Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.JapanSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Survival: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (1/52363)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (2/52363)

AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (3/52363)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64. (4/52363)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

Correlation between the status of the p53 gene and survival in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma. (5/52363)

The association of p53 abnormalities with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been extensively investigated to date, however, this association is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the prognostic significance of p53 mutations through exons 2 to 11 and p53 protein expression in 103 cases of stage I NSCLC. p53 mutations were detected in 49 of 103 (48%) tumors. Two separate mutations were detected in four tumors giving a total of 53 unique mutations in 49 tumors. Ten (19%) of mutations occurred outside exons 5-8. Positive immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein was detected in 41 of 103 (40%) tumors. The concordance rate between mutations and protein overexpression was only 69%. p53 mutations, but not expression, were significantly associated with a shortened survival of patients (P<0.001). Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the types of p53 mutations and prognosis. p53 missense mutations rather than null mutations were associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001 in missense mutations and P=0.243 in null mutations). These results indicated that p53 mutations, in particular missense mutations, rather than p53 expression could be a useful molecular marker for the prognosis of patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC.  (+info)

Intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors. (6/52363)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of re-resection, transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE), or percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) in selected patients with intrahepatic recurrent HCC. The overall results of a treatment strategy combining these modalities have not been fully evaluated, and the prognostic factors determining survival in these patients remain to be clarified. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-four patients who underwent curative resection for HCC were followed for intrahepatic recurrence, which was treated aggressively with a strategy including different modalities. Survival results after recurrence and from initial hepatectomy were analyzed, and prognostic factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using 27 clinicopathologic variables. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients (43%) with intrahepatic recurrence were treated with re-resection (11), TOCE (71), PEIT (6), systemic chemotherapy (8) or conservatively (9). The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates from the time of recurrence were 65.5%, 34.9%, and 19.7%, respectively, and from the time of initial hepatectomy were 78.4%, 47.2%, and 30.9%, respectively. The re-resection group had the best survival, followed by the TOCE group. Multivariate analysis revealed Child's B or C grading, serum albumin < or = 40 g/l, multiple recurrent tumors, recurrence < or = 1 year after hepatectomy, and concurrent extrahepatic recurrence to be independent adverse prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive treatment with a multimodality strategy could result in prolonged survival in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for HCC. Prognosis was determined by the liver function status, interval to recurrence, number of recurrent tumors, any concurrent extrahepatic recurrence, and type of treatment.  (+info)

Surgery-related factors and local recurrence of Wilms tumor in National Wilms Tumor Study 4. (7/52363)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic factors for local recurrence in Wilms tumor. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current therapy for Wilms tumor has evolved through four studies of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. As adverse prognostic factors were identified, treatment of children with Wilms tumor has been tailored based on these factors. Two-year relapse-free survival of children in the fourth study (NWTS-4) exceeded 91%. Factors once of prognostic import for local recurrence may lose their significance as more effective therapeutic regimens are devised. METHODS: Children evaluated were drawn from the records of NWTS-4. A total of 2482 randomized or followed patients were identified. Local recurrence, defined as recurrence in the original tumor bed, retroperitoneum, or within the abdominal cavity or pelvis, occurred in 100 children. Using a nested case-control study design, 182 matched controls were selected. Factors were analyzed for their association with local failure. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, taking into account the matching. RESULTS: The largest relative risks for local recurrence were observed in patients with stage III disease, those with unfavorable histology (especially diffuse anaplasia), and those reported to have tumor spillage during surgery. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for the combined effects of histology, lymph node involvement, and age revealed that tumor spillage remained significant. The relative risk of local recurrence from spill was largest in children with stage II disease. The absence of lymph node biopsy was also associated with an increased relative risk of recurrence, which was largest in children with stage I disease. The survival of children after local recurrence is poor, with an average survival rate at 2 years after relapse of 43%. Survival was dependent on initial stage: those who received more therapy before relapse had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that surgical rupture of the tumor must be prevented by the surgeon, because spills produce an increased risk of local relapse. Both local and diffuse spills produce this risk. Stage II children with local spill appear to require more aggressive therapy than that used in NWTS-4. The continued critical importance of lymph node sampling in conjunction with nephrectomy for Wilms tumor is also established. Absence of lymph node biopsy may result in understaging and inadequate treatment of the child and may produce an increased risk of local recurrence.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (8/52363)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Full Text - Purpose: This study aimed to validate the newly proposed American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological prognostic staging system for young breast cancer patients (aged ≤40 years).Results: We included 12811 women in this study. Overall, 52.8% of patients in the 7th AJCC stages were restaged to the 8th AJCC pathological staging system, including 10.7% upstaged and 42.1% downstaged. The receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the new staging system had a better role in predicting breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) compared with 7th edition staging (P<0.001). The results of the multivariate prognostic analysis showed that the hazard ratio of BCSS increased with the 8th AJCC stages, while the 7th anatomic stages had no significant difference in BCSS.Conclusions: The novel pathological staging system could provide more accurate prognostic stratification for young women with breast cancer because of the high proportion of stage migration.Patients and Methods:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extratumoral vascular invasion is a significant prognostic indicator and a predicting factor of distant metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Shimada, Yoshihisa. AU - Ishii, Genichiro. AU - Hishida, Tomoyuki. AU - Yoshida, Junji. AU - Nishimura, Mitsuyo. AU - Nagai, Kanji. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - INTRODUCTION: Vascular invasion is thought to be a fundamental step in hematogenous metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the qualitative evaluation of vascular invasion according to its location (intratumoral or extratumoral) could provide an appropriate means of predicting the prognostic outcome and potential patterns of recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of 1000 consecutive patients in whom complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer had been performed. Sections stained by the Victoria blue van Gieson method were examined for the presence of vascular invasion and the evaluation of its location (v0: absence, n ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results and prognosis following surgery for malignant tumors of the skull base. AU - Jackson, Ian T.. AU - Bailey, M. Hugh. AU - Marsh, W. Richard. AU - Juhasz, Peter. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A series of 155 malignant craniofacial tumors referred to a specialized craniofacial center for surgical treatment are presented. One quarter of these were primary and three quarters recurrent. The statistics of long‐term follow‐up are presented, and it is concluded that this type of surgery for these difficult problems is worthwhile. The increasing experience gained from operating on and following up these patients is presented.. AB - A series of 155 malignant craniofacial tumors referred to a specialized craniofacial center for surgical treatment are presented. One quarter of these were primary and three quarters recurrent. The statistics of long‐term follow‐up are presented, and it is concluded that this type of surgery for these difficult problems is worthwhile. The increasing ...
The mRNA as well as protein expression of SASH1 was strongly and significantly reduced in colon cancer of UICC stage II, III, and IV, as well as in colorectal liver metastases. In contrast, SASH1 expression was not significantly altered in benign adenomas and in early stage lesions (UICC I). Around 40% of primary colon tumours tested (n=113) showed a 10-fold or stronger reduction in SASH1 expression, compared to normal colon mucosa. Decreased SASH1 mRNA expression was correlated with the occurrence of metachronous distant metastasis, and multivariate analysis identified SASH1 downregulation as an independent negative prognostic parameter for patient survival (Rimkus et al., 2006). Recently, these results were confirmed on an independent patient collective of stage II colon cancer (n=179 patients), confirming that decreased SASH1 expression is an independent negative prognostic factor in colon cancer, allowing to distinguish high-risk patients in early, locally restriced stages of the disease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival predictors in patients with node-negative gastric carcinoma. AU - Lee, Chin Chun. AU - Wu, Chew Wun. AU - Lo, Su Shun. AU - Chen, Jen Hao. AU - Li, Anna F.Y.. AU - Hsieh, Mao-Chih. AU - Shen, King Han. AU - Lui, Wing Yiu. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Background: Presence or absence of nodal metastasis influences outcome of gastric cancer patients. This study gives insight into survival predictors and clinicopathological features of node-negative gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between 1988 and 1999, 689 gastric cancer patients without other cancer or gastrectomy for benign disease who underwent curative resection were enrolled in this study. Clinicopathological data in patients with node metastasis were compared with those without. Results: The survival rate at 5 and 10 years for node-negative cases was 91.7% and 89.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis, node-negative patients were characterized by frequent location in the lower two-thirds of the stomach ...
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important biological functions and can be used as prognostic biomarkers in cancer. To identify a lncRNA prognostic signature for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).. Researchers at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine analysed RNA-seq data derived from the TANRIC database to identify a lncRNA prognostic signature model using the orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and 1.5-fold expression change criterion methods. The prognosis prediction model based on the lncRNA signatures and clinical parameters were evaluated using the 5-fold cross validation method.. A total of 84 out of 3199 lncRNAs were significantly associated with the survival of patients with HNSCC. Using the OPLS-DA and 1.5-fold change selection criterion, 5 lncRNAs (KTN1-AS1, LINC00460, GUSBP11, LINC00923 and RP5-894A10.6) were further selected. The prediction power of each combination of the 5 lncRNAs was evaluated through the receiver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glasgow prognostic score is an independent marker for poor prognosis with all cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. AU - Omichi, Chiaki. AU - Nakamura, Keiichiro. AU - Haraga, Junko. AU - Masuyama, Hisashi. AU - Hiramatsu, Yuji. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Inflammatory markers are important prognostic factors in various cancers. This study investigated whether inflammatory markers of the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) predicted progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with all cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (OC). Pretreatment GPS was examined for the correlations with PFS and OS in 216 patients in all stages of epithelial OC. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. PFS and OS were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Coxs proportional hazard regression was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. For all patients, the median PFS was 35.1 months, and median OS was 46.7 months; follow-up range was 1-162 ...
