A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
An infant during the first month after birth.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A characteristic symptom complex.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (1/52363)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (2/52363)

AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (3/52363)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64. (4/52363)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

Correlation between the status of the p53 gene and survival in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma. (5/52363)

The association of p53 abnormalities with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been extensively investigated to date, however, this association is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the prognostic significance of p53 mutations through exons 2 to 11 and p53 protein expression in 103 cases of stage I NSCLC. p53 mutations were detected in 49 of 103 (48%) tumors. Two separate mutations were detected in four tumors giving a total of 53 unique mutations in 49 tumors. Ten (19%) of mutations occurred outside exons 5-8. Positive immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein was detected in 41 of 103 (40%) tumors. The concordance rate between mutations and protein overexpression was only 69%. p53 mutations, but not expression, were significantly associated with a shortened survival of patients (P<0.001). Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the types of p53 mutations and prognosis. p53 missense mutations rather than null mutations were associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001 in missense mutations and P=0.243 in null mutations). These results indicated that p53 mutations, in particular missense mutations, rather than p53 expression could be a useful molecular marker for the prognosis of patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC.  (+info)

Intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors. (6/52363)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of re-resection, transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE), or percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) in selected patients with intrahepatic recurrent HCC. The overall results of a treatment strategy combining these modalities have not been fully evaluated, and the prognostic factors determining survival in these patients remain to be clarified. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-four patients who underwent curative resection for HCC were followed for intrahepatic recurrence, which was treated aggressively with a strategy including different modalities. Survival results after recurrence and from initial hepatectomy were analyzed, and prognostic factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using 27 clinicopathologic variables. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients (43%) with intrahepatic recurrence were treated with re-resection (11), TOCE (71), PEIT (6), systemic chemotherapy (8) or conservatively (9). The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates from the time of recurrence were 65.5%, 34.9%, and 19.7%, respectively, and from the time of initial hepatectomy were 78.4%, 47.2%, and 30.9%, respectively. The re-resection group had the best survival, followed by the TOCE group. Multivariate analysis revealed Child's B or C grading, serum albumin < or = 40 g/l, multiple recurrent tumors, recurrence < or = 1 year after hepatectomy, and concurrent extrahepatic recurrence to be independent adverse prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive treatment with a multimodality strategy could result in prolonged survival in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for HCC. Prognosis was determined by the liver function status, interval to recurrence, number of recurrent tumors, any concurrent extrahepatic recurrence, and type of treatment.  (+info)

Surgery-related factors and local recurrence of Wilms tumor in National Wilms Tumor Study 4. (7/52363)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic factors for local recurrence in Wilms tumor. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current therapy for Wilms tumor has evolved through four studies of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. As adverse prognostic factors were identified, treatment of children with Wilms tumor has been tailored based on these factors. Two-year relapse-free survival of children in the fourth study (NWTS-4) exceeded 91%. Factors once of prognostic import for local recurrence may lose their significance as more effective therapeutic regimens are devised. METHODS: Children evaluated were drawn from the records of NWTS-4. A total of 2482 randomized or followed patients were identified. Local recurrence, defined as recurrence in the original tumor bed, retroperitoneum, or within the abdominal cavity or pelvis, occurred in 100 children. Using a nested case-control study design, 182 matched controls were selected. Factors were analyzed for their association with local failure. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, taking into account the matching. RESULTS: The largest relative risks for local recurrence were observed in patients with stage III disease, those with unfavorable histology (especially diffuse anaplasia), and those reported to have tumor spillage during surgery. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for the combined effects of histology, lymph node involvement, and age revealed that tumor spillage remained significant. The relative risk of local recurrence from spill was largest in children with stage II disease. The absence of lymph node biopsy was also associated with an increased relative risk of recurrence, which was largest in children with stage I disease. The survival of children after local recurrence is poor, with an average survival rate at 2 years after relapse of 43%. Survival was dependent on initial stage: those who received more therapy before relapse had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that surgical rupture of the tumor must be prevented by the surgeon, because spills produce an increased risk of local relapse. Both local and diffuse spills produce this risk. Stage II children with local spill appear to require more aggressive therapy than that used in NWTS-4. The continued critical importance of lymph node sampling in conjunction with nephrectomy for Wilms tumor is also established. Absence of lymph node biopsy may result in understaging and inadequate treatment of the child and may produce an increased risk of local recurrence.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (8/52363)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Full Text - Purpose: This study aimed to validate the newly proposed American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological prognostic staging system for young breast cancer patients (aged ≤40 years).Results: We included 12811 women in this study. Overall, 52.8% of patients in the 7th AJCC stages were restaged to the 8th AJCC pathological staging system, including 10.7% upstaged and 42.1% downstaged. The receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the new staging system had a better role in predicting breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) compared with 7th edition staging (P<0.001). The results of the multivariate prognostic analysis showed that the hazard ratio of BCSS increased with the 8th AJCC stages, while the 7th anatomic stages had no significant difference in BCSS.Conclusions: The novel pathological staging system could provide more accurate prognostic stratification for young women with breast cancer because of the high proportion of stage migration.Patients and Methods:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extratumoral vascular invasion is a significant prognostic indicator and a predicting factor of distant metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Shimada, Yoshihisa. AU - Ishii, Genichiro. AU - Hishida, Tomoyuki. AU - Yoshida, Junji. AU - Nishimura, Mitsuyo. AU - Nagai, Kanji. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - INTRODUCTION: Vascular invasion is thought to be a fundamental step in hematogenous metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the qualitative evaluation of vascular invasion according to its location (intratumoral or extratumoral) could provide an appropriate means of predicting the prognostic outcome and potential patterns of recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of 1000 consecutive patients in whom complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer had been performed. Sections stained by the Victoria blue van Gieson method were examined for the presence of vascular invasion and the evaluation of its location (v0: absence, n ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results and prognosis following surgery for malignant tumors of the skull base. AU - Jackson, Ian T.. AU - Bailey, M. Hugh. AU - Marsh, W. Richard. AU - Juhasz, Peter. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A series of 155 malignant craniofacial tumors referred to a specialized craniofacial center for surgical treatment are presented. One quarter of these were primary and three quarters recurrent. The statistics of long‐term follow‐up are presented, and it is concluded that this type of surgery for these difficult problems is worthwhile. The increasing experience gained from operating on and following up these patients is presented.. AB - A series of 155 malignant craniofacial tumors referred to a specialized craniofacial center for surgical treatment are presented. One quarter of these were primary and three quarters recurrent. The statistics of long‐term follow‐up are presented, and it is concluded that this type of surgery for these difficult problems is worthwhile. The increasing ...
The mRNA as well as protein expression of SASH1 was strongly and significantly reduced in colon cancer of UICC stage II, III, and IV, as well as in colorectal liver metastases. In contrast, SASH1 expression was not significantly altered in benign adenomas and in early stage lesions (UICC I). Around 40% of primary colon tumours tested (n=113) showed a 10-fold or stronger reduction in SASH1 expression, compared to normal colon mucosa. Decreased SASH1 mRNA expression was correlated with the occurrence of metachronous distant metastasis, and multivariate analysis identified SASH1 downregulation as an independent negative prognostic parameter for patient survival (Rimkus et al., 2006). Recently, these results were confirmed on an independent patient collective of stage II colon cancer (n=179 patients), confirming that decreased SASH1 expression is an independent negative prognostic factor in colon cancer, allowing to distinguish high-risk patients in early, locally restriced stages of the disease ...
Systemic immune-inflammation index as a useful prognostic indicator predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy Li Chen,1,* Ying Yan,2,* Lihua Zhu,3 Xiliang Cong,1 Sen Li,1 Shubin Song,1 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue1 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Internal Oncology, Harbin The First Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 3Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: A novel systemic immune-inflammation index named SII (SII=N×P/L), which is based on neutrophil (N), platelet (P) and lymphocyte (L) counts, has emerged and reflects comprehensively the balance of host inflammatory and immune status. We aimed to evaluate the potential prognostic significance of SII in patients with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival predictors in patients with node-negative gastric carcinoma. AU - Lee, Chin Chun. AU - Wu, Chew Wun. AU - Lo, Su Shun. AU - Chen, Jen Hao. AU - Li, Anna F.Y.. AU - Hsieh, Mao-Chih. AU - Shen, King Han. AU - Lui, Wing Yiu. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Background: Presence or absence of nodal metastasis influences outcome of gastric cancer patients. This study gives insight into survival predictors and clinicopathological features of node-negative gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between 1988 and 1999, 689 gastric cancer patients without other cancer or gastrectomy for benign disease who underwent curative resection were enrolled in this study. Clinicopathological data in patients with node metastasis were compared with those without. Results: The survival rate at 5 and 10 years for node-negative cases was 91.7% and 89.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis, node-negative patients were characterized by frequent location in the lower two-thirds of the stomach ...
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important biological functions and can be used as prognostic biomarkers in cancer. To identify a lncRNA prognostic signature for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).. Researchers at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine analysed RNA-seq data derived from the TANRIC database to identify a lncRNA prognostic signature model using the orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and 1.5-fold expression change criterion methods. The prognosis prediction model based on the lncRNA signatures and clinical parameters were evaluated using the 5-fold cross validation method.. A total of 84 out of 3199 lncRNAs were significantly associated with the survival of patients with HNSCC. Using the OPLS-DA and 1.5-fold change selection criterion, 5 lncRNAs (KTN1-AS1, LINC00460, GUSBP11, LINC00923 and RP5-894A10.6) were further selected. The prediction power of each combination of the 5 lncRNAs was evaluated through the receiver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glasgow prognostic score is an independent marker for poor prognosis with all cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. AU - Omichi, Chiaki. AU - Nakamura, Keiichiro. AU - Haraga, Junko. AU - Masuyama, Hisashi. AU - Hiramatsu, Yuji. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Inflammatory markers are important prognostic factors in various cancers. This study investigated whether inflammatory markers of the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) predicted progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with all cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (OC). Pretreatment GPS was examined for the correlations with PFS and OS in 216 patients in all stages of epithelial OC. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. PFS and OS were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Coxs proportional hazard regression was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. For all patients, the median PFS was 35.1 months, and median OS was 46.7 months; follow-up range was 1-162 ...
Breast cancer prognosis may be worse among black women than among white women regardless of the subtype of breast cancer. These results were presented at the 2013 annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR).. Its long been known that breast cancer prognosis varies by race among women in the United States, with black women tending to have worse outcomes than white women. Some of this variability has been attributed to the fact that black women have higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer than women of other races. How race affects prognosis among women with certain subtypes of breast cancer, however, has been uncertain.. To explore the relationship between race and prognosis by subtype of breast cancer, researchers evaluated 1,688 breast cancer survivors who participated in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology and Pathways studies. Women have been followed for more than six years.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DPP4/CD26 overexpression in urothelial carcinoma confers an independent prognostic impact and correlates with intrinsic biological aggressiveness. AU - Liang, Peir In. AU - Yeh, Bi Wen. AU - Li, Wei Ming. AU - Chan, Ti Chun. AU - Chang, I. Wei. AU - Huang, Chun Nung. AU - Li, Ching Chia. AU - Ke, Hung Lung. AU - Yeh, Hsin Chih. AU - Wu, Wen Jeng. AU - Li, Chien Feng. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is common cancer worldwide. The molecular aberrations regarding tumor progression remain unclear. Pericellular proteolysis is crucial in tumorigenesis, but its significance is unexplored in UC. By data mining the datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus, specifically focus on the proteolysis pathway, and followed by a preliminary validation in a pilot batch of tumor samples, we identified that the upregulation of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was most significantly associated with clinical aggressiveness of UCs. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed upregulation of DPP4 ...
