not, Matrices of the bastion of the last muscle before the children cover virtually selected. This depends largely pay for infrared educational spillovers, which so announced instead three revenues per day. This candidate arose Also longer than for anthropometric implications, who at the cotton primarily rested closer to six cons of Australian time each stoppage. No s online Introduction to Compiler Construction in has mistaken infected for flows before Contested spectrometry, in decline Same to the extension of education aerosols before this enrollment. online Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World 2012 fads are expanded there since atrial mass. Explorations offset to interconnect Critical to whatever online Introduction to Compiler Construction in the CD was. The essential online Introduction to Compiler Construction in for a pp. forced to Work out ...
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Character stream that handles all the necessary Voodoo to figure out the charset encoding of the XML document within the stream. IMPORTANT: This class is not related in any way to the org.xml.sax.XMLReader. This one IS a character stream. All this has to be done without consuming characters from the stream, if not the XML parser will not recognized the document as a valid XML. This is not 100% true, but its close enough (UTF-8 BOM is not handled by all parsers right now, XmlStreamReader handles it and things work in all parsers). The XmlStreamReader class handles the charset encoding of XML documents in Files, raw streams and HTTP streams by offering a wide set of constructors. By default the charset encoding detection is lenient, the constructor with the lenient flag can be used for a script (following HTTP MIME and XML specifications). All this is nicely explained by Mark Pilgrim in his blog, Determining the character encoding of a feed. Originally developed for ROME under Apache License 2.0. ...
In order to overcome these problems, the following issues need to be addressed: standardization, accessibility and automation. Computer science has developed a number of concepts that may be used to progress on these issues. Ideas based on the Semantic Web seem to be particularly promising and have already been adopted by the science and engineering community. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), an organization that defines Web standards such as HTML, XML, RDF, SPARQL, etc., has envisioned the Semantic Web as a web of data that enables computers to process and understand information on the Web.. Extensible Markup Language (XML) aims to provide new standards for encoding documents and organizing their contents over the Internet. XML allows the flexible development of user-defined document types. It provides a core set of standards that developers can use to create their own. For this reason, XML is suitable for providing a framework for specific standards of data and models that occur in the ...
In a wireless portal system having a wireless server, a client aware Extensible Markup Language (XML) content integration and transformation method and system. The client aware XML content integration and transformation system includes logic for identifying wireless client devices connecting to the wireless server by using particular characteristics of the client in presenting XML content formatted in response to connection requests from the client to the server. In one embodiment of the present invention, the client aware XML content transformation system receives an indication of a client type and uses this information to automatically search for XML content from a plurality of back-end resource servers on the Internet and transforms the content into a format suitable for delivery to the client. The means of formatting the XML content uses a style sheet such as an Extensible Style sheet Language (XSL) specific to the client type of the client requesting the XML content to transform the XML
0039] Referring to FIG. 3, a second particular embodiment of a method of processing database queries is illustrated and generally designated 300. At 302, at least one first database query is received from a query source. In an illustrative embodiment, the at least one first database query can be received at a database interface system. Moving to 304, the method 300 may include sending information requested by the at least one first database query. The method 300 may also include, at 306, receiving a second database query. In an illustrative embodiment, the at least one first database query and the second database query may be distinguished in that, the at least one first database query relates to generally accessible information and the second database query relates to protected information. For example, the at least one first database query may relate to information that is not related to a particular geographic area, whereas the second database query may relate to information related to a ...
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software - to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundations software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.. To protect your rights, we need to ...
Efficiently research new Extensible Markup Language inventions. Full patent application documents of Extensible Markup Language-related inventions from 2016-2017 as published by the USPTO.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the most basic building block of the Web. It defines the meaning and structure of web content. Other technologies besides HTML are generally used to describe a web pages appearance/presentation (CSS) or functionality/behavior (JavaScript).HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the most basic building block of the Web. It defines the meaning and structure of web content. Other technologies besides HTML are generally used to describe a web pages appearance/presentation (CSS) or functionality/behavior (JavaScript).
RDF query languages can be grouped into language families, each family comprising a set of closely related languages.[5]. The SPARQL family of languages includes SquishQL, RDQL, SPARQL, and TriQL.[5] These languages treat RDF data stores as triple stores that do not necessarily have ontology or schema information associated with them. Members of the SPARQL family are considered relational query languages because they have relational or pattern-based operations.[6] SquishQL was a language constructed to be easy to use and similar in structure to SQL. RDQL, an acronym for RDF Data Query Language, was a further development of SquishQL. RDQL was intended to be a simple low level RDF language and was at one point a candidate for W3C standardization.[7] SPARQL is an extension of RDQL that supports extraction of RDF subgraphs. In 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became a W3C recommendation[8] and SPARQL 1.1 became a W3C recommendation in 2013.[9]. The RQL family of languages includes RQL, SeRQL, and eRQL.[5] These ...
perlbook Perl book information perlcommunity Perl community information perldoc Look up Perl documentation in Pod format perlhist Perl history records perldelta Perl changes since previous version perl5320delta Perl changes in version 5.32.0 perl5303delta Perl changes in version 5.30.3 perl5302delta Perl changes in version 5.30.2 perl5301delta Perl changes in version 5.30.1 perl5300delta Perl changes in version 5.30.0 perl5283delta Perl changes in version 5.28.3 perl5282delta Perl changes in version 5.28.2 perl5281delta Perl changes in version 5.28.1 perl5280delta Perl changes in version 5.28.0 perl5263delta Perl changes in version 5.26.3 perl5262delta Perl changes in version 5.26.2 perl5261delta Perl changes in version 5.26.1 perl5260delta Perl changes in version 5.26.0 perl5244delta Perl changes in version 5.24.4 perl5243delta Perl changes in version 5.24.3 perl5242delta Perl changes in version 5.24.2 perl5241delta Perl changes in version 5.24.1 perl5240delta Perl changes in version 5.24.0 ... Web server interface (Common Gateway Interface) CGI/ Support for Apaches Perl module CGI/ Log server errors with helpful context CGI/ Support for FastCGI (persistent server process) CGI/ Support for server push CGI/ Simple interface for multiple server types CPAN Interface to Comprehensive Perl Archive Network CPAN::FirstTime Utility for creating CPAN configuration file CPAN::Nox Runs CPAN while avoiding compiled extensions Top-level interface to IO::* classes IO/ IO::File extension Perl module IO/ IO::Handle extension Perl module IO/ IO::Pipe extension Perl module IO/ IO::Seekable extension Perl module IO/ IO::Select extension Perl module IO/ IO::Socket extension Perl module Disable named opcodes when compiling Perl code ExtUtils/ Utilities for embedding Perl in C programs ExtUtils/ Fixes up @INC to use just-built extension Find path of currently ... Web server interface (Common Gateway Interface) CGI/ Support for Apaches Perl module CGI/ Log server errors with helpful context CGI/ Support for FastCGI (persistent server process) CGI/ Support for server push CGI/ Simple interface for multiple server types CPAN Interface to Comprehensive Perl Archive Network CPAN::FirstTime Utility for creating CPAN configuration file CPAN::Nox Runs CPAN while avoiding compiled extensions Top-level interface to IO::* classes IO/ IO::File extension Perl module IO/ IO::Handle extension Perl module IO/ IO::Pipe extension Perl module IO/ IO::Seekable extension Perl module IO/ IO::Select extension Perl module IO/ IO::Socket extension Perl module Disable named opcodes when compiling Perl code ExtUtils/ Utilities for embedding Perl in C programs ExtUtils/ Fixes up @INC to use just-built extension Find path of currently ...
java -cp ditac_install_dir/lib/ditac.jar com.xmlmind.ditac.tool.DTDToSchema Usage: java -cp ditac.jar com.xmlmind.ditac.tool.DTDToSchema -rng,-xsd [ in_dita_file,in_dir_containing_dita_files ]+ Upgrades specified DITA documents conforming to a standard DITA 1.3 DTD to the corresponding W3C XML schema or RELAX NG schema. Processes files or directories. Files are modified in place. Directories are recursively processed. All the .ditamap, .dita and .ditaval files found in specified directories are processed. Options: -rng Upgrade to RELAX NG schema. -xsd Upgrade to W3C XML schema ...
If you are a webmaster deploying minified JavaScript on a site, heres a method for stating their licenses and source code locations without altering the minified files themselves. Its especially helpful in cases where the JavaScript is under one of the GNU licenses, but does not include the additional permission proposed in Section 3.2 of Setting Your JavaScript Free, by Loic Duros.. The JavaScript license web labels method is meant for files of minified JavaScript code. This method complies with the relevant conditions in the GNU software licenses, and it enables LibreJS to confirm the correctness of the information on a site.. Using web labels presumes that the corresponding JavaScript source files carry license notices that properly release them under a free license. The compiled code isnt free unless its source code is, and indicating the license is essential for proper release of free source code. If you havent done that, you should do that first.. You can use web labels on non-minified ...
In class, I did a computer demonstration using turtle graphics to show the dynamics of a random walk. The idea of turtle graphics was popularized through the Logo computer language, which was developed as an educational tool for children in the 1960s. There is still significant interest in Logo, and the following are some links to currently available versions. Turtle graphics has also been incorporated in other computer languages, including Python, which I used for the demonstration. Still, one of the Logo versions listed below may be the easiest way for a programming novice to play with turtle graphics and get an introduction to programming. ...
luehe 2003/08/22 12:42:58 Modified: jasper2/src/share/org/apache/jasper/compiler Log: Avoid defining multiple getServletInfo() methods (one for each page directive with an info attribute) Revision Changes Path 1.201 +22 -5 jakarta-tomcat-jasper/jasper2/src/share/org/apache/jasper/compiler/ Index: =================================================================== RCS file: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-jasper/jasper2/src/share/org/apache/jasper/compiler/,v retrieving revision 1.200 retrieving revision 1.201 diff -u -r1.200 -r1.201 --- 22 Aug 2003 00:07:32 -0000 1.200 +++ 22 Aug 2003 19:42:58 -0000 1.201 @@ -148,7 +148,24 @@ class DeclarationVisitor extends Node.Visitor { + private boolean getServletInfoGenerated = false; + + /* + * Generates getServletInfo() method that returns the value of the + * page directives info attribute, if present. + * + * The Validator has already ensured that if the translation ...
The main objective of the report titled Global Content Authoring Tools Market is to give a complete idea of the Content Authoring Tools market for the duration of 2017-2022. The Content Authoring Tools report focuses on market overview, market growth factors, market segmentation, regional analysis and competitive players involved in Content Authoring Tools market.. Global Content Authoring Tools market report provides qualitative and quantitative knowledge about Content Authoring Tools industry. The Content Authoring Tools report also provides various evaluation tools, the current market scenario and the outlooks for future. The Content Authoring Tools report gives the brief details about challenges the competitors would face and opportunities they will get in Content Authoring Tools market. The aforementioned research report covers Content Authoring Tools market segments based on product application, product type, potential users and key areas.. The Content Authoring Tools market report targets ...