Breast cancer prognosis may be worse among black women than among white women regardless of the subtype of breast cancer. These results were presented at the 2013 annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR).. Its long been known that breast cancer prognosis varies by race among women in the United States, with black women tending to have worse outcomes than white women. Some of this variability has been attributed to the fact that black women have higher rates of triple-negative breast cancer than women of other races. How race affects prognosis among women with certain subtypes of breast cancer, however, has been uncertain.. To explore the relationship between race and prognosis by subtype of breast cancer, researchers evaluated 1,688 breast cancer survivors who participated in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology and Pathways studies. Women have been followed for more than six years.. ...
Individualized approaches to prognosis are crucial to effective management of cancer patients. We developed a methodology to assign individualized 5-year disease-specific death probabilities to 1,222 patients with melanoma and to 1,225 patients with breast cancer. For each cancer, three risk subgroups were identified by stratifying patients according to initial stage, and prediction probabilities were generated based on the factors most closely related to 5-year disease-specific death. Separate subgroup probabilities were merged to form a single composite index, and its predictive efficacy was assessed by several measures, including the area (AUC) under its receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The patient-centered methodology achieved an AUC of 0.867 in the prediction of 5-year disease-specific death, compared with 0.787 using the AJCC staging classification alone. When applied to breast cancer patients, it achieved an AUC of 0.907, compared with 0.802 using the AJCC staging classification
Signal transducer and activator of transcripton-5a (Stat5a) and its close homologue, Stat5b, mediate key physiological effects of prolactin and growth hormone in mammary glands. In breast cancer, loss of nuclear localized and tyrosine phosphorylated Stat5a/b is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of antiestrogen therapy failure. Here we quantify for the first time levels of Stat5a and Stat5b over breast cancer progression, and explore their potential association with clinical outcome. Stat5a and Stat5b protein levels were quantified in situ in breast-cancer progression material. Stat5a and Stat5b transcript levels in breast cancer were correlated with clinical outcome in 936 patients. Stat5a protein was further quantified in four archival cohorts totaling 686 patients with clinical outcome data by using multivariate models. Protein levels of Stat5a but not Stat5b were reduced in primary breast cancer and lymph node metastases compared with normal epithelia. Low tumor levels of Stat5a but
S100A6 has been implicated in a variety of biological functions as well as tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression status of S100A6 in relation to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer and further explored a possible association of its expression with epigenetic regulation. S100A6 expression was remarkably increased in 67.5% of gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched noncancerous tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated a clear correlation between high S100A6 expression and various clinicopathological features, such as depth of wall invasion, positive lymph node involvement, liver metastasis, vascular invasion, and tumor-node metastasis stage (P < 0.05 in all cases), as well as revealed that S100A6 is an independent prognostic predictor (P = 0.026) significantly related to poor prognosis (P = 0.0004). Further exploration found an inverse relationship between S100A6 expression and the methylation status of the seventh and ...
Abstract #3010 Vascular invasion, encompassing both lymphovascular (LVI) and blood vascular invasion (BVI), influences breast cancer patient prognosis. We have previously shown, using an immunohistochemical approach to distinguish between LVI and BVI in a well characterized group of 177 consecutive paraffin-embedded specimens breast cancer patients (52 LN+ and 125 LN-), that VI was detected in 32% of specimens and that 96% of such VI were invasion of lymphatic vessels. The presence of LVI was significantly associated with the presence of metastasis, recurrence and worse disease free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, LVI was an independent poor prognostic factor. This original study has been expanded by examining LVI, assessed by podoplanin staining, in 1000 LN-, early stage, breast cancers. In addition to verifying initial results showing the prognostic power of detection of LVI in early stage tumours, it also allowed an examination of LVI in histological and ...
It has been demonstrated in the previous studies that cytogenetics and molecular abnormalities were independent predictors for the prognosis of AML patients [36]-[38]. However, in our study, adverse cytogenetic abnormalities only accounted for 8.6% (n = 93) of patients. The majority of patients was with intermediate and favorable cytogenetics and showed no difference in survival. As Ara-C forms the backbone of the treatment regimen, understanding the contribution of pharmacogenetics to Ara-C response may help dissection of AML with distinct prognosis, so as to individualize chemotherapy and potentially improve the outcomes of AML patients.. In our study, we observed single SNP and SNP-SNP interactions in the Ara-C transport pathway, which could account for the interpatient variability of treatment outcomes in AML patients. When tested independently, both SNP rs324148 and rs9394992 in the SLC29A1gene contributed to Ara-C resistance in patients with AML who received Ara-C based treatment, and they ...
At present, TNM staging is considered the primary predictor of prognosis. However, this predictor has its limitation because patients at the same TNM stage may have a different prognosis. The introduction of laboratory indexes as additional factors is important for the accurate prediction of prognosis.. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory biomarkers are associated with clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with CRC. Accordingly, our results showed that LMR, NLR, PLR, PNI were associated with tumor size, tumor depth, and TNM stage. The results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests indicated that these inflammatory biomarkers were significantly associated with prognosis in CRC. However, the actual mechanisms of the association between these inflammatory biomarkers and prognosis in CRC are unclear. There are several potential explanations. First, neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets have been reported to promote tumor development via ...
The main findings of this study are the following: 1) CTA shows a better prognostic performance compared with ex-ECG; 2) evaluation of coronary anatomy with CTA may be the first diagnostic tool needed for prognostic stratification of patients with a low to intermediate pre-test likelihood of CAD, whereas ex-ECG may be more appropriate for further prognostic stratification in the subset of patients with CAD ≥50% on CTA; and 3) positive CTA findings identify a shorter event-free survival time regardless of the presence of ischemia at ex-ECG.. In the management of patients with suspected CAD, the prognostic stratification plays a crucial role beyond the simple diagnosis of coronary artery stenoses. Indeed, the occurrence of adverse events determines morbidity and mortality and influences the overall health expenditure. Until few years ago, diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of patients with suspected CAD were made with functional stress tests only in the majority of patients. Nowadays, ex-ECG is ...
Christopher Plass and colleagues find thatOLIG1 expression correlates with survival in lung cancer patients and suggest that it could be used in deciding which patients are likely to benefit from more aggressive therapy.
In this study, doctors from England evaluated baseline prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophago-gastric cancer. They also assessed whether pretreatment quality of life predicted survival.. The team studied 1080 patients were enrolled in 3 randomized, controlled trials which assessed fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy, between 1992 and 2001. All patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core quality of life questionnaire before randomization. The team found that of the 1080 patients, 91% died. They identified 4 independent poor prognostic factors using multivariate analysis. These were performance status ≤2 (hazard ratio 1.58), liver metastases (HR 1.41), peritoneal metastases (HR 1.33), and alkaline phosphatase ≤100 U/L (HR, 1.41).. The team also constructed a prognostic index which divided patients into good (no risk factor), moderate (1 or 2 risk factors) or poor (3 or 4 risk factors) risk groups. The team ...
A novel finding with potential prognostic impact relates to the observation that 45/149 (30%) of M-CLL cases exhibited high expression of UGT2B17 and displayed poor clinical outcome (P,0.001, Online Supplementary Figure S1). Since the majority of these cases were negative for CD38 expression (134/149, 90%), carried only favorable genomic lesions (del(13q) or no recurrent aberrations (133/145, 92%) and did not display mutations in TP53 (145/149, 97%), NOTCH1 (139/142, 98%) or SF3B1 (140/143, 98%), quantification of UGT2B17 mRNA expression identified a subgroup of progressive M-CLL cases (31/120, 26%) for which, to date, no established prognostic marker has been successful in identifying (Figure 1C). Notably, within M-CLL, high UGT2B17 expression remained as the strongest independent molecular prognostic marker for OS in multivariate analysis (Online Supplementary Table S2). Further evaluation of UGT2B17 expression on clinical outcome in subgroups of CLL with favorable prognosis revealed high ...
Study of Her2/Neu Expression in Breast Carcinoma and Correlation with Various Prognostic Parameters-IJPO-Print ISSN No:-2394-6784 Online ISSN No:-2394-6792Article DOI No:-10.18231,Indian Journal of Pathology and Oncology-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication, Open Access Journals, Print
Population‑based study for predicting the prognosis for breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM) is lacking at present. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate newly diagnosed BCLM patients of different tumor subtypes and assess potential prognostic factors for predicting the survival for BCLM patients. Specifically, data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2014, and were assessed, including the data of patients with BCLM. Differences in the overall survival (OS) among patients was compared via Kaplan‑Meier analysis. Other prognostic factors of OS were determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. In addition, the breast cancer‑specific mortality was assessed using the Fine and Grays competing risk model. A nomogram was also constructed on the basis of the Cox model for predicting the prognosis of BCLM cases. A total of 2,098 cases that had a median OS of 20.0 months were included. The distribution of tumor subtypes was as ...
The prognostic or predictive role of p53 mutations has remained controversial. Inconsistent associations have been reported between the overexpression of mutant p53 and patient outcome or tumor response to therapy.13,29 A recent meta-analysis suggested that p53 expression is not a significant prognostic marker for human astrocytomas (P = .531, hazard ratio = 1.034).8 Most interesting, the same results were demonstrated in this study. There are 2 possible explanations for this. First, it could be that p53 status has no significant impact on survival prognosis. Second, p53 could interact with a multitude of other factors to influence prognosis.. In the current study, the shortest PFS was identified in patients with mutant p53 tumors localized to VLSM-identified regions when cohorts were subdivided according to tumor location and p53 status. This finding suggests that mutant p53 has a significant influence on the prognosis of tumors involving VLSM-identified regions rather than other regions. ...