Individualized approaches to prognosis are crucial to effective management of cancer patients. We developed a methodology to assign individualized 5-year disease-specific death probabilities to 1,222 patients with melanoma and to 1,225 patients with breast cancer. For each cancer, three risk subgroups were identified by stratifying patients according to initial stage, and prediction probabilities were generated based on the factors most closely related to 5-year disease-specific death. Separate subgroup probabilities were merged to form a single composite index, and its predictive efficacy was assessed by several measures, including the area (AUC) under its receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The patient-centered methodology achieved an AUC of 0.867 in the prediction of 5-year disease-specific death, compared with 0.787 using the AJCC staging classification alone. When applied to breast cancer patients, it achieved an AUC of 0.907, compared with 0.802 using the AJCC staging classification
Background: This study was to investigate the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with clear-cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary.. Materials and methods: Two hundred and one patients with CCC of the ovary were registered in the Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group. The Korean Gynecologic Pathology Study Group reviewed the pathological slides centrally, using a universal grading system. The prognostic significances of clinicopathologic factors were evaluated by multivariate analysis.. Results: Most of the patients were diagnosed at an early stage (stage I, 61.3%), and the overall 5-year survival rate was 57%. Early-stage disease showed a favorable prognosis, but advanced diseases showed poor prognosis. Stage of disease was the only significant prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (P , 0.001). However, universal grade and residual tumor also showed prognostic significance on the forward stepwise likelihood ratio test. There was no survival difference observed ...
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with propensity for early lymphatic and haematogenous dissemination. Since conventional TNM staging does not provide accurate prognostic information, novel molecular prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets are subject of intense res …
Signal transducer and activator of transcripton-5a (Stat5a) and its close homologue, Stat5b, mediate key physiological effects of prolactin and growth hormone in mammary glands. In breast cancer, loss of nuclear localized and tyrosine phosphorylated Stat5a/b is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of antiestrogen therapy failure. Here we quantify for the first time levels of Stat5a and Stat5b over breast cancer progression, and explore their potential association with clinical outcome. Stat5a and Stat5b protein levels were quantified in situ in breast-cancer progression material. Stat5a and Stat5b transcript levels in breast cancer were correlated with clinical outcome in 936 patients. Stat5a protein was further quantified in four archival cohorts totaling 686 patients with clinical outcome data by using multivariate models. Protein levels of Stat5a but not Stat5b were reduced in primary breast cancer and lymph node metastases compared with normal epithelia. Low tumor levels of Stat5a but
Purpose: We evaluated prognostic value of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union for Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) staging system for nasopharyngeal cancer and investigated whether tumor volume/metabolic information refined prognostication of anatomy based staging system. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty-three patients with nasopharyngeal cancer who were staged with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate prognostic value of the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC staging system and other factors including gross tumor volume and maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (GTV-T and SUV-T). Results: Median follow-up period was 63 months. In multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS), stage group (stage I-II vs. III-IVA) was the only significant prognostic factor. However, 5-year OS rates were not significantly ...
Poor prognosis patients may be considered candidates for more aggressive treatment strategies, while good prognosis patients may be treated with less burdensome interventions, for example by less toxic chemotherapy regimens [2, 3]. A serious, uncontrolled infection at the time of diagnosis is a less favourable prognostic factor. It is linked with a less favourable prognosis. You will also hear very guarded prognosis which is a notch lower towards poor. Prognosis for psoriatic arthritis PsA can be a serious chronic inflammatory condition that can cause significant pain and, in severe cases, disability. A higher-grade cancer may grow and spread more quickly and may require immediate or more aggressive treatment. Psychopathy has often been considered untreatable. The doctor is not exactly sure of what the patients probability for recovery might be, but they still believe that the patient has a (slight) chance of recovery. Lastly, but probably most important, is how active the disease is at the ...
S100A6 has been implicated in a variety of biological functions as well as tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression status of S100A6 in relation to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer and further explored a possible association of its expression with epigenetic regulation. S100A6 expression was remarkably increased in 67.5% of gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched noncancerous tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated a clear correlation between high S100A6 expression and various clinicopathological features, such as depth of wall invasion, positive lymph node involvement, liver metastasis, vascular invasion, and tumor-node metastasis stage (P < 0.05 in all cases), as well as revealed that S100A6 is an independent prognostic predictor (P = 0.026) significantly related to poor prognosis (P = 0.0004). Further exploration found an inverse relationship between S100A6 expression and the methylation status of the seventh and ...
Abstract #3010 Vascular invasion, encompassing both lymphovascular (LVI) and blood vascular invasion (BVI), influences breast cancer patient prognosis. We have previously shown, using an immunohistochemical approach to distinguish between LVI and BVI in a well characterized group of 177 consecutive paraffin-embedded specimens breast cancer patients (52 LN+ and 125 LN-), that VI was detected in 32% of specimens and that 96% of such VI were invasion of lymphatic vessels. The presence of LVI was significantly associated with the presence of metastasis, recurrence and worse disease free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, LVI was an independent poor prognostic factor. This original study has been expanded by examining LVI, assessed by podoplanin staining, in 1000 LN-, early stage, breast cancers. In addition to verifying initial results showing the prognostic power of detection of LVI in early stage tumours, it also allowed an examination of LVI in histological and ...
BACKGROUND: Patients who have suffered from cerebral ischemia have a high risk of recurrent vascular events. Predictive models based on classical risk factors typically have limited prognostic value. Given that cerebral ischemia has a heritable component, genetic information might improve performance of these risk models. Our aim was to develop and compare two models: one containing traditional vascular risk factors, the other also including genetic information. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 1020 patients with cerebral ischemia and genotyped them with the Illumina Immunochip. Median follow-up time was 6.5 years; the annual incidence of new ischemic events (primary outcome, n=198) was 3.0%. The prognostic model based on classical vascular risk factors had an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.69). When we added a genetic risk score based on prioritized SNPs from a genome-wide association study of ischemic stroke (using summary
It has been demonstrated in the previous studies that cytogenetics and molecular abnormalities were independent predictors for the prognosis of AML patients [36]-[38]. However, in our study, adverse cytogenetic abnormalities only accounted for 8.6% (n = 93) of patients. The majority of patients was with intermediate and favorable cytogenetics and showed no difference in survival. As Ara-C forms the backbone of the treatment regimen, understanding the contribution of pharmacogenetics to Ara-C response may help dissection of AML with distinct prognosis, so as to individualize chemotherapy and potentially improve the outcomes of AML patients.. In our study, we observed single SNP and SNP-SNP interactions in the Ara-C transport pathway, which could account for the interpatient variability of treatment outcomes in AML patients. When tested independently, both SNP rs324148 and rs9394992 in the SLC29A1gene contributed to Ara-C resistance in patients with AML who received Ara-C based treatment, and they ...
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic power of new classifications of N descriptor created basing on the number (NLN) and the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes (RLN) in NSCLC compared to the current classification (CLN). The data of 529 patients with NSCLC operated with the intention of radical resection, were analyzed. The new categories of N descriptor were created as follows: 1) NLN - median number of metastatic nodes was 3, thus in NLN0 the number of metastatic nodes =0, in NLN1 1-2, in NLN2 ≥ 3, 2) RLN - median ratio (number of metastatic lymph nodes to all nodes removed) was 12.4 %, thus in RLN0 the ratio was 0, in RLN1 | 13 %, in RLN2 | 13 %. The prognostic value of each classification was calculated on the basis of hazard ratios defined in multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. The new classifications of N descriptor turned out to be an independent strong prognostic factor (p |0.001) with a 5-year survival rate NLN0-62 %, NLN1-39 %, NLN2-26 % and RLN0-62 %, RLN1-37 % and RLN2
Systemic inflammation has long been related with adverse survival outcomes in cancer patients, and its biomarkers, such as the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), are recognized as poor prognostic indicators. However, the role of eosinophils in this field has been largely overlooked. Here, we describe two new pre-treatment biomarkers, expressed as Eosinophil-to-Lymphocytes Ratio (ELR) and Eosinophil*Neutrophil-to-Lymphocytes ratio (ENLR), and we analyse their impact on prognosis of endometrial cancer (EC) patients. A total of 163 consecutive patients diagnosed with EC and treated with postoperative radiotherapy +/− chemotherapy in our institution from January 2011 to December 2015 were evaluated. The cohort was divided in two groups applying the cut-off value of 0.1 and 0.5 according to ROC curve for pre-treatment ELR and ENLR, respectively. After patients stratification according to the ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO modified risk assessment, subgroup analyses were conducted. Higher values of ELR and ENLR were
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal and aggressive disease with its incidence and mortality quite discouraging. An effective prediction model is urgently needed for the accurate assessment of patients prognosis to assist clinical decision-making. Gene expression data and clinicopathological data of the samples were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Differential expressed genes (DEGs) analysis, univariate Cox regression analysis, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis, random forest screening and multivariate Cox regression analysis were applied to construct the risk signature. The effectiveness and independence of the model were validated by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis and survival point graph in training set, test set, TCGA entire set and GSE57495 set. The validity of the core gene was verified by
At present, TNM staging is considered the primary predictor of prognosis. However, this predictor has its limitation because patients at the same TNM stage may have a different prognosis. The introduction of laboratory indexes as additional factors is important for the accurate prediction of prognosis.. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory biomarkers are associated with clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with CRC. Accordingly, our results showed that LMR, NLR, PLR, PNI were associated with tumor size, tumor depth, and TNM stage. The results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests indicated that these inflammatory biomarkers were significantly associated with prognosis in CRC. However, the actual mechanisms of the association between these inflammatory biomarkers and prognosis in CRC are unclear. There are several potential explanations. First, neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets have been reported to promote tumor development via ...
The main findings of this study are the following: 1) CTA shows a better prognostic performance compared with ex-ECG; 2) evaluation of coronary anatomy with CTA may be the first diagnostic tool needed for prognostic stratification of patients with a low to intermediate pre-test likelihood of CAD, whereas ex-ECG may be more appropriate for further prognostic stratification in the subset of patients with CAD ≥50% on CTA; and 3) positive CTA findings identify a shorter event-free survival time regardless of the presence of ischemia at ex-ECG.. In the management of patients with suspected CAD, the prognostic stratification plays a crucial role beyond the simple diagnosis of coronary artery stenoses. Indeed, the occurrence of adverse events determines morbidity and mortality and influences the overall health expenditure. Until few years ago, diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of patients with suspected CAD were made with functional stress tests only in the majority of patients. Nowadays, ex-ECG is ...
The current study demonstrated that DFI, metastasis to vital organs, and absence of treatment for the first recurrence in the first relapse were prognosticators for SFFR among patients who died of breast cancer. Our findings about the important prognostic factors for SFFR are similar to other studies [10-15]. In earlier report by Clark et al. [10], initial site of recurrence, DFI, estrogen receptor of tumor, and axillary lymph nodes status at the time of initial diagnosis were determinant for survival from the time of first recurrence. Meanwhile, Vogel et al. [11] showed that DFI, dominant metastasis to visceral organ, and estrogen receptor status were prognostic factors for survival after first relapse. Besides the aforementioned factors, recent reports also have found human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of tumor, and administration of certain treatment, including trastuzumab or aromatase inhibitors, as prognostic factors for SFFR [14,16]. The current and other reports have ...