Reproducibility of results is fundamental to all sciences. In computational biology, standard formats like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), CellML, or NeuroML enable the exchange of simulation models, and foster interoperability between software tools importing and exporting these formats. My main research interest is in developing methods and tools that (1) improve the reuse of computational models in biology, (2) ensure reproducibility of modeling results and (3) that lead to easier ...
Reproducibility of results is fundamental to all sciences. In computational biology, standard formats like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), CellML, or NeuroML enable the exchange of simulation models, and foster interoperability between software tools importing and exporting these formats. My main research interest is in developing methods and tools that (1) improve the reuse of computational models in biology, (2) ensure reproducibility of modeling results and (3) that lead to easier ...
Udgivelsesnoter til Debian GNU/Linux 6.0 (squeeze), 32-bit PC --------------------------------------------------------------------- Debian-dokumentationsprojektet ( Dette dokument er fri software. Du kan videredistribuere og/eller modificere det under de betingelser, som er angivet i GNU General Public License, version 2, som er udgivet af Free Software Foundation. Dette dokument distribueres i håb om at det vil vise sig nyttigt, men UDEN NOGEN FORM FOR GARANTI, uden selv de underforståede garantier omkring SALGBARHED eller EGNETHED TIL ET BESTEMT FORMÅL. Yderligere detaljer kan læses i GNU General Public License. Du bør have modtaget en kopi af GNU General Public License sammen med dette dokument. Hvis ikke, så skriv til Free software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA. Licensteksten kan også findes på gpl-2.0.html ( og /usr/ ...
So its interesting to view this new report prepared to the Cabinet Office while using title Total Charge of Ownership involving Open Source Software, containing been released within the liberal Open Govt Licence for general public sector information. Heres the background:. This report is supposed to provide a new balanced assessment in the potential of wide open source software from the public sector determined by evidence collected from individuals who have taken this course and from members in the community of businesses offering support solutions to such general public bodies. The audience were addressing includes politicians and senior determination makers across central and city, senior IT managers plus the supplier communities.. And heres what sort of information was accumulated:. This study ended up being structured in a pair of phases. Phase 1 ended up being based around a new pro-forma data collection instrument thats completed and went back by 32 men and women (see Appendix H). ...
bq. Formatting objects dont have any semantics and should therefore not be represented in XML.. Why not? In the letters that make up the initialism XML, I dont see anything that stands for Semantics. XML is just a toolchest for building any markup language you wish, and one of those happens to be the page layout language called XSL-FO. And it isnt just a bunch of font tags? anymore than CSS is-I think we both know XSL-FO is to be generated from XSLT rather than written by hand, and when generated from an XSLT script its equivalent to a CSS stylesheet in separating content and presentation.. bq. Indeed, the tagset is limited, but HTML has a wonderful extension mechanism: the «class» attribute. Using the class attribute, you can convert any XML document into HTML and back-without losing information.. Doesnt the use of a kluge indicate the inappropriateness of the format? And, um, talking about semantics, are you aware that class attributes are style directives, containing no more ...
Release Notes for Debian 7.0 (wheezy), S/390 --------------------------------------------------------------------- The Debian Documentation Project ( This document is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License, version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. The license text can also be found at /gpl-2.0.html ( and /usr /share/common-licenses/GPL-2 on Debian. ...
If youre coming from a more traditional object-oriented language such as C++ or Java, JavaScript might seem like its not object-oriented at all. After all, JavaScript has no concept of classes, and you dont even need to define any objects in order to write code. JavaScript can look just as much like C as it can an object-oriented language depending on how you decide to write it. But dont be fooled, JavaScript is an incredibly powerful and expressive object-oriented language that puts many design decisions in the hands of you, the developer.. This book is an exploration of the object-oriented nature of JavaScript. It is not specific to a particular JavaScript environment, so its equally useful for web developers and Node.js developers. The book includes information about ECMAScript 5 and its new capabilities that have changed how you can work with objects in JavaScript.. What youll learn:. ...
Softwarewerkzeuge WS 14/15 - Teil 2 Systems Biology Markup Language 3 XML-Dialekt für Speicherung und Austausch biochemischer Modelle => Archivierung => Transfer von Modellen in andere Softwaretools von
Hucka, M.; Finney, A.; Sauro, H. M.; Bolouri, H.; Doyle, J. C.; Kitano, H.; Arkin, A. P.; Bornstein, B. J.; Bray, D.; Cornish-Bowden, A. et al.; Cuellar, A. A.; Dronov, S.; Gilles, E. D.; Ginkel, M.; Gor, V.; Goryanin, I. I.; Hedley, W. J.; Hodgman, T. C.; Hofmeyr, J. H.; Hunter, P. J.; Juty, N. S.; Kasberger, J. L.; Kremling, A.; Kummer, U.; Le Novere, N.; Loew, L. M.; Lucio, D.; Mendes, P.; Minch, E.; Mjolsness, E. D.; Nakayama, Y.; Nelson, M. R.; Nielsen, P. F.; Sakurada, T.; Schaff, J. C.; Shapiro, B. E.; Shimizu, T. S.; Spence, H. D.; Stelling, J.; Takahashi, K.; Tomita, M.; Wagner, J.; Wang, J.: The systems biology markup language (SBML): a medium for representation and exchange of biochemical network models. Bioinformatics 19 (4), pp. 524 - 531 (2003 ...
Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) library /mirror/
License /* This file is part of Mini-Framework For AutoHotkey. * * Mini-Framework is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by * the Free Software Foundation, version 2 of the License. * * Mini-Framework is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the * GNU General Public License for more details. * * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License * along with Mini-Framework. If not, see ,,. */ ; End:License ;} ;{ Class Comments /*! Class: MfFloat Represents MfFloat object Inherits: MfPrimitive */ ; End:Class Comments ;} Class MfFloat extends MfPrimitive { ;{ Static Properties TypeCode[] { get { return 13 } set { ex := new MfNotSupportedException(MfEnvironment.Instance.GetResourceString(NotSupportedException_Readonly_Property)) ex.Source ...
License /* This file is part of Mini-Framework For AutoHotkey. * * Mini-Framework is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by * the Free Software Foundation, version 2 of the License. * * Mini-Framework is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the * GNU General Public License for more details. * * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License * along with Mini-Framework. If not, see ,,. */ ; End:License ;} ;{ Class Comments /*! Class: MfFloat Represents MfFloat object Inherits: MfPrimitive */ ; End:Class Comments ;} Class MfFloat extends MfPrimitive { ;{ Static Properties TypeCode[] { get { return 13 } set { ex := new MfNotSupportedException(MfEnvironment.Instance.GetResourceString(NotSupportedException_Readonly_Property)) ex.Source ...
Everyone who does computational biology and has wrote at least one Python script probably knows about the BioPython library. I personally remember going Oh! some years ago when I gave up writing my own (horrible, terrible, clunky) GenBank file parser and discovered it. Since then it has been a central part of almost all small scripts I needed to write. Recent versions have become even more useful, with the inclusion of a very cool KEGG API wrapper, which has the side-effect of putting together two well-designed bioinformatics software together!. It is then with great pleasure that Im announcing the addition of the Bio.phenotype module to BioPython, starting from version 1.67. The module allows to parse and write the outputs of Phenotype Microarray experiments, as well as to run some simple analysis on the raw data. Even though I have published another software in the past to run the same analysis (plus some more), I thought that a simpler library would prove useful for many, and that having ...
Schema Independent XML Compressor: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3898-3.ch007: XML has become the standard way for representing and transforming data over the World Wide Web. The problem with XML documents is that they have a very high
MediaWiki is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. MediaWiki is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA or read it online ...
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA ...
The next type of programming language is JavaScript. Not to be confused with Java, JavaScript or JS is a programming language created by Brendan Eich in 1995 and is mainly used in web-based applications due to its simplistic nature that allows programmers to code fast and reliably. According to Hamilton (2008), the initial aim of JavaScript is to provide a glue language for part-time programmers and web designers who constructed Web content from external components such as images, plugins etc. The ease of development of JavaScript essentially allows programmers to use it as an extension to other web-based programming languages to customize webpages to the programmers liking. The web-based nature of JavaScript means that it runs on any operating system that can browse the web. However due to the nature of it being effortless to developed with and the fact that it is multi-platform, it has been used to spread adware and malware across web-pages. Programmers abuse these scripting exploits to ...
The XML Data Archiving Service has the following characteristics:. · A hierarchy of collections used to organize archived data, called resources (also called XML DAS hierarchy).. · Resources are addressed using URIs, which reflect where in the hierarchy the resources are located.. · Searching for resources takes place either via the hierarchy or via a property index (value-based searches).. · XML schemas are used to describe the structure of all XML resources within an archiving session; they are written to each collection together with their corresponding XML resources, and can be used for generating analyses of the archived data, for example.. · XSL stylesheets are also written to the collection. They are used to, among other things, present the archived data in its original state later.. · XML checks are performed to test for the well-formedness and validity (against an XML schema) of a resource.. · A check sum can be used to check if a resource has been physically altered in any way; ...
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License, version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA ...
EHR VENDORS AND OTHERS in the industry have formed a collaborative to make text-based documentation more widely available for care and reporting. The Health Story Project is developing and promoting data standards that support the flow of information between narrative documents and EHRs. Once completed and adopted, the standards will unlock critical information from narrative documents, including the type of data that can be used for reporting quality measures.. Using the widely adopted industry standard Health Level Seven (HL7) clinical document architecture (CDA), Health Story has developed draft standards for trial use. These include standards for consultation notes as well as history and physical. Draft standards for operative notes and diagnostic imaging reports are expected soon.. Meanwhile, the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) initiative is developing CDA standards for reporting quality measure data across vendors and disparate health IT systems that are EHR-compatible. ...
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Started the process of modifying the build system to permit more flexible and reliable cross-platform support. Currently the build system is set up for Linux (GCC or CLANG as the compiler) and for MinGW32 (GCC as the compiler). Of these, only the Linux builds have been tested so far and confirmed to work as expected. The way to use this new system is as follows: make Builds the default platform and compiler (linux and gcc). PLATFORM=mingw32 make Builds the mingw32 build (untested!) using the default compiler (gcc). COMPILER=clang make Builds the default platform (linux) using the clang compiler. Other platform and compiler fragment files can be added in the ./make directory based on the models already there. file: [d3e92e5a] check-in: [d3252d74] user: michael branch: ttmrichter, size: 2082 ...
Update of /cvsroot/jaffa/JaffaCore/source/unittest/java/org/jaffa/persistence/blackboxtests In directory Modified Files: Log Message: Added UnitTests for testing the Dynamic Proxy feature of the Persistence Engine Index: =================================================================== RCS file: /cvsroot/jaffa/JaffaCore/source/unittest/java/org/jaffa/persistence/blackboxtests/,v retrieving revision 1.4 retrieving revision 1.5 diff -C2 -d -r1.4 -r1.5 *** 17 Feb 2004 02:12:05 -0000 1.4 --- 15 Aug 2004 06:48:20 -0000 1.5 *************** *** 415,417 **** --- 415,734 ---- } } + + + + /** Tests the sql: + * Select * from item where item_id like Z-TEST% + * and condition like %TESTSYCD% + * and part = Z-TESTPART-01 + * and sc is not ...