The decision to ask about your prognosis is a personal one. Its up to you to decide how much you want to know. Some people find it easier to cope and plan ahead when they know their prognosis and the statistics for how well a treatment might work. Other people find statistics confusing and frightening. Or they might think statistics are too general to be useful. A doctor who is most familiar with your health is in the best position to discuss your prognosis with you and explain what the statistics may mean in your case. At the same time, you should keep in mind that your prognosis can change. Cancer and cancer treatment outcomes are hard to predict. For instance, a favorable prognosis (which means youre likely going to do well) can change if the cancer keeps growing or doesnt respond to treatment. An unfavorable prognosis can change, too. This can happen if treatment controls the AML so it doesnt grow more. ...
Purpose: Previous results from the TransATAC study demonstrated that both the Breast Cancer Index (BCI) and the OncotypeDX Recurrence Score (RS) added significant prognostic information to clinicopathologic factors over a 10-year period. Here, we examined cross-stratification between BCI and RS to directly compare their prognostic accuracy at the individual patient level.. Experimental Design: A total of 665 patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and lymph node-negative disease were included in this retrospective analysis. BCI and RS risk groups were determined using predefined clinical cut-off points. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 10-year risk of distant recurrence (DR) and log-rank tests were used to examine cross-stratification between BCI and RS.. Results: As previously reported, both RS and BCI were significantly prognostic in years 0 to 10. BCI provided significant additional prognostic information to the Clinical Treatment Score (CTS) plus RS (ΔLR-χ2 = 11.09; P , 0.001), whereas no ...
Inflammation can play an important role in cancer progression and the prognostic importance of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a marker of inflammation, in cancer is a current investigation topic. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether there is a prognostic link between NLR and metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). A total of 143 patients from the Akdeniz University and Antalya Training and Research Hospital database were retrospectively analyzed. The median NLR value was 3.34. The median overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were 11.6 and 7.9 months, respectively, in patients with NLRvalues were 8.3 and 6.2 months respectively in patients with NLR |3.34 (pstudy showed that increased NLR is an independent prognostic factor associated with short survival in patients with mGC.
The introduction of novel agents in the clinical management of MM has led to the need for new risk predictors and although cytogenetic abnormalities represent strong prognostic factors, their real role in risk prediction is still a matter of debate.. Del(13), del(17p), IGH translocations and high-risk chromosomal abnormalities did not show a significant impact on overall survival or progression-free survival of patients enrolled in the VMP versus VMPT-VT trial. This finding confirms and emphasizes the already reported beneficial role of bortezomib, which seems to overcome the negative impact of poor prognostic cytogenetic features.29,31,33 This was demonstrated not just in the study by Palumbo et al.,31 but also in the bortezomib-based trial by Harousseau et al.,34 which showed a similar progression-free survival between cytogenetically defined high-risk and standard-risk patients. Moreover, the Spanish VISTA trial35, comparing MP and VMP, showed that, in the VMP subgroup, there was no ...
An approach to molecular classification based on the comparative expression of protein pairs is presented. The method overcomes some of the present limitations in using peptide intensity data for class prediction for problems such as the detection of a disease, disease prognosis, or for predicting treatment response. Data analysis is particularly challenging in these situations due to sample size (typically tens) being much smaller than the large number of peptides (typically thousands). Methods based upon high dimensional statistical models, machine learning or other complex classifiers generate decisions which may be very accurate but can be complex and difficult to interpret in simple or biologically meaningful terms. A classification scheme, called ProtPair, is presented that generates simple decision rules leading to accurate classification which is based on measurement of very few proteins and requires only relative expression values, providing specific targeted hypotheses suitable for
The median numbers of involved and dissected LN were 5 (0-50), and and 21 (2-91), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.7 months. In multivariate analysis, LODDS system was independent prognostic factor for GC mortality (HR:2.02, 95%CI 1.61-2.54; p< 0.0001) and recurrence (HR:2.02 95%CI 1.47-2.77; p< 0.0001). LODDS system significantly discriminated the prognostic groups in patients with 6 to ≤ 10 LN retrieved (plog-rank = 0.022) and 11 to < 15 LN retrieved (plog-rank = 0.014) whereas pN or LNR classifications did not. In patients with ≤ 5 LN retrieved, the prediction of prognosis was insignificant for all 3 staging systems (plog-rank> 0.05). LODDS system also significantly discriminated the prognostic groups both in the patients with D1 and D2 lymphadenectomy, as well as in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. ...
In the population of 129 patients, the only significant correlation between age and clinical-pathological features is between advanced age (,80yr) and tumor location in the right colon (53.7%, p=0.04).. Risk of relapse is related both to depth of tumor invasion (42.9% in stage T4, 6.3% in stage T1, p=0.01) and advanced age (19.5% in ,80yr, 4% in ,65yr).. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) are significantly lower in patients aged over 80 than the other two classes. This significance is maintained by stratifying the 129 patients in the two age classes (,70, ,70).. In the multivariate analysis age , 80yr is significantly correlated with an increased risk of relapse.. Evaluating the control group no significant correlation between relapse and clinical-pathological features was detected.. In the multivariate analysis in stage II population, advanced age doesnt play any significant prognostic role in the risk of recurrence, while a reduction in DFS is related to depth of tumor ...
This page contains the ABSTRACT- Accurate Prognosis in Personal-Injury Cases Using Georges Line http://www.chiro.org/radiology/ABSTRACTS/Accurate_Prognosis.shtml
Exercise and prognosis on the basis of clinicopathologic and molecular features in early-stage breast cancer: The LACE and pathways studies Academic Article ...
Anal cancer treatment options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or surgery. Major prognostic factors are site, size, and nodal status. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent anal cancer and treatment in this summary for clinicians.
Kawaguchi, T., Matsumura, A., et al., 2010. Japanese ethnicity compared with Caucasian ethnicity and never-smoking status are independent favorable prognostic factors for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer: a collaborative epidemiologic study of the National Hospital Organization Study Group for Lung Cancer (NHSGLC) in Japan and a Southern California Regional Cancer Registry databases. Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 5(7), pp.1001-1010 ...
Conference (2017, April 24). CAF-specific proteins can provide important prognostic markers and targets for anticancer drugs. Recently, integrin α11 (ITGA11) emerged as a new biomarker of CAFs. ITGA11 is mainly expressed by ... [more ▼]. CAF-specific proteins can provide important prognostic markers and targets for anticancer drugs. Recently, integrin α11 (ITGA11) emerged as a new biomarker of CAFs. ITGA11 is mainly expressed by mesenchymal cells and is correlated with fibroblast activation and matrix reorganization. While the role of ITGA11 in wound healing has been well described, only a very limited number of reports have assessed its role in the cancer disease. This research project aims to investigate the role of stromal ITGA11 in breast cancer. To analyze the in vivo effects of ITGA11 on tumor insurgence, growth and metastasis, we crossed the oncogenic MMTv-PyMT mice with the ITGA11 KO/WT mice, which develop spontaneously breast tumors. ITGA11 deletion strongly delayed tumor growth and ...
BACKGROUND: The system to allocate scarce transplantable livers has been criticized for not giving enough weight to the prognoses of the patients receiving the transplants, but little research has been done looking at how the public weights the relative importances of efficacy and equity in distributing the organs. METHODS: This study was an experimental survey of prospective jurors asked to distribute transplantable livers among transplant candidates grouped according to their prognoses. The relative prognoses of the transplant candidates were varied across survey versions. RESULTS: As the prognostic difference between transplant groups increased, the subjects became less likely to distribute the organs equally between them (p less than 0.005). However, the subjects willingness to base allocation on prognosis was moderated by a number of factors, including their understanding of how to use prognostic information and their attitudes toward using prognostic information for individuals versus ...
Our study clearly confirms the prognostic significance of tumor stage both in univariable and multivariable analyses for all cases as well as for the subgroup of resection-only cases. This is in keeping with published literature (2). Tumor histology did not have significant prognostic value with respect to risk of death in the entire cohort or for the subset of resected tumors. Tumor size , 5 cm, increased tumor stage, and age ,70 years were found to be prognostic of risk of death for all cases in multivariable analysis.. One of the strengths of our study was the thorough staging that all subjects underwent. In particular, all of the resected cases were surgically staged in addition to FDG PET staging. Because tumor stage is a strong prognostic factor in NSCLC, any study evaluating potential prognostic measurements depends on thorough staging. Our multivariable statistical analyses included every variable found to be prognostic in univariable analysis.. When considering all cases, our study ...
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buy 1146699-66-2 distal towards the stent). A significant adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) was thought as a amalgamated end stage including all-cause loss of life, MI, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and TLR. Statistical evaluation Categorical and consecutive data are provided as amount (%) and mean regular deviation (SD), respectively. The unpaired check was useful for evaluation of consecutive factors between your two groupings. Chi-square evaluation was utilized to evaluate categorical factors. Long-term event-free success was approximated using KaplanCMeier curves, as well as the log-rank test was used to assess the significance of differences between patients with and without statin treatment. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify cofactors with significant effects on all-cause death in CKD and CAD patients after PCI. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for all-cause death of ...
3-5% of CRCs show microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by germline defects in mismatch repair genes (MMR) predisposing to Lynch syndrome. In addition, 12% of sporadic CRCs show MSI. Currently, MSI is tested using a fragment analysis based assay not suitable for high throughput testing with suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Knowledge of microsatellite instability affects prognosis (MSI is a positive prognostic factor in stage II CRC), risk stratification (for the affected and at risk relatives in Lynch syndrome), prediction of lymph node involvement (lymph node metastasis is unlikely in stage I MSI positive CRC) and treatment of CRCs (MMR deficient tumours showed observable benefit from PD-1 blocking agent pembrolizumab). For all these important benefits, MSI testing is now recommended for all newly diagnosed CRCs. As a result, development of a high throughput approach is desirable. We have developed and validated a high throughput sequence based MSI assay.. In this study, we tested 17 ...