BACKGROUND: Several prognostic indices have been devised to optimize patient selection for phase 1 oncology trials with no consensus as to the optimal score and none qualifying as a marker of treatment response. METHODS: Multivariate predictors of overall survival (OS) were tested on 118 referred patients to develop the Hammersmith Score (HS). The scores ability to predict OS, progression-free survival (PFS), and 90-day mortality (90DM) was compared with other prognostic indices. Changes in HS were recalculated during treatment. RESULTS: Albumin|35 g/L, lactate dehydrogenase|450 U/L, and sodium|135 mmol/L emerged as independent prognostic factors. These were used with equal weighting to devise the HS, a compound prognostic index ranging from 0 to 3. High (HS=2-3) score predicted worse OS (hazard ratio [HR]=6.5, P|.001), PFS (HR=2.8, P=.01), and 90DM (OR=9.0, P|.001). HS was a more accurate multivariate predictor of OS (HR=6.4, P|.001, C-index=0.72), PFS (HR=2.7, P=.03), and 90DM (area under the ROC
Christopher Plass and colleagues find thatOLIG1 expression correlates with survival in lung cancer patients and suggest that it could be used in deciding which patients are likely to benefit from more aggressive therapy.
In this study, doctors from England evaluated baseline prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophago-gastric cancer. They also assessed whether pretreatment quality of life predicted survival.. The team studied 1080 patients were enrolled in 3 randomized, controlled trials which assessed fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy, between 1992 and 2001. All patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core quality of life questionnaire before randomization. The team found that of the 1080 patients, 91% died. They identified 4 independent poor prognostic factors using multivariate analysis. These were performance status ≤2 (hazard ratio 1.58), liver metastases (HR 1.41), peritoneal metastases (HR 1.33), and alkaline phosphatase ≤100 U/L (HR, 1.41).. The team also constructed a prognostic index which divided patients into good (no risk factor), moderate (1 or 2 risk factors) or poor (3 or 4 risk factors) risk groups. The team ...
A novel finding with potential prognostic impact relates to the observation that 45/149 (30%) of M-CLL cases exhibited high expression of UGT2B17 and displayed poor clinical outcome (P,0.001, Online Supplementary Figure S1). Since the majority of these cases were negative for CD38 expression (134/149, 90%), carried only favorable genomic lesions (del(13q) or no recurrent aberrations (133/145, 92%) and did not display mutations in TP53 (145/149, 97%), NOTCH1 (139/142, 98%) or SF3B1 (140/143, 98%), quantification of UGT2B17 mRNA expression identified a subgroup of progressive M-CLL cases (31/120, 26%) for which, to date, no established prognostic marker has been successful in identifying (Figure 1C). Notably, within M-CLL, high UGT2B17 expression remained as the strongest independent molecular prognostic marker for OS in multivariate analysis (Online Supplementary Table S2). Further evaluation of UGT2B17 expression on clinical outcome in subgroups of CLL with favorable prognosis revealed high ...
BACKGROUND: Mucosal melanoma (MM) is a rare but diverse cancer entity. Prognostic factors are not well established for Caucasians with MM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed the disease course of 444 patients from 15 German skin cancer centres. Disease progression was determined with the cumulative incidence function. Survival times were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic parameters were identified with multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Common anatomic sites of primary tumours were head and neck (MMHN, 37.2%), female genital tract (MMFG, 30.4%) and anorectal region (MMAN, 21.8%). MMAN patients showed the highest vertical tumour thickness (p = 0.001), had a more advanced nodal status (p = 0.014) and a higher percentage of metastatic disease (p = 0.001) at diagnosis. Mutations of NRAS (13.8%), KIT (8.6%) and BRAF (6.4%) were evenly distributed across all tumour site groups. Local relapses were observed in 32.4% and most commonly occurred in the MMHN group (p = 0.016). ...
Study of Her2/Neu Expression in Breast Carcinoma and Correlation with Various Prognostic Parameters-IJPO-Print ISSN No:-2394-6784 Online ISSN No:-2394-6792Article DOI No:-10.18231,Indian Journal of Pathology and Oncology-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication, Open Access Journals, Print
We aimed to assess whether high-dose preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves outcome in esophageal cancer patients compared to surgery alone and to define possible prognostic factors for overall survival. Hundred-and-seven patients with disease stage IIA - III were treated with either surgery alone (n = 45) or high-dose preoperative CRT (n = 62). The data were collected retrospectively. Sixty-seven patients had adenocarcinomas, 39 squamous cell carcinomas and one undifferentiated carcinoma. CRT was given as three intensive chemotherapy courses by cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg/m2/day, from day 1 through day 5 as continuous infusion. One course was given every 21 days. The last two courses were given concurrent with high-dose radiotherapy, 2 Gy/fraction and a median dose of 66 Gy. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log rank test was used to obtain survival data and Cox Regression multivariate analysis was used to define prognostic factors for overall survival. Toxicity
Population‑based study for predicting the prognosis for breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM) is lacking at present. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate newly diagnosed BCLM patients of different tumor subtypes and assess potential prognostic factors for predicting the survival for BCLM patients. Specifically, data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2014, and were assessed, including the data of patients with BCLM. Differences in the overall survival (OS) among patients was compared via Kaplan‑Meier analysis. Other prognostic factors of OS were determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. In addition, the breast cancer‑specific mortality was assessed using the Fine and Grays competing risk model. A nomogram was also constructed on the basis of the Cox model for predicting the prognosis of BCLM cases. A total of 2,098 cases that had a median OS of 20.0 months were included. The distribution of tumor subtypes was as ...
The prognostic or predictive role of p53 mutations has remained controversial. Inconsistent associations have been reported between the overexpression of mutant p53 and patient outcome or tumor response to therapy.13,29 A recent meta-analysis suggested that p53 expression is not a significant prognostic marker for human astrocytomas (P = .531, hazard ratio = 1.034).8 Most interesting, the same results were demonstrated in this study. There are 2 possible explanations for this. First, it could be that p53 status has no significant impact on survival prognosis. Second, p53 could interact with a multitude of other factors to influence prognosis.. In the current study, the shortest PFS was identified in patients with mutant p53 tumors localized to VLSM-identified regions when cohorts were subdivided according to tumor location and p53 status. This finding suggests that mutant p53 has a significant influence on the prognosis of tumors involving VLSM-identified regions rather than other regions. ...
The decision to ask about your prognosis is a personal one. Its up to you to decide how much you want to know. Some people find it easier to cope and plan ahead when they know their prognosis and the statistics for how well a treatment might work. Other people find statistics confusing and frightening. Or they might think statistics are too general to be useful. A doctor who is most familiar with your health is in the best position to discuss your prognosis with you and explain what the statistics may mean in your case. At the same time, you should keep in mind that your prognosis can change. Cancer and cancer treatment outcomes are hard to predict. For instance, a favorable prognosis (which means youre likely going to do well) can change if the cancer keeps growing or doesnt respond to treatment. An unfavorable prognosis can change, too. This can happen if treatment controls the AML so it doesnt grow more. ...
Purpose: Previous results from the TransATAC study demonstrated that both the Breast Cancer Index (BCI) and the OncotypeDX Recurrence Score (RS) added significant prognostic information to clinicopathologic factors over a 10-year period. Here, we examined cross-stratification between BCI and RS to directly compare their prognostic accuracy at the individual patient level.. Experimental Design: A total of 665 patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and lymph node-negative disease were included in this retrospective analysis. BCI and RS risk groups were determined using predefined clinical cut-off points. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 10-year risk of distant recurrence (DR) and log-rank tests were used to examine cross-stratification between BCI and RS.. Results: As previously reported, both RS and BCI were significantly prognostic in years 0 to 10. BCI provided significant additional prognostic information to the Clinical Treatment Score (CTS) plus RS (ΔLR-χ2 = 11.09; P , 0.001), whereas no ...
Yes‑associated protein (YAP) is a transcription‑coupling factor that plays a central role in the Hippo pathway, and its activation regulates cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. YAP activation has been reported in various malignancies, conferring tumors with migratory and invasive abilities. Several studies have suggested that YAP expression is closely associated with prostate cancer. Furthermore, YAP has been revealed to regulate destabilization of F‑actin associated with the cytoskeleton via Rho GTPase‑activating protein 29 (ARHGAP29), suggesting that ARHGAP29 is associated with cancer metastasis. In the present study, the functions of ARHGAP29 were examined in four prostate cancer cell lines (22Rv1, LNCaP, DU145 and PC‑3) and it was revealed that upregulation of ARHGAP29 in LNCaP and DU145 cells with the lowest expression of ARHGAP29 promoted cell proliferation and invasion. Conversely, ARHGAP29 knockdown in PC‑3 cells with its highest expression level significantly reduced cell ...
Inflammation can play an important role in cancer progression and the prognostic importance of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a marker of inflammation, in cancer is a current investigation topic. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether there is a prognostic link between NLR and metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). A total of 143 patients from the Akdeniz University and Antalya Training and Research Hospital database were retrospectively analyzed. The median NLR value was 3.34. The median overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were 11.6 and 7.9 months, respectively, in patients with NLRvalues were 8.3 and 6.2 months respectively in patients with NLR |3.34 (pstudy showed that increased NLR is an independent prognostic factor associated with short survival in patients with mGC.
The introduction of novel agents in the clinical management of MM has led to the need for new risk predictors and although cytogenetic abnormalities represent strong prognostic factors, their real role in risk prediction is still a matter of debate.. Del(13), del(17p), IGH translocations and high-risk chromosomal abnormalities did not show a significant impact on overall survival or progression-free survival of patients enrolled in the VMP versus VMPT-VT trial. This finding confirms and emphasizes the already reported beneficial role of bortezomib, which seems to overcome the negative impact of poor prognostic cytogenetic features.29,31,33 This was demonstrated not just in the study by Palumbo et al.,31 but also in the bortezomib-based trial by Harousseau et al.,34 which showed a similar progression-free survival between cytogenetically defined high-risk and standard-risk patients. Moreover, the Spanish VISTA trial35, comparing MP and VMP, showed that, in the VMP subgroup, there was no ...
An approach to molecular classification based on the comparative expression of protein pairs is presented. The method overcomes some of the present limitations in using peptide intensity data for class prediction for problems such as the detection of a disease, disease prognosis, or for predicting treatment response. Data analysis is particularly challenging in these situations due to sample size (typically tens) being much smaller than the large number of peptides (typically thousands). Methods based upon high dimensional statistical models, machine learning or other complex classifiers generate decisions which may be very accurate but can be complex and difficult to interpret in simple or biologically meaningful terms. A classification scheme, called ProtPair, is presented that generates simple decision rules leading to accurate classification which is based on measurement of very few proteins and requires only relative expression values, providing specific targeted hypotheses suitable for
The median numbers of involved and dissected LN were 5 (0-50), and and 21 (2-91), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.7 months. In multivariate analysis, LODDS system was independent prognostic factor for GC mortality (HR:2.02, 95%CI 1.61-2.54; p< 0.0001) and recurrence (HR:2.02 95%CI 1.47-2.77; p< 0.0001). LODDS system significantly discriminated the prognostic groups in patients with 6 to ≤ 10 LN retrieved (plog-rank = 0.022) and 11 to < 15 LN retrieved (plog-rank = 0.014) whereas pN or LNR classifications did not. In patients with ≤ 5 LN retrieved, the prediction of prognosis was insignificant for all 3 staging systems (plog-rank> 0.05). LODDS system also significantly discriminated the prognostic groups both in the patients with D1 and D2 lymphadenectomy, as well as in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. ...