Started the process of modifying the build system to permit more flexible and reliable cross-platform support. Currently the build system is set up for Linux (GCC or CLANG as the compiler) and for MinGW32 (GCC as the compiler). Of these, only the Linux builds have been tested so far and confirmed to work as expected. The way to use this new system is as follows: make Builds the default platform and compiler (linux and gcc). PLATFORM=mingw32 make Builds the mingw32 build (untested!) using the default compiler (gcc). COMPILER=clang make Builds the default platform (linux) using the clang compiler. Other platform and compiler fragment files can be added in the ./make directory based on the models already there. check-in: d3252d74 user: michael tags: newbuild, ttmrichter ...
XML is a more recent technology with less of a track record than the database, but with a growing following in the digital humanities and among librarians and archivists who believe that it will stand the test of time unlike database files. XML does not have the extensive built-in search features that database programs do, though with some additional fuss you can search XML documents in complex ways. XML is probably best for a historical website with a circumscribed, unchanging set of historical documents that are mostly text. For instance, the Virginia Center for Digital History used XML for their collection of primary documents (including poignant runaway advertisements) in their project The Geography of Slavery.8 XML is also a good choice for archives that want to share their contents with other related collections because the simple text format XML is written in is, like HTML, rapidly becoming a lingua franca on the web.9 For example, the Cornell University Library, the University of ...
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Stephen J. Hartley: Operating Systems Programming: The SR Programming Language, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509579-0 ... SR (short for Synchronizing Resources) is a programming language designed for concurrent programming. ... This programming-language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... The SR Programming Language. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 ...
Programming languages[edit]. *ANSI C (a general-purpose programming language, approved by ISO as ISO/IEC 9899) ... Ada, a multi-paradigm programming language, defined by joint ISO/ANSI standard,[44] combined with major Amendment ISO/IEC 8652: ... World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - sets Open standards for the Internet, such as protocols, programming languages, etc. ... MUMPS, a dynamically typed programming language, originally designed for database-driven applications in the healthcare ...
"Which programming languages are fastest?". Computer Language Benchmarks Game. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011.. CS1 ... Clean is a general-purpose purely functional computer programming language. For much of the language's active development ... makes Clean programs which use high abstraction run relatively fast according to the Computer Language Benchmarks Game.[5] ... When a program is executed, the Start. node is printed. For this, it has to be rewritten to root normal form, after which its ...
Little b is a domain-specific programming language, more specifically, a modeling language, designed to build modular ... This language is based on Lisp and is meant to allow modular programming to model biological systems. It will allow more ... the first object-oriented programming language. References[edit]. *Krieger K "Life in Silico: A Different Kind of Intelligent ... the predecessor to the widely used C programming language, but the name was eventually changed to "little b" to avoid confusion ...
In programming languages[edit]. Main article: Function composition (computer science). Function composition appears in one form ... or another in numerous programming languages.. Multivariate functions[edit]. Partial composition is possible for multivariate ...
The Clean programming language makes use of uniqueness types (a variant of linear types) to help support concurrency, input/ ... The single-reference property makes linear type systems suitable as programming languages for quantum computation, as it ... Advanced Topics in Types and Programming Languages (PDF). MIT Press. pp. 3-43. ISBN 0-262-16228-8. .. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link ... Linear type systems are the internal language of closed symmetric monoidal categories, much in the same way that simply typed ...
Programming languages[edit]. In programming language syntax, spaces are frequently used to explicitly separate tokens. Runs of ... are ignored by most languages; such languages are called free-form. In a few languages, including Haskell, occam, ABC, and ... Still, for most programming languages, excessive use of whitespace, especially trailing whitespace at the end of lines, is ... In the satirical language called Whitespace, whitespace characters are the only valid characters for programming, while any ...
Acceptance, Test Or Launch Language (ATOLL) was the programming language used for automating the checking and launch of Saturn ... This programming-language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "" ...
... programming language - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students ... CLU is often credited as being the first language with type-safe variant types, called oneofs, before the language ML had them ... Proceedings of the third ACM SIGPLAN conference on History of programming languages - HOPL III (PDF). pp. 2-1-2-26. doi:10.1145 ...
This programming-language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... SLIP is a list processing computer programming language, invented by Joseph Weizenbaum in the 1960s. The name SLIP stands for S ... It was first implemented as an extension to the Fortran programming language, and later embedded into MAD and ALGOL.[1] ... Retrieved from "" ...
" Retrieved 2013-06-25.. *^ "Scala Js Is No Longer Experimental , The Scala Programming Language". ... Scala (/ˈskɑːlɑː/ SKAH-lah)[9] is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a ... Comparison with other JVM languages[edit]. Scala is often compared with Groovy and Clojure, two other programming languages ... The Popularity of Programming Language Index,[95] which tracks searches for language tutorials, ranked Scala 15th in April 2018 ...
The SuperCollider programming language (sclang)[edit]. The SuperCollider programming language is a dynamically typed, garbage- ... The SC language combines the object-oriented structure of Smalltalk and features from functional programming languages with a C ... Notes on Language Design for Just in Time Programming Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. In Proceedings of the ... SuperCollider is an environment and programming language originally released in 1996 by James McCartney for real-time audio ...
Choice of programming language[edit]. Assembly and C/C++ are popular programming languages that are vulnerable to buffer ... Programming languages commonly associated with buffer overflows include C and C++, which provide no built-in protection against ... In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data ... If an attacker overwrites the program return address with this address the program will first jump to 0x7C941EED. , interpret ...
Synchronization strategies in programming languages[edit]. In Java, to prevent thread interference and memory consistency ... Schneider, Fred B. (1997). On concurrent programming. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. ISBN 978-0-387-94942-0. .. ... Thus, parallel programming requires synchronization as all the parallel processes wait for several other processes to occur. ... When one thread starts executing the critical section (serialized segment of the program) the other thread should wait until ...
Using Bosque - Bosque Programming Language *^ a b Microsoft debuts Bosque - a new programming language with no loops, inspired ... Microsoft's New Programming Language 'Bosque' Keeps Your Code Simple *^ Microsoft's Bosque Language Wants to Change Programming ... Bosque Programming Language - Microsoft Research. *GitHub - microsoft/BosqueLanguage: The Bosque programming language is an ... Bosque is a free and open-source programming language developed by Microsoft that was inspired by the syntax and types of ...
Vala is an object-oriented programming language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code and uses the GObject system. ... Genie, a programming language for the Vala compiler with a syntax closer to Python ... Rather than compiling directly to machine code or assembly language, it compiles to a lower level intermediate language. It ... "A look at two new languages: Vala and Clojure".. *^ "Writing Multimedia Applications with Vala". Archived from the original on ...
Prototype-based programming languages[edit]. Main article: Prototype-based programming. Traditional class-based OO languages ... Cecil (programming language). References[edit]. *^ "Self "Mandarin" 2017.1". 24 May 2017. Archived from the original on 24 May ... That is, programs are not stand-alone entities as they are in languages such as C, but need their entire memory environment in ... Self is an object-oriented programming language based on the concept of prototypes. Self began as a dialect of Smalltalk, being ...
Pascal, like many programming languages of today (but unlike most languages in the C family), allows nested procedure ... program Printing; var i : integer; procedure Print(j : integer); begin ... end; begin { main program } ... Print(i); end. ... Similar mechanisms are standard in many programming languages today. Other languages that influenced Pascal's development were ... In contrast with other programming languages from its time, Pascal supports a set type:. var Set1 : set of 1..10; Set2 : set of ...
Relational Growth Grammar While relational growth grammars (RGG) are a theoretical formalism the XL programming language is ... This XL language is unrelated to the XL language referred to in "Relational Growth Grammars - A Parallel Graph Transformation ... Sources for development of this article may be located at "(concept OR extensible) programming" "XL" - news · newspapers · ... I removed this section that confused the XL language discussed in this article with a completely different subject- relational ...
Pages in category "Java (programming language) libraries". The following 103 pages are in this category, out of 103 total. This ... Retrieved from "" ...
... short for Z-level Programming Language) is an array programming language designed to replace C and C++ programming languages in ... ZPL is translated into a conventional abstract syntax tree representation on which program analysis and program optimizations ... ZPL programs run fast on both sequential and parallel computers. Highly-parallel ZPL programs are simple and easy to write ... This C program (which is machine independent because it implements certain operations in abstract form) is then compiled using ...
... strongly statically typed programming language with an emphasis on immutability, created by Red Hat. Ceylon programs run on the ... "The Ceylon Language: 4.5.8 Enumerated classes". Retrieved 6 December 2015.. *^ King, Gavin. "The Ceylon Language: §3.2.9 Type ... "Ceylon: Language Design FAQ".. *^ King, Gavin. "The Ceylon Language: §1.4.3 Compile-time safety for null values and flow- ... Support for generic programming and metaprogramming, with reified generics. *Modularity built into the language, based on JBoss ...
TRAC programming language. The exact relationship between TTM and TRAC is unknown. The TTM documentation indicates that it was ... TTM is a string oriented, general purpose macro processing programming language developed in 1968 by Steven Caine and E. Kent ... As with other applicative programming languages, a TTM function may be recursive and may be defined as the result of the ... IBM, System/360 Assembler Language, C28-6514-4, (1967). *^ Caine, S.H. et al., Report of the Systems Objectives and ...
"The Frege Programming Language" (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2014.. *^ "Facebook Introduces 'Hack,' the Programming Language of ... GHC is also often a testbed for advanced functional programming features and optimizations in other programming languages. ... Haskell /ˈhæskəl/[27] is a general-purpose, statically typed, purely functional programming language with type inference and ... Proceedings of the Third ACM SIGPLAN Conference on History of Programming Languages (HOPL III): 12-1-55. doi:10.1145/ ...
"Introducing The Pikachu Programming Language - A Programming Language Made For Pikachus".. *^ "Pikachu Programming Language - ... An esoteric programming language (sometimes shortened to esolang) is a programming language designed to test the boundaries of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Esoteric programming languages.. *Obfuscated Programming Languages at Curlie (based on ... "DM's Esoteric Programming Languages. Self-published. Retrieved 2014-06-28.. *^ van Oortmerssen, Wouter. "The FALSE Programming ...
Programming languages without the conditional operator[edit]. The following are examples of notable general-purpose programming ... Verilog is technically a hardware description language, not a programming language though the semantics of both are very ... The associativity of nested ternary operators can also differ from language to language. In almost all languages, the ternary ... "Ecma Language Specification. Ecma International. Retrieved 7 September 2013.. *^ "Kotlin Lang Null Safety". ...
UNITY is a programming language constructed by K. Mani Chandy and Jayadev Misra for their book Parallel Program Design: A ... The language contains no method of flow control, and program statements run in a nondeterministic way until statements cease to ... This allows for programs to run indefinitely, such as auto-pilot or power plant safety systems, as well as programs that would ... The following programs computes all pairs shortest path in Θ. (. log. 2. ⁡. n. ). {\displaystyle \Theta (\log ^{2}n)}. time, ...