Hippocrates included prognosis as a principal concept of medicine.1 Nevertheless, principles and methods of prognostic research have received limited attention, especially compared with therapeutic and aetiological research. This article is the first in a series of four aiming to provide an accessible overview of these principles and methods. Our focus is on prognostic studies aimed at predicting outcomes from multiple variables rather than on studies investigating whether a single variable (such as a tumour or other biomarker) may be prognostic. Here we consider the principles of prognosis and multivariable prognostic studies and the reasons for and settings in which multivariable prognostic models are developed and used. The other articles in the series will focus on the development of multivariable prognostic models,2 their validation,3 and the application and impact of prognostic models in practice.4 ...
Prognostic variables in 251 curative specimens of colonic cancer were studied. Subjective variables--tumour type, grade of differentiation, character of invasive margin and lymphocytic infiltration--were associated with fair to excellent levels of inter-observer agreement. Variables found to be of prognostic significance by univariate analysis were subjected to Cox regression analysis. This was undertaken for all three observers and for a consensus grading. No case in which direct spread in continuity was limited to the bowel wall was associated with a cancer-related death; 63 such specimens were removed as a group with an excellent prognosis and did not require further stratification. In the remaining 188 cases, all showing extramural spread, only lymph node invasion, character of invasive margin and tumour type were independent prognostic variables. The model differs from that developed previously for rectal cancer and is superior to the Dukes classification.
The composition of the investigated liver metastasis of the newly diagnosed BC patients was described in the current research; meanwhile, the survival for these cases was also characterized based on tumor subtypes of BC and metastatic sites. Data were generated based on the SEER program, which included ~30% of the US population; thus, our findings may reflect the experience of the real world population. In addition, Fine and Grays competing risk model based on subdistribution hazards was also recommended to analyze cancer-associated mortality (24). Zhao et al (25) identified the prognostic factors of patients with breast cancer and liver metastasis from 2010 to 2014 using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Of note, there are several advantages in our research. We used Fine and Grays competing risks model in addition to Cox regression analysis, which to the best our knowledge, has not been reported. We also built a nomogram to predict patient prognosis, which may provide novel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncogenic pathway combinations predict clinical prognosis in gastric cancer. AU - Ooi, Chia Huey. AU - Ivanova, Tatiana. AU - Wu, Jeanie. AU - Lee, Minghui. AU - Tan, Iain Beehuat. AU - Tao, Jiong. AU - Ward, Lindsay. AU - Koo, Jun Hao. AU - Gopalakrishnan, Veena. AU - Zhu, Yansong. AU - Cheng, Lai Ling. AU - Lee, Julian. AU - Rha, SunYoung. AU - Chung, Hyuncheol. AU - Ganesan, Kumaresan. AU - So, Jimmy. AU - Soo, Khee Chee. AU - Lim, Dennis. AU - Chan, Weng Hoong. AU - Wong, Wai Keong. AU - Bowtell, David. AU - Yeoh, Khay Guan. AU - Grabsch, Heike. AU - Boussioutas, Alex. AU - Tan, Patrick. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Many solid cancers are known to exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity in their deregulation of different oncogenic pathways. We sought to identify major oncogenic pathways in gastric cancer (GC) with significant relationships to patient survival. Using gene expression signatures, we devised an in silico strategy to map patterns of oncogenic pathway ...
In order to give a better prognosis, pathologists have used a cancer stage to measure cell tissues and tumors aggressions as an indicator for doctors to choose a suitable treatment. The most widely used cancer staging system is TNM (Tumor, Node, and Metastasis) system [20]. Depending on levels of differentiation between normal and tumor cells, a different histologic grade is given. Tumors with grade 1 indicate almost normal tissues, with grade 2 indicating somewhat normal tissues and with grade 3 indicating tissues far away from normal conditions. Although most of cancers can be adapted to TNM grading system, some specific cancers require additional grading systems for pathologists to better interpret tumors.. The Gleason Grading System is especially used for prostate cancers and a GS (Gleason Score) is given based on cellular contents and tissues of cancer biopsies from patients. The higher the GS are, the worse the prognoses are. The prostate cancer dataset, GSE18655, includes 139 patients ...
A total of 179 patients were randomized/treated. Median OS was 15.2 months (m). When compared to GC + placebo, GC+A 600 demonstrated improved OS and PFS (OS HR = 0.856 and PFS HR = 0.830) versus GC+A 1000 (OS HR = 0.898; PFS HR = 0.927). Results from the post hoc model revealed that KPS, liver metastasis, alkaline phosphatase, and hemoglobin were prognostic. A median prognostic score dichotomized patients into poor and good prognosis groups (50% each group). Patients with poor prognosis treated with GC+A 600 had a greater reduction in risk of death (HR = 0.717) than patients with good prognosis (HR = 1.44). The most significant prognostic factor was KPS ≤80% (35% pts in GC+A 600 vs GC) resulting in HR = 0.50 in favour of GC+A 600. Overall treatment was well tolerated. Most common Grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypertension. Frequency of ≥3 Grade toxicities were: 89% (GC), 93% (GC+A 600) and 95% (GC+A 1000). GC+A 1000 had a higher treatment ...
Provide an updated and comprehensive evaluation of the prognostic value of the albumin-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) and the fibrinogen-prealbumin ratio (FPR) for patients with cancer. Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and WanFang) were searched. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Pooled data were synthesized using StataMP 14 and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This update examined 19 studies (7282 cases) that assessed the correlation of AFR with cancer prognosis. Pooled univariate and multivariate analyses indicated significant correlations of low AFR with poor OS (HR 2.18, 95%CI 1.87-2.55 and HR 1.75, 95%CI 1.54-2.00, respectively), poor DFS (HR 1.89, 95%CI 1.54-2.32 and HR 1.51, 95%CI 1.29-1.76, respectively), and poor PFS (HR 1.68, 95%CI 1.42-1.99 and HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.16-1.88, respectively). Pooled univariate and multivariate analyses of 6 studies (2232 cases)
Stromal infiltration of TAMs is a poor prognostic indicator for some solid tumor types (43); however, infiltration of TAMs inside tumor nests, particularly when CD8+ CTLs are also present, can correlate with improved survival outcome (44). These differences might be explained in part by the fact that TAMs produce either protumor or antitumor bioactivities depending on the types of cytokines to which they are exposed (43). TAMs regulated by TH1 cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor enhance TAM cytotoxic activity, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and antigen presentation (45). In contrast, tissue macrophages exposed to TH2 cytokines, immune complexes, or immunosuppressive cytokines instead block CTL activity and promote angiogenesis and tissue remodeling (43, 45). In non-small cell lung cancer, TAMs that localize to tumor nests and correlate with favorable clinical outcomes exhibit an M1/TH1 cytokine profile and express high levels of HLA-DR ...
The concept of prognosis is usual in meteorology. These are estimates which, according to the study by atmospheric conditions, indicate what will happen with the weather in the coming days. Thus, the prognosis may presage sunny or rainy days, anticipating the fall of hail, high winds, etc. Despite the use of various devices and satellites to scientific database, prognosis of Meteorology is not foolproof, because conditions can change without prior index. ...
Factors that affect a childs outlook (prognosis) are called prognostic factors. Learn about prognostic factors in childhood leukemia here.
Key clinical point: A prognostication model identified genes in the tumor microenvironment that are strongly associated with worse prognosis in stage III, estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.Major finding: Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant survival difference in the high- and low-risk groups (hazard ratio, 2.878; P = .05), confirming the validity of the risk score modeling.Study details: Assessment of a risk score model in 98 patients.
Gauging prognosis is a key element when facing treatment decisions in cancer care. Several prognostic tools, such as risk tables and nomograms are at hand to aid this process. In the context of patient-centered care, prognostic tools are of great interest to caregivers and -providers alike, as they can convey sizeable amounts of information and provide tailored, accurate estimates of prognosis. Given the rising number of prognostic tools in cancer care over the last two decades, and similarly, ever increasing presence of the Internet, we aimed to assess how this would translate into the availability of online tools for patient counseling ...
RESULTS: There were 19,363 women with uterine cervical cancer, and 469 women were diagnosed with bone metastases on initial diagnosis (2.42%). Increased T-stage, N-stage, non-squamous and non-adenocarcinoma histology, high-grade tumors, and the presence of lung, liver, and brain metastases were all significantly associated with early bone metastases. There were 364 patients with cervical cancer and bone metastases on initial diagnosis who were followed-up for at least one year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that unmarried status and lung, liver, and brain metastases were significantly associated with reduced overall survival. No other significant risk or prognostic associations were found ...
Conclusions: sST2 levels were correlated with the risk of adverse CV outcomes in hypertensive patients and may represent a useful prognostic marker in these patients. PMID: 32089758 [PubMed - in process]...
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A colon cancer prognosis is a prediction as to the outcome of the disease. This eMedTV segment discusses factors that affect a colon cancer prognosis, such as the type and size of the cancer, the stage of the disease, and the persons general health.
An initial validation study presented by Exagen Diagnostics at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium suggests it may soon be possible to distinguish good prognosis from poor prognosis in any newly diagnosed breast cancer patient based on DNA changes in the patients tumor. Those patients identified as having a very good prognosis may do well without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy after their tumors have been removed.
There are more negative prognostic factors in patients with R sided primary, in particular high BRAF MT, and these patients have inferior overall survival when compared to those with a L sided primary. There was no suggestion that site of primary had any impact on bevacizumab effect on PFS. 1SY Brule et al, J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (supp #3528) 2MK Boisen et al, Ann Oncol 24, 2554-59 ...