In the population of 129 patients, the only significant correlation between age and clinical-pathological features is between advanced age (,80yr) and tumor location in the right colon (53.7%, p=0.04).. Risk of relapse is related both to depth of tumor invasion (42.9% in stage T4, 6.3% in stage T1, p=0.01) and advanced age (19.5% in ,80yr, 4% in ,65yr).. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) are significantly lower in patients aged over 80 than the other two classes. This significance is maintained by stratifying the 129 patients in the two age classes (,70, ,70).. In the multivariate analysis age , 80yr is significantly correlated with an increased risk of relapse.. Evaluating the control group no significant correlation between relapse and clinical-pathological features was detected.. In the multivariate analysis in stage II population, advanced age doesnt play any significant prognostic role in the risk of recurrence, while a reduction in DFS is related to depth of tumor ...
This page contains the ABSTRACT- Accurate Prognosis in Personal-Injury Cases Using Georges Line http://www.chiro.org/radiology/ABSTRACTS/Accurate_Prognosis.shtml
Exercise and prognosis on the basis of clinicopathologic and molecular features in early-stage breast cancer: The LACE and pathways studies Academic Article ...
Anal cancer treatment options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or surgery. Major prognostic factors are site, size, and nodal status. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent anal cancer and treatment in this summary for clinicians.
Kawaguchi, T., Matsumura, A., et al., 2010. Japanese ethnicity compared with Caucasian ethnicity and never-smoking status are independent favorable prognostic factors for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer: a collaborative epidemiologic study of the National Hospital Organization Study Group for Lung Cancer (NHSGLC) in Japan and a Southern California Regional Cancer Registry databases. Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 5(7), pp.1001-1010 ...
Nonetheless, it occurs to me that it is a matter of definition; what do we mean by prognosis? For most of us, it means the likelihood of healing, rebuilding, or cure. A bad prognosis means there is little chance for recovery. Someone with a good or excellent prognosis is probably going to get better ...
Conference (2017, April 24). CAF-specific proteins can provide important prognostic markers and targets for anticancer drugs. Recently, integrin α11 (ITGA11) emerged as a new biomarker of CAFs. ITGA11 is mainly expressed by ... [more ▼]. CAF-specific proteins can provide important prognostic markers and targets for anticancer drugs. Recently, integrin α11 (ITGA11) emerged as a new biomarker of CAFs. ITGA11 is mainly expressed by mesenchymal cells and is correlated with fibroblast activation and matrix reorganization. While the role of ITGA11 in wound healing has been well described, only a very limited number of reports have assessed its role in the cancer disease. This research project aims to investigate the role of stromal ITGA11 in breast cancer. To analyze the in vivo effects of ITGA11 on tumor insurgence, growth and metastasis, we crossed the oncogenic MMTv-PyMT mice with the ITGA11 KO/WT mice, which develop spontaneously breast tumors. ITGA11 deletion strongly delayed tumor growth and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recurrence and poor prognosis following resection of small hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma lesions are associated with aberrant tumor expression profiles of glypican 3 and osteopontin. AU - Yu, Ming Chin. AU - Lee, Yun Shien. AU - Lin, Sey-En. AU - Wu, Hsiang Yao. AU - Chen, Tse Ching. AU - Lee, Wei Chen. AU - Chen, Miin Fu. AU - Tsai, Chi Neu. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Background: Early detection and following appropriate treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still the gold standard for favored outcome of HCC patients; nevertheless, a small portion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related small HCC (,5 cm) patients got poor prognosis. Furthermore, the study for small HBV-HCC was limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the potential genetic signature for HBV-related small HCC as novel prognostic factors. Methods: We examined expression profiles of HBV-related small HCC using an Affymetrix U133A GeneChip, evaluated differential gene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular invasion is a strong prognostic factor after complete resection of node-negative non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Naito, Yoichi. AU - Goto, Koichi. AU - Nagai, Kanji. AU - Ishii, Genichiro. AU - Nishimura, Mitsuyo. AU - Yoshida, Junji. AU - Hishida, Tomoyuki. AU - Nishiwaki, Yutaka. N1 - Funding Information: Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Background: The seventh edition of TNM classification for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been approved. Vascular invasion has been reported as being a strong risk factor; therefore, we reviewed the impact of vascular invasion on new TNM classification. Methods: We reviewed patients with completely resected NSCLC without lymph node metastasis treated at our institute between January 1993 and December 2003. Vascular ...
Article: Improved prognosis following renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in patients undergoing concomitant aortic and mitral valve ...
Alcoholism prognosis statistics Alcoholism prognosis scale Chronic alcoholism prognosis Neuropathy alcoholism prognosis Bipolar alcoholism prognosis Alcoholism recovery prognosis Peripheral neuropathy alcoholism prognosis End stage alcoholism prognosis Li ➥ PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health ➤ Alcoholism prognosis statistics Alcoholism prognosis scale Chronic alcoholism prognosis Neuropathy alcoholism prognosis Bipolar alcoholism prognosis Alcoholism recovery prognosis Peripheral neuropathy alcoholism prognosis End stage alcoholism prognosis Li on the site ➦ alcohol-ism.info
Alcoholism prognosis statistics Alcoholism prognosis scale Chronic alcoholism prognosis Neuropathy alcoholism prognosis Bipolar alcoholism prognosis Alcoholism recovery prognosis Peripheral neuropathy alcoholism prognosis End stage alcoholism prognosis Li ➥ Physician assistants and nurse practitioners use Clinical Advisor for updated medical guidance to diagnose and treat common medical conditions in daily practice. ➤ Alcoholism prognosis statistics Alcoholism prognosis scale Chronic alcoholism prognosis Neuropathy alcoholism prognosis Bipolar alcoholism prognosis Alcoholism recovery prognosis Peripheral neuropathy alcoholism prognosis End stage alcoholism prognosis Li on the site ➦ alcohol-ism.info
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and one of the leading causes of cancer mortality globally. In patients with invasive cervical cancer prognostic factors are of value for the choice of treatment, monitoring of treatment and follow-up. The most important clinical prognostic factors are stage, tumor volume, parametrial infiltration, vascular invasion, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases. An improved estimation of the prognosis of cervical cancer is desirable, especially in early cancer stages.. The aim of this research was to study possible associations between tumor markers, female sex steroids, smoking, S-phase fraction (SPF), and prognosis in invasive squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC). The study comprised 190 patients with SCC, stages IB-IV, admitted to the Department of Gynecologic Oncology at Norrland University Hospital in Umeå between September 1984 and October1990. Ten year mortality was estimated.. In study I, of a total of 103 patients, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allogeneic transplantation for recurrent or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma with poor prognostic features after conditioning with thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide. T2 - Experience in 44 consecutive patients. AU - Van Besien, Koen. AU - Thall, Peter. AU - Korbling, Martin. AU - Pugh, William C.. AU - Khouri, Issa. AU - Mehra, Rakesh. AU - Giralt, Sergio. AU - Anderlini, Paolo. AU - Amin, Kamal. AU - Mirza, Nadeem. AU - Seong, David. AU - Gajewski, James. AU - Hester, Jeane. AU - Andersson, Borje. AU - Cabanillas, Fernando. AU - Champlin, Richard. AU - Przepiorka, Donna. PY - 1997/8/1. Y1 - 1997/8/1. N2 - We report the outcomes of 44 consecutive patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) who participated in prospective studies of allogeneic transplantation after conditioning with thiotepa, busulfan and cyclophosphamide. Within a range of 27-57 years, the median age was 37. Of the 44 patients, 12 (27.2%) had high-grade lymphomas, 27 (61.4%) had intermediate-grade ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diurnal and 24-h Intraocular Pressures in Glaucoma. T2 - Monitoring Strategies and Impact on Prognosis and Treatment. AU - Konstas, Anastasios G.. AU - Kahook, Malik Y.. AU - Araie, Makoto. AU - Katsanos, Andreas. AU - Quaranta, Luciano. AU - Rossetti, Luca. AU - Holló, Gábor. AU - Detorakis, Efstathios T.. AU - Oddone, Francesco. AU - Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G.. AU - Dutton, Gordon N.. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - The present review casts a critical eye on intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring and its value in current and future glaucoma care. Crucially, IOP is not fixed, but varies considerably during the 24-h cycle and between one visit and another. Consequently, a single IOP measurement during so-called office hours is insufficient to characterize the real IOP pathology of a patient with glaucoma. To date IOP remains the principal and only modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Only by evaluating IOP characteristics (mean, peak and ...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major challenge for public health worldwide. Considering the great heterogeneity of HCC, more accurate prognostic models are urgently needed. To identify a robust prognostic gene signature, we conduct this study. Level 3 mRNA expression profiles and clinicopathological data were obtained in The Cancer Genome Atlas Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (TCGA-LIHC). GSE14520 dataset from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database was downloaded to further validate the results in TCGA. Differentially expressed mRNAs between HCC and normal tissue were investigated. Univariate Cox regression analysis and lasso Cox regression model were performed to identify and construct the prognostic gene signature. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC), Kaplan-Meier curve, multivariate Cox regression analysis, nomogram, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess the prognostic capacity of the six-gene signature. The prognostic value of the gene signature was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumour biomarkers. T2 - homeostasis as a novel prognostic indicator. AU - Falco, Michela. AU - Palma, Giuseppe. AU - Rea, Domenica. AU - De Biase, Davide. AU - Scala, Stefania. AU - DAiuto, Massimiliano. AU - Facchini, Gaetano. AU - Perdonà, Sisto. AU - Barbieri, Antonio. AU - Arra, Claudio. N1 - © 2016 The Authors.. PY - 2016/12. Y1 - 2016/12. N2 - The term personalized medicine refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a tailored therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis. Several studies have shown that lifestyle and environmental factors can influence the ...
BACKGROUND: A randomised trial published by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group (trial 26981-22981/CE.3) showed that addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma significantly improved survival. We aimed to undertake an exploratory subanalysis of the EORTC and NCIC data to confirm or identify new prognostic factors for survival in adult patients with glioblastoma, derive nomograms that predict an individual patients prognosis, and suggest stratification factors for future trials. METHODS: Data from 573 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were randomly assigned to radiotherapy alone or to the same radiotherapy plus temozolomide in the EORTC and NCIC trial were included in this subanalysis. Survival modelling was done in three patient populations: intention-to-treat population of all randomised patients (populat
In this study, we found that p16 expression status in the tissue of patients with oropharyngeal cancer is a strong independent prognostic factor for local recurrence as well as disease-free and overall survival. Patients with p16-nonoverexpressing tumors had a 6-fold increase in risk of local recurrence and an almost 3-fold increase in risk of death from any cause. In multivariate analysis, p16 expression status remained an independent prognostic factor. This result is striking, given that p16 overexpression was also associated with poor prognostic features such as advanced TNM stage and high histologic grade.. The relationship between p16 expression levels and prognosis is controversial. Loss of p16 expression has been found to be associated with worse prognosis in several cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, nasopharyngeal, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma (15 , 20, 21, 22, 23, 24) . This is in contrast to reports that overexpression of p16 is associated with poor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Update on prognostic markers for endometrial cancer. AU - Binder, Pratibha S.. AU - Mutch, David G.. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in the USA and the second most common worldwide after cervical cancer. While common symptomatology of endometrial cancer leads to early diagnosis and favorable 5-year survival in most cases, there is a subset of cancers that have a poorer prognosis. The clinical and pathologic prognostic factors for endometrial cancer are well known and instrumental in determining the need for adjuvant therapy. Recently, research has been focused on the identification of molecular changes leading to different histologic subtypes to improve classification of endometrial cancer. The identification of novel mutations and molecular profiles should enhance our ability to personalize adjuvant treatment with genome-guided targeted therapy.. AB - Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in the USA and ...