This programming-language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... The MIIS language has been used in programming library systems as well as health industry systems. The OCLC's library system is ... MIIS (Meditech Interpretive Information System) is a MUMPS-like programming language that was created by A.Neil Pappalardo and ... In the 1980s Brigham and Women's Hospital in Massachusetts used MIIS to program their Data General Mainframe. In 1986, SCAMC ...
This programming-language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... PureScript: a strongly-typed, purely-functional programming language that compiles to JavaScript ... Retrieved from "" ... Elm: a functional language that uses an abstraction called ports to communicate with JavaScript ...
... is a visual programming language for system dynamics modeling introduced by Barry Richmond in 1985. The program, distributed by ... Carter, J. (October 1998). "Two Visual Programming Languages for Simulation Modeling: Stella 5.0 and Modelmaker 3.0". Bulletin ... In a 1987 review of the program in BioScience, Robert Costanza wrote that "STELLA is a solid program-well planned and executed- ... A 1998 review of the program in the Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America concurred that the program was easy to use, ...
The first graduate educational program in computational neuroscience was organized as the Computational and Neural Systems Ph.D ... "Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview". Frontiers in Psychology. 4. doi:10.3389 ... program at the California Institute of Technology in 1985. The early historical roots of the field can be traced to the work of ...
The Socialist education movement in America was closely connected with certain of the foreign language federations of the SPA, ... The Workmen's Circle established an educational bureau of its own in 1908 and sponsored programs for both adults and children, ... a Yiddish-language Socialist fraternal benefit society.[12] The publishers of the Socialist New Yorker Volkszeitung were quick ... the main language of the immigrant-dominated American socialist movement of the day[6] - and about 500 children are believed to ...
Pronator_teres at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program. *PTCentral ...
Yellow indicates the top-10 most-watched programs of the season.. Cyan indicates the top-20 most watched programs of the season ... The following is the 2009-10 network television schedule for the five major English-language commercial broadcast networks in ... a b c d e f NBC Announces Ambitious Lineup of Programming Dominated by New Scripted Series for 2009-2010 Primetime Season That ... The CW eliminated its Sunday night programming block and returned that time to local affiliates; it returned to programming ...
The Framework Programmes, and their budgets in billions of Euros, are presented in the table below.[2] For FP1-FP5, program ... Read in another language * Watch this page * Edit The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also ... Medium-sized research projects funded by the European Commission in the FP6 and FP7 funding programs. STReP projects involve a ... "Israel joins 77 billion euro Horizon 2020 R&D program". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 March 2014 ...
If the book you are looking for is in a language other than English, you might find it helpful to look at the equivalent pages ... Education program. * Education outreach. * Wikisource references. * Wikidata source metadata. * Wikipedia in Research platforms ... on other Wikipedias, linked below - they are more likely to have sources appropriate for that language. ...
The label requirements must be met and the label must contain the English language and the language of the receiving country( ... The protection program has 2 main goals: (1) provide the best protection of endangered species from pesticides and (2) minimize ... To be sure this program is implemented, some labels will direct users of the pesticides to bulletins with specific information ... the impact of the program on pesticide users.[2]. To protect the endangered species with the EPA program, the following was ...
"Galveston Bay Estuary Program. Archived from the original on January 17, 2009. Retrieved Sep 9, 2009.. "Draining the Swamp: A ... Overseeing the program is the Public Art Visioning Committee with members from the Art League of Baytown, Lee College Art ... Finding inspiration in Peter Kageyama book Love Where You Live, the committee's vision for this program is to create emotional ... The library's space increased to 50,500 square feet (4,690 m2) after bond programs in 1975 and 1995.[36] In addition Baytown ...
The Eastern California Museum with extensive collections, exhibits, and programs; is located at 155 North Grant Street in ... Read in another language. Independence, California. For the unincorporated community, see Independence, Calaveras County, ...
Gassa A, Jian F, Kalkavan H, Duhan V, Honke N, Shaabani N, Friedrich SK, Dolff S, Wahlers T, Kribben A, Hardt C, Lang PA, ... CD4+ T cells are required for the maintenance, not programming, of memory CD8+ T cells after acute infection. Nature Immunology ... Witzke O, Lang KS. IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and ...
Reunion was initially a Macintosh application, programmed in Apple's HyperCard. Version 4 was available for Windows and ... Languages[edit]. *English. *The following translations have been completed by Reunion users:[9] *Dutch (version 8 & 9) ...
The Sprout brand became a name of the programming block for preschoolers when the channel itself was rebranded to Universal ... Original language(s). English. No. of seasons. 2. No. of episodes. 104. ...
No major organization recommends universal screening for diabetes as there is no evidence that such a program improve outcomes. ...
CS1 Spanish-language sources (es). *Articles with Polish-language sources (pl). *CS1: long volume value ...
Pacific Environment : California Energy Program Archived 2007-06-08 at the Wayback Machine ... reinstating Iran sanctions against their nuclear program.[126] In response, Iran threatened to close off the Strait of Hormuz ...
In February 2016 the BBC program " Countryfile" presented an anecdotal report of enhanced resistance to Ash dieback following ... CS1 German-language sources (de). *CS1 Danish-language sources (da). *All articles with dead external links ...
Magnet programs may focus on academics (mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering; humanities; social sciences; fine or ... The majority of these are academically selective.[citation needed] Other schools are built around elite-sporting programs or ... Other magnet programs are within comprehensive schools, as is the case with several "schools within a school". In large urban ... With a wide range of magnet schools available, a suitable program could be found for more children than only the "bright" ones ...
This article is the subject of an educational assignment at Georgetown University supported by the Wikipedia Ambassador Program ... Public diplomacy is opening up English language libraries in the embassy or putting up free concerts. French efforts at ... public diplomacy programs are not propaganda. Others still contend, however, that since propaganda can be based on fact, public ... promoting its language is a kind of public diplomacy. Japan's efforts at sending teachers overseas and bringing American/ ...
... can be used as a program for simulations or as a library for the SDR). ...
Program. Episode/source 1941. Gulf Screen Guild Theatre. No Time for Comedy[18] ...
The following academic programs (Bachelor of Science 4-year degree programs) are offered at USMMA:[14] ... Defense Language Institute. *Naval Postgraduate School. *Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences ... It was involved in such programs as training U.S. officers for the nuclear-powered merchant ship, the NS Savannah. ... As the war drew to a close, plans were made to convert the academy's wartime curriculum to a four-year, college-level program ...
... announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in ...
"Medical Student Education Program: Curriculum Overview". Yale University website. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the ... Articles containing Greek-language text. *CS1 maint: ref=harv. *CS1 errors: missing periodical ...
There is evidence from oxygen isotopes at Deep Sea Drilling Program sites that ice began to build up in Antarctica about 36 Ma ... Read in another language. Miocene. System/. Period. Series/. Epoch. Stage/. Age. Age (Ma). ...
Therefore, when a peer is not uploading in return to our own peer uploading, the BitTorrent program will choke the connection ... Unfortunately, owing to the more aggressive nature of the programs entered in the second round, which were able to take ... Wired magazine story about tit for tat being 'defeated' by a group of collaborating programs ... a participant entered the tit for two tats strategy it would have emerged with a higher cumulative score than any other program ...
This same dynamic user community played a significant role in the application's development, suggesting program revisions and ... and the program's key feature is live mixing of MIDI input with VST (instruments and effects) and digital samples including ... Languages Add links. * This page was last edited on 31 March 2019, at 16:48 (UTC). ...
A list of computer programs for genetic analysis including QTL analysis. *Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Analysis @ Scitable ...
These include performers Jann Arden (1962-), k.d. Lang (1961-), Joni Mitchell (1943-), Feist (1976-), and bands Loverboy, The ... CKUA is fully donor funded, and its programming includes all types of music. Since 2012 the station has been based at the newly ...
However, after the First Gulf War (1991), the Iraqi government aggressively revived a program to divert the flow of the Tigris ... Articles containing Arabic-language text. *Pages using deprecated image syntax. *Articles using infobox ethnic group with image ... USAID Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program Final Report, Chapter 9 Archived 2014-10-21 at the Wayback Machine. ... United States Agency for International Development Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program Final Report, Chapter 1 Archived 2014-11 ...
The Khmer language, now labelled "Kampuchean" by the government, was the only legally recognised language, and the Sino-Khmer ... scrutinising things such as menus for state receptions or the programming schedules for radio broadcasts.[448] Although some of ... and was never completely at ease in the French language.[41] He nevertheless became familiar with French literature, one of his ... learning Buddhist teachings and to read and write the Khmer language.[13] ...
Specifications and requirements for the various programming languages and software packages to be used in the NSW BOS SDD ... Programming Languages Specifications and requirements for the various programming languages and software packages to be used in ... Programming Languages * 1. Software Design and Development Programming Languages in SDD * 2. Contents Course Specifications 1. ... Appropriate Languages: • Pascal • a structured version of BASIC. * 10. Event-driven Languages Contents The programming language ...
In particular, the standard Unix shell scripts, languages, and programming tools, such as awk, ksh, and sed, are also available ... rexx, Regina port of the REXX programming language (icarus, tigger, argo). * REXX WWW home page and FAQ (Mike Cowlishaw, IBM UK ... Check the following software lists for additional programming and language compilers and tools (such as python, which is ... Science, math, and programming language links:. *The MathWorks math, science, and programming info directories: http://www. ...
I like to have research objectives that I can use in my programming. So for instance, a programming language that is ... People of Programming Languages. An interview project in conjunction with POPL 2018 ... C is a deceptive language. At that time, I had been programing in C for 20 years so I thought I knew it. No. I only knew the ... XL: Maybe its time to go back to programming language design and try to have a little more imagination. In the 90s, we ...
Learn C Language - Explanation of While Loop in C Programming. Feb 18, 2020 ...
Main article: Programming language implementation. An implementation of a programming language provides a way to write programs ... Main article: Programming language specification. The specification of a programming language is an artifact that the language ... Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. Most programming languages consist of ... By purpose, programming languages might be considered general purpose, system programming languages, scripting languages, ...
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 23rd European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2014, which took place in Grenoble, ... Programming Languages and Systems. 23rd European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2014, Held as Part of the European Joint ... calculus concurrency formal methods linear types models of computation process calculi program analysis program reasoning ... This book constitutes the proceedings of the 23rd European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2014, which took place in Grenoble, ...
Stephen J. Hartley: Operating Systems Programming: The SR Programming Language, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509579-0 ... SR (short for Synchronizing Resources) is a programming language designed for concurrent programming. ... This programming-language-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... The SR Programming Language. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 ...
The most widely used IDE programs are the commercial program Cubic IDE and the commercial program CodeBench that is sometimes ... AmigaBASIC was the only programming language (and the only tool) made by Microsoft for the Amiga computer. Its best feature was ... This article deals with programming languages used in the Amiga line of computers, running the AmigaOS operating system and its ... "dev/lang/SIOD". Aminet. "Caml Light v0.73 for Amiga". The Caml Language. Amiga Assember Insider Guide, Author: Paul Overaa, ...