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The UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center is the Official Cancer Center of New Mexico and the only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center in the state.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Classify patients with renal tumors by histological categorization, surgico-pathological stage, presence of metastases, age at diagnosis, tumor weight, and loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q, to define eligibility for a series of therapeutic studies. (Loss of heterozygosity [LOH] testing discontinued as of April 2014) II. Maintain a biological samples bank to make specimens available to scientists to evaluate additional potential biological prognostic variables and for the conduct of other research by scientists.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Monitor outcome for those patients who are not eligible for a subsequent therapeutic study.. II. Describe whether the pulmonary tumor burden correlates with outcome in stage IV patients.. III. Describe the sensitivity and specificity of abdominal computed tomography (CT) by comparison with surgical and pathologic findings for identification of local tumor spread beyond the renal capsule to adjacent muscle and organs, ...
Weʼre raising money to help Dawn make a life time of memories with her children in light of her prognosis. Support this JustGiving Crowdfunding Page.
Good prognosis indicates patients can live longer as long as they can, especially for patients in elderly. So patients are trying to improve prognosis as good as they can. This article will explain how to improve prognosis for patients with
In summary, we compared the clinical outcomes of patients whose tumors were detected by screening examinations with those whose tumors were detected symptomatically. After adjusting for the known prognostic factors and major treatments received, we found the tumor detection method to be an independent predictor of disease recurrence. Specifically, patients with symptom-detected breast tumors had a greater risk of recurrence and death (RR for RFS, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.66; P = 0.006; RR for BCSS, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.93-1.84; P = 0.117) than patients with screen-detected tumors.. The only tumor characteristic significantly associated with method of detection was Ki-67, when including all four biomarkers in the regression model (the last column in Table 2). Our observation that screen-detected tumors tended to have lower Ki-67 expression and ER-positive status is consistent with earlier observations that screening examinations preferentially identify cancers with these prognostic features (18-20). ...
Results The study population was representative of the Yorkshire stomach cancer population. Survival was poorer with increasing age but it improved significantly from 29.0% (95% CI 23.1% to 35.1%) in 1995-1997 period to 50.5% (95% CI 40.1% to 60.1%) in the 2004-2006 period. Depth of local invasion, nodal stage and completeness of excision are validated as independent prognostic factors in a population setting. Importantly tumour differentiation is shown to be an independent prognostic factor. Patients recorded as well differentiated tumours had significantly better 3-year survival (61.3%; 95% CI 53.2% to 68.4%) compared to moderate (38.4%; 95% CI 33.2% to 43.6%) and poor differentiation (34.1%; 95% CI 30.1% to 38.1%)-Abstract OC-104 figure 1. The effect remains significant after adjusting for age and gender with HR of 1.74 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.71) for moderately differentiated and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.4) for poorly differentiated tumours compared to well differentiated tumour. ...
What is the prognosis of stage 5 CKD?The prognosis varies from individual to individual.Some people may live a normal and high-quality life,but some may die in a short time.What factors can affect the prognosis of stage 5 CKD?
Prognostic models are abundant in the medical literature yet their use in practice seems limited. In this article, the third in the PROGRESS series, the authors review how such models are developed and validated, and then address how prognostic models are assessed for their impact on practice and patient outcomes, illustrating these ideas with examples.
... - Get information about diagnosis and prognosis of Intestinal Pseudo Obstruction, onlymyhealth.com is providing articles related to Intestinal Pseudo Obstruction diagnosis and prognosis.
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Most prediction models are developed in secondary care, and it is common to want to apply them to primary care.1 8 9 10 The predictive performance of secondary care models is usually decreased when they are validated in a primary care setting.1 9 One example is the diagnostic model to predict deep vein thrombosis, which had a negative predictive value of 97% (95% confidence interval 95% to 99%) and sensitivity 90% (83% to 96%) in Canadian secondary care patients.11 When the model was validated in Dutch primary care patients, the negative predictive value was only 88% (85% to 91%) and sensitivity 79% (74% to 84%).12 The question arises whether primary and secondary care populations can indeed be considered to be different but similar.. A change in setting clearly results in a different case mix, which commonly affects the generalisability of prognostic models.4 9 13 14 Case mix is here defined as the distribution of the outcome and predictive factors whether included in the model or not. Primary ...
Prognosis describes the likely outcome of a disease, such as the likelihood of recurrence and life expectancy. Find out about prognosis (outlook) and breast cancer.
I have a soft spot in my heart for Hallmark movies, particularly those where everyone overcomes seemingly insurmountable odds and lives happily ever after. The one-legged man wins the marathon, the puppy travels 500 miles through the dessert to make it home for Christmas. The Hallmark gene must be recessive because no one else in my family seems to share my predilection for sappy and predictable made-for-movies endings.. A couple days ago I watched Rogue One with my son and husband. Ok, I 90% watched it. I fell asleep fifteen minutes before the end (SPOILER ALERT) which turned out to be a very good thing. Because I dont like movies where all the good guys die. And no, I dont care if they went down in a spectacular blaze of hero glory. That is still not a happy ending.. At least Rogue One was made up. I could take some consolation in the fact that no live droid was harmed. Not like those "Based on Real Events" movies. You gotta watch out for those.. Years ago, while I was visiting for ...
Why we dont provide information on patient characteristics per clinic: It is understandable that patients would like to use SART clinic outcome reports both as a "report card" to judge quality of care and as a predictor of chance of success for each individual patient. Currently, the SART clinic summary reports cannot be used without context for either purpose. Individual patients within any age range may have more "severe" or less "severe" infertility issues. These diagnosed factors will significantly impact the likelihood of success with ART treatments. Some well-intentioned physicians might strongly discourage or deny care to patients with a predicted low chance of pregnancy. Other physicians may feel ethically obligated to provide ART services to these same well informed "poor prognosis" patients. For this reason, the clinic summary reports are best used as a foundation to discuss the chance of success with your physician. Your SART member physician is in the best position to assess the ...
Why we dont provide information on patient characteristics per clinic: It is understandable that patients would like to use SART clinic outcome reports both as a "report card" to judge quality of care and as a predictor of chance of success for each individual patient. Currently, the SART clinic summary reports cannot be used without context for either purpose. Individual patients within any age range may have more "severe" or less "severe" infertility issues. These diagnosed factors will significantly impact the likelihood of success with ART treatments. Some well-intentioned physicians might strongly discourage or deny care to patients with a predicted low chance of pregnancy. Other physicians may feel ethically obligated to provide ART services to these same well informed "poor prognosis" patients. For this reason, the clinic summary reports are best used as a foundation to discuss the chance of success with your physician. Your SART member physician is in the best position to assess the ...
The writer of the following article has been to a number of seminars about prostate cancer. She found that the men at those seminars held a great interest in their cancer prognosis. The doctors running those seminars devoted a lot of time to explaining
1. Radical surgery. It is supposed to improve prognosis of colon cancer. A surrogate measure of achievement of radical surgery is the number of lym
Distribution of pathological T status on final pathology (a) and overall pathological N status (b) in patients with a preoperative needle-biopsy diagnosis of du
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Phased Innovation Research in Cancer Prognosis and Prediction (R21/R33) PA-06-434. NCI
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Developmental Research in Cancer Prognosis and Prediction (R33) PA-09-159. NCI
Invasion and metastasis are critical determinants of cancer morbidity. Genes and molecules participating in these steps must be regarded as potential prognostic factors. Growth factors and their recep
Summary: Characterization of intratumoral leukocyte populations may help in estimating patients prognosis and predictions. A new study shows remarkable differences between the in situ and invasive breast cancer stages and highlights that cell number analyses should be complemented with characterization of T-cell functions, increasing the likelihood that immune competent antitumor T cells and further biomarkers are identified for guiding therapy choices. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1062-4. ©2017 AACR.. See related article by Gil Del Alcazar et al., p. 1098. ...
IFOM-IEO Campus Press releasse The biggest European oncological research pole is born the aim of developing and applying genomic research to the field of oncology predictive medicine early molecular diagnosis the evaluation of each patients prognosis based on his/her genetic profile smart drugs genetic testing pharmaco-prevention programs
Prognostic models are used in medicine for investigating patient outcome in relation to patient and disease characteristics. Such models do not always work well in practice, so it is widely recommended that they need to be validated. The idea of validating a prognostic model is generally taken to mean establishing that it works satisfactorily for patients other than those from whose data it was derived. In this paper we examine what is meant by validation and review why it is necessary. We consider how to validate a model and suggest that it is desirable to consider two rather different aspects - statistical and clinical validity - and examine some general approaches to validation. We illustrate the issues using several case studies.
Poor prognosis cancers of the lung, esophagus, pancreas, and liver account for 40% of all cancer deaths and a sizable share of overall cancer care costs. Despit...
For all its threat, deadliness, and the public fear surrounding the disease, the prognosis for prostate cancer is not really that bad. Naturally, for each
AU, Center for Biotechnology & Genomic Medicine. Title: Identification and Characterization of a Proliferative Gene Signature Associated with Survival Prognosis and Chemo- and Radiotherapy Response in Cancer ...
Scientists have developed a technique for evaluating the potency of an AIDS patients T4 lymphocytes. Preliminary findings indicate the new test may provide HIV-positive patients with a more accurate prognosis than current 1
Pris: 979,-. innbundet, 2015. Sendes innen 5‑7 virkedager.. Kjøp boken Machinery Prognostics and Prognosis Oriented Maintenance Management av Jihong Yan (ISBN 9781118638729) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt.
Pathology articles covering symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Peer reviewed and up-to-date recommendations written by leading experts.