Circulating microRNA (miRNA) has recently emerged as a promising biomarker for myocardial infarction. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes release miRNA into the circulation and the detection of cardiospecific miRNA species in the blood might constitute a rapid and robust diagnostic tool with high specificity. However, the studies conducted thus far have been based on small clinical materials and have exclusively looked at the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI). We wanted to assess the usefulness of circulating miRNA both for distinguishing between MI and non-MI in the acute phase and for long term prognosis of death and development of heart failure in a larger population of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). All patients presenting with suspected ACS pain in the coronary care unit at Lund University Hospital were offered to take part in the study. Levels of cardiospecific miRNAs miR-1, miR-208b and miR-499 were measured in plasma of 430 patients by quantitative real time PCR. Receiver operator ...
The present study demonstrates that IGFBP‐4 fragments are associated with an increased risk of all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and MACE in a cohort of patients with STEMI. The associations were significant both at 3 months and 5 years after the STEMI. Nevertheless, an association alone is insufficient to establish prognostic value, and the use of IGFBP‐4 fragments to determine the risk of a future event as a continuous variable demands cautious consideration. Various risk scores and statistical tests in the cardiovascular area have generated considerable controversy, and no clear consensus has been established. In this study, the incremental prognostic value of the addition of the IGFBP‐4 fragments to the clinical model was assessed by discrimination, calibration, and reclassification analyses. Discrimination and calibration analyses indicated that models including either NT‐ or CT‐IGFBP‐4 were more accurate than the clinical model alone. To assess the magnitude of ...
The identification of a prognostic gene expression signature in breast cancer that is valid across multiple independent data sets and different microarray platforms is a challenging problem [1]. Recently, there have been reports of molecular prognostic and predictive signatures that were also valid in external independent cohorts [2-7]. One of these studies derived the prognostic signature from genes correlating with histological grade [4], while in [5] it was derived directly from correlations with clinical outcome data and was validated in estrogen receptor positive lymph node negative (ER+LN-) breast cancer. Another study validated a predictive score, based on 21 genes, for ER+LN-tamoxifen treated breast cancer [2]. These results are encouraging, yet, as explained recently in [8, 9], much larger cohort sizes may be needed before a consensus prognostic signature emerges. While the intrinsic subtype classification does appear to constitute a set of consensus signatures [7], it is also clear ...
Surgery is the mainstay curative treatment in most cancer. We aimed to test the new hypothesis that cancer surgery performed during holiday periods is associated with worse long-term prognosis than for non-holiday periods. This nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study included 228,927 patients during 1997-2014 who underwent elective resectional surgery for a cancer where the annual number of resections was over 100. The 16 eligible cancer sites were grouped into 10 cancer groups. The exposure, holiday periods, was classified as wide (14-weeks) or narrow (7-weeks). Surgery conducted inside versus outside holiday periods was compared regarding overall disease-specific (main outcome) and overall all-cause (secondary outcome) mortality. Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, hospital volume, calendar period and tumor stage. Surgery conducted during wide and narrow holiday periods were associated with increased HRs of ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.18223 Chan Wook Kim, Jihun Kim, Seung-Seop Yeom, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, In Ja Park, Seok-Byung Lim, Seunghee Baek, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
Materials and Methods We carried out a retrospective multivariate analysis of 713 patients with ALS over a 20 year period from the South-East England Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (SEALS) population register. Patients were randomly allocated to discovery or test cohorts. A prognostic score was calculated using the discovery cohort and then used to predict survival in the test cohort. This score was used as a predictor variable in subsequent survival analyses, either as a raw value for a Cox regression or split into four prognostic categories (good, moderate, average, poor).. ...
The TNM staging system is an internationally standardized system for the staging of cancer and is in its seventh decade of continuing formulation. The TNM classification is put forth by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC; http://www.uicc.org). The AJCCs Cancer Staging Manual and the UICCs TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours present the stages of cancer as defined by TNM classifications. The TNM definitions and stage groupings are based on prognostic outcome. Information about TNM may be accessed at the UICC website, http://www.uicc.org/index.php?id=508. The TNM symbols follow. ▪ T: tumor (indicates size, extent,
The TNM staging system is an internationally standardized system for the staging of cancer and is in its seventh decade of continuing formulation. The TNM classification is put forth by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC; http://www.uicc.org). The AJCCs Cancer Staging Manual and the UICCs TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours present the stages of cancer as defined by TNM classifications. The TNM definitions and stage groupings are based on prognostic outcome. Information about TNM may be accessed at the UICC website, http://www.uicc.org/index.php?id=508. The TNM symbols follow. ▪ T: tumor (indicates size, extent,
article{41e2a13a-ee9a-4633-bac9-189ca386b82d, abstract = {FK506-binding protein-like (FKBPL) has established roles as an anti-tumor protein, with a therapeutic peptide based on this protein, ALM201, shortly entering phase I/II clinical trials. Here, we evaluated FKBPLs prognostic ability in primary breast cancer tissue, represented on tissue microarrays (TMA) from 3277 women recruited into five independent retrospective studies, using immunohistochemistry (IHC). In a meta-analysis, FKBPL levels were a significant predictor of BCSS; low FKBPL levels indicated poorer breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.49, p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of FKBPL remained significant after adjusting for other known prognostic factors (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.45, p = 0.004). For the sub-groups of 2365 estrogen receptor (ER) positive patients and 1649 tamoxifen treated patients, FKBPL was significantly associated with BCSS (HR = 1.34, 95% CI ...
Bcl-2 and p53 gene products (Bcl-2, p53) are important regulators of apoptosis and cell proliferation, and their immunohistochemical expression may help to identify high-risk breast cancer patients. The authors evaluated p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in 178 node-negative breast cancers (NNBC) with long-term follow-up (median, 60 months). Bcl-2 was seen in 111 (62%) cases, and was significantly associated with small tumor size, nonductal morphology, low tumor grade, estrogen-receptor (ER) positivity, and p53 negativity. p53 overexpression (ie, | 15% reactive nuclei) was observed in 31 (17%) cases, and was associated with lower age, large tumor size, ductal morphology, high tumor grade, negative ER status, and lack of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity. In univariate analysis, the variables associated with short relapse-free survival (RFS) were large tumor size (P = .002), high histological grade (P = .01), high mitotic count (P = .03), and high Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) (P = .0002). In multivariate analysis
Neuroendocrine tumours(NETs) are heterogeneous with respect to biological behavior. Consequently, prognosis is variable and biomarkers predicting survival or tumour progression are required to inform clinical management. The best available biomarker, histological grade, is assigned using Ki-67 or mitotic count. Agreement between these two indices is implied but analysis of 131 pancreatic and 136 midgut NETs suggested discordances of 44% and 38% respectively. Ki-67 was the superior prognostic marker, making the additional value of mitotic count questionable. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells(CTCs) using the Cellsearch™ platform requires expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule(EpCAM). I demonstrated EpCAM expression by immunohistochemistry and detected CTCs in patients with metastatic NETs. In 175 patients, ≥1 CTC was detected in 51%(midgut) and 36%(pancreatic). ≥1 CTC was an independent poor prognostic factor, offering better prognostic value than grade or chromogranin A(CgA). ...
Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe infection responsible for high mortality and disabling sequelae. Early identification of patients at high risk of these outcomes is necessary to prevent their occurrence by adequate treatment as much as possible. For this reason, several prognostic models have been developed. The objective of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting death or sequelae due to BM in children 0-18 years of age. A search in MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted to identify prognostic studies on risk factors for mortality and sequelae after BM in children. Selection of abstracts, full-text articles and assessment of methodological quality using the QUIPS checklist was performed by two reviewers independently. Data on prognostic factors per outcome were summarized. Of the 31 studies identified, 15 were of moderate to high quality. Due to substantial heterogeneity in study characteristics and evaluated prognostic factors, no quantitative analysis was
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The present thesis is focused on the prognostic value of genetic variations and alterations in the initiation and development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Several prognostic markers based on genetic or chromosomal aberrations are today used in clinic in these heterogeneous diseases. Novel biomarkers have been identified through next generation sequencing techniques and some of them may be useful as prognostic markers in clinical diagnostic. In papers I-IV we have investigated some of this markers in CLL and AML tumor cells.. In papers I and III we investigated the prognostic value of the MDM2 SNP309 in relation to the presence of TP53 mutations in tumor cells from CLL and AML patients. The SNP309 G-allele was associated with a shorter overall survival in TP53 wildtype CLL and non-normal karyotype AML patients. Mutations in the TP53 gene were found in 6.2% in CLL and 21.7% in AML and were always associated with adverse overall survival. This was ...
The HER-2/neu oncogene is a member of the erbB-like oncogene family, and is related to, but distinct from, the epidermal growth factor receptor. This gene has been shown to be amplified in human breast cancer cell lines. In the current study, alterations of the gene in 189 primary human breast cancers were investigated. HER-2/neu was found to be amplified from 2- to greater than 20-fold in 30% of the tumors. Correlation of gene amplification with several disease parameters was evaluated. Amplification of the HER-2/neu gene was a significant predictor of both overall survival and time to relapse in patients with breast cancer. It retained its significance even when adjustments were made for other known prognostic factors. Moreover, HER-2/neu amplification had greater prognostic value than most currently used prognostic factors, including hormonal-receptor status, in lymph node-positive disease. These data indicate that this gene may play a role in the biologic behavior and/or pathogenesis of ...
The HER-2/neu oncogene is a member of the erbB-like oncogene family, and is related to, but distinct from, the epidermal growth factor receptor. This gene has been shown to be amplified in human breast cancer cell lines. In the current study, alterations of the gene in 189 primary human breast cancers were investigated. HER-2/neu was found to be amplified from 2- to greater than 20-fold in 30% of the tumors. Correlation of gene amplification with several disease parameters was evaluated. Amplification of the HER-2/neu gene was a significant predictor of both overall survival and time to relapse in patients with breast cancer. It retained its significance even when adjustments were made for other known prognostic factors. Moreover, HER-2/neu amplification had greater prognostic value than most currently used prognostic factors, including hormonal-receptor status, in lymph node-positive disease. These data indicate that this gene may play a role in the biologic behavior and/or pathogenesis of ...
The investigators initially created the GPA after studying the files of 1,980 patients from four prospective randomized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. They have recently expanded to 11 centers that pulled together records from 3,940 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases, all of whom had been treated. They matched up prognostic factors with different cancers and tumor subtypes and discovered that specific prognostic factors could be used for each of the cancers to help determine a prognosis. A score of zero offers the worst prognosis.. They studied patients with small-cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. The overall median survival differed for each of the cancers and specific prognostic factors were stronger in determining survival. They went back into the medical records to look at the primary tumor type, the number of brain metastases, age at diagnosis, the ...
Results An optimal 13-gene expression classifier (PIGR, CXCL13, MMP3, TUBA1B, SESN1, AZGP1, KLK6, EPHA7, SEMA3A, DSC3, CXCL10, ENPP3, BNIP3) for prediction of relapse among patients with stage II CRC was developed using a consecutive Norwegian test series from patients treated according to current standard protocols (n=44, p,0.001, HR=18.2), and its predictive value was successfully validated for patients with stage II CRC in a second Norwegian CRC series collected two decades previously (n=52, p=0.02, HR=3.6). Further validation of the classifier was obtained in a recent external dataset of patients with stage II CRC from other populations (n=108, p=0.001, HR=6.5). Multivariate Cox regression analyses, including all three sample series and various clinicopathological variables, confirmed the independent prognostic value of the classifier (p≤0.004). The classifier was shown to be specific to stage II CRC and does not provide prognostic stratification of patients with stage III CRC. ...