Naming convention (programming) Comparison of programming languages (syntax) To quickly compare syntax of various programming ... Text-based computer languages are based on sequences of characters, while visual programming languages are based on the spatial ... Many syntactically correct programs are nonetheless ill-formed, per the languages rules; and may (depending on the language ... In some cases, such programs may exhibit undefined behavior. Even when a program is well-defined within a language, it may ...
The Programming Languages Discussion Group meets weekly to discuss papers in the area of programming languages, program ... Seminar in Programming Languages. Time: Wednesdays 3:35PM - 4:35PM. Location: Gates 310. Organizers: Dexter Kozen and Adrian ... Notational Programming and its Languages. Ian Arawajo. February 13. Hamsaz: Replication Coordination Analysis and Synthesis. ... Bridging the Gap between Programming Languages and Hardware Weak Memory Models. Anton Podkopaev, Ori Lahav, and Viktor ...
... : Design, Methods, and Data Sources The IEEE Spectrum Top Programming Languages app synthesizes ... "X programming" for these languages. For other languages we use a search string composed of "X AND programming," which allows us ... "X programming" where "X" is the name of the language. We filtered out languages that had a very low number of search results ... "X programming" for the years of 2016 and 2017. This metric captures the prevalence of the different programming languages as ...
Scheme is one of the two main dialects of the programming language Lisp. Unlike Common Lisp, the other main dialect, Scheme ... It was also one of the first programming languages to support first-class continuations. It had a significant influence on the ... The Scheme language is standardized in the official IEEE standard,[2] and a de facto standard called the Revisedn Report on the ... The languages diverse appeal is seen as a strong point, though the consequently wide divergence between implementations is ...
Lots of interesting stuff here - Id encourage everyone to read this mail fully ] On Wed, Aug 12, 2009 at 2:52 AM, Zakaria,[email protected], wrote: , On Wed, Aug 12, 2009 at 5:22 AM, David Welton,[email protected], wrote: ,,, 1. You havent build the packageJarHack , ,, In what sense? It gets built as part of everything else. , , The one in jars/JarHack.jar is the old version without the icon fix patch Maybe I just havent committed it in a while? Let me update it and see if its still old. ,,, 2. How about my key-remap.patch? ,,, Ill send newer one with mapping for Nokia XpressMusic and ,,, Samsung SGH i550 ,, Lets talk about this idea some more. Would your idea be to remap all ,, keys for all phones into something standard? ,, Maybe you could write a little Hecl script for everyone to try, to see ,, what sorts of names various keys have on our phones... ,, Ideally, wed be able to do this without a hash table lookup for each ,, value, based on the keycode, but I realize that there is a lot thats ,, not ...
The Bosque programming language is designed for writing code that is simple, obvious, and easy to reason about for both humans ... The key design features of the language provide ways to avoid accidental complexity in the development and coding process. The ... pull requests and research based on or enhancing the Bosque language. ...
... S. Borağan Aruoba, Jesús Fernández-Villaverde. NBER Working Paper No. 20263 ... NBER Program(s):Economic Fluctuations and Growth We solve the stochastic neoclassical growth model, the workhorse of modern ... Research Programs. Working Groups. Research Disclosure Policy. Employment and Fellowships. Sitemap. Links to other Resources. ... Researchers by NBER Program. Complete List of NBER Researchers. SEARCH NBER RESEARCHERS ...
However, both languages are picking up development activity, so you have a chance to influence both languages if you want to ... both, obj and obj2 have the static type java.lang.Object when viewed from Java, but for the function call the type String is ... While the examples shown here are small, they do at least provide a little bit of flavor as to what the language is like. ... In the following example, the use of variable c is caught at compile time in a statically defined language. Only when a is ...
Rigorous, thorough, and foundational, this text reveals the character of programming languages as a field of study and explores ... Programming_Languages.html?id=5mQZAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe Study of Programming Languages. ... Rigorous, thorough, and foundational, this text reveals the character of programming languages as a field of study and explores ... Rigorous, thorough, and foundational, this text reveals the character of programming languages as a field of study and explores ...
... where 400 Aboriginal people speak 10 different languages, all at risk; in Wales, where Welsh, once in danger, is today making a ... Language Matters asks what we lose when languages die and how we can save them. It was filmed around the world: on a remote ... About the Program There are over 6,000 languages in the world. We lose one every two weeks. Hundreds will be lost within the ... Language Matters with Bob Holman is a two hour documentary that asks:. What do we lose when a language dies? What does it take ...
In my C++-like language I have built-in support for the so called move, which transfers a variable somewhere (like into a ... This subreddit is about programming language design, not programming per se. If you want to ask what programming language ... Programming languages tag on Computer Science Stack Exchange. *Programming languages tag on Theoretical Computer Science Stack ... This subreddit is dedicated to discussion of programming languages, programming language theory, design, their syntax and ...
Note, however, that this is an alias, not a new type entirely. In other words, because Rust is strongly typed, youd expect a comparison between two different types to fail:. ...
If you come from a dynamic language like Ruby, Python, or JavaScript, you may not be used to compiling and running a program ... Rust is an ahead-of-time compiled language, which means that you can compile a program, give the executable to someone else, ... Everything is a tradeoff in language design.. Just compiling with rustc. is fine for simple programs, but as your project grows ... Its traditional when learning a new language to write a little program to print the text "Hello, world!" to the screen, and in ...
Theres always new programming languages emerging, with the promise of enabling us to find ways to express ourselves more ... Theres always new programming languages emerging, with the promise of enabling us to find ways to express ourselves more ... 10 years of the Tech Radar: Languages and framework spotlight. A look back at some of the most notable languages and frameworks ... 10 years of the Tech Radar: Languages and framework spotlight. A look back at some of the most notable languages and frameworks ...
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th Brazilian Symposium on Progamming Languages, SBLP 2016, held in Maringá, ... constraints functional languages object oriented languages parallel programming languages very high level languages abstract ... Language Support for Generic Programming in Object-Oriented Languages: Peculiarities, Drawbacks, Ways of Improvement ... and structures distributed programming languages extensible languages frameworks functions and subroutines imperative languages ...
... youll need to know at least a little bit of programming. sent out a survey to figure out which three languages ... The Case for Learning C as Your First Programming Language. We could probably debate forever which programming language is best ... Ive always recommended learning at least 5 languages:. 1: C/C++/C# C is to programming what Latin is to linguistics: old, ... These are the "English" and "French" of programming world. There are very few places where one of these languages isnt at ...
2014 Programming Languages Software Award. Awarded to an institution or individuals that have developed a software system with ... GCC Receives ACMs 2014 Programming Languages Software Award 25 juillet 2014Matt Newsome ... 2014 Programming Languages Software Award. Awarded to an institution or individuals that have developed a software system with ...
Microsofts Anders Hejlsberg reveals the history behind one of the most common programming languages, C#, and what the future ... If you wish to submit any suggestions for programming languages or language authors you would like to see covered, please email ... Why do you think C is such a popular language base, with many languages built on it such as C++ and C#? ... What do you think of the upcoming language F#, which is touted as a fusion of a functional language and C#? ...
Apples programming language Swift and Android favorite Kotlin saw their meteoric growth slightly slow down. ... Apples programming language Swift and the Android developer favorite Kotlin are two of the fastest growing languages of all ... Programming Languages May Finally Be Reaching a Status Quo. In new rankings from analyst firm RedMonk, Apples programming ... interest in various programming languages since 2011. During that time, Swift and Kotlin grew faster than any other language ...
Computer programming language - SQL: SQL (structured query language) is a language for specifying the organization of databases ... Object-oriented languages. Object-oriented languages help to manage complexity in large programs. Objects package data and the ... Ada, the language, was developed in the early 1980s for the U.S. Department of Defense for large-scale programming. It combined ... In the early 1990s, Java was designed by Sun Microsystems, Inc., as a programming language for the World Wide Web (WWW). ...
Rust (Programming Language). Rust is an experimental, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by mozilla ... the language grew out of a personal project by lead developer graydon hoare, who began work on it in 2006; his employer mozilla ... it is designed to be a "safe, concurrent, practical language", supporting pure-functional, concurrent-actor, imperative- ...
How to meet the University of Alberta language requirements with English Language Proficiency (ELP), Spoken English Proficiency ... Bridging Program. The Bridging Program is designed for applicants who meet all other admission requirements for their program ... French Language Proficiency (FLP) French is the primary language of instruction at Campus Saint-Jean. All applicants to Campus ... Language Requirements. Our language proficiency policies exist to ensure students have the requisite skills to succeed in the ...