Around 30 percent of patients diagnosed with lung cancer have already reached stage 3, and their prognosis varies according to multiple factors, according to Dr. Lynne Eldridge, writing for...
Critical Care articles covering symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Peer reviewed and up-to-date recommendations written by leading experts.
CKD is a condition characterized by gradual loss of kidney function over time. High risk groups include those with Diabetes and high blood pressure,etc.This article will give its prognosis and prevention.
[Ischemic renal disease: clinical course, prognosis, possibilities of treatment].: The case presented for clinical discussion is a patient suffering from ischem
Prognosis of Trichosporin infection including probable outcomes, duration, recurrence, complications, deaths, and survival rates.
By LAWRENCE FELLOWS A physicians diagnosis of an illness is his identification of it through his examination of the patient. The prognosis is the physicians considered guess about the course of the illness. Incidentally, the condition is diagnosed, not the patient. A physician who thinks he diagnoses his patient should have a good look at…
Prognosis is a prediction about recovery from a disease. Learn the terms you doctor might use, the limitations and cautions, and what it means for you.
Coccidiosis- Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis. Diagnosis- I got 5 chickens 4 weeks ago, that were about 4-8 weeks old then. Since then some of their dropp…
Belgian retail chain Delhaize has had a strong second quarter, and therefore raises its prognosis for the entire year. Sales of the group came to 5.3 billion euro, near what analysts had expected, but the underlying company profit of 193 million euro was clearly higher than the anticipated 180 million euro.
Screenshot - Prognosis : Respiratory - Challenge yourself with the varied clinical presentations of pulmonary disease via the clinical...
Hoersholm; April 24. 2014 - On Thursday 24 April 2014 at 4.30 p.m., the annual general meeting of Medical Prognosis Institute A/S was held with the following agenda: 1.
Doctors said Tuesday that Cubs broadcaster Harry Caray has suffered extensive brain damage and the prognosis for functional recovery is poor. Members of his family have been summoned to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recurrence and poor prognosis following resection of small hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma lesions are associated with aberrant tumor expression profiles of glypican 3 and osteopontin. AU - Yu, Ming Chin. AU - Lee, Yun Shien. AU - Lin, Sey-En. AU - Wu, Hsiang Yao. AU - Chen, Tse Ching. AU - Lee, Wei Chen. AU - Chen, Miin Fu. AU - Tsai, Chi Neu. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Background: Early detection and following appropriate treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still the gold standard for favored outcome of HCC patients; nevertheless, a small portion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related small HCC (,5 cm) patients got poor prognosis. Furthermore, the study for small HBV-HCC was limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the potential genetic signature for HBV-related small HCC as novel prognostic factors. Methods: We examined expression profiles of HBV-related small HCC using an Affymetrix U133A GeneChip, evaluated differential gene ...
The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been steadily increasing in the United States and Western Europe, accompanied by a rise in the number of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC [1,2]. Patients with HPV-related OPSCC tend to be relatively young and less exposed to tobacco smoking and alcohol [3]. HPV-related OPSCC is now well recognized as a distinct entity presenting with more extensive nodal disease but a better prognosis than HPV-unrelated OPSCC [4-6]. As the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system for traditional OPSCC does not accurately reflect the prognosis of HPV-related OPSCC, there have been several attempts to propose a new prognostic classification. The International Collaboration on Oropharyngeal cancer Network for Staging (ICON-S) study group proposed a novel prognostic classification for HPV-related OPSCC based on the outcome of over 1,900 patients ...
Subcutaneous oedema as a presenting feature of polymyositis/dermatomyositis: a poor prognostic indicator? - Grand Rounds Subcutaneous oedema as a presenting feature of polymyositis/dermatomyositis: a poor prognostic indicator? - Widespread subcutaneous oedema is a rare presenting feature of polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). It was reported in the initial description of the disease by Wagner in 1877 but only nine cases have since been reported in the literature and it is not listed in standard textbooks of rheumatology. We present a further case of subcutaneous oedema as a presenting feature of dermatomyositis, briefly review the existing literature and postulate that this presentation represents a subset of the disease with a poorer prognosis.
Management of local recurrences and regional failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer after stereotactic body radiation therapy
BACKGROUNDThe neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a marker of inflammation, has been reported to be a poor prognostic indicator in prostate cancer. Here we explore the use of the NLR to establish a simple prognostic score for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with docetaxel. METHODS: In the training cohort, the NLR and other known prognostic variables were evaluated among a cohort of chemotherapy-naive patients treated with thrice-weekly docetaxel at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Significant prognostic variables identified by univariable Cox regression were evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Multivariable Cox regression was then used to derive a prognostic score where 1 risk point was assigned for each significant variable. The model was externally validated in a cohort of patients treated at the Royal Marsden. RESULTS: Three hudred fifty-seven patients were analyzed in the training cohort. Median age was 71 ...
The current meta-analysis study indicates that both lymphatic vessel density and lymphovascular invasion presence can predict poor prognosis in females with breast cancer. Compared with the high lymphatic vessel density, the presence of lymphovascular invasion in breast cancer appears to have weaker impacts on DFS and OS; but it is also significantly associated with poor survival. Furthermore, lymphovascular invasion was present in 29.56% of breast cancer patients, who would have poorer prognosis.. The metastasis routes of breast cancer consist of local invasion, hematogenous metastasis, and lymphatic metastasis. New blood and lymphatic vessels formed through physiological or pathological processes are called angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, respectively. It is well known that tumor angiogenesis, and its indicator blood vessel density are closely associated with the clinicopathological outcomes of breast cancer [32]. A meta-analysis study performed by Uzzan et al. has shown that the high ...
Oncogenic point mutations in KIT or PDGFRA are recognized as the primary events responsible for the pathogenesis of most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but additional genomic alterations are frequent and presumably required for tumor progression. The relative contribution of such alterations for the biology and clinical behavior of GIST, however, remains elusive. In the present study, somatic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA were evaluated by direct sequencing analysis in a consecutive series of 80 GIST patients. For a subset of 29 tumors, comparative genomic hybridization was additionally used to screen for chromosome copy number aberrations. Genotype and genomic findings were cross-tabulated and compared with available clinical and follow-up data. We report an overall mutation frequency of 87.5%, with 76.25% of the tumors showing alterations in KIT and 11.25% in PDGFRA. Secondary KIT mutations were additionally found in two of four samples obtained after imatinib treatment. Chromosomal imbalances
MZL is a rare type of malignant B-cell lymphoma. Because of the paucity of large clinical trials, the standard treatment for MZL is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of prognostic markers, treatments, and outcomes in a large cohort of 144 patients with MZL who were diagnosed at our institution between 2003 and 2010. Most of our patients (67%) were diagnosed with extranodal MZL, whereas splenic MZL (11%) was the rarest type. Patient with localized disease received radiotherapy and achieved high response rates (CR, 76%). Like in other indolent lymphomas,19 rituximab has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of MZL.20-22 However, a prospective randomized trial on this issue is still missing. In our cohort, among those who chose systemic therapy, 79% of patients with nodal MZL and 87% of patients with extranodal MZL received rituximab with or without chemotherapy. Because of the lack of prospective, randomized studies in MZL, the optimal ...
Surgical resection remains the mainstay of curative treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Prognosis after surgery is unsatisfactory despite improvements in treatment and post-operative clinical management. Despite developments in the molecular profiling of ICC, the preoperative prediction of prognosis remains a challenge. This study aimed to identify clinical prognostic indicators by investigating the molecular profiles of ICC and evaluating the preoperative imaging data of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). A retrospective analysis was performed on 50 consecutive patients with ICC who underwent curative hepatectomy after 18F-FDG-PET examination. To evaluate the molecular profiles of ICC, KRAS mutation status was assessed in resected specimens. For the assessment of glucose uptake, we observed the expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) by immunohistochemistry. The data of 18F-FDG-PET were re-evaluated as follows: maximum standardized uptake value,
Prognosis for these fractures is generally good, with total healing time not exceeding 12 weeks. The first two weeks will show ...
Prognosis[edit]. Prognosis in HSCT varies widely dependent upon disease type, stage, stem cell source, HLA-matched status (for ... The post-transplant prognosis often includes acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease that may be life-threatening. However ... Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more aggressive behavior with poorer prognosis, when compared to oral cancer in non-HSCT ...
Prognosis[edit]. About 15-20% of hospitalized Lassa fever patients will die from the illness. The overall mortality rate is ...
Prognosis[edit]. About a third of untreated patients have spontaneous remission, another third progress to require dialysis and ...
Treatment and prognosis[edit]. Patients with HACE should be brought to lower altitudes and provided supplemental oxygen,[17] ...
Prognosis[edit]. The long-term prognosis for APS is determined mainly by recurrent thrombosis, which may occur in up to 29% of ... with anticoagulant medication such as heparin to reduce the risk of further episodes of thrombosis and improve the prognosis of ...
Prognosis[edit]. According to the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), hypertensive nephropathy accounts for more than one- ... Patient prognosis is dependent on numerous factors including age, ethnicity, blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. ...
Prognosis. Risk of death ~25%[1]. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a medical condition where a portion of the bowel dies.[1] ... Prognosis[edit]. Typical recovery from NEC if medical, non-surgical treatment succeeds, includes 10-14 days or more without ... long-term prognosis for infants undergoing NEC surgery is improving, with survival rates of 70-80%. "Surgical NEC" survivors ...
Prognosis[edit]. Following diagnosis, voice therapy should be implemented to optimize vocal hygiene.[3] Vocal fold cysts tend ... Patients with sub-epithelial cysts have a better prognosis for timely recovery of vocal abilities than patients with ligament ...