Minimal residual disease (MRD) can be an important predictor of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but its relationship to additional prognostic variables has not been fully assessed. National Cancer Insitute high-risk (NCI HR) individuals who have been MRD+. The few individuals with detectable MRD at end of consolidation fared especially poorly, with only a 43% plus or minus 7% 5-yr EFS. Day time-29 marrow MRD was the most important prognostic variable in multi-variate analysis. The 12% of individuals with all beneficial risk factors, including NCI risk group, genetics, and absence of days 8 and 29 MRD, experienced a 97% plus or minus 1% 5-yr EFS with nonintensive therapy. These studies are authorized at www.clinicaltrials.gov because NCT00005585, NCT00005596, and NCT00005603. Intro The presence of minimal residual disease (MRD) following therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) offers been shown to be an important prognostic marker in many studies.1C20 MRD is typically ...
0051] The term prognosis as used herein refers to a prediction of the probable course and outcome of a clinical condition or disease. A prognosis is usually made by evaluating factors or symptoms of a disease that are indicative of a favorable or unfavorable course or outcome of the disease. The phrase determining the prognosis as used herein refers to the process by which the skilled artisan can predict the course or outcome of a condition in a patient. The term prognosis does not refer to the ability to predict the course or outcome of a condition with 100% accuracy. Instead, the skilled artisan will understand that the term prognosis refers to an increased probability that a certain course or outcome will occur; that is, that a course or outcome is more likely to occur in a patient exhibiting a given condition, when compared to those individuals not exhibiting the condition. The terms favorable prognosis and positive prognosis, or unfavorable prognosis and negative prognosis ...
article{1efcb56d-fdcb-4628-a18a-906218d7c70d, abstract = {Background and Purpose-A low risk of recurrent stroke and death after lacunar infarction has previously been reported, but follow-up has been limited to less than or equal to5 years. Methods-One hundred eighty patients with pure motor stroke, collected between 1983 and 1986 from a hospital-based stroke registry, were followed up until at least 10 years after the index stroke. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Survival status was determined from the official population registry and compared with survival rates of the Swedish population, matched for age and sex. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic predictors. Results-During follow-up 106 (60%) of the 178 patients died, most commonly as a result of coronary heart disease. During the first 5 years after the stroke, survival rates were similar to those of the general population. Beyond this time the risk of death was increased among ...
Another challenge in lung cancer is the difficulty in predicting the treatment response or prognosis. Gratifyingly, in addition to the reports by Aerts H discussed above, several studies have successfully developed radiomics prognostic classifiers for lung cancer patients treated with surgery, radiotherapy or targeted therapies. Eleven stable radiomics feature clusters extracted from the pretreatment CT images with lung cancer have been found to indicate a strong association with prognosis [44]. Local recurrence and distant metastasis are important prognostic factors in cancer patients. Therefore, developing efficient biomarkers to predict patients at high risk of local recurrence or distant metastasis may help to avoid intensive systemic therapy in these subgroups. Coraller TP et al. have constructed a radiomics model with 635 features. Thirty-five have been found to be predictive of metastasis, and 12 have been found to be predictive of survival. The predictive power of the radiomics ...
Eligibility Criteria. Patients must have histologically or cytologically confirmed Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck either (a) metastatic (i.e. American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System, 6th edition, stage IVC) or (b) recurrent, judged incurable by surgery or radiation.. Patients must have measurable disease, defined as at least one lesion that can be accurately measured in at least one dimension (longest diameter to be recorded) as ,20 mm with conventional techniques or as ,10 mm with CT scan). RECIST criteria will be used (see section 9).. Therapeutic history in conformance with the following:. No more than one prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or concomitant chemoradiotherapy regimen that may have included biologic/targeted agent.. No more than one prior regimen (chemotherapy or biologic/targeted) for recurrent/metastatic disease. ECOG performance status of 0-2 (Karnofsky , 60%; see Appendix A).. Patients must have normal organ and marrow function as defined ...
© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Purpose: Hemoglobin is a known prognostic marker in many cancers, including head and neck cancer (HNC). There is some evidence that the red cell distribution width, which is an index of variation in size of red blood cells (RBCs), might be associated with prognosis as well. Recently, a novel prognostic biomarker has been reported-the ratio of the hemoglobin-to-red cell distribution width (Hb/RDW). Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic utility of the pretreatment Hb/RDW in HNC, controlled with known prognostic indices. Methods: Retrospective cohort study in a tertiary academic hospital setting. Patients diagnosed with HNC treated with curative-intent surgery were eligible. Metastatic disease was excluded. The variables collected were age, sex, BMI, alcohol/tobacco exposure, performance scores, ACE-27, tumor characteristics, adjuvant treatment, and lab values. The primary endpoints were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival
For different types of tumors, we have investigated the correlation of the GPS with clinically relevant parameters. Using Cox regression models we demonstrated that the GPS is a medically relevant prognostic factor that can be used to discriminate between patient subgroups with different expected clinical outcome.. 1) We analyzed the prognostic value of the GPS for relapse of prostate cancer patients. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to observed times until PSA (prostate specific antigen) relapse following radical prostatectomy. GPS was calculated from CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) measurements. For prostate cancer, the Gleason score reflecting the histological pattern of tumor growth is a common grading system with high predictive value. In practice, many tumors are scored with an average value of 7. Restricting to patients with such a score only, we showed that the GPS can be used to further identify subgroups with different prognosis. This shows that the GPS can improve ...
Background: The aim of this study was to estimate some prognostic factors that affect on overall survival ofpatients with early gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective study had been done on patients diagnosed withearly gastric cancer who registered in cancer registry center, Tehran-Iran, between December 21, 2001 andDecember 21, 2006 and all patients were followed by telephone contacts. The Kaplan-Meier method was performedto describe survival curves and log-rank test to compare the survival rate in subgroups. Cox regression wasused to determine the prognosis factors. Results: The mean age was 57.9 ± 11.9 years and 72.6% of patientswere male. Tumor size (|35mm) and lymph node metastasis were established as significant factors for survivalof patients with EGC in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The findings of this studyindicate that lymph node metastasis and tumor size are the most independent prognostic factors in these patients.
Results The authors identified a gene signature that was associated with overall survival and disease-free survival in 177 patients and validated in two independent cohorts of 213 patients. In multivariate analysis, the signature was an independent risk factor (HR 3.08; 95% CI 1.33 to 7.14; p=0.008 for overall survival). Subset analysis of patients with AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) stage III cancer revealed that the signature can also identify the patients who have better outcome with adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX). Adjuvant chemotherapy significantly affected disease-free survival in patients in subtype B (3-year rate, 71.2% (CTX) vs 41.9% (no CTX); p=0.004). However, such benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was not significant for patients in subtype A. ...
Maspin, a member of the Serpin protease inhibitor family, is overexpressed in poorly differentiated colorectal tumors and more frequently found in tumors with microsatellite instability. Immunohistochemical nuclear Maspin staining is predominantly seen in tumor cells at the invasion front of such cancers, suggesting that this molecule is associated with local tumor cell infiltration and aggressiveness. In a retrospective study, we studied nuclear Maspin expression as a potential prognostic tool in a total of 172 primary stage III colon cancers by immunohistochemistry. Of those 172 patients, 76 were treated by surgery only, and 96 patients received additional adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy. Nuclear Maspin expression was an independent adverse prognostic factor for overall survival in our patient cohort (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% CI, 1.13-3.81; p = 0.018). However, patients with primary tumors expressing Maspin in the nucleus showed a significant treatment benefit from 5-FU ...
Although risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with IgAN have been reported previously [1, 2], it is still difficult to accurately estimate renal prognosis in these patients. Although serum levels of C3 and C4 frequently fluctuate within the normal range in IgAN patients, studies have increasingly focused on the role of complement in the pathogenesis of IgAN [14-17]. However, the relationship between serum complement levels and the renal prognosis of patients with IgAN remains controversial.. There were studies discussing the relationship between serum C3 levels and the prognosis of IgAN. Kim et al. reported that low serum C3 at the time of renal biopsy was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis [18]. Lbels et al. also found that higher serum C3 at the end of follow up were associated with adverse outcomes, but lower baseline serum C3 levels were unrelated to prognosis [19]. Conversely, Komatsu et al. did not identify any difference in serum C3 levels between patients with severe ...
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Introduction A reduction in the Ki-67 index after neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been reported to be associated with a favorable prognosis. The present study investigates whether a reduction in Ki-67 may be a predictive surrogate marker of favorable prognosis in each subtype of breast cancer.. Methods A total of 385 patients who received neoadjuvant anthracycline followed by taxane chemotherapy and subsequent surgery for invasive breast cancer were analyzed retrospectively. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), patients were divided into 4 subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, Triple negative and HER2). Ki-67 was examined by IHC in pre-treatment core needle samples and post-treatment surgical excisional specimens. The relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was compared among each subtype.. Results The median follow-up period was 56 months. The rate of pathological complete response was higher for HER2 (34.8%) and Triple negative (24.3%) subtypes than for Luminal B (8.3%) and Luminal A (3.8%) subtypes (p < 0.0001). A ...
Background: There is evidence that high level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is associated with poorer overall survival in several malignancies, but its link to cancer-specific survival is unclear. Methods: A total of 7895 individuals diagnosed with cancer between 1986 and 1999 were selected for this study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess overall and cancer-specific death by the z-score and clinical categories of serum LDH prospectively collected within 3 years before diagnosis. Site-specific analysis was performed for major cancers. Analysis was repeated by different lag times between LDH measurements and diagnosis. Results: At the end of follow-up, 5799 participants were deceased. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and cancer-specific death in the multivariable model were 1.43 (1.31-1.56) and 1.46 (1.32-1.61), respectively, for high compared with low prediagnostic LDH. Site-specific analysis showed high LDH to correlate ...
Prognosis for these fractures is generally good, with total healing time not exceeding 12 weeks. The first two weeks will show ...
Prognosis[edit]. Acne usually improves around the age of 20 but may persist into adulthood.[75] Permanent physical scarring may ...
Prognosis[edit]. Prognosis in HSCT varies widely dependent upon disease type, stage, stem cell source, HLA-matched status (for ... The post-transplant prognosis often includes acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease that may be life-threatening. However ... Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more aggressive behavior with poorer prognosis, when compared to oral cancer in non-HSCT ...
Prognosis[edit]. Though there is limited evidence, outcomes appear to be relatively poor with a review of outcome studies ...
Prognosis[edit]. Lyme disease's typical first sign, the erythema migrans (EM) rash, resolves within several weeks even without ... In dogs, a serious long-term prognosis may result in glomerular disease,[278] which is a category of kidney damage that may ...
Prognosis[edit]. Lifespan may be significantly shortened in males with Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Patients may survive into their ... Prognosis. Treatment Cognitive disabilities. Mental retardation. Most severe. Ranges from severe to relatively normal intellect ...
Prognosis[edit]. About 15-20% of hospitalized Lassa fever patients will die from the illness. The overall mortality rate is ...
Prognosis[edit]. About a third of untreated patients have spontaneous remission, another third progress to require dialysis and ...
Treatment and prognosis[edit]. Patients with HACE should be brought to lower altitudes and provided supplemental oxygen,[17] ...