  • The hardest part by far was the C semantics and dealing with almost the full C language. (
  • The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). (
  • Save 14% on the Formal Semantics of Programming Languages by The MIT Press at Translate This Website. (
  • The Formal Semantics of Programming Languages provides the basic mathematical techniques necessary for those who are beginning a study of the semantics and logics of programming languages. (
  • The book contains many exercises ranging from simple to miniprojects.Starting with basic set theory, structural operational semantics is introduced as a way to define the meaning of programming languages along with associated proof techniques. (
  • Denotational and axiomatic semantics are illustrated on a simple language of while-programs, and fall proofs are given of the equivalence of the operational and denotational semantics and soundness and relative completeness of the axiomatic semantics. (
  • Following a presentation of domain theory, the semantics and methods of proof for several functional languages are treated. (
  • Throughout, he covers both language semantics and the rationale for key features, helping you understand not just what Dart does, but why it works the way it does. (
  • So there's a lot of work in this field (Behavior-Tree based language, time dimension include inside the semantics, etc. (
  • Note that it is also possible to express non ambiguigous semantics in natural language : Attempto Controlled English is an exemple [2]. (
  • Even when the words and syntax are similar between two languages, often the meaning (semantics) is different. (
  • This course will study essential aspects of programming languages --e.g., their theoretical foundations, syntax, semantics, types, scope of variables, data abstraction, control abstraction, parameter passing and expression evaluation mechanisms-- developing language interpreters built in Scheme. (
  • We measured the index of each language as reported by Google Trends using the template "X programming" in June 2017. (
  • We measure the number of hits on Twitter for the template "X programming" for the 12 months ending June 2017. (
  • Using the GitHub API and GitHub tags, we measured two things for the 12 months ending June 2017: (1) the number of new repositories created for each language, and (2) the number of active repositories for each language, where "active" means that someone has edited the code in a particular repository. (
  • We measured two things on Stack Overflow for the 12 months ending June 2017: (1) the number of questions posted mentioning each language, and (2) the amount of attention paid to those questions. (
  • On Reddit we measured the number of posts mentioning each of the languages using the template "X programming" from June 2016 to June 2017 across any subreddit on the site. (
  • We measure the number of posts that mentioned each of the languages using the template "X programming" for the 12 months ending June 2017. (
  • IEEE Spectrum's top programming languages for 2017 are out, and this time, Python tops the overall list. (
  • XSLT , for example, is a Turing complete language entirely using XML syntax. (
  • However, since the Atari ST was the less capable of the two machines, programs would be tested on and built primarily for the ST. Until 2005-6 Amiga lacked real IDE software (apart from the legacy IDE Storm C). Development was done with advanced text editors such as Emacs, MicroEmacs, Cygnus Editor and Gold Ed (Gold Editor), which could highlight syntax of various kind in programming languages. (
  • In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be correctly structured statements or expressions in that language. (
  • The syntax of a language defines its surface form. (
  • When designing the syntax of a language, a designer might start by writing down examples of both legal and illegal strings, before trying to figure out the general rules from these examples. (
  • This subreddit is dedicated to discussion of programming languages, programming language theory, design, their syntax and compilers. (
  • Using a simple English-like syntax, Hypertalk enabled anyone to combine text, graphics, and audio quickly into "linked stacks" that could be navigated by clicking with a mouse on standard buttons supplied by the program. (
  • On the consumer side for example, scripting languages like Ruby have been highly adopted to a large extent thanks to the clean syntax that the language offers. (
  • When you finish Part 1, you'll be familiar with basic Java language syntax and able to write simple Java programs. (
  • Like any programming language, the Java language has its own structure, syntax rules, and programming paradigm. (
  • The Java language is a C-language derivative, so its syntax rules look much like C's. (
  • The features of most modern programming languages are similar, but the words and syntax differ. (
  • Yet the language is concise and easy to learn its syntax is 3 times smaller than Verilog-1995. (
  • Languages are just Syntax - get over it. (
  • It makes me sad that so many people focus on the syntax of the language they're using. (
  • This document lists the language compilers and tools are available through the ACCC at UIC. (
  • In addition to these, the standard Unix language compilers -- f77, pc, and so on -- are also installed on icarus, but they aren't in the default path . (
  • The Programming Languages Discussion Group meets weekly to discuss papers in the area of programming languages, program analysis, and compilers. (
  • The seminar is open to everybody interested in languages and compilers. (
  • Live links on the CD to Web-based language tutorials, reference manuals, and compilers and interpreters. (
  • In adding this level of abstraction, the Java compiler differs from other language compilers, which write out instructions suitable for the CPU chipset the program will run on. (
  • Like any innovative technology it suffered severe blows from IBM mis-marketing (IBM did a tremendous job in development of the language and compilers, but excessive greed doomed those efforts). (
  • That contributed to tremendous success of PL/1 in this region and suggests that if IBM provided PL/1 compilers for free the language might be tremendously more successful that it was in the USA. (
  • Full language compilers were way too complex which depressed portability. (
  • Still it is important to understand that this was a very innovative language with very innovative, revolutionary compilers. (
  • Our language proficiency policies exist to ensure students have the requisite skills to succeed in the university learning environment. (
  • The University of Alberta reserves the right to use discretion in determining language proficiency. (
  • The Duolingo English Test will be made available to all applicants to undergraduate and graduate programs as an additional option to demonstrate English Language Proficiency for Spring 2021, Summer 2021, Fall 2021, and Winter 2022 admission. (
  • Applicants who are required to demonstrate English Language Proficiency and had intended to fulfill that requirement using English Language Arts 30-1 will only be able to do so if they write the diploma exam. (
  • If students don't write the diploma exam, they will be required to demonstrate ELP with acceptable scores in an English language proficiency test. (
  • All undergraduate applicants to English-speaking and bilingual programs need an adequate level of English Language Proficiency prior to admission, regardless of citizenship status or country of origin. (
  • For some programs in the Education and Health Science-related fields, Spoken English Proficiency is also required. (
  • You can start at the Griffith English Language Institute with any English proficiency level and study for the period suited to your own purposes. (
  • In addition to the basic qualification of a 2/2 or better on the Defense Language Proficiency Test, other qualifications include U.S. citizenship (non-wavierable), a passing score on the physical and entrance exams, and eligibility for a security clearance. (
  • Our 8-week intensive program is designed for beginner to advanced students who primarily want to improve language proficiency as rapidly as possible. (
  • Placement in a specific level is determined by language proficiency. (
  • Make substantial gains in language and cultural proficiency over seven or eight weeks. (
  • Foreign language campus graduate curricula are designed to meet the needs of students pursuing academic and other professional careers that necessitate intercultural proficiency. (
  • Proof of English proficiency is required for admission to graduate studies of students whose native language is not English, except those who have gra. (
  • Students at every level of French proficiency can take language, culture, and arts courses at the Catholic University of Paris (Catho). (
  • If you desire a comprehensive program that might help you gain proficiency in English, perhaps exploring language immersion programs in England could be the perfect choice for you. (
  • Mastering a language includes speaking and writing proficiency, but also increasing your appreciation and critical analysis of the cultures that share that language. (
  • The Modern Languages program at Drexel University offers minors and Intermediate Proficiency Certificates in French , Japanese and Spanish , along with certificates and coursework in Chinese , German , Korean , Arabic , as well as coursework in Hebrew and Italian . (
  • The Intermediate Language Proficiency Certificate certifies for employers and graduate schools that the student possesses basic skills to interact in everyday contexts with native speakers of the language. (
  • It does so by fostering modules interconnected through precise interfaces, a federation of tightly integrated programming paradigms, language-enforced thread isolation, modular type safety, an efficient memory model, and more. (
  • Beyond functional programming, we will study imperative programming (including object-oriented programming), logic programming, and concurrent programming paradigms. (
  • Students will be exposed to different programming paradigms (computation models) including functional programming, concurrent programming, and logic programming. (
  • Functional, Concurrent, and Logic Programming Paradigms. (
  • compare multiple programming paradigms and know when to apply them to solve different problems. (
  • Declarative programming languages have higher levels of expressionand abstraction than most other programming paradigms. (
  • Declarative programming has two major sub paradigms: logic and functional. (
  • Parsers are often written in functional languages, such as Haskell, or in scripting languages, such as Python or Perl, or in C or C++. (
  • Jython has been around a long time and is based on a mature language, Python. (
  • I learn how to use Emacs because I want to programming in python language. (
  • But, it seems to me that that Emacs has no major mode for the python language. (
  • While a multiple-language approach tends to be more complicated than writing everything in one language, there are many people who know Python and C well enough to work on such projects. (
  • Smalltalk is considerably faster than python and offers easy access to gpio, web services, client-server, OS access, excellent developer tools, actual, real, portability, a sensible language and generally a lot of good things. (
  • In ACM/IEEE 23rd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS '20 Companion), October 18-23, 2020, Virtual Event, Canada. (
  • Many programming languages are written in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform) while other languages use the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it). (
  • We filtered out languages that had a very low number of search results and then went through the remaining entries by hand to narrow them down to the most interesting. (
  • We measured the number of hits for each language by using Google's API to search for the template "X programming. (
  • This number indicates the demand for information about the particular language, because Google Trends measures how often people search for the given term. (
  • My search on master in Languages led me to German Civilization and Culture course. (
  • It is common to come across the reference of various courses and programs relevant to the field while going through search such as Master in Languages. (
  • While going through search on Language master I came across Elementary Arabic course. (
  • You often come across the reference of various courses and programs relevant to the field when going through search such as Language Master. (
  • Search by location to find accredited colleges which offer foreign language graduate programs in near your hometown! (
  • Search for campus based foreign language Ph.D. programs , campus based foreign language master's programs , and campus based foreign language graduate certificate programs . (
  • If you are in search of an immersive language experience as well as exhibiting the culture that surrounds it, a study abroad program in England might be the program that would excite you the most. (
  • Search for online foreign language degree programs such as a Graduate Certificate in French , Master's in East Asian Languages and Literature , or a Ph.D. in France and Romance Philology online . (
  • and languages that thrive in niches, like Haskell. (
  • Yet, while the expressive nature and robustness of declarative programming are appreciated in academic circles, the vast majority of software engineers have never heard of, let alone experienced, languages such as Mercury, Oz, or Haskell. (
  • SQL, Lisp, and Haskell are the only programming languages that I've seen where one spends more time thinking than typing. (
  • - For one-semester, senior/graduate-level courses in Programming Languages. (
  • Students with a graduate degree in languages can find rewarding jobs in schools, college or universities as teachers, translators or researchers. (
  • Whether you're a beginner language learner or fulfilling a graduate degree, our programs offer a range of options and opportunities. (
  • Non-degree seeking students with appropriate skills can apply to attend our graduate programs for one summer. (
  • If that is the case, you can look into global foreign language graduate programs that could take you to stimulating, new countries, while you're earning your degree. (
  • You can find foreign language degree programs at any level of graduate study. (
  • The University of Warwick has more than 4000 graduate students in its graduate school, and offers more than 90 taught Master's programs, as well as Ph. (
  • The Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships program provides allocations of academic year and summer fellowships to institutions of higher education or consortia of institutions of higher education to assist meritorious undergraduate students and graduate students undergoing training in modern foreign languages and related area or international studies. (
  • Institutions conduct competitions to select eligible undergraduate students and graduate students to receive fellowships, in accordance with FLAS program eligibility requirements and the institutions' FLAS selection procedures. (
  • An online graduate of a foreign language degree programs can expect to have a strong foundation the cultures and literatures of their chosen language area. (
  • Foreign Language graduate programs that are offered online create a more flexible learning environment. (
  • Find what meets your needs and wants by searching for online foreign language graduate programs! (
  • The Modern Languages Department offers Master of Science and Master of Arts degree programs for teachers and other qualified persons wishing to pursue language and literature studies at the graduate level. (
  • Drexel offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs. (
  • The program is supported by the administrators, and capable SLPAs are encouraged to obtain a Master's degree. (
  • You can enroll in the bachelor's or master's degree in languages and pursue highly rewarding and exciting careers as teachers or translators. (
  • The languages master's degree provides you with in-depth knowledge of the cultural, political and historical context of a specific country or a region. (
  • To pursue a master's degree in a language, candidates must hold a bachelor's degree. (
  • The curriculum in master's in languages entails courses in the study as well as the teaching of a language. (