Prognosis[edit]. The outcome of Potter's Sequence is poor. A series of 23 patients in 2007 recorded 7 deaths, 4 in the neonatal ... it was noted that other causes of failed fetal urine production also resulted in similar physical characteristics and prognoses ...
Prognosis[edit]. There is currently no effective treatment or cure for PSP, although some of the symptoms can respond to ...
Prognosis[edit]. Even without treatment, skin abscesses rarely result in death, as they will naturally break through the skin.[ ...
Level of MRD is a guide to prognosis or relapse risk[edit]. In some cases, the level of MRD at a certain time in treatment is a ... 4.1 Level of MRD is a guide to prognosis or relapse risk ... useful guide to the patient's prognosis. For instance, in ...
Prognosis[edit]. The mortality rate of chikungunya is slightly less than 1 in 1000.[67] Those over the age of 65, neonates, and ...
Prognosis[edit]. Hyperhidrosis can have physiological consequences such as cold and clammy hands, dehydration, and skin ...
Prognosis[edit]. Different genetic causes and types of Leigh syndrome have different prognoses, though all are poor. The most ... If the deficiency is not complete, the prognosis is somewhat better and an affected child is expected to survive 6-7 years, and ...
Prognosis[edit]. Male gender, proteinuria (especially , 2 g/day), hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, older age, familial ... There are certain other features on kidney biopsy such as interstitial scarring which are associated with a poor prognosis. ACE ... Frank hematuria has shown discordant results with most studies showing a better prognosis, perhaps related to the early ... Nephrotic syndrome (3-3.5 grams of protein loss in the urine, associated with a poorer prognosis) ...
Prognosis[edit]. CP is not a progressive disorder (meaning the brain damage does not worsen), but the symptoms can become more ...
Prognosis[edit]. Severe hypertension is a serious and potentially life-threatening medical condition. It is estimated that ...
Prognosis[edit]. Hemiplegia is not a progressive disorder, except in progressive conditions like a growing brain tumour. Once ...
Prognosis. If people with cholera are treated quickly and properly, the mortality rate is less than 1%; however, with untreated ...
Prognosis[edit]. The progression of SPS depends on whether it is a typical or abnormal form of the condition and the presence ...
Medication has improved the prognosis of motor symptoms, while at the same time it is a new source of disability, because of ...
Prognosis[edit]. When properly diagnosed, the mortality of Lemierre's syndrome is about 4.6%.[14] Since this disease is not ...
Prognosis. 30% risk of death[5]. Frequency. Eradicated (last wild case in 1977). ...
Prognosis[edit]. Ménière's disease usually starts confined to one ear; it appears that it extends to both ears in about 30% of ...
... Gallup DG, Harper RH, Stock RJ. Abstract:. From 1 ... adenosquamous cell cervical carcinoma is an extremely aggressive neoplasm and carries a poor prognosis.. This is a service of: ... July 1974 to 31 December 1982, 127 patients with primary carcinoma of the cervix were assessed to determine the prognosis of ...
Different subtypes of Parkinsons disease have been proposed that accurately predict prognosis, disability, and survival and ... It is associated with the best prognosis and survival. In the diffuse malignant subtype, patients have a combination of motor ... It is associated with the best prognosis and survival. In the diffuse malignant subtype, patients have a combination of motor ... The intermediate group has an intermediate prognosis.. He noted that the neurology community has always recognized that ...
Prognosis is dependent on several factors including:. Patient age at diagnosis - The age of a patient when they are diagnosed ... Neuroblastoma Prognosis. News-Medical. 11 December 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neuroblastoma-Prognosis.aspx,. ... Neuroblastoma Prognosis. News-Medical, viewed 11 December 2019, https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neuroblastoma-Prognosis. ... Neuroblastoma Prognosis. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neuroblastoma-Prognosis.aspx. (accessed December 11 ...
According to various studies, improved prognosis is achieved when patients have smaller tumors that can be easily removed from ... diagnosed after the tumor has spread all over the body and this type of late identification may result in a poor prognosis. ... The survival rate is a standard factor to discuss the patients prognosis. The most complicated or severe prognosis of patients ... Angiosarcoma of breast has a comparatively better prognosis.. Generally, angiosarcomas have a poor prognosis. There are two ...
Risk stratification Prognosis Heart failure Survival Event Congenital heart defects Predictors This is a preview of ... Baggen V.J.M., Geenen L.W., Roos-Hesselink J.W. (2018) Risk Stratification and Prognosis. In: Swan L., Frogoudaki A. (eds) ...
Prognosis of Schizophrenia. Br Med J 1940; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4167.686-a (Published 16 November 1940) Cite ...
Read about symptoms, treatment, prognosis, risk factors, and survival rates. ... What is the prognosis for gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma?. *Is it possible to prevent gastroesophageal junction ... What is the prognosis for gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma?. *Is it possible to prevent gastroesophageal junction ...
Monosomal karyotype in MDS: explaining the poor prognosis? Leukemia. 2013;27(10):1988-95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle ... Better prognosis for patients with del(7q) than for patients with monosomy 7 in myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer. 2012;118(1): ... International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 1997;89(6):2079-88.PubMed ... Monosomal karyotype in acute myeloid leukemia: a better indicator of poor prognosis than a complex karyotype. J Clin Oncol. ...
The prognosis (outcome) for thymoma is dependent upon the stage of the tumor as well as the ability to remove the tumor by ... Thymomas tend to be slow-growing tumors, and the prognosis is good to excellent for those with stage 1 or stage 2 thymoma. It ... Thymomas are slow-growing tumors, and the prognosis is excellent when discovered in their early stages. ... Thymic carcinomas tend to behave more aggressively and have a worse prognosis than thymomas. ...
The Gezi events and the December corruption scandal have reinforced the AK Party leaderships historic sense of victimhood and its fear of another coup. With the military marginalized, its suspicions are primarily focused on the many members of the judiciary and the police that are affiliated with their former allies in the Gülen movement. At the same time, they are stepping
These are challenging times for Akrons Summa and Akron General health systems. Standard and Poors, the credit-rating agency, recently lowered Akron Generals creditworthiness. Both local systems laid off employees early this year. Summa reportedly is conducting a second round of layoffs. In the past few months, both institutions also have announced deals, yet to be finalized, that would give ownership stakes, General entirely, to much larger out-of-town partners.Hospital executives are consistent in explaining the reasons for such steps: They are responding to market pressures, to increased regional competition, to the need for efficiency, to technology and changing patterns in the use of services and to government policies. In short, they are positioning themselves to weather accelerating change in all aspects of health care when the Affordable Care Act is phased in fully.For hospitals, whether they are stand-alone community facilities or health systems, what happens with Medicaid after this year is
The ability of the PrognosisBC (Version 3.0) growth model to predict tree and stand growth was assessed against a series of remeasured permanent sample plots, including some which had been precommercially thinned. In addition, the model was evaluated for logical consistency across a variety of stand structures using simulation. By the end of the evaluation process, we were pleased with the performance of the model ...
Labor Pains Complicate Albertsons Prognosis. Even before the strike and lockout, the supermarket chain had a cartload of woe, ...
encoded search term (What is the prognosis of osteosarcoma?) and What is the prognosis of osteosarcoma? What to Read Next on ... What is the prognosis of osteosarcoma?. Updated: Dec 04, 2018 * Author: Charles T Mehlman, DO, MPH; Chief Editor: Omohodion ( ... Prognosis of extremity osteosarcoma in patients aged 40-60 years: a cohort/case controlled study at a single institute. Eur J ... Tsuchiya H, Tomita K. Prognosis of osteosarcoma treated by limb-salvage surgery: the ten-year intergroup study in Japan. Jpn J ...
although thrombolysis is usually successful, the treatment is not able to dissolve the blood clot in up to 25% of patients. another 12% of patients subsequently redevelop the clot or blockage in the b
... an excellent prognosis, the hospital that performed the operation confirmed Tuesday. ... Steve Jobs prognosis excellent. 12:34 PM PDT 6/24/2009 by Gabriel Madway, Reuters , AP ... A prognosis refers to a doctors prediction regarding the probable course of a disease, disorder or injury.. Apple shares have ... Jobs is now recovering well and has an excellent prognosis," the statement said. James Eason, program director at the institute ...
PROGNOSIS IN UTERINE CANCER. Br Med J 1930; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.3628.122 (Published 19 July 1930) Cite this as ...
Infectious Mononucleosis, Influenza, Insomnia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Juvenile Arthritis, Kaposis Sarcoma, Laryngitis, Lead Poisoning, Learning Disorders, Leukemia, etc…
Autism prognosis: Parental genes incredibly useful. Written by Catharine Paddock, Ph.D. on September 11, 2018 - Fact checked ... More timely, accurate prognoses. In this way, the primary mutation could be passed on down several generations but the symptoms ... their findings will help clinicians give better information to their patients and reach more accurate prognoses in time for ...
Prognosis and outlook. Death rates from ALM are higher than those of other forms of melanoma. This may be because ALM goes ...
Prematurity refers to the broad category of neonates born at less than 37 weeks gestation. Although the estimated date of confinement (EDC) is 40 weeks gestation, the World Health Organization (WHO) broadened the range of full term to include 37-42 weeks gestation.
Prognosis. Autism is a severe developmental disorder that begins at birth or within the first two-and-a-half years of life. ... Age at intervention has a direct impact on outcome--typically, the earlier a child is treated, the better the prognosis will be ... Is it Autism? Prognosis Advances in Research Advice for Parents Minimizing Risks see all » ...
I have not been successful in zeroing in on a prognosis (as in life span length of time) based on current liver condition and ... All this aside, I still dont know my prognosis. My suspitions are not good. Any input would be helpful as I have not been able ... I have not been successful in zeroing in on a prognosis (as in life span length of time) based on current liver condition and ...