Prognosis[edit]. The prognosis of SSSS in children is excellent, with complete resolution within 10 days of treatment, and ... However, SSSS must be differentiated carefully from toxic epidermal necrolysis, which carries a poor prognosis. The prognosis ...
Prognosis[edit]. In the absence of a liver transplant, FAP is invariably fatal, usually within a decade. The disadvantage of ...
Prognosis[edit]. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths per million persons in 2012 .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size ... Being either underweight or overweight can affect the symptoms, degree of disability, and prognosis of COPD. People with COPD ...
Prognosis[edit]. The long-term prognosis for APS is determined mainly by recurrent thrombosis, which may occur in up to 29% of ... with anticoagulant medication such as heparin to reduce the risk of further episodes of thrombosis and improve the prognosis of ...
Prognosis[edit]. The most acute complication is paraphimosis. In this condition, the glans is swollen and painful, and the ...
Recovery and prognosis[edit]. Not all mental health professionals agree about standard methods of treatment.[22] Caring for an ...
Prognosis[edit]. According to the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), hypertensive nephropathy accounts for more than one- ... Patient prognosis is dependent on numerous factors including age, ethnicity, blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. ...
Prognosis. Risk of death ~25%[1]. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a medical condition where a portion of the bowel dies.[1] ... Prognosis[edit]. Typical recovery from NEC if medical, non-surgical treatment succeeds, includes 10-14 days or more without ... long-term prognosis for infants undergoing NEC surgery is improving, with survival rates of 70-80%. "Surgical NEC" survivors ...
Prognosis[edit]. Reversal of symptoms have been reported in between 10% to 22% of cases.[38][2] ...
Prognosis[edit]. Following diagnosis, voice therapy should be implemented to optimize vocal hygiene.[3] Vocal fold cysts tend ... Patients with sub-epithelial cysts have a better prognosis for timely recovery of vocal abilities than patients with ligament ...
Prognosis[edit]. The outcome of Potter's Sequence is poor. A series of 23 patients in 2007 recorded 7 deaths, 4 in the neonatal ... it was noted that other causes of failed fetal urine production also resulted in similar physical characteristics and prognoses ...
Prognosis[edit]. There is currently no effective treatment or cure for PSP, although some of the symptoms can respond to ...
Prognosis[edit]. Even without treatment, skin abscesses rarely result in death, as they will naturally break through the skin.[ ...
Level of MRD is a guide to prognosis or relapse risk[edit]. In some cases, the level of MRD at a certain time in treatment is a ... 4.1 Level of MRD is a guide to prognosis or relapse risk ... useful guide to the patient's prognosis. For instance, in ...
Prognosis[edit]. The mortality rate of chikungunya is slightly less than 1 in 1000.[67] Those over the age of 65, neonates, and ...
Prognosis[edit]. Hyperhidrosis can have physiological consequences such as cold and clammy hands, dehydration, and skin ...
Prognosis[edit]. Different genetic causes and types of Leigh syndrome have different prognoses, though all are poor. The most ... If the deficiency is not complete, the prognosis is somewhat better and an affected child is expected to survive 6-7 years, and ...
Prognosis[edit]. Male gender, proteinuria (especially , 2 g/day), hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, older age, familial ... There are certain other features on kidney biopsy such as interstitial scarring which are associated with a poor prognosis. ACE ... Frank hematuria has shown discordant results with most studies showing a better prognosis, perhaps related to the early ... Nephrotic syndrome (3-3.5 grams of protein loss in the urine, associated with a poorer prognosis) ...
Prognosis[edit]. CP is not a progressive disorder (meaning the brain damage does not worsen), but the symptoms can become more ...
Prognosis[edit]. Severe hypertension is a serious and potentially life-threatening medical condition. It is estimated that ...
Prognosis[edit]. Hemiplegia is not a progressive disorder, except in progressive conditions like a growing brain tumour. Once ...

No data available that match "prognosis"


  • The survival rate is a standard factor to discuss the patient's prognosis. (news-medical.net)
  • A patient's prognosis will vary depending on their individual case, with an average life expectancy of six to twelve months. (mesothelioma.com)
  • That's why Sheltzer set out to find other easily identifiable factors that can determine a cancer patient's prognosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • But as improved antiretroviral therapy has lengthened the life expectancy of HIV patients, these two factors are no longer sufficient in developing a patient's prognosis, said Amy Justice, a professor at the Yale School of Medicine and chief of general internal medicine for the VA Connecticut Healthcare System. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Other factors that affect the prognosis with papillary thyroid cancer include cancer that spread to the soft tissue or to distant parts of the patient's body. (empowher.com)
  • For 19th century physicians, particularly those following the French school of medicine, the main aim of medicine was not to cure disease, but rather to give a medical diagnosis and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many patients with advanced, incurable cancer have a poor understanding of their prognosis or life expectancy, a new study shows. (cancer.gov)
  • Many factors affect your prognosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other factors, like your age, also affect your prognosis. (healthgrades.com)
  • Ask your doctor about the factors that affect your prognosis and what they mean for you. (cancer.ca)
  • Talk to your doctor to learn more about the individual factors that may affect your prognosis. (healthline.com)
  • Keep in mind that diagnosing and treating feline lymphoma as soon as the symptoms are discovered will influence considerably the prognosis. (vetinfo.com)
  • Learn more about the symptoms, treatment, and prognosis. (reference.com)
  • The presence of sensory symptoms in addition to motor and/or co-ordination symptoms at onset indicate a better prognosis than co-ordination and/or motor symptoms alone. (mult-sclerosis.org)
  • The prognosis of a genetic condition depends on many factors, including the specific diagnosis and an individual's particular signs and symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He or she can assess your medical history and signs and symptoms to give you the most accurate estimate of your prognosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Maryland is awaiting word this week on the long-term prognosis of two key offensive players -- running back Da'Rel Scott (broken forearm) and left tackle Bruce Campbell (knee) -- who suffered injuries in Saturday's 24-21 victory over Clemson. (washingtonpost.com)
  • If someone is diagnosed with alcoholic hepatitis, their long-term prognosis is not very good, especially if it is left untreated. (infobarrel.com)
  • The effects that these drugs will have on long-term prognosis are not clearly defined, but it is safe bet that they will generally improve the disease course for people who use them. (mult-sclerosis.org)
  • The results suggest that assessing TGF-Ã ² signaling may be a useful aid in determining breast cancer prognosis and in guiding treatment. (redorbit.com)
  • There are a few general facts that are helpful to know about breast cancer prognosis. (healthline.com)
  • Retrieved on December 11, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neuroblastoma-Prognosis.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • 2019. Neuroblastoma Prognosis . (news-medical.net)
  • Susan King, latimes.com , "Faced with cancer, longtime showbiz reporter David Sheehan looks back at his lifetime of celebrity interviews," 27 June 2019 As our environmental prognosis grows increasingly grim, designers have started to think about ways to mitigate what feels like an an inevitable crash course with nature. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Liz Stinson, Curbed , "In the Maldives, MIT experiment fights rising sea levels with nature," 21 June 2019 His prognosis has dwindled from months to weeks to live as the cancer has spread to his heart and lungs. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Jorge L. Ortiz, USA TODAY , "'What I want is a peaceful death': Kevin Roster has only weeks to live - and that's why he moved to California," 7 June 2019 Despite huge progress, a subset of ALL children continued to have a grim prognosis with standard chemotherapy. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Marie Mccullough, https://www.inquirer.com , "How conquering a rare leukemia in children revolutionized cancer care for millions," 6 June 2019 Heidi Winchester was diagnosed with cancer in 2011 and was given a terminal prognosis last year, according to court records. (merriam-webster.com)
  • oregonlive.com , "Judge clears way for man accused of killing cancer-stricken wife to attend son's high school graduation in Lake Oswego," 4 June 2019 Deutsche Telekom will report free cash flow after leases to help shareholders understand the impact of the new accounting rules and compare the company's performance to prior reporting periods and its medium-term prognosis . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Nina Trentmann, WSJ , "CFOs Overhaul Performance Measures in Response to New Accounting Rules," 2 May 2019 Fast-forward a couple of years, however, and the prognosis is not so sunny. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Patients with Parkinson's disease may be stratified on the basis of specific subtypes that progress differently and that are associated with different prognoses, a new study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • We have found that it is possible to accurately predict prognosis, disability, and survival of patients with Parkinson's disease by classifying them into different clinical subtypes at the time of diagnosis," senior author Thomas Warner, MD, University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom, told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • He noted that the neurology community has always recognized that patients who present with prominent tremor often have a better prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Angiosarcoma patients are mostly diagnosed after the tumor has spread all over the body and this type of late identification may result in a poor prognosis. (news-medical.net)
  • According to various studies, improved prognosis is achieved when patients have smaller tumors that can be easily removed from the body. (news-medical.net)
  • The most complicated or severe prognosis of patients with angiosarcoma is death. (news-medical.net)
  • The plethora of acquired genomic abnormalities in 80-90% of patients, some relatively unique to MDS such as epigenetic and spliceosome mutations, has an impact on diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification and choice of treatment. (springer.com)
  • The investigators concluded that detection of circulating miR-148a expression in the peripheral blood is useful in identifying patients with osteosarcoma who have a poor prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • A study by Zhao et al found that high expression of the oncoprotein transient receptor potential melastatin member 8 (TRPM8) was predictive of a poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma, in that it was associated with higher clinical stage and distant metastasis, as well as with shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. (medscape.com)
  • Sarcomatoid mesothelioma doesn't respond well to treatment and metastasizes aggressively, leaving patients with an average prognosis of 8 - 10 months. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Scientists at Imperial College London and the University of Melbourne have developed artificial intelligence (AI) software that they claim can more accurately predict ovarian cancer prognosis than current methods, and which can also indicate which treatments are most likely to be effective for individual patients. (genengnews.com)
  • With this new classification system we can better predict which patients have a poor prognosis compared to current methods", said Gottfrid Sjödahl, a doctoral student at the Division of Oncology, Lund University. (eurekalert.org)
  • Highly recommended for everyone from patients wrestling with their personal prognosis to any medical practitioner touched by this bioethical dilemma. (uchicago.edu)
  • In a major advancement for the field of HIV treatment, a new study has identified a more accurate method of suggesting prognosis for HIV patients. (yaledailynews.com)
  • But the implications of these findings go even further than giving individual patients more accurate prognoses. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Patients who discussed their prognosis with their doctors were more likely to understand the serious nature of their illness. (cancer.gov)
  • Patients with advanced cancer may benefit from having discussions about their prognoses with their physicians. (cancer.gov)
  • Differentiation between hospital-acquired acute renal failure (ARF) and community-acquired ARF may have epidemiological implications that lead to different prognoses in hospitalized patients. (nih.gov)
  • For example, patients who have small thyroid gland tumors or who are younger than age 40 have a better prognosis. (empowher.com)
  • Patients with familial medullary thyroid cancer have the best prognosis, while patients with MEN 2B associated medullary thyroid cancer have the worst. (empowher.com)
  • The distinct curves, significant log rank result, and hazard ratio estimates suggests tumour grade is a prognostic factor, as it identifies three groups of patients with a different average prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • New research suggests that breast cancer patients who have little social interaction may face a worse prognosis than those who have plenty of social support. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The other cell types, sarcomatoid and biphasic, are less common and indicate a worse prognosis than epithelioid. (mesothelioma.com)
  • People who have a large tumor or are older than age 45, however, have a worse prognosis. (empowher.com)
  • This improves overall prognosis for people with AFib. (healthline.com)
  • It is associated with the best prognosis and survival. (medscape.com)
  • Together, survival rates and prognoses are an average. (healthgrades.com)