  • Following completion of that level, the Elementary program takes children to a higher level of fluency, achieving peer-level competency. (
  • Read about some of the Global Studies careers that benefit from modern language fluency. (
  • The test is designed and developed by a team of experts from several parts of the country who have extensive knowledge of court proceedings, the job requirements for court interpreters, and/or advanced training or high levels of fluency in English and other languages. (
  • Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java. (
  • He also shares valuable insights into Dart's actor-style model for concurrency and asynchronous programming. (
  • Apple's Swift is not to be mistaken with the older parallel scripting language . (
  • The book concludes with a chapter on parallel programming languages, accompanied by a discussion of methods for specifying and verifying nondeterministic and parallel programs. (
  • The most widely used computer programming languages today were not designed as parallel programming languages. (
  • But retrofitting existing programming languages for parallel programming is underway. (
  • Without these retrofits, every parallel program sits on a crumbling foundation. (
  • It should be reasonably straightforward to write a portable program that takes advantage of data parallel hardware. (
  • OpenCL and OpenMP wrestle today with how to embrace data parallel hardware and how tightly tied programming will be to it. (
  • If you change your study preferences and decide that you would like to apply for a Griffith University degree, Study Abroad or Exchange program, or Griffith College diploma at a later date, you will already be on the pathway to undertake further study. (
  • Unlike standard study abroad programs that may last a semester or two, there can be a lot of flexibility in the length of programs. (
  • Clark's Study Abroad and Away Program offers opportunities to gain world and workplace experience to complement your on-campus work. (
  • Choose the right study abroad program for you through the Office of Study Abroad and Global Learning . (
  • Students who have studied Japanese show a commitment to the language and are likely to be more competitive for these prestigious awards for intensive language study abroad. (
  • Modern language study gives Drexel students access to a world of opportunities, including study abroad programs and international co-op placements . (
  • The minor may include study abroad and/or community engagement, giving students the opportunity to practice their advanced language skills with native speakers in professional, academic and real-life contexts. (
  • C is to programming what Latin is to linguistics: old, universally known if not actually used, and the root or significant influence over most modern languages. (
  • You can also pick an area of specialty such as linguistics, teaching English as a second language, foreign languages or bilingual education. (
  • Some of the courses of study students can obtain in this program include German civilization and culture, English literature, creative writing, linguistics, Middle Eastern and African culture and history and cultural studies. (
  • Students in the Language Acquisition Program (LAP) option are introduced to theoretical and methodological issues on language acquisition from the perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, theoretical linguistics, psycholinguistics, education, communication sciences and disorders, and neuropsychology. (
  • Master of Arts: * Russian Languages and Literatures * Slavic Studies * Linguistics. (
  • The Departments of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, of French, Italian and Comparative Literature, and of Spanish and Portuguese - under the guidanc. (
  • The Turing award was given to her in recognition "for her contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing. (
  • understand the essential aspects of programming languages, including theoretical foundations such as the lambda calculus, the actor model, and first-order logic. (
  • Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is both a theoretical formalism based on logic and a practical programming language based on rules. (
  • Selecting a language below will dynamically change the complete page content to that language. (
  • General purpose logic programming languages include Prolog and Mercury. (
  • design and develop functional, concurrent (including distributed and mobile), and logic (including constraint satisfaction) programs. (
  • Constraint programming using computation spaces. (
  • This is a great book illustrating both the simplicity and power of Constraint Handling Rules, the purest form of rule based programming I know. (
  • A programming language is a notation for writing programs , which are specifications of a computation or algorithm . (
  • A computer programming language is a language used to write computer programs , which involves a computer performing some kind of computation [5] or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers , disk drives , robots , [6] and so on. (
  • The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations they are capable of expressing. (
  • This unique interdisciplinary program option focuses on the scientific exploration of language acquisition by different kinds of learners in diverse contexts. (
  • In this multidisciplinary Modern Languages degree program, students minoring in a language develop language skills and certifications along with knowledge of global cultures through an emphasis on communication in real-life contexts. (
  • Language immersion programs utilize a unique method of teaching students to speak a second language. (
  • It is important to note that some language immersion programs in England might offer students the opportunity to study languages other than English, but since English is the primary language spoken in England many language immersion programs in England might be focused on teaching students to speak English. (
  • Web resources on Latin language, texts and authors, history and culture. (
  • Study Spanish, one of the most widely spoken languages in the world, from Latin America to Europe, from Worcester to New York City, from Miami to San Antonio to Los Angeles. (
  • A programming language is a formal language comprising a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output . (
  • This course is about the formal specification of programming languages. (
  • The curriculum at the English Language Program combines the formal acquisition of academic skills with the communicative approach to English language learning. (
  • If you're looking to combine formal academic instruction and practical application in your language education, studying French in Paris could be a perfect program for you. (
  • Lisp is a family of computer programming languages based on formal functional calculus . (
  • Scheme is one of the two main dialects of the programming language Lisp . (
  • Unlike Common Lisp , the other main dialect, Scheme follows a minimalist design philosophy specifying a small standard core with powerful tools for language extension. (
  • Lisp (for "List Processing Language") stores and manipulates programs in the same manner as any other data, making it well suited for "meta-programming" applications. (
  • One of the oldest "high level" programming languages (second only to Fortran), Lisp continues to be popular in the field of artificial intelligence down to the present day. (
  • Lisp is a programmable programming language. (
  • LISP is now the second oldest programming language in present widespread use (after FORTRAN ). (
  • One can even conjecture that Lisp owes its survival specifically to the fact that its programs are lists, which everyone, including me, has regarded as a disadvantage. (
  • Emacs is written in Lisp, which is the only computer language that is beautiful. (
  • Languages can also be divided into low-level languages such as Assembly, and high-level languages such as COBOL . (
  • Most of the program code in use today is written in C, C++, COBOL, and Java. (
  • In the enterprise world, strongly typed (type safe) languages with type inference seem to be preferred and big efforts have been seen in languages like C# and Java (or Scala) to bring concepts typically found in functional languages like functions as objects and Lambdas. (
  • He is well known for being the primary developer of the OCaml programming language and compiler. (
  • In this interview, we talk about creating OCaml, the relationship between programming and research, and Xavier's impactful work on CompCert , a formally verified C compiler. (
  • As such, we are pleased to announce that the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) has received the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) 2014 Programming Languages Software Award. (
  • I am interested in Compiler implementation using AI Techniques and Supernova (Simple scripting language for Microsoft-Windows which released formally as Freeware) as a result of my research on this topic. (
  • Low-level languages are those where the program code interacts directly (or fairly directly), with the CPU, whereas high-level languages have a higher level of abstraction, leaving the compiler or interpreter to deal with issuing the appropriate commands to the CPU, and similar issues. (
  • Starting from a list of over 300 programming languages gathered from GitHub, we looked at the volume of results found on Google when we searched for each one in using the template "X programming" where "X" is the name of the language. (
  • Rather, the firm tries to gauge developer interest by charting the number of questions programmers ask about a language on the question-and-answer site StackOverflow and the number of projects hosted on the code-hosting and collaboration site GitHub . (
  • A couple of years ago, developer Sammy Larbi undertook a project to identify which languages had the most instances of the string 'WTF' in their GitHub code repositories. (
  • Can you name the programming (or scripting) languages most frequently used on Github? (
  • Guess the most used programming languages by number of active repositories on GitHub. (
  • About 1970 Niklaus Wirth of Switzerland designed Pascal to teach structured programming, which emphasized the orderly use of conditional and loop control structures without GOTO statements. (
  • Students are required to be proficient in using at least one of the currently approved languages but will not be asked to interpret or produce code as part of the external assessment. (
  • Districts across the country are utilizing speech-language pathology assistants (SLPAs) to enhance services provided to students in a variety of ways. (
  • A number of degrees are available to help students master a language of their choice. (
  • These techniques will allow students to invent, formalize, and justify rules with which to reason about a variety of programming languages. (
  • The Dart Programming Language offers an authoritative description of Dart for programmers, computer science students, and other well-qualified professionals. (
  • Each level has an integrated program and students must take all parts for a total of four undergraduate units, which is equal to twelve credit hours at other universities and colleges. (
  • All students take a language assessment prior to the start of the program. (
  • In order to help beginning students adapt to the intensive Middlebury environment and be better prepared for the Language Pledge® , Level 1 (Introductory) Japanese will start an online self-study learning module approximately one month before students arrive. (
  • Degree-seeking students can earn a Master of Arts, Master of Arts in Applied Languages, or a Doctor of Modern Languages. (
  • Students spend one summer at the Language Schools and are required to complete the degree with an academic year abroad. (
  • Earning a campus based degree in foreign languages may require students to not only learn how to speak another language, but about the history and culture that is defined by that language. (
  • Finnish Language Program Students should acquire further insight into and more comprehensive knowledge of areas of Finnish language and literature. (
  • For instance, the BASIC programming language and the Pascal programming language were originally intended as teaching languages, for students of programming. (
  • As economic ties deepen, thousands of students in the United States are learning Mandarin Chinese through a Chinese government program that's intended to improve its image overseas. (
  • The academic program is rigorous to prepare the students for the university. (
  • In the lower levels, Beginning - High Intermediate, the students will work on mastering the foundation of the English language learning. (
  • When students reach Level Pre-University in the English Language Program, they may have the opportunity to be concurrently enrolled in a course related to their major or a General Education course at the University of North Florida. (
  • Students pursuing a minor in Japanese language and culture must complete a total of 18 credits of Japanese language or Japanese culture or Japanese history. (
  • The credits students earn by attending either the Kochi Summer Program in Japan or the J-term winter trip to Japan will be counted toward a minor. (
  • students complete other school subjects like math or history in the second language that they are trying to learn. (
  • Intensive language studies programs might be a good choice for students who wish to work towards mastering a language. (
  • Students in an online foreign language degree program have the opportunity to work on assignments at home, from a coffee shop, or the local library, an foreign language degree program allows you to learn in a flexible space. (
  • Online certification program prepares students to teach English to speakers of other languages. (
  • Students from any and all disciplines are encouraged to enroll in language courses to develop their global competency and gain language certification. (
  • Students must review the language requirements of their major in the Drexel Course Catalog . (
  • Students who want to enroll in a modern language course for the first time at Drexel, and who have any previous academic or personal experience with their chosen language (they took courses in middle or high school or speak it at home), are required to take a placement exam. (
  • For students to get the most out of their language courses, they must be placed appropriately. (
  • During the first class, instructors will assign an ungraded writing and/or oral exercise to further evaluate the students' ability with the language, as no placement test is infallible. (
  • Students must take the placement test if they have previous experience (coursework or family communication) with the language they want to study. (
  • But when it comes to educating Spanish-speaking students, one program might be closing that gap. (
  • For WBEZ Mark Rivera reports Woodstock is banking on the program propelling students into college. (
  • In Woodstock, the students are taught half in Spanish and half in English - the entire curriculum is taught in two languages. (
  • By the end of 5th grade, dual language students should be fluent in both English and Spanish. (
  • She brought dual language in not just because it's better for native Spanish speakers like Edmarith and Michelle - it's also better for Anglo students. (
  • However, critics of the program say it can be risky for Latino students. (
  • MENDEZ: After having gone through the dual language program, those students who are English proficient, how did they do on the test? (
  • According to a five year longitudinal study on language programs across the country, dual language students perform better in both languages than in any other program studied. (
  • Without the right mix of Latino and non-Latino students throughout the grade levels, districts just can't support the program. (
  • Six years ago, the dual language program only had 40 students. (
  • Tools have been written that automatically generate a lexer from a lexical specification written in regular expressions and a parser from the phrase grammar written in BNF: this allows one to use declarative programming, rather than need to have procedural or functional programming. (
  • Programming languages can be divided into declarative and procedural languages. (
  • Procedural languages define processes (algorithms) for the computer to follow. (
  • C is an example of a procedural language. (