Brian P. Halliday, Ankur Gulati, Aamir Ali, Kaushik Guha, Simon Newsome, Monika Arzanauskaite, Vassilios S. Vassiliou, Amrit Lota, Cemil Izgi, Upasana Tayal, Zohya Khalique, Colin Stirrat, Dominique Auger, Nilesh Pareek, Tevfik F. Ismail, Stuart D. Rosen, Ali Vazir, Francisco Alpendurada, John Gregson, Michael P. Frenneaux, Martin R. Cowie, John G. F. Cleland, Stuart A. Cook, Dudley J. Pennell and Sanjay K. Prasad ...
March Madness: Kevin Wares injury and prognosis Updated: March 31, 2013 - 7:26 PM EDT * ... If that is indeed the totality of Wares prognosis, Shaginaw says hes optimistic at the chances for a return to play. ...
  • With each passing Bieber incident, however, the diagnosis gets more credible, and the prognosis even more worrisome. (dictionary.com)
  • Papillary mesothelioma generally has low malignant potential, but an early diagnosis is still important to ensure the best prognosis for the patient. (mesothelioma.com)
  • If a person has severe acute alcoholic hepatitis the prognosis for alcoholic hepatitis gives them a 50 percent chance of dying within a month of diagnosis. (infobarrel.com)
  • Experts in the field describe, cancer by cancer, the progress made and its implications for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. (springer.com)
  • For 19th century physicians, particularly those following the French school of medicine, the main aim of medicine was not to cure disease, but rather to give a medical diagnosis and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis Nocebo Optimism bias Placebo (origins of technical term) Reference class forecasting Sign (medicine) Symptom "What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved on December 11, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neuroblastoma-Prognosis.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • 2019. Neuroblastoma Prognosis . (news-medical.net)
  • Susan King, latimes.com , "Faced with cancer, longtime showbiz reporter David Sheehan looks back at his lifetime of celebrity interviews," 27 June 2019 As our environmental prognosis grows increasingly grim, designers have started to think about ways to mitigate what feels like an an inevitable crash course with nature. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Liz Stinson, Curbed , "In the Maldives, MIT experiment fights rising sea levels with nature," 21 June 2019 His prognosis has dwindled from months to weeks to live as the cancer has spread to his heart and lungs. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Jorge L. Ortiz, USA TODAY , "'What I want is a peaceful death': Kevin Roster has only weeks to live - and that's why he moved to California," 7 June 2019 Despite huge progress, a subset of ALL children continued to have a grim prognosis with standard chemotherapy. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Marie Mccullough, https://www.inquirer.com , "How conquering a rare leukemia in children revolutionized cancer care for millions," 6 June 2019 Heidi Winchester was diagnosed with cancer in 2011 and was given a terminal prognosis last year, according to court records. (merriam-webster.com)
  • oregonlive.com , "Judge clears way for man accused of killing cancer-stricken wife to attend son's high school graduation in Lake Oswego," 4 June 2019 Deutsche Telekom will report free cash flow after leases to help shareholders understand the impact of the new accounting rules and compare the company's performance to prior reporting periods and its medium-term prognosis . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Nina Trentmann, WSJ , "CFOs Overhaul Performance Measures in Response to New Accounting Rules," 2 May 2019 Fast-forward a couple of years, however, and the prognosis is not so sunny. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The main thing the doctors will try to do in order to improve the prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis is to try to prevent the liver from contracting cirrhosis and help the liver to work better. (infobarrel.com)
  • Furthermore, there is a vast amount of research work going on at the moment, which will, in all likelihood, result in treatments that will further improve the prognosis. (mult-sclerosis.org)
  • A prognosis refers to a doctor's prediction regarding the probable course of a disease, disorder or injury. (hollywoodreporter.com)
  • A prognosis is your doctor's best estimate of how cancer will affect you and how it will respond to treatment. (cancer.ca)
  • The main thing for people with alcoholic hepatitis to know is that alcohol is the reason for their condition and if they want a good prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis then they must stop drinking and follow their doctor's advice for helping their live to heal. (infobarrel.com)
  • Taking into account his already ill health , does anyone have any idea what the possible prognosis may be or is he likely to die? (dailystrength.org)
  • But, at Moffitt Cancer Center near Clearwater, Florida, we're committed to helping each patient improve his or her possible prognosis, as well as quality of life, through individualized treatment and comprehensive supportive care. (moffitt.org)
  • If it has spread all over and the main tumor has metastasized, then the prognosis is very grim. (infobarrel.com)
  • Meanwhile, JPMorgan gave the UK market a grim prognosis, declaring that "there is no blue-sky scenario" for London-listed equities. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Understand your predicament, but it is difficult to predict the prognosis. (medhelp.org)
  • This groundbreaking book explains prognosis from the perspective of doctors, examining why physicians are reluctant to predict the future, how doctors use prognosis, the symbolism it contains, and the emotional difficulties it involves. (uchicago.edu)
  • However, these statistics can't predict your personal outcome, as each person's prognosis is different. (healthline.com)
  • Determining the prognosis for people diagnosed with diffuse sclerodoma is difficult, because it's hard to predict the outcome of this form of the disease. (reference.com)
  • Tsuchiya H, Tomita K. Prognosis of osteosarcoma treated by limb-salvage surgery: the ten-year intergroup study in Japan. (medscape.com)
  • Prague, 10 December 1996 (RFE/RL) - Doctors monitoring Czech President Vaclav Havel's recovery following last week's cancer surgery say his condition is improving and the prognosis for his recovery is good. (rferl.org)
  • If only one of the lobes is affected, then surgery is a possibility and the prognosis is very good. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The most common question from owners of aggressive dogs is: "what's my aggressive dog's prognosis? (hubpages.com)
  • Nipping a behavior in the bud is crucial when it comes to an aggressive dog's prognosis. (hubpages.com)
  • Depending on the stage of cancer, age of the dog and the dog's general health, the prognosis can vary. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The prognosis of inter-species aggression has a poorer prognosis if your dog has a bite history, and the bite level of your dog can also tell a whole lot about how things may turn out. (hubpages.com)
  • Dogs with high bite levels, tend to have a poorer prognosis in respect to dogs who have more bite inhibition. (hubpages.com)
  • The older the dog is, the poorer the prognosis. (ehow.co.uk)
  • With its prefix pro- , meaning "before", prognosis means basically "knowledge beforehand" of how a situation is likely to turn out. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Researchers at Lund University have developed a classification system to determine the prognosis for bladder cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to researchers, the prognosis of interval breast cancer and cancer detected in the absence of regular mammography are similar . (medindia.net)
  • So researchers might conclude that there's a link between weight and prognosis when the difference in prognosis is due to another factor. (breastcancer.org)
  • So the researchers did an adjusted analysis, a type of analysis that takes into account the differences between the women besides weight, so any links between weight and breast cancer prognosis are truly related to weight and not another factor. (breastcancer.org)
  • Please don't hesitate to discuss in detail his prognosis with the doctors treating him, based on this discussion, you can plan for further course of action. (medhelp.org)
  • Clinicians tend to overestimate prognosis. (tmc.edu)
  • If if is the hemolymphatic or metastatic variety, the prognosis is poor. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Clinical staging as it relates to prognosis is discussed elsewhere (see Staging ). (medscape.com)
  • Prognosis is often used as a general term for predicting the unfolding of events: "The governor said that the prognosis for the state's financial future is bleak. (dictionary.com)
  • Bleak prognosis for Syria: Hanania, Tran Syria has always been a multiethnic, multireligious country. (rgj.com)
  • This improves overall prognosis for people with AFib. (healthline.com)
  • Thus, for example, economists are constantly offering prognoses (notice the irregular plural form) about where the economy is going, and climate scientists regularly prognosticate about how quickly the earth's atmosphere is warming. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Under some pathological conditions, such as schizophrenia, local damage of the brain, the probabilistic prognosis mechanism can be disturbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand the prognosis for stage 4 breast cancer, it helps to know something about the process of metastasis. (healthline.com)
  • There are a few general facts that are helpful to know about breast cancer prognosis. (healthline.com)
  • The stage of your breast cancer when you're diagnosed plays an important role in your prognosis. (healthline.com)
  • Mette Kalager and colleagues conducted a study to assess the prognosis of women with interval breast cancer. (medindia.net)
  • They concluded that both non-screened breast cancer females and those with interval breast cancer had almost identical prognosis of breast cancer with no significant variation. (medindia.net)
  • While the link between weight and breast cancer prognosis wasn't consistent in the various studies, there is other evidence suggesting that excess weight may make breast cancer prognosis worse. (breastcancer.org)
  • The two most common approaches to determining prognosis in acute pancreatitis are use of a clinical scoring system and measurement of specific laboratory tests. (cmaj.ca)
  • If that is indeed the totality of Ware's prognosis, Shaginaw says he's optimistic at the chances for a return to play. (philly.com)
  • The use of disease-specific prognostication tools can improve the clinician's accuracy in determining prognosis. (tmc.edu)
  • This statistical information does not apply to the prognosis for each individual patient: additional information is needed to determine whether a patient belongs to the 45% who will die, or to the 55% who survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawing on his experiences as a doctor and sociologist, Nicholas Christakis interviewed scores of physicians and searched dozens of medical textbooks and medical school curricula for discussions of prognosis in an attempt to get to the core of this nebulous medical issue that, despite its importance, is only partially understood and rarely discussed. (uchicago.edu)
  • Article that reviews prognosis related communication (PRC) with parents as a collaborative effort with physicians. (merlot.org)
  • When more than one-third of the entire surface of the body is involved, even in a mild degree, the prognosis is grave. (dictionary.com)