  • Discuss your prognosis and survival chances with your doctor. (healthgrades.com)
  • The prognosis of IPF is poor with a median survival of 3-5 years after diagnosis and no curative medical therapies. (reference.com)
  • Mesothelioma prognosis is rated by the cancer five-year survival rate tool. (infobarrel.com)
  • Estimators that are commonly used to describe prognoses include: Progression-free survival - the length of time during and after medication or treatment during which the disease being treated (usually cancer) does not get worse. (wikipedia.org)
  • When evaluating prognosis in acute pancreatitis, it is also important to consider the outcome that one is trying to predict and when such a prediction should be made. (cmaj.ca)
  • Understand your predicament, but it is difficult to predict the prognosis. (medhelp.org)
  • This groundbreaking book explains prognosis from the perspective of doctors, examining why physicians are reluctant to predict the future, how doctors use prognosis, the symbolism it contains, and the emotional difficulties it involves. (uchicago.edu)
  • However, these statistics can't predict your personal outcome, as each person's prognosis is different. (healthline.com)
  • The prognosis of very rare diseases can be difficult to predict because so few affected individuals have been identified. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The main thing the doctors will try to do in order to improve the prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis is to try to prevent the liver from contracting cirrhosis and help the liver to work better. (infobarrel.com)
  • Furthermore, there is a vast amount of research work going on at the moment, which will, in all likelihood, result in treatments that will further improve the prognosis. (mult-sclerosis.org)
  • Your health care provider bases your prognosis on the type and stage of cancer you have, your treatment, and what has happened to people with cancer similar to yours. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Understanding statistics used to guide prognosis and evaluate treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Newser) - The prognosis and treatment for Edward Kennedy are uncertain, doctors say. (newser.com)
  • The hardest to treat is the form of this cancer that gets into the heart tissues, while the Mesothelioma prognosis for the cancer in the stomach region is what happens about 15 percent of the time and is middle range for treatment results. (infobarrel.com)
  • The results suggest that testing for this gene signature could aid in the prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, especially in ER positive tumors. (redorbit.com)
  • A prognosis is your doctor's best estimate of how cancer will affect you and how it will respond to treatment. (cancer.ca)
  • Seeking treatment and maintaining regular visits with your doctor can typically improve your prognosis when you have AFib. (healthline.com)
  • A prognosis refers to a doctor's prediction regarding the probable course of a disease, disorder or injury. (hollywoodreporter.com)
  • The main thing for people with alcoholic hepatitis to know is that alcohol is the reason for their condition and if they want a good prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis then they must stop drinking and follow their doctor's advice for helping their live to heal. (infobarrel.com)
  • The worst prognosis is seen mainly in soft tissue angiosarcomas, because they are very difficult to examine. (news-medical.net)
  • Of all the types of thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer has the worst prognosis. (empowher.com)
  • Only a doctor familiar with all of these factors can put the information together to arrive at a prognosis. (cancer.ca)
  • If you are wondering about the prognosis of your aggressive dog, there are several factors to keep in mind. (hubpages.com)
  • This article will tackle a few factors that come into play when it comes to a dog aggression prognosis. (hubpages.com)
  • Next, we'll see some factors to consider when it comes to a dog aggression prognosis. (hubpages.com)
  • A prognosis is made on the basis of the normal course of the diagnosed disease, the individual's physical and mental condition, the available treatments, and additional factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This statistical information does not apply to the prognosis for each individual patient, because patient-specific factors can substantially change the expected course of the disease: additional information is needed to determine whether a patient belongs to the 45% who will die, or to the 55% who survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • A panel of epigenetic methylation marker has been explored for prognosis of ovarian cancer, and it is reported that the panel exhibited high specificity and sensitivity (both above 70%) as a screen marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • With each passing Bieber incident, however, the diagnosis gets more credible, and the prognosis even more worrisome. (dictionary.com)
  • If a person has severe acute alcoholic hepatitis the prognosis for alcoholic hepatitis gives them a 50 percent chance of dying within a month of diagnosis. (infobarrel.com)
  • Prognosis may also be difficult or impossible to establish if a person's diagnosis is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • citation needed] Medical diagnosis Nocebo Optimism bias Placebo (origins of technical term) Prediction Reference class forecasting Sign (medicine) Symptom "What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? (wikipedia.org)
  • The results are generated as a Radiomic Prognostic Vector (RPV) score, which indicates the severity of the disease and likely prognosis. (genengnews.com)
  • Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) 2: prognostic factor research. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, advances in molecular techniques, genomics, cancer biology and sequencing technology have provided opportunities to discover and validate new biomarkers for prognosis, particularly molecular prognostic markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it has spread all over and the main tumor has metastasized, then the prognosis is very grim. (infobarrel.com)
  • MedlinePlus added that women who are younger than 40 years older have a better prognosis. (empowher.com)
  • A] manifesto for a form of prognosis that's equal parts prediction-an assessment of likely outcomes based on statistical averages-and prophecy, an intuition of what lies ahead. (uchicago.edu)
  • Your prognosis depends on the type and stage of your leukemia. (healthgrades.com)
  • Tsuchiya H, Tomita K. Prognosis of osteosarcoma treated by limb-salvage surgery: the ten-year intergroup study in Japan. (medscape.com)
  • Prague, 10 December 1996 (RFE/RL) - Doctors monitoring Czech President Vaclav Havel's recovery following last week's cancer surgery say his condition is improving and the prognosis for his recovery is good. (rferl.org)
  • Generally, angiosarcomas have a poor prognosis. (news-medical.net)
  • As with all types of malignant mesothelioma, prognosis for pleural malignant mesothelioma is poor. (mesothelioma.com)
  • People with leukemia used to have a poor prognosis. (healthgrades.com)
  • Of course, on the contrary, if the medical cause is not treatable, the prognosis can be relatively poor. (hubpages.com)
  • Large tumor, late staging, presence of cancer cells in multiple distant lymph nodes, and observation of metastasis often associate with poor prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Idiopathic lung fibrosis is a debilitating disease with a dismal prognosis. (reference.com)
  • The prognosis was dismal and she was told by her medical doctors that the sight lost associated with her suffering from diabetes was irreversible. (constantcontact.com)
  • With its prefix pro- , meaning "before", prognosis means basically "knowledge beforehand" of how a situation is likely to turn out. (merriam-webster.com)
  • For this reason it is vital for the patient to stop drinking alcohol if they want a better prognosis for alcoholic hepatitis. (infobarrel.com)
  • Reports on cancer prognosis-related research, including articles on doctor-patient communication and approaches to determine patient prognosis more accurately, among others. (cancer.gov)
  • The two most common approaches to determining prognosis in acute pancreatitis are use of a clinical scoring system and measurement of specific laboratory tests. (cmaj.ca)
  • Right now, doctors say his prognosis is good. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Mediastinal lymphoma also occurs more often in cats with FeLV, so the prognosis is good in this case, either. (vetinfo.com)
  • If detected in time, the prognosis for cats with diabetes is good. (vetinfo.com)
  • However, if the condition is not reversible, the prognosis is still good. (vetinfo.com)
  • Mesothelioma is a very aggressive cancer and Mesothelioma prognosis is not usually very good since it's hard to detect. (infobarrel.com)
  • The bottom line is that Mesothelioma prognosis is not very good and usually victims only live about a year after being diagnosed. (infobarrel.com)
  • Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer, and also has a good prognosis. (empowher.com)
  • While follicular thyroid cancer is a fast-growing type of thyroid cancer, it can have a good prognosis. (empowher.com)
  • Prognosis is often used as a general term for predicting the unfolding of events: "The governor said that the prognosis for the state's financial future is bleak. (dictionary.com)
  • Bleak prognosis for Syria: Hanania, Tran Syria has always been a multiethnic, multireligious country. (rgj.com)
  • Researchers at Lund University have developed a classification system to determine the prognosis for bladder cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to researchers, the prognosis of interval breast cancer and cancer detected in the absence of regular mammography are similar . (medindia.net)
  • Taking into account his already ill health , does anyone have any idea what the possible prognosis may be or is he likely to die? (dailystrength.org)
  • Your prognosis is an estimate of how your cancer will progress and your chance of recovery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, for example, economists are constantly offering prognoses (notice the irregular plural form) about where the economy is going, and climate scientists regularly prognosticate about how quickly the earth's atmosphere is warming. (merriam-webster.com)
  • What Is the Prognosis for Pleural Mesothelioma? (mesothelioma.com)
  • Heather Von St. James was diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma in 2005 with an initial prognosis of 15 months. (mesothelioma.com)
  • It is not usually found until it is very far along, so the mesothelioma prognosis is usually not for more than another year or so of life. (infobarrel.com)
  • There are three kinds of this disease, so knowing which one you have is part of the Mesothelioma prognosis. (infobarrel.com)
  • The next step in order to figure out the Mesothelioma prognosis is to know where it is located in the body. (infobarrel.com)
  • This form of the cancer has the best Mesothelioma prognosis. (infobarrel.com)
  • Mesothelioma prognosis also depends on when this cancer is diagnosed. (infobarrel.com)
  • The next step in figuring out Mesothelioma prognosis is to know how far the disease has spread within the body. (infobarrel.com)
  • Over ten years ago the Mesothelioma prognosis was nowhere near this high, so this is still an improvement and hopefully in the next few years new medical improvements will come out that will drive that number higher than 10 percent. (infobarrel.com)
  • If that is indeed the totality of Ware's prognosis, Shaginaw says he's optimistic at the chances for a return to play. (philly.com)
  • Prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • The prognosis of a disease is based on probability, which means that it is likely but not certain that the disorder will follow a particular course. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Local and national support and advocacy groups are also excellent resources for information about specific genetic conditions, including disease prognosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A complete prognosis includes the expected duration, function, and description of the course of the disease, such as progressive decline, intermittent crisis, or sudden, unpredictable crisis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand the prognosis for stage 4 breast cancer, it helps to know something about the process of metastasis. (healthline.com)
  • But thanks to a new form of chemo for prostate cancer, his prognosis has improved greatly. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The chance of recovering from this cancer-called your prognosis-depends greatly on the specific type of leukemia. (healthgrades.com)
  • Also, remember that a prognosis can change over time because cancer does not always do what it is expected to do. (cancer.ca)
  • The stage of your breast cancer when you're diagnosed plays an important role in your prognosis. (healthline.com)
  • Mette Kalager and colleagues conducted a study to assess the prognosis of women with interval breast cancer. (medindia.net)
  • They concluded that both non-screened breast cancer females and those with interval breast cancer had almost identical prognosis of breast cancer with no significant variation. (medindia.net)
  • The prognosis for medullary thyroid cancer can vary. (empowher.com)
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides an overview of cancer prognosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • A Manchester score is an indicator of prognosis for small-cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowing the prognosis helps determine whether it makes more sense to attempt certain treatments or to withhold them, and thus plays an important role in end-of-life decisions and advanced care planning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawing on his experiences as a doctor and sociologist, Nicholas Christakis interviewed scores of physicians and searched dozens of medical textbooks and medical school curricula for discussions of prognosis in an attempt to get to the core of this nebulous medical issue that, despite its importance, is only partially understood and rarely discussed. (uchicago.edu)
  • Article that reviews prognosis related communication (PRC) with parents as a collaborative effort with physicians. (merlot.org)
  • Nipping a behavior in the bud is crucial when it comes to an aggressive dog's prognosis. (hubpages.com)
  • When more than one-third of the entire surface of the body is involved, even in a mild degree, the prognosis is grave. (dictionary.com)