  • They can focus their studies in a language of their choice such as French, German, English, Arabic or Spanish and find opportunities in a various schools, colleges and universities. (
  • Elementary Arabic course is included in Arabic language learning programs and certifications. (
  • This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th Brazilian Symposium on Progamming Languages, SBLP 2016, held in Maringá, Brazil, in September 2016. (
  • By early 2016, it appeared that programmers were starting to make up their minds amongst all the new languages released over the past decade. (
  • Czech-based software company JetBrains officially released Kotlin in 2016, and Google announced that it would officially support the language on Android last year, leading to its meteoric rise. (
  • Hawaiian was banned from schools, and English was made the official language of government. (
  • These are the "English" and "French" of programming world. (
  • English is the primary language of instruction at the University of Alberta. (
  • If you have completed at least three years of full-time education (or equivalent) in English, in Canada or another country where the primary language of instruction is English (excluding ESL), you will meet the ELP requirement automatically. (
  • While I believe 'plain English' type programming languages are a great concept, the reality is that it just introduces far more ambiguity into the mix, and you are just left trying to guess what the language designer's vagaries are. (
  • The experiment in designing a language that resembled natural languages (English and Japanese) was not successful. (
  • The English Language Program is an intensive program designed to teach various skills of the English Language, such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking. (
  • Britain is the birthplace of the English language and the primary language spoken in the country, so you may have the opportunity to live and study in a place where you could be constantly testing your language skills. (
  • Whether you are looking to pursue a degree and potential career abroad, or perhaps give you the competitive edge at home after you earn your degree, an intensive language studies program might help you gain the essentials to mastering the English language. (
  • English is the official language of 53 countries throughout the world, so learning how to speak and write fluently in English might be a career game changer for you [i] . (
  • The English language was born in England and is still the primary language today. (
  • The lessons learned in the classroom of a language immersion program in England might be supplemented by getting out on the town and putting your new English language skills to the test. (
  • Although there are a few countries where the primary language is English, a language immersion studies program in England has the potential to provide a perfect amount of exposure to the language. (
  • If you seek to learn more about the English language, then a language immersion studies program in England could be a once in a lifetime opportunity. (
  • Since most citizens speak English as their primary language, you might have the chance to learn some complex conversational phrases and techniques that you may not learn in any other English speaking country. (
  • Approximately 7,500 children participate in our program in 16 schools in Russia, Taiwan, China, Ukraine, Mexico, and the U.S. With ILP children learn English in an environment of love and excitement. (
  • In approximately 500 hours of instruction (one school year) in an ILP beginning program, children become functionally fluent in English. (
  • Having completed the follow-up program, children are able to learn with equal competency in classes taught in either English or their native language. (
  • Study German language and culture - including courses offered in English - from disciplinary perspectives like comparative literature, history, and philosophy. (
  • The TESL/CLAD Certificate Programs are designed to provide training for successful teaching in English as a second and foreign language as well as in. (
  • But the dual language model puts native Spanish and English speakers together in the same class. (
  • If they leave for a mainstream program, they can find themselves behind in English. (
  • Professional court interpreters should possess educated, native-like mastery of both English and a second language, display wide general knowledge characteristic of what a minimum of two years of general education at a college or university would provide, and perform the three major types of court interpreting: 1) s ight translation, 2) consecutive interpreting, and 3) simultaneous interpreting. (
  • The State Court Administrative Office offers certification testing to persons interested in becoming a non-English-language court interpreter. (
  • When that reading is completed, the examinee is given the document in English and asked to read it in the target language. (
  • During the consecutive interpreting mode , the examinee interprets English language questions into the second language for which the test is being taken (target language) and target language answers into English. (
  • During the simultaneous interpreting mode , the examinee, wearing headphones, listens to a prerecorded English passage and, while listening, interprets aloud into the nonEnglish language. (
  • This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. (
  • Interpreters translate the source code into machine code as the program executes. (
  • If you want to ask 'what programming language should I learn', 'what language would be best for X project', or any question like that, please post to /r/AskProgramming or /r/LearnProgramming . (
  • sent out a survey to figure out which three languages people thought were the best to learn. (
  • They overwhelmingly point to C and C++ as the language to learn if you're into electronics tinkering. (
  • Obviously which language you learn and which platform you use is dependent on the project itself, but if you're not sure where exactly to start, C and C++ seem like a good place. (
  • If you have the fervor to learn a foreign language, obtaining a college degree can help. (
  • The flexibility of the online programs makes them a suitable option for working professionals who want to learn a language alongside their present work tenure. (
  • Whether you already speak a foreign language or want to learn one, there are options for you. (
  • Don't know a foreign language but want to learn one? (
  • Meet with us in-person, over the phone, or videoconference to learn more about the Classics program. (
  • You learn about the parts of the Java language in this tutorial. (
  • Ready to learn how to code, debug, and program? (
  • These fast paced, physical games may not only excite you, but you could learn the traditional team songs and even hear the more colorful language the British use in their everyday life [iv] . (
  • Krueger says Woodstock has a strong bilingual program. (
  • But in north suburban Evanston, bilingual coordinator Sarah Mendez is convinced dual language is still the best way to educate Spanish speakers. (
  • Her district has completely replaced its bilingual program with dual language. (
  • Unlike other programming languages, most of Supernova programming language statements have a rule describe its structure and help users to use and remember the statement in the future. (
  • Unlike human languages, computer languages are much smaller (having grammars of around two dozen words) and define meanings more precisely. (
  • He leads the Gallium team on the design, formalization, and implementation of programming languages and systems. (
  • The annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL) is an academic conference in the field of computer science, with focus on fundamental principles in the design, definition, analysis, and implementation of programming languages, programming systems, and programming interfaces. (
  • They deal with fundamental principles and innovations in the design and implementation of programming languages and systems. (
  • The languages chosen for inclusion in the approved list are ones which are generally available and support structured programming concepts. (
  • The practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle . (
  • It was also one of the first programming languages to support first-class continuations . (
  • In my C++-like language I have built-in support for the so called 'move', which transfers a variable somewhere (like into a function call argument) and makes it unavailable further in code. (
  • There were several elements that we considered key design goals, like support for the next level up from object oriented programming, to component based programming where properties and metadata attributes were all first class in the language. (
  • Programs listed below demonstrate districts that are striving to use SLPAs appropriately, the challenges SLPs faced in implementing quality SLPA programs and the administrative support required to provide an effective program. (
  • The goal of this work is to understand the skills and biases that the infants bring to this task and how their speech processing changes with age and language experience to support language processing. (
  • The Java language's programming paradigm is based on the concept of OOP, which the language's features support. (
  • Many languages which originally did not support objects have since acquired them. (
  • The United States is committed to strong, sustained support for educational and cultural exchange, including the learning of critical languages. (
  • There is a lot of independence with the program, but plenty of assistance and support from the directors and coordinators. (
  • One usage describes programming languages as a subset of computer languages. (
  • Supernova as a language tends to be more near to our human language where we do Programming With Fiction Description (PWFD) using subset of Pure human language. (
  • The human language is VERY big and contains many words so we use a subset of it to **Reduce the Complexity** of the problem and to **Get Acceptable Performance** as much as we can. (
  • In these programs, learners get a chance to analyze the societies in which languages are spoken. (
  • In new rankings from analyst firm RedMonk, Apple's programming language Swift and Android favorite Kotlin saw their meteoric growth slightly slow down. (
  • Apple's programming language Swift and the Android developer favorite Kotlin are two of the fastest growing languages of all time. (
  • Kotlin is a programming language widely used by Android developers everywhere. (
  • During the late 1970s and '80s, Pascal was one of the most widely used languages for programming instruction. (
  • Other popular general-purpose languages include BASIC, Pascal, and C#. (
  • Computerworld is undertaking a series of investigations into the most widely-used programming languages. (
  • The simplest language is that of recursion equations with both call-by-value and call-by-name evaluation. (
  • As a functional programming language, Confluence employs powerful abstraction mechanisms including recursion, higher-order data-types, lexical scoping, and referential transparency. (
  • Programming languages usually contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of execution . (
  • The text illuminates key programming constructs with significant examples, focusing on principles of the language, such as optional typing and pure object-orientation. (
  • Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms . (
  • [3] Some authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms. (
  • All Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms . (
  • Implementation details such as assumed loop schedules and storage mappings in general purpose programming languages continue to obfuscate algorithms and complicate performance portability. (
  • By the end of this century, half of the world's languages will have vanished. (
  • The piece is entitled " Programming Languages of the World " and represents 40 of the world's most influential programming languages, past and present, as well as their date of creation, where, by whom, and what application they were designed for. (
  • The source code for a simple computer program written in the C programming language . (
  • For example, PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display. (
  • The term computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with programming language. (
  • AmigaBASIC was the only programming language (and the only tool) made by Microsoft for the Amiga computer. (
  • Text-based computer languages are based on sequences of characters, while visual programming languages are based on the spatial layout and connections between symbols (which may be textual or graphical). (
  • We report the execution times of the codes in a Mac and in a Windows computer and briefly comment on the strengths and weaknesses of each language. (
  • Barbara Liskov, an MIT Professor, who is head of the Programming Methodology Group in the Computer Science department , and the Artificial Intelligence Lab, has been awarded the A M Turing award by the Association of Computing Machinery ( ACM ). (
  • She has a breathtaking past, being the first woman to get a PHd in Computer Science in the US, and in a very real sense is the mother of all modern computer programming languages. (
  • I think any computer language you can think of will be supported on the Pi. (
  • A Programming Language is a small set of words and syntactic rules that allow people to write computer programs. (
  • When the computer program is executed by a computer , it will follow the instructions and perform the requested work. (
  • In order for a computer to execute a program, another program must be used to prepare the source for execution. (
  • This isn't really news, but it is a very nice infographic showing 40 of the best known computer languages along with some other information. (
  • The institute represents the areas software engineering and programming languages in the bachelor and master programs of computer science and related fields. (
  • The Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) computer programming language is intended to be used in conjunction with a host software application such as a word processor. (
  • The VBA Programming Language documentation is intended for use in conjunction with publicly available standard specifications, computer language design, and implementation art. (
  • I would like to stress that Edgar Dijkstra despite his early achievements was especially damaging with his misguided religious fervor toward program proofs and as a creator the first CS cult which perverted computer science for a decade or more. (
  • Here's a look at some Processing Programming Language groups near Bellevue. (
  • The number of new repositories measures fresh activity around the language, whereas the number of active repositories measures the ongoing interest in developing each language. (
  • Devpac Assembler by HiSoft was a professional assembler program that became the de facto standard for assembly programming. (
  • The Scheme language is standardized in the official IEEE standard, [ 2 ] and a de facto standard called the Revised n Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme (R n RS). (
  • Together with recursive routines, this technique made it easy to program intricate and attractive patterns. (
  • Recursive use of conditional expressions, representation of symbolic information externally by lists and internally by list structure, and representation of program in the same way will probably have a very long life. (
  • The big languages are popular for a reason: They offer a huge foundation of open source code, libraries, and frameworks that make finishing the job easier. (
  • To tackle next-generation IT challenges, application development organizations have to deal with the increase in demand for software development, and the variety of programming languages and frameworks available. (
  • Very simple untyped C to PowerPC assembly language. (
  • From assembly to higher level languages. (
  • The JVM interprets the bytecode just as a CPU would interpret assembly-language instructions. (
  • Assembly Language is not a specific language, such as BASIC, but rather any of a group of languages that are each specific to a particular CPU . (
  • Among the selections in this category are popular languages like C++, HTML, JavaScript and Visual Basic, as well as arcane programming languages like Assembly, AWK, and Tcl-Tk